Definition of congenital disease in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is congenital disease? Meaning of congenital disease as a legal term. What does congenital disease mean in law?
Late-preterm infants have substantially higher costs than term infants, and the magnitude of this economic burden maybe greater than recognized previously. Although the birth hospitalization contributed a large proportion of total costs, late-preterm infants continued to use more health care resources throughout the first year of life compared with term infants. In every health care service group, late-preterm infants cost more than term infants. In addition, major differences in costs occurred with services indicative of more serious health conditions, namely, rehospitalizations, outpatient hospital visits, and home health care services.. This study, in contrast to most previous studies, included infants who were from multiple births. When late-preterm infants from multiple births were compared with singletons, infants from multiple births did not have higher rates of rehospitalization but did have higher costs during the first year after discharge from birth. This finding was also observed ...
Between September 20, 1993 and September 20, 1994, a total of 13 560 live births were delivered at the CSPC. Of them, 3350 (24.7%) corresponded to LBW infants (birth weight ≤2500 g). A total of 1084 (8%) live newborn infants weighing ≤2000 g were assessed and followed to determine eligibility. A total of 307 (28%) infants were declared ineligible before randomization for reasons such dying before eligibility (160 infants, 15%); major malformation and dimorphic syndromes (7 infants, 1.5%); early detection of severe sequel of neonatal conditions including cerebral palsy, severe encephalopathy, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, etc (29 infants, 6.1%); referral to other institutions because of insufficient number of beds (131 infants, 12%); and other reasons (10 infants, 2.1%). The remaining 777 (72%) were randomized to one of the two interventions. Thirty-one infants were subsequently withdrawn, leaving only 746 in the study. These withdrawals were necessary because some of the conditions that ...
2015 by Thieme Medical ublishers, Inc., 333 Seventh Avenue, ew York, NY 10001, USA. Background We previously reported on the overall incidence, management, and outcomes in infants with cardiovascular insufficiency (CVI). However, there are limited data on the relationship of the specific different definitions of CVI to short-term outcomes in term and late preterm newborn infants. Objective This study aims to evaluate how four definitions of CVI relate to short-term outcomes and death. Study Design The previously reported study was a multicenter, prospective cohort study of 647 infants ≥ 34 weeks gestation admitted to a Neonatal Research Network (NRN) newborn intensive care unit (NICU) and mechanically ventilated (MV) during their first 72 hours. The relationship of five short-term outcomes at discharge and four different definitions of CVI were further analyzed. Results All the four definitions were associated with greater number of days on MV and days on O2. The definition using a threshold ...
12. Erlandsson K et al. Skin-to-skin care with the father after cesarean birth and its effect on newborn crying and prefeeding behavior. Birth. 2007 Jun;34(2):105-14.. Καισαρικές ρουτίνας. 1. de Almeida MF et al. Non-urgent caesarean delivery increases the need for ventilation at birth in term newborn infants. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2010 Jun 28. [Epub ahead of print ...
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This study will evaluate the safety and PKs of RAL given to HIV-1-exposed newborn infants at risk of acquiring HIV-1 infection. The study also seeks to determine the appropriate dosing regimen of RAL that can be safely given to infants in the first 6 weeks of life.. The study will enroll 50 mother-infant pairs. Mothers will be followed until discharge from the labor and delivery unit, and infants will be followed for 24 weeks after birth. Infants will be assigned non-randomly to 1 of 2 cohorts. Each cohort will include two groups of infants: a RAL-naïve group including infants born to mothers who did not receive RAL before delivery, and a RAL-exposed group including infants born to mothers who received at least one dose of RAL within 2 to 24 hours before delivery.. A minimum of 12 infants will be enrolled into Cohort 1. All infants in Cohort 1 will receive RAL as oral granules for suspension as a single dose within 48 hours of birth, in addition to standard of care ARV drugs for PMTCT, and a ...
This study will evaluate the safety and PKs of RAL given to HIV-1-exposed newborn infants at risk of acquiring HIV-1 infection. The study also seeks to determine the appropriate dosing regimen of RAL that can be safely given to infants in the first 6 weeks of life.. The study will enroll 50 mother-infant pairs. Mothers will be followed until discharge from the labor and delivery unit, and infants will be followed for 24 weeks after birth. Infants will be assigned non-randomly to 1 of 2 cohorts. Each cohort will include two groups of infants: a RAL-naïve group including infants born to mothers who did not receive RAL before delivery, and a RAL-exposed group including infants born to mothers who received at least one dose of RAL within 2 to 24 hours before delivery.. A minimum of 12 infants will be enrolled into Cohort 1. All infants in Cohort 1 will receive RAL as oral granules for suspension as a single dose within 48 hours of birth, in addition to standard of care ARV drugs for PMTCT, and a ...
Blood volume and haemoglobin (Hb) levels are increased by delayed umbilical cord clamping, which has been reported to improve clinical outcomes of preterm infants. The objective was to determine whether Hb level at birth was associated with short term outcomes in preterm infants born at ≤32 weeks gestation. Data were collected retrospectively from electronic records: Standardised Electronic Neonatal Database, Electronic Patient Record, Pathology (WinPath), and Blood Bank Electronic Database. The study was conducted in a tertiary perinatal centre with around 5,500 deliveries and a neonatal unit admission of 750 infants per year. All inborn preterm infants of 23 to 32 weeks gestational age (GA) admitted to the neonatal unit from January 2006 to September 2012 were included. The primary outcomes were intra-ventricular haemorrhage, necrotising entero-colitis, broncho-pulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity, and death before discharge. The secondary outcomes were receiving blood transfusion and
Background. Children with perinatal chronic lung disease (CLD) are at elevated risk for severe respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease in the first two years of life. The American Academy of Pediatrics policy does not recommend RSV immunoprophylaxis for infants with CLD born at ≥32 weeks gestational age (wGA). The objective of this study was to describe the number and clinical characteristics of US infants in this population.. Methods. Birth hospitalization data from the Kids Inpatient Database were utilized to estimate the prevalence of CLD (International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision [ICD-9] = 770.7) in 2003-2012 overall and by gestational age (ICD-9 = 765.21-765.29). CLD birth hospitalizations were evaluated by length of stay, costs, ventilatory support, and inpatient mortality.. Results. A total of 33,537 infants were diagnosed with CLD, representing 0.2% of US births; 79% had wGA coded in the database. Among infants with CLD with wGA, 3.5% were born at ,32 wGA, ...
Structured observation of motor performance (SOMP-1) applied to preterm and full term infants who needed neonatal intensive care. A cross-sectional analysis of progress and quality of motor performanc ...
article{143f9d59-0d1e-4df2-aa6e-1514b1b98f1a, abstract = {,p,Importance: Since 2004-2007, national guidelines and recommendations have been developed for the management of extremely preterm births in Sweden. If and how more uniform management has affected infant survival is unknown. Objective: To compare survival of extremely preterm infants born during 2004-2007 with survival of infants born during 2014-2016. Design, Setting and Participants: All births at 22-26 weeks gestational age (n = 2205) between April 1, 2004, and March 31, 2007, and between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2016, in Sweden were studied. Prospective data collection was used during 2004-2007. Data were obtained from the Swedish pregnancy, medical birth, and neonatal quality registries during 2014-2016. Exposures: Delivery at 22-26 weeks gestational age. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was infant survival to the age of 1 year. The secondary outcome was 1-year survival among live-born infants who did not ...
Eight randomised controlled trials met the inclusion criteria and only included term infants (n = 4011). Five studies included infants with no fetal distress and clear amniotic fluid, one large study included vigorous infants with clear or meconium-stained amniotic fluid, and two large studies included infants with thin or thick meconium-stained amniotic fluid. Overall, there was no statistical difference between oro/nasopharyngeal suction and no oro/nasopharyngeal suction for all reported outcomes: mortality (typical RR 2.29, 95% CI 0.94 to 5.53; typical RD 0.01, 95% CI -0.00 to 0.01; I2 = 0%, studies = 2, participants = 3023), need for resuscitation (typical RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.06; typical RD -0.01, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.00; I2 = 0%, studies = 5, participants = 3791), admission to NICU (typical RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.08; typical RD -0.03, 95% CI -0.08 to 0.01; I2 = 27%, studies = 2, participants = 997) and Apgar scores at five minutes (MD -0.03, 95% CI -0.08 to 0.02; I2 not estimated, ...
OBJECTIVE: To provide population-based estimates of the hospital-related costs of maternal and newborn care, and how these vary by gestational age and birth weight.. STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 2009-2011 California in-hospital deliveries at nonfederal hospitals with the infant and maternal discharge data successfully (96%) linked to birth certificates. Cost-to-charge ratios were used to estimate costs from charges. Physician hospital payments were estimated by mean diagnosis related group-specific reimbursement and costs were adjusted for inflation to December 2017 values. After exclusions for incomplete or missing data, the final sample was 1 265 212.. RESULTS: The mean maternal costs for all in-hospital deliveries was $8204, increasing to $13 154 for late preterm (32-36 weeks) and $22 702 for very preterm (,32 weeks) mothers. The mean cost for all newborns was $6389: $2433 for term infants, $22 102 for late preterm, $223 931 for very preterm infants, and $317 982 for ...
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3865 consecutive newborns delivered between 2/1/91 and 7/31/93 were prospectively studied. All the neonates received a physical examination during the first 24 hours of life. Major congenital anomalies (MCA) were found in 64 newborns at incidence of 16.5/1000 births. 61 patients with full description included 40 with single and 21 ...
Background: Maturation of amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram (aEEG) activity is influenced by both gestational age (GA) and postmenstrual age. It is not fully known how this process is influenced by cerebral lesions. Objective: To compare early aEEG developmental changes between preterm newborns with different degrees of cerebral lesions on cranial ultrasound (cUS). Methods: Prospective cohort study on preterm newborns with GA ,32.0 weeks, undergoing continuous aEEG recording during the first 84 h after birth. aEEG characteristics were qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated using pre-established criteria. Based on cUS findings three groups were formed: normal (n = 78), mild (n = 20), and severe cerebral lesions (n = 6). Linear mixed models for repeated measures were used to analyze aEEG maturational trajectories. Results: 104 newborns with a mean GA (range) 29.5 (24.4-31.7) weeks, and birth weight 1,220 (580-2,020) g were recruited. Newborns with severe brain lesions started with ...
Publicly insured women usually have a different demographic background to privately insured women, which is related to poor neonatal outcomes after birth. Given the difference in nature and risk of preterm versus term births, it would be important to compare adverse neonatal outcomes after preterm birth between these groups of women after eliminating the demographic differences between the groups. The study population included 3085 publicly insured and 3380 privately insured, singleton, preterm deliveries (32-36 weeks gestation) from Western Australia during 1998-2008. From the study population, 1016 publicly insured women were matched with 1016 privately insured women according to the propensity score of maternal demographic characteristics and pre-existing medical conditions. Neonatal outcomes were compared in the propensity score matched cohorts using conditional log-binomial regression, adjusted for antenatal risk factors. Outcomes included Apgar scores less than 7 at five minutes after birth, time
A Study of Neurological Abnormalities of Term Neonates and its Relationship to Adverse Obstetric and Neonatal Factors Pediatric Oncall
PURPOSE: With advancement in neonatal care units, early detection of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in premature and very-low-birth-weight infants is important. Numerous studies have reported an increased risk of ROP in prematurely born infants, but only few have been long-term and strictly population-based. The aim of the present study was ...
Vaccination is a key area of NHS policy and one of the most cost-effective public health interventions for protecting the population from disease. There are many factors which can impact the way a childs immune system responds to vaccination, such as the age at which the first vaccine is delivered, the sex of the child and the spacing between doses. Variation in these and other factors leads to better immunity in some children than others. Infants are provided with a degree of protection against disease in the first few months of life due to an inherited antibody from their mother. This maternally-derived antibody wanes over time but whilst still circulating can interfere with the way the infants immune system responds to vaccination. The current programme to immunise mothers in the third trimester of pregnancy is one way to enhance protection for infants, however this may also have negative impacts on the infants response to their vaccines. A clearer understanding of these influences on ...
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Previous reports of blood pressure in infants have shown a wide range of values depending, in part, on the birthweight characteristics of the study populations. Reported perinatal values in studies of low birthweight singletons, for example, have been lower than almost all other reports dealing with perinatal blood pressure among heavier babies.9,11 In our cohort more than half of the infants weighed less than 2500 g at birth, or below the 10th centile at sea level, from the 38th week of gestation onwards.27 Though the overall values in our newborn infants are lower than previously described,*RF 1,2,3-5,7,12* they are more consistent with reported tendencies from populations of predominantly low birthweight singletons. For example, the values in newborn infants weighing ,1500 g are nearly identical with those reported by Spinazzola et al for very low birthweight singletons,11 and values for newborn infants weighing 1501-2500 g are exactly within the ranges noted by Gennser et al for 1550-2500 g ...
Infectious diseases of the fetus and newborn infant , Infectious diseases of the fetus and newborn infant , کتابخانه مرکزی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی تهران
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Infectious diseases of the fetus and newborn infant , Infectious diseases of the fetus and newborn infant , کتابخانه دیجیتال دانشگاه علوم پزشکی اصفهان
This large cohort study suggests that neonatal infections among ELBW infants are associated with poor neurodevelopmental and growth outcomes in early childhood. Additional studies are needed to elucidate the pathogenesis of brain injury in infants with infection so that novel interventions to improv …
cesarean born infants initial exposure is more likely to environmental microbes from the air, other infants, and the nursing staff which serves as vectors for transfer (this is one of the risks of a cesarean birth). *Babies at highest risk of colonization by undesirable microbes or when transfer from maternal sources cannot occur are cesarean-delivered babies, preterm infants, full term infants requiring intensive care, or infants separated from their mother (again the reason why a vaginal, unmedicated (since it can lead to infant complications), non induced birth is ideal). *Breastfed and formula-fed infants have different gut flora. *Breastfed babies have a lower gut pH (acidic environment) of approximately 5.1-5.4 throughout the first six weeks that is dominated by bifidobacteria with reduced pathogenic (disease-causing) microbes such as E coli, bacteroides, clostridia, and streptococci (the colostrum and milk of the babys mom provide immune building protectants]. *Babies fed formula have a ...
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Results A total of 73 babies were identified, out of which 9 (12.3%) were late preterm. 19 out of 73 (23%) neonates had elevated CRP and were treated for 5 to 7 days. 10 out of these 23 (43.4%) neonates had maternal pyrexia as a risk factor. All babies have been clinically well and managed on postnatal ward. Blood cultures in all identified neonates have been negative. 30 out of 54 (55%) neonates with normal CRP stayed in hospital for more than 48 hrs awaiting blood culture results and clinical reviews.. ...
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In this report, the investigators used reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction with the cobas SARS-CoV-2 assay (Roche Molecular Systems, Inc., Branchburg, New Jersey) to assess viral loads among infants, children, and adolescents who were hospitalized with symptoms suggestive of COVID-19 and subsequently discharged from a childrens hospital between March 14, 2002, and April 24, 2020. A total of 57 patients tested positive for COVID-19 infection, 35.1% of whom were infants aged ≤12 months. The older children ranged in ages from 1 to 21 years. Mean nasopharyngeal viral load was found to be significantly higher in infants compared with older children (mean cycle threshold values 21.05 vs 27.25; P ,.01). However, the number of infants with severe disease was significantly lower compared with older patients (1 vs 12; P =.02). The mean time to test positivity from symptom onset was also lower in infants when compared with older patients (2 vs 3.8 days; P ,.01), and similar proportions of ...
A study was conducted to determine whether newborn infants organize auditory streams in a manner similar to that of adults. A series of three experiments investigated the ability of three- to four-day-old infants to discriminate repeated rising and falling four-tone sequences in two configurations of source timbre and spatial position. It was hypothesized that if the sequences were organized into two auditory streams on the basis of timbre and spatial position, one of the configurations should be discriminable from its reversal, while the other should not. The sequences were tested with different pitch and temporal intervals separating the tones. Sequences were discriminated for the first configuration by adults at both fast tempo/small interval and slow tempo/large interval combinations, while only the latter was discriminated by newborns as measured with a non-nutritive, high-amplitude sucking paradigm. Neither adults nor infants could discriminate the sequence reversals for the second ...
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In the last decades the survival rates of preterm babies and full-term babies with severe diseases have increased due to advances in perinatal care. Understandably however, higher survival rates have not been accompanied by an overall reduction of morbidity, so that limitation of long-term neurodevelopmental abnormalities remains a major challenge of early care (1). The possibility to better predict the outcome of newborns at neurodevelopmental risk is essential to inform early intervention, to allow best allocation of resources and to minimize long-term consequences. Unfortunately, clinicians continue to possess limited ability to predict neurodevelopmental outcomes, mainly relying, in most settings, on early findings at cranial ultrasound (cUS).Recent studies (2) have proven the power of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) superior to other neuroimaging modalities, including cUS, in detecting cerebral injury. Neonatal MRI provides non-invasive, high-resolution images in less than one hour; scans are
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April Levin, MD is a child neurologist with significant experience in research EEG and specifically in implementing and analyzing EEG data from high risk infant baby siblings of children with ASD through her postdoctoral fellowship. Dr. Levin, in collaboration with Dr. Charles Nelson, PhD, has developed an EEG pipeline for post-processing of EEG data in young children and children with neurological disorders (including high risk infants, children with tuberous sclerosis and ASD). Dr. Levins research over the past several years has focused on developing signal processing algorithms to extract information from EEG of children with (and at risk for) autism spectrum disorder. Her clinical work primarily involves seeing patients in the Autism Spectrum Center, which provides her with regular exposure to the clinical manifestations of autism. Dr. Levin is also a member of the Laboratories of Cognitive Neuroscience (LCN), directed by Dr. Nelson ...
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Objective: This was a feasibility study to determine whether an edu-cational program conducted over 2 days followed by 25 performed studies under supervision equips physicians with the skills to accurately interpret and perform integrated lung ultrasound (LUS) and focused heart ultrasound (FHUS) as a screening exam in infants at risk of respiratory or hemodynamic compromise.. Methods: We conducted a training course over 2 days (total of 16 hours) to teach fellows how to interpret a pre-designed model of LUS and FHUS, as a screening exam for infants at risk of respiratory or hemodynamic compromise. Then trainees performed 25 cases with different neonatal lung and functional heart issues. The screening model included only the basic views required to evaluate common lung parenchymal and functional neonatal heart conditions in sick infants. The accuracy of interpretation during the course was assessed by Kappa.. Results: The inter-rater agreement between all trainees and instructor improved on the ...
By: Habib Zaghouani. COLUMBIA, MO -- For years, researchers and physicians have known that infants immune systems do not respond well to certain vaccines, thus the need for additional boosters as children develop. Now, in a new study from the University of Missouri, one researcher has found an explanation for that poor response. In the study, the MU scientist found evidence that the immune systems of newborns might require some time after birth to mature to a point where the benefits of vaccines can be fully realized. Habib Zaghouani, a professor of molecular microbiology and immunology and child health at the MU School of Medicine, recently found that a slowly maturing component of the immune system might explain why newborns contract infections easily. In his work, Zaghouani studied newborn mice and how their immune systems reacted when they were repeatedly exposed to an antigen that simulates a virus. Zaghouani found that while the antigen would prompt a response of the immune system, it was ...
Since 1990, overall child mortality has dropped dramatically around the world, from 12 million annual deaths to less than 7 million. But the report shows that lack of global attention on newborns has translated into a much slower decline in newborn mortality. In sub-Saharan Africa, as many newborns die now as two decades ago.. Globally, a rising share of child deaths-43 percent-now occur in the newborn period, or first month of life. The new report finds that more than a third of newborn deaths, or 15 percent of all child deaths, occur on the same day-the first.. The three leading causes of newborn death are prematurity, birth complications and severe infections. Among wealthier countries, higher U.S. rates of prematurity contribute to higher newborn mortality. Whether in the United States or the developing world, the poorest mothers are more likely to lose a newborn baby, the report finds.. The largest numbers of first-day deaths occur in India (more than 300,000 a year) and Nigeria (almost ...
BACKGROUND: In recent trends, there is increasing number of babies born with very low birth weight. These VLBW babies are at risk of developing Hypoglycemia, Sepsis, Hyperbilirubinemia, Respiratory distress when compared to term babies. By studying the risk factors leading to very low birth weight and their morbidities, health professionals will be able to anticipate and manage them accordingly. Identification of morbidity and mortality in VLBW neonates will help us in formulating and implementing interventions to reduce neonatal mortality rate. AIM OF THE STUDY: To study the morbidity and mortality profile in very low birth weight neonates in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit in Coimbatore Medical College Hospital. OBJECTIVES: 1. To study the morbidity and mortality pattern in very low birth weight neonates. 2. To study the maternal risk factors leading to very low birth weight neonates. 3. To establish targeted preventive and advanced treatment strategies in specific areas. 4. To plan for future ...
Infants exposed to the components of cigarette smoke in utero are at an increased risk for perinatal death, low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome, and premature delivery. The purpose of this pilot study was to compare blood pressure values in term low-birth weight infants (≤2500 grams) born to smoking mothers to the blood pressure values of term, low-birth weight infants born to nonsmoking mothers. Data were collected through a retrospective chart review of 30 low-birth weight, term infants at a hospital in the Rocky Mountain region of the United States. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure values were obtained from each chart. Fifteen of the infants were born to women who smoked cigarettes during pregnancy, while another 15 infants were born to mothers who did not smoke during pregnancy. While hospitalized at birth, the infants of smoking mothers shared a trend toward higher blood pressure readings for all measures, with the t-test differences reaching statistical ...
Introduction: Kangaroo mother care (KMC) originated in Bogota, Columbia in the 1970s as a method of caring for premature newborns in the absence of conventional therapy and other technical equipment. In 1978, kangaroo mother care was proposed and practiced as a caring alternative for low birth weight newborns. The method of skin to skin contact has shown physiological, cognitive and emotional gain and benefits for the preterm newborns. However KMC has not been studied adequately in term newborns. So this study was conducted to assess and compare physiological variables of body temperature, respiration, pulse and oxygen saturation and the neurobehavioral responses (sleep pattern) for the healthy, full-term neonates placed on KMC and the traditional labour room care (TLRC) shortly after birth. Methods: A comparative hospital based study was carried out in the two hours observation room in Saad Abu Alela Maternity Hospital during the period (2015/2016). The target population was neonates ...
Aim: To study the effect of very low birthweight on hospital care and morbidity, and their relationship to gender, birthweight and neonatal complications. Methods: Eighty-five very low birthweight (VLBW; ,= 1500 g) children and term controls born in 1987-1988 in south-east region of Sweden were checked in registers regarding readmissions and diagnoses, need for habilitation and child psychiatric care up to 15 years of age. Ophthalmological examinations were made at age 4 in 64 of VLBW and 61 of control children, and at age 15 in 59 of VLBW and 55 of control children. Results: VLBW boys had three times more readmissions compared with normal weight control boys (p = 0.003). Neonatal risk factors for readmissions were gestational age under 30 weeks (OR 3.1), birthweight less than 1000 g (OR 4.6), mechanical ventilation (OR 9.5) and more than 60 days stay in neonatal ward (OR 5.0). A minority of VLBW children had an impairment/handicap such as cerebral palsy (CP) in five (5.9%) children, attention ...
Young chronological age and some environmental risk factors are important clinical indicators of an increased risk of RSV hospitalization in healthy preterm infants 32 to 35 weeks of gestational age. SOE was low for estimates of incidence of RSV hospitalizations, in-hospital resource use and recurrent wheezing in this population. Studies were inconsistent in study characteristics, including weeks of gestational age, age during RSV season and control for confounding factors.
The purpose of this study was to identify disparities in neonatal, post-neonatal, and overall infant mortality rates among infants born late preterm (34-36 weeks gestation) and early term (37-38 weeks gestation) by race/ethnicity, maternal age, and plurality. In analyses of 2003-2005 data from US period linked birth/infant death datasets, we compared infant mortality rates by race/ethnicity, maternal age, and plurality among infants born late preterm or early term and also determined the leading causes of death among these infants. Among infants born late preterm, infants born to American Indian/Alaskan Native, non-Hispanic black, or teenage mothers had the highest infant mortality rates per 1,000 live births (14.85, 9.90, and 11.88 respectively). Among infants born early term, corresponding mortality rates were 5.69, 4.49, and 4.82, respectively. Among infants born late preterm, singletons had a higher infant mortality rate than twins (8.59 vs. 5.62), whereas among infants born early term, the ...
US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, researchers filed the result that Nine trials met the inclusion criteria, eight compared vitamin A supplementation with a control (1291 infants), and one compared different regimens (120 infants). Compared to the control group, vitamin A appears to be beneficial in reducing death or oxygen requirement at one month of age (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.88 to 0.99; RD -0.05, 95% CI -0.10 to -0.01; NNTB 20, 95% CI 10 to 100; 1165 infants) and oxygen requirement at 36 weeks postmenstrual age (RR 0.87, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.98; RD -0.08, 95% CI -0.14 to -0.01; NNTB 13, 95% CI 7 to 100; 824 infants). A trend towards a reduction in death or oxygen requirement at 36 weeks postmenstrual age was also noted (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.00; 1001 infants). Neurodevelopmental assessment of 88% of surviving infants in the largest trial showed no differences between the groups at 18 to 22 months of age, corrected for prematurity. The different dosage vitamin A ...
Editor-In 1994 Sheffield had the highest infant mortality rate in England and Wales.1 The impact of neonatal care in Sheffield immediately came under the spotlight. An investigation led by the Public Health Department of Sheffield Health took place to establish the reasons for the high infant mortality rate.2 It is well known that factors affecting infant mortality and morbidity may operate in the antenatal, as well as the postnatal period.3 The Sheffield Health led investigation consequently included the antenatal period. Similar to Spenceret al, the investigation found that increased social deprivation as indicated by the Townsend Deprivation Index was related to a higher proportion of very low birth weight (less than 1500 g) infants.4 Furthermore, a higher proportion of very low birth weight (less than 1500 g) infants was related to a higher infant mortality rate. The investigation found that the infant mortality rate in Sheffield was not significantly different to other areas of England and ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The influence of gestational age, size for dates, and prenatal steroids on cord transferrin levels in newborn infants. AU - Chockalingam, Uma. AU - Murphy, Edrie. AU - Ophoven, Janice C.. AU - Georgieff, Michael K.. PY - 1987/3. Y1 - 1987/3. N2 - Serum transferrin levels assess protein status in older children and adults. To generate standards for its use in newborn infants, we measured umbilical cord serum transferrin levels in 161 appropriate (AGA), 25 large (LGA) and 16 small (SGA) for gestational age infants between 25 and 43 weeks gestation. We also assessed the effects of intrauterine growth, exposure to prenatal steroids, and presence of pulmonary maturity on neonatal transferrin levels. Cord transferrin levels in AGA infants were significantly correlated with increasing gestational age (r = 0.60; p , 0.001). Infants born before 37 weeks gestation had significantly lower transferrin levels, when compared with those born at term (p , 0.001). LGA infants had significantly ...
BACKGROUND Infants less than 1500 grams at birth have been demonstrated to be particularly prone to development of low levels of serum sodium often leading to increased early neonatal morbidity and mortality. No local study has been done to quantify this problem among sick newborns. Studies elsewhere demonstrate a high incidence of hyponatraemia among such preterms. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the influence of infant early neonatal morbidity on serum sodium levels and justify regular monitoring and supplementation. DESIGN Comparative cohort study. SETTING Newborn Unit, Kenyatta National Hospital, Nairobi. SUBJECTS Fifty six very low birth weight (1000-1500 grams at birth) infants during their first week of life. Half of them were designated as cases in view of having various early neonatal illnesses. The remaining 28 being clinically stable were taken as controls. These two groups had comparable birthweights, sex distribution and gestational ages. Their sodium intakes were also similar during the
Cerebral hemorrhages are fairly common in full-term neonates with no history of traumatic birth, mostly limited, and with benign evolution. We report a case of a full-term neonate from vaginal birth with caput succedaneum in the right parietal area. The neonate underwent cranial ultrasonography and color Doppler which showed extra-axial blood effusion. Color Doppler showed vessels crossing the collection area, which allowed the diagnosis of subarachnoid hematoma.
Abstract:. Introduction: The newborn brain is vulnerable to injury from many causes, like preterm delivery, hypoxia, trauma etc. Cranial ultrasonography are widely used to identify preterm neonates at risk for brain injury and subsequent neurodevelopmental defects. Aims and Objectives: Role of cranial ultrasonography to evaluate intracranial abnormalities in preterm and term neonates. Materials and methods: This is a prospective hospital based study conducted in Sagar Hospitals, Jayanagar, Bangalore. This study included a cohort of total 52 numbers of cases in preterm and term neonates, who were admitted in NICU. Results: This study included a cohort of total 52 numbers of cases in preterm and term neonates. In our study, total 12 neonates 23.1% were having flaring, total 11 neonates 21.2% were having ICH, total 6 neonates 11.5% were having PVL, total 4 neonates 7.7% were having cysts, total 4 neonates 7.7% were having cerebral oedema and normal 15 neonates 28.8%. Conclusion: Cranial ...
Aims: To determine in a case-control study possible associations between the development of acute renal failure in preterm newborns and therapeutic interventions, particularly drug treatments.. Methods: The study population was 172 preterm infants of ,38 weeks gestation; 71 had acute renal failure and 101 were controls closely matched for gestational age and birth weight. Maternal and neonatal information was collected for both groups through questionnaires and interviews. Routine data on renal variables were also collected. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed.. Results: Very low birthweight infants were at high risk of acute renal failure (79% of cases were ,1500 g). However, the acute renal failure was transient. Mothers of infants with acute renal failure received more drugs during pregnancy and delivery (mainly antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). Of the possible therapeutic interventions, intubation, catheterisation, and phototherapy ...
Laura Wopperer is a Charlotte Newborn Photographer, Charlotte Baby Photographer, Charlotte Child Photographer, Charlotte Maternity Photographer and Charlotte Family Photographer. {Huntersville Newborn Baby Photographer, Lake Norman Newborn Baby Photographer, Fort Mill Newborn Baby Photographer, Pineville Newborn Baby Photographer, Matthews Newborn Baby Photographer, Mooresville Newborn Baby Photographer, Davidson Newborn Baby Photographer, Cornelius Newborn Baby Photographer, Ballantyne Baby Newborn Photographer, Southpark Newborn Baby Photographer, Matthews Newborn Baby Photography.,ProPhoto5 Designed by Dear Emmie ...
Laura Wopperer is a Charlotte Newborn Photographer, Charlotte Baby Photographer, Charlotte Child Photographer, Charlotte Maternity Photographer and Charlotte Family Photographer. {Huntersville Newborn Baby Photographer, Lake Norman Newborn Baby Photographer, Fort Mill Newborn Baby Photographer, Pineville Newborn Baby Photographer, Matthews Newborn Baby Photographer, Mooresville Newborn Baby Photographer, Davidson Newborn Baby Photographer, Cornelius Newborn Baby Photographer, Ballantyne Baby Newborn Photographer, Southpark Newborn Baby Photographer, Matthews Newborn Baby Photography.,ProPhoto5 Blog Designed by Dear Emmie ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Head growth in preterm infants. T2 - Correlation with magnetic resonance imaging and neurodevelopmental outcome. AU - Cheong, Jeanie L.Y.. AU - Hunt, Rod W.. AU - Anderson, Peter J.. AU - Howard, Kelly. AU - Thompson, Deanne K.. AU - Wang, Hong X.. AU - Bear, Merilyn J.. AU - Nursing, B. A.. AU - Inder, Terrie E.. AU - Doyle, Lex W.. PY - 2008/6. Y1 - 2008/6. N2 - Objective. Extremely preterm birth is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental sequelae. Head circumference has been used as a measure of brain growth. There are limited data relating head circumference to MRI. The purpose of this work was to establish the relationship between head circumference with brain MRI at term- equivalent age and to relate head circumference with neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years. Patients and Methods. Two hundred and twenty-seven preterm infants (birth weight of ,1250g or ,30 weeks gestation) were recruited. Head circumference was measured at birth, term, and 2 years corrected age, and ...
OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between breastfeeding support and breastfeeding among late preterm (gestation 34-36 weeks) and term (gestation ≥37 weeks) infants. METHODS: Secondary analysis of the UK 2010 Infant Feeding Survey. Logistic regression was used to determine the association of breastfeeding support with breastfeeding at 10 days and 6 weeks in late preterm and term infants. RESULTS: The study included 14,525 term and 579 late preterm infants. A total of 11,729 infants initiated breastfeeding (11,292 (81.1%) term, 437 (79.4%) late preterm infants, p=0.425). Of these, 9230 (84.3%) term and 365 (85.6%) late preterm infants were breastfeeding at 10 days (p=0.586); of these 7547 (82.0%) term and 281 (75.4%) late preterm infants were still breastfeeding at 6 weeks (p=0.012). Mothers who reported receiving contact details for breastfeeding support groups had a higher likelihood of breastfeeding late preterm (adjusted ORs, aOR 3.14, 95% CI 1.40 to 7.04) and term infants (aOR 2.24, 95% CI 1.86
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Very preterm infants (birth weight, ,1500 g) are at increased risk of cognitive and motor impairment, including cerebral palsy. These adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes are associated with white matter abnormalities on MR imaging at term-equivalent age. Cerebral palsy has been predicted by analysis of spontaneous movements in the infant termed General Movement Assessment. The goal of this study was to determine the utility of General Movement Assessment in predicting adverse cognitive, language, and motor outcomes in very preterm infants and to identify brain imaging markers associated with both adverse outcomes and aberrant general movements. ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Other terms often used for prematurity are preterm and preemie. Many premature babies also weigh less than 2,500 grams (5.5 pounds) and may be referred to as low birthweight (LBW).. Premature infants born between 34 and 37 weeks of pregnancy are often called late preterm or near-term infants. Late preterm infants are often much larger than very premature infants but may only be slightly smaller than full-term infants.. Late preterm babies usually appear healthy at birth but may have more difficulties adapting than full-term babies. Because of their smaller size, they may have trouble maintaining their body temperature. They often have difficulty with breastfeeding and bottle feeding, and may need to eat more frequently. They usually require more sleep and may even sleep through a feeding, which means they miss much-needed calories.. Late preterm infants may also have breathing difficulties, although these are often identified before the infants go home from the hospital. These infants are also ...
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is associated with variable degrees of brain injury, adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes and continuing special health care needs. STUDY AND AIMS: This observational, retrospective and cross-sectional study aims to describe the functional features of VLBW infants using the ICF-CY classification and to identify the association between gender, twinship, birth weight, gestational age, adjusted age and functioning as defined by the ICF biopsychosocial model. SAMPLE: 56 VLBW infants (corrected age of 12-24 months) were consecutively enrolled. INSTRUMENTS: Three assessment tools were used: a neuro-functional assessment (NFA); the Griffiths Mental Development Scales-Revised: Birth to 2 years (Griffiths 0-2) to evaluate psychomotor development and the ICF-CY questionnaire for ages 0-3. RESULTS: A two-step cluster component analysis with the Bayesian information criterion was conducted based on NFA and Griffiths 0-2 scores and four groups of infants functioning (very low, low, ...
Infants who survive advanced necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) at the time of birth are at increased risk of having poor long term physiological and neurodevelopmental growth. The economic implications of the long term morbidity in these children have not been studied to date. This paper compares the long term healthcare costs beyond the initial hospitalization period incurred by medical and surgical NEC survivors with that of matched controls without a diagnosis of NEC during birth hospitalization. The longitudinal healthcare utilization claim files of infants born between January 2002 and December 2003 and enrolled in the Texas Medicaid fee-for-service program were used for this research. Propensity scoring was used to match infants diagnosed with NEC during birth hospitalization to infants without a diagnosis of NEC on the basis of gender, race, prematurity, extremely low birth weight status and presence of any major birth defects. The Medicaid paid all-inclusive healthcare costs for the period from 6
The incidence of preterm birth (at less than 32 weeks of gestation) is estimated at 1-2% of all live births. In Switzerland, over the last ten years, approximately 782 preterm infants per year have been born between 23 and 32 weeks of gestation. Owing to improved neonatal intensive care, the number of very preterm infants surviving into childhood is rising. Indeed, the survival of those extremely low birth weight infants has been increasing over the last decade, especially for the preterm infants born below 26 weeks of gestation. Premature infants are, however, extremely vulnerable to brain injury. Five to 10% of the survivors develop cerebral palsy, and 40-50% develop cognitive and behavioural deficits. Hence, brain injury and its consequences in preterm infants is a serious issue that needs to be addressed. Another population at risk for neurodevelopmental impairment are the infants with congenital heart disease. These infants are known to have a wide range of developmental and neurological ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Preface This report presents data from the National Infant Mortality Surveillance (NIMS) project. The NIMS project was a collaborative effort between the Public Health Service and states to address the issue of infant mortality. Factors that affected the risk of infant mortality for single-born infants included birthweight, race, sex, gestation, birth order, maternal age and education, and prenatal care. The most important predictor for infant survival was birthweight, with improved survival for both blacks and whites associated with increased birthweights. Overall, black infants had twice the mortality risk of white infants. The higher risk for blacks was related to higher prevalence of low birthweight and to higher mortality risks in both the neonatal and postneonatal periods. In general, the black-white differential exists regardless of other infant and maternal characteristics. Findings from NIMS have been published in a special section of Public Health Reports (March-April 1987) and ...
The NICU Network Neurobehavioral Scales (NNNS) is a tool for the comprehensive examination of normal full-term infants, preterm infants, and infants at risk because of prenatal substance exposure. NICU stands for neonatal intensive care unit. The NNNS can be used with infants through 6 weeks of age - and as early as 32 weeks gestational age for preterm infants - to guide assessment, evaluation, and early intervention. It is designed to evaluate neurobehavioral and neurological profiles, adaptations to stress, and the withdrawal status of neonates exposed to drugs in utero. The NNNS is useful for assessment of all at-risk infants and can serve as a basis for consultation with families and a guide for intervention. The test takes about 20 minutes (plus 10-15 minutes for scoring) and can be administered by experiences clinicians after certification training, available internationally through video conferences.
Downloadable! This paper examines the relationship between health aid and infant mortality, using data from in total 135 countries (for the purposes of this study, developing countries), between 1975 and 2010. Utilizing both conventional Instrumental Variable and System GMM approaches, a tentative conclusion can be drawn that aid comes to have a statistically significant and positive effect on infant mortality rate, as doubling of aid leads to an approximately 1.3% reduction in infant mortality rates. Thus for an average aid recipient country, doubling per capita aid leads to a reduction of about 790 deaths per million live births in a particular year. This effect, in comparison to the set goals of the Millennium Development Goals, is small and may not be enough to ensure that the MDG targets are met by 2015.
Preterm delivery (birth before 37 completed weeks of gestation) is the leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. In recent years the birth weight of premature babies has been found to be an important determinant of outcome, such that preterm birth is no longer defined solely by gestational age but also in terms of a birth weight below 2500 g. The main focus has been on preterm infants with a birth weight below 2000 g, who bear the greatest burden of morbidity and mortality. The costs of neonatal care for infants born at less than 33 weeks of gestation (birth weight below 2000 g) rise exponentially as gestational age decreases and rise further with birth weights below 1000 g.1. Advances in neonatal practice have improved the chances of survival for preterm infants with a very low birth weight.2 However, low birthweight infants are still at a higher risk of neurodevelopmental morbidity than preterm infants with a higher birth weight and, as a group, incur notable social and healthcare ...
Is skin-to-skin contact only for premature babies or for every full term baby? This is a very important question! Previously it was thought that skin-to-skin contact was only for premature babies and was vital for their survival, as they had been born too early. What studies from psychology, zoology and psychiatry now show is that skin-to-skin contact at birth is vital to start all of the babys physical and emotional regulation, and should be the right of every baby at birth. For the last millions of years mothers have had their babies continually with them. It is only when birth started happening in hospitals in the last 100 years that mothers and babies have been separated. This has led to making babies more sick at birth. We have created unnecessary problems…….. SKIN-TO-SKIN CONTACT IS ALSO FOR FULL TERM BABIES. Many people think that Kangaroo Mother Care is only for premature or preterm babies. . All of the benefits that a premature needs apply to full term babies as well. Being with ...
Womans Birth Injury Claim Rejected After Judge Finds Alternate Causes for Injuries to Newborn Child - Maryland Birth Injury Lawyer
By: Sarah Hodin, MPH, CD(DONA), LCCE, National Senior Manager of Maternal Newborn Health Programs, Steward Health Care. The Partnership for Maternal, Newborn & Child Health (PMNCH) recently released its 35th knowledge summary titled Act Now for Adolescents focusing on adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19 years old. While newborns and children have benefited greatly from scientific research and interventions over the last decade, adolescents have received less attention. For example, while the under-five mortality rate decreased by 52% between 2000 and 2012, the adolescent mortality rate decreased by just twelve percent. As a result, the Sustainable Development Goals call for a greater focus on adolescent health.. Though adolescent populations have historically been considered relatively healthy compared to other age groups, adolescents face unique challenges that can have serious implications for their physical and mental health. The most common causes of preventable deaths among ...
Introduction: In Minia University Hospital for Obstetrics and Gynecology and Pediatrics (Minia, Egypt), all neonates born to mothers with suspected or confirmed intrauterine inflammation or infection (triple I) or with group B Streptococcus (GBS) bacteriuria, were directly admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) for clinical assessment and treatment of suspected sepsis for at least 48 hours, regardless of their clinical condition. Establishment of a risk-identification system for those high-risk neonates based on the EOS detection standard checklist may decrease NICU admissions and antibiotics exposure in asymptomatic neonates.. Methods: We marginally altered a standard checklist outlined by The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists for the early discovery of neonates at risk for EOS. Participants of the study were inborn neonates ≥ 34 weeks born to mothers with suspected or confirmed triple I or with GBS bacteriuria, who received intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis ...
This article examines whether preterm newborns behavior and their mothers adjustment to the premature birth and infant hospitalization have an influence on subsequent infant development and behavior, maternal adjustment, and mother-infant relationship. The behavioral competencies of 42 well, singleton preterm infants (mean gestational age=31 weeks) were assessed, as were their mothers adjustment (depression and coping) and competencies (knowledge of child development). At 12 months of postnatal age, child competencies (development and behavior) were assessed, together with maternal adjustment (parenting stress and depression). Mother-infant interaction also was observed. Regression analyses indicated that in the newborn period, maternal positive reappraisal and a planful coping style, more knowledge of child development, and previous experience with baby-sitting were associated with better infant development (p=.002), maternal adjustment (p=.012), and mother-child relationship (p=.002) at 12 ...
Result: 300 late preterm babies were studied. 84.33% of the total late preterm newborns were low birth weight babies. 28% were associated with maternal complications. Incidence of pregnancy induced hypertension was 14% in this study. 11.33% of the late preterm newborns needed resuscitation. Out of all the morbidities associated with late preterms, incidence of respiratory distress was highest with 31 %. According to this study, incidence of hyperbilirubinemia, hypothermia and respiratory distress syndrome was more towards the 34 weeks of gestation. This study shows that as the gestational age decreases, the late preterms are more prone for RDS, hypothermia and hyperbilirubinemia ...
Curr Eye Res. 2004 Feb;28(2):145-51. Akar Y, Cira A, Apaydin C, Erman MA, Yilmaz A. Source Department of Ophthalmology, Akdeniz University School of Medicine, Antalya, Turkey. [email protected] Abstract PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of the birth weight and the postconceptional age on the tear production of preterm and term newborn infants and to evaluate the changes in tear production during the first two months of life. SUBJECTS--METHODS: Both eyes of medically stable term and preterm infants were included in the study. Based on postconceptional age and birth weight, we divided preterm infants into three groups. Then, we measured the basal and reflex tear secretions of both eyes by Schirmer tests before and after instillation of topical anesthetic agent. We performed initial tear measurements on the second day of life (between first 24 hours to first 48 hours after birth): and at 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after birth. RESULTS: We tested a total of 138 infants (63 preterm and 75 term), 72 ...
Many premature infants are resilient and surprise everyone by overcoming great odds. Expect that your infant can progress for several days but may then have a medical setback.. Premature infants are more likely than others to get an infection. And organs that have not had time to mature can cause a number of problems.. The more premature a newborn is, the greater is the babys risk of having medical problems.. Infants born at 23 to 26 weeks gestation are extremely underdeveloped and have a much higher risk of death or disability. Parents of these infants are likely to be faced with difficult medical decisions. Infants who have reached their 32nd week of development before birth are less at risk than those who are born earlier.. Babies born at 34 to almost 37 weeks gestation are called late preterm infants. Although they are not as likely to have as many problems as infants who are born earlier, they are at risk for breathing problems, high blood pressure in the lungs, and other short-term and ...
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Study IV aimed at investigating levels of and associations between perceived stress and an inflammatory marker, comparing parents of preterm and full term infants at two timepoints. Mothers of infants born preterm showed higher stress levels early post partum, compared to the term group. The stress declined over time and was comparable to levels in the term group at infant age four months. Subgroup analyses showed greater stress in mothers of infants born early preterm at both time-points compared to the term group. In fathers, no differences in stress levels were found between the preterm and term groups but fathers of infants born early preterm reported higher stress levels early post partum than fathers of infants born late preterm. No associations were found between stress levels and the inflammatory marker. In parents of preterm infants, high levels of stress at infant age four months were predicted by stress levels early post partum ...
Neonatal infections are infections of the neonate (newborn) during the neonatal period or first four weeks after birth. Neonatal infections may be contracted by transplacental transfer in utero, in the birth canal during delivery (perinatal), or by other means after birth. Some neonatal infections are apparent soon after delivery, while others may develop postpartum within the first week or month. Some infections acquired in the neonatal period do not become apparent until much later such as HIV, hepatitis B and malaria. There is a higher risk of infection for preterm or low birth weight neonates. Respiratory tract infections contracted by preterm neonates may continue into childhood or possibly adulthood with long-term effects that limit ones ability to engage in normal physical activities, decreasing ones quality of life and increasing health care costs. In some instances, neonatal respiratory tract infections may increase ones susceptibility to future respiratory infections and ...
Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia and Perinatal Characteristics Predict 1-Year Respiratory Outcomes in Newborns Born at Extremely Low Gestational Age: A Prospective Cohort Study.
The oxidative stress injury that has been linked to poor perinatal outcome and birth asphyxia may be found even with normal pregnancy, and it is severity in a newborn may be related to modes of delivery for which our study aimed to identify. Furthermore, this study was aimed to study the effect of both related- maternal, and related neonatal characteristics on babys oxidative stress marker level (Malondialdehyde). Fifty newborn children were selected in both labor ward and operating theatre of Al-Sadder Teaching Hospital, Misan, Iraq. They were divided into two groups. The first group comprised 28 newborns, who were born by a vaginal delivery; the second group consisted of 22 newborns who delivered by elective cesarean section. The laboratory measurement of levels of an important antioxidant factor [malondialdehyde (MDA)] in babys cord blood has been extracted and used as an indicator of stress. We compared the two samples of different malondialdehyde levels in relation to variables as the delivery