Downloadable! Energy is far and wide regarded as a driving force behind manufacturing sector production. However, energy intensity is a measure of how efficiently energy is used in the manufacturing sector. This makes it crucial to examine energy efficiency and manufacturing sector performance in Nigeria from 1986-2017. Time series secondary data sourced from CBN Statistical Bulletin and International Energy Agency on manufacturing sector contribution to GDP as proxy for manufacturing sector performance was used as dependent variable, while energy efficiency proxy by energy intensity with labour and capital intensity as the independent variables. The study employed estimation techniques of ADF unit root test, Johansen co-integration test and Error Correction Model. The results based on Error Correction Model revealed that 65% of the deviation in the variables employed in the study would be restored in one year. It was also revealed that energy intensity, labour intensity and capital intensity had
President Yoweri Museveni has dedicated the new year of 2017 as a period when the government will launch massive industrialisation of the country focusing on import substitution and export promotion.. In his new year message to the nation that he gave today at his country home in Rwakitura, Nyabushozi county in Kiruhuura district, the President said that the countrys economy has for long suffered due to importing more than we export to other countries and the resultant negative balance of trade. He said that it was high time the country embarked on mass industrialisation to produce for the local market and for export.. The President, who cited China, which exports to Uganda goods worth US$875 million dollars while importing from Uganda goods worth US$54.7 million dollars and India which exports to Uganda goods worth US$1.154 billion while Uganda only exports to India goods worth US$24.8 million, described that trade relationship as a haemorrhage of both money and jobs.. President Museveni, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Industrialization of a perfusion bioreactor. T2 - Prime example of a non-straightforward process. AU - Talò, G. AU - Turrisi, C. AU - Arrigoni, C. AU - Recordati, C. AU - Gerges, I. AU - Tamplenizza, M. AU - Cappelluti, A. AU - Riboldi, S A. AU - Moretti, M. N1 - Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.. PY - 2018/2. Y1 - 2018/2. N2 - Bioreactors are essential enabling technologies for the translation of advanced therapies medicinal products from the research field towards a successful clinical application. In order to speed up the translation and the spread of novel tissue engineering products into the clinical routine, tissue engineering bioreactors should evolve from laboratory prototypes towards industrialized products. In this work, we thus challenged the industrialization process of a novel technological platform, based on an established research prototype of perfusion bioreactor, following a GMP-driven approach. We describe how the combination of scientific background, ...
INDUSTRIALIZATION Industrialisation :The process in which a society or country (or world) transforms itself from a primarily agricultural society into one
From David Onwuchekwa, Nnewi. Minister of Science and Technology, Dr Ogbonnaya Onu, yesterday, said the people of Nnewi in Anambra state have shown Nigeria the direction to go in industrialization and technology development with their resolve to produce most of the things imported from overseas in Nnewi.. Speaking during an interactive session and certificate presentation ceremony to graduands and entrepreneurs of Technology Incubation Center, Nnewi, Dr Onu said the people of Nnewi started producing motor spare parts adding that today the most notable vehicle producing company, Innoson Vehicle Manufacturing Company ( IVM ) is located in Nnewi.. "We cannot continue to be importing some of the things we can produce in Nigeria. It does not benefit us as a great nation. If we continue importing, we end up exporting jobs and make our people to remain unemployed while we are employing foreigners and we equally deny ourselves some revenues we would have earned," he said.. ...
Get this from a library! Work and authority in industry : ideologies of management in the course of industrialization. [Reinhard Bendix; University of California, Berkeley. Institute of Industrial Relations.]
Two trends will dominate biosecurity over the next decade, shaping both opportunities and threats. The first is industrialization, as biotechnology becomes a globally important manufacturing base and economic force. The second is personalization, as an increasing number of individuals become able to harness the biological sciences to their own ends. The rules and regulations that emerge to govern the field will have an important impact. Safety will also be a major concern, because no laboratory is 100 percent accident free; to lower the risk to lab workers and the public, establishing protocols, using protective equipment, and raising the political profile of biosafety are essential. To meet the biosecurity challenge it will also be necessary to have health care systems that can rapidly respond to epidemics. Partnerships between nations will become even more important for learning early about potential threats, preventing them where possible, and acting quickly to limit their consequences. ...
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The concept of 'The perception of the quality of life' is discussed and analysed. The measurement of the various components is illustrated and the use for national planning of such measurements is demonstrated. This is achieved through the presentation of some relevant findings of research done on the perception of the quality of life during rapid industrialization. Die konseptualisasie van 'Die warneming van die kwaliteit van lewe' word bespreek en ontleed. Die meting van verskeie komponente word geïllustreer en die gebruik daarvan vir nasionale beplanning aangedui. Daarvoor word 'n aantal toepaslike empiriese bevindinge ivm die waarneming van die kwaliteit van lewe gedurende vinnige industrialisasie voorgedra.
GLOBAL - Industrialisation can be an important tool for poverty and hunger reduction but should not come at the expense of agricultural development, said FAO Director-General José Graziano da Silva.
Rapid industrialization since the start of the 20 century is responsible for the longer life expectancy rather than genetic changes, according to a new study.
Buy or Rent Industrialization of Drug Discovery as an eTextbook and get instant access. With VitalSource, you can save up to 80% compared to print.
Africa Renewal: You are attending a meeting on industrialization in developing countries, which includes many African countries. How does Africa fit in the picture?. Li Yong: The ECOSOC [UNs Economic and Social Council] meeting is important because of SDG 9, which calls for inclusive sustainable industrialization, innovation and infrastructure. Africa has to compete within the global value chain, the manufacturing value addition and with the growth and speed of other regions. Two-thirds of the least developed countries are in Africa. Due to underdevelopment of the industrial sector, some countries are not growing fast enough.. What are the factors hindering Africas industrialization?. The sudden drop in commodity prices caused problems because it lowered the competitiveness of commodities-dependent countries.. But commodity prices dropped only recently.. No, not just recently. Lets say this has been the case throughout the last century. But let me talk about factors hindering ...
The present review examines the link between Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) and economic performance, especially as it relates to small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). It is essential to stress from the outset that while there is no clear definition of economic performance, there are indicators that can examine the concept and its importance to businesses. OSH is not usually viewed as a contributory factor to the economic viability of an organisation. Compliance with government guidelines, regulations and laws is generally the primary focus of OSH policies.
Wholesale Industrial Air Purifier - Select 2018 high quality Wholesale Industrial Air Purifier products in best price from certified Chinese Water Air Purifier manufacturers, Ce Air Purifier suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com
Ecology Of Industry Sectors & Linkages by Deanna Richards available in Trade Paperback on Powells.com, also read synopsis and reviews. This volume provides insights into the environmental practices of five industry sectors: materials...
BizStats offers free industry financial reports for the Petroleum and coal products manufacturing sector in corporate report format.
Downloadable! The costs of hiring a worker generally differ in size from the firing costs. This article investigates optimal labour demand schedules for production and nonproduction workers of firms that operate under uncertainty and face asymmetric costs of adjusting their workforce. In the empirical part generalised methods of moments (GMM) estimates of the structural parameters of the Euler conditions for production and nonproduction workers are presented, together with specification and structural stability tests, using time series data of the Netherlands and UK manufacturing sectors. We find that asymmetric adjustment costs play an important role in the explanation of unbalanced labour demand between upward and downward movements of the business cycle. Moreover, hiring costs exceed firing costs of production workers, whereas firing costs exceed hiring costs of nonproduction workers.
KARACHI: Businessmen and investors expressing concerns over free trade agreement with China, said it would badly hurt the manufacturing sector of Pakistan.Addressing a ceremony on the completion of...
Article Determinants of plant performance dynamics: empirical analysis of the manufacturing sector in Indonesia, 1990-2000. We identify determinants of plant dynamics and find their differences before, during, and after the Asian financial crisis. Th...
Stock video footage Old plant factory industrial facility establishing shot aerial view. 00:00:12 4k. From $299. Royalty free. Download now on Pond5 |||
Many industrial facility tasks are considered construction in nature, Health & Safety training will help you find out what this means to your workplace.
This market research report looks into and analyzes the Oncology Information System market and illustrates a comprehensive evaluation of its evolution and its specifications. Another aspect that was considered is the cost analysis of the main products dominant in the global Oncology Information System industry considering the profit margin of the manufacturers.. Get Sample Copy of this Report: https://www.researchnreports.com/request_sample.php?id=44463. This Oncology Information System industry market research report focuses on the major players in this market throughout the world. This section of the report includes the company profiles, specification and product pictures, production, capacity, contact information, cost and revenue. Likewise, equipment & upstream raw materials and downstream demand analysis is also dealt with.. In addition, this research is categorized differently considering the various aspects of this market. It also evaluates the current situation and the future of the ...
Dear Comrade Editor:. In his clear and valuable letter to the Editor (Labor Action, August 24), Brother Jacoby takes issue with, my article on the crisis in the needle trades (Labor Action, July 20) on one point, to wit: "There is no law that says that garments are to be made only in the East. The industrialization of the South, in the last analysis, is to be welcomed by unionists, militants, class conscious workers.". Jacoby contends that while this is abstractly correct, this industrialization is a conscious effort of military officials to break the Eastern industry and its unions and is not a natural or necessary expansion of the garment industry.. It is certainly necessary to expose the motive and aims, as our article did, of the Southern congressmen who have successfully exerted pressure on the Administration and connived with the Army officials to establish non-union Southern plants. But the establishment of these Southern factories is a fact. More Important, top; is the fact that ...
Dezeen readers have the chance to win a signed copy of a book documenting the works of Industrial Facility, and its founders Sam Hecht and Kim Colin.
Finance and farming have not always been easy partners in Africa. Another pillar of the Banks strategy is to accelerate commercial financing for agriculture. Despite its importance, the agriculture sector receives less than 3% of the overall industry financing provided by the banking sector.. Risk sharing instruments may resolve this, by sharing the risk of lending by commercial banks to the agriculture sector. Development finance institutions and multilateral development banks should be setting up national risk-sharing facilities in every African country to leverage agricultural finance. And the African Development Bank is setting the pace based on a very successful risk sharing scheme that I promoted while Agriculture Minister in Nigeria.. Rural infrastructure development is critical for the transformation of the agriculture sector, including electricity, water, roads and rail to transport finished agricultural and processed foods.. The lack of this infrastructure drives up the cost of doing ...
The conditions and factors which influenced entry into the export market were addressed by the case studies, shedding some light on the path which was followed in the history of exporting and providing some insights into the process and activities which led to the first entry into export markets. Exporting strategy The case studies have shown that most exporting firms started by serving the domestic market. The strategy of exporting came later in response to developments in their domestic markets. Most of these enterprises started exporting to regional markets, mainly in countries which did not have similar industries. The share of exports in total output is usually small (about 5-15 per cent). With such a small share of exports in their total sales, some of these firms could sell in the export market at a loss, the loss being offset by more profitable sales in the domestic market. Firms in this category have tended to position themselves with a fairly broad competitive scope, reflecting the ...
Modern Asian economic history has often been written in terms of Western impact and Asias response to it. This book argues that the growth of intra-regional trade, migration, and capital and money flows was a crucial factor that determined the course of East Asian economic development. The chapters are organized around three main themes. First, economic interactions between Japan and China were important in shaping the pattern of regional industrialization. Neither country imported technology and organizations, and attempted to catch up with the West alone. Japans industrialization took place, taking advantage of the Chinese merchant networks in Asia, while the Chinese competition was a critical factor in the Japanese technological and organizational upgrading in the interwar period. Second, the pattern of Chinas integration into the international economy was shaped by the growth of intra-Asian trade, migration, and capital flows and remittances. While the Western impact was mostly confined to
Aganga said the backward integration policy has been consistently pursued and sustained in the cement sub-sector, which would enable Nigeria to be self-sufficient in the production of cement. This has prompted the Federal Government to also introduce backward integration in the non-oil sector of the economy.. Recently, the Federal Government kicked off the implementation of the Nigerian Sugar Master Plan with many incentives to stakeholders and investors to raise the countrys local sugar production to a self-sufficiency level, stem the tide of high importation of the commodity, contribute to the production of ethanol/generation of about 411MW of electricity and create 117,181 jobs.. UNIDO has been a major development partner to the country and has contributed to the nations industrial development and improvement in the living standards of the peopl through its numerous programmes and projects across the country.. UNIDO and the Federal Ministry of Trade and Investment and state governments are ...
Padma Desai, Gladys and Roland Harriman Professor of Comparative Economic Systems and Director of the Center for Transition Economies at Columbia University, is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations. She was President of the Association for Comparative Economic Studies in 2001. She received her Ph. D. in economics from Harvard University in 1960 where she began her teaching career. Professor Desai has published extensively in professional journals on issues of economic planning in the Soviet Union before she switched her research agenda to economic reforms in Russia and the emerging market economies. Her latest writings focus on the globalization of these economies and their exposure to financial crisis. Among her publications are: Planning for Industrialization A Study of Indian Industrialization and Trade Policies (with J. Bhagwati), OECD Development Center, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1970; second printing; paperback edition. The Bokaro Steel Plant A Study of Soviet Economic ...
All content on this blog is provided by Trewe LLC for informational purposes only. The owner of this blog makes no representations as to the accuracy or completeness of any information on this site or found by following any link on this site. The owner will not be liable for any errors or omissions in this information nor for the availability of this information. The owner will not be liable for any losses, injuries, or damages from the display or use of this information. These terms and conditions of use are subject to change at anytime and without notice.. ...
All content on this blog is provided by Trewe LLC for informational purposes only. The owner of this blog makes no representations as to the accuracy or completeness of any information on this site or found by following any link on this site. The owner will not be liable for any errors or omissions in this information nor for the availability of this information. The owner will not be liable for any losses, injuries, or damages from the display or use of this information. These terms and conditions of use are subject to change at anytime and without notice.. ...
When we see records being broken and unprecedented events such as this, the onus is on those who deny any connection to climate change to prove their case. Global warming has fundamentally altered the background conditions that give rise to all weather. In the strictest sense, all weather is now connected to climate change. Kevin Trenberth. HIT THE PAGE DOWN KEY TO SEE THE POSTS Now at 8,800+ articles. HIT THE PAGE DOWN KEY TO SEE THE POSTS. ...
Tanzania rolled out a red carpet to Indias Prime Minister, Narendra Modi who arrived in Dar es Salaam on Saturday night in his five-day, four-nation tour of Africa to drum up business between India and African countries.
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Global Industrial Sludge Treatment Chemicals Market was valued at US$4.1 bn in 2013 and is expected to be valued at US$6.1 bn by 2020, exhibiting a CAGR of 5.8% from 2014 to 2020.
Thanks to cloud orchestration, you can accelerate your business applications with resource automation tools, such as the Kubernetes Managed Service.
Allow me to restate that a little more elegantly, Victoria. I think its a mistake to draw a straight line connecting Lenin to Information Age subsistence-level communities. I see you focusing overtly on ideology at both ends. The problem is that there is no straight line that is direct. There were a bunch of developments between the two - many of which involved practical, non-ideological responses in getting to where we are now. Lenin lived during the era of industrialization. At that time there were voices, of course, expressing caution (even Melvilles Moby Dick is said to do this), but it was long after Lenins death that the degree and scale of actual environmental devastation that accompanied and followed industrialization became too evident to ignore. The Clean Air and Water acts were not ideological responses. These were practical, bipartisan (if Im not mistaken) bills. Theres nothing ideological to responses of horror to the river of a major American city catching fire and a good ...
Professor Ashutosh Varshney of Brown University analyzes the current state of Indias democratic system as well as the strengths and challenges in this rapidly growing nation. Full interview.}
Our ancestors (early humans) moved around a lot in rugged terrain (there were no cars then) and thus, I would assume, had plenty of physical activity and exercise. Their diet consisted mainly of fruits and vegetables that were low in sodium and high in potassium. Progress and industrialization, however, has reversed most of that way of life. The question is, has our bodies evolved and adapted to such progress? If so, why are there so many cases of hypertension, stroke, heart conditions and diabetes? These questions make me wonder if we can pick up some lessons from early humans on how we can modify our lives and become healthier individuals. I am not saying industrialization is bad. Im saying if our bodies cannot adapt, then we should at least modify our lifestyle --- mainly diet and exercise ...
Cytokines are a class of small molecule proteins with broad biological activity synthesized and secreted by immune cells (such as monocytes, macrophages, T cells, B cells, NK cells, etc.) and certain non-immune cells (endothelial cells, epidermal cells, fibroblasts, etc.) Immune responses are regulated by binding to the respective receptors to regulate cell growth, differentiation and effects. Cytokines (CK) are low-molecular-weight soluble proteins that are produced by various types of cells induced by immunogens, mitogens, or other stimulants. They have the ability to regulate innate immunity [1] and adaptive immunity [2], hematopoiesis, cell growth, and damage tissue repair and other functions.. Cytokines can be divided into interleukins, interferons, tumor necrosis factor superfamily, colony stimulating factors, chemokines, growth factors etc. Cytokines form a very complex cytokine regulatory network in the body and participate in many important physiological functions of the human body. ...
Watch video lessons to learn how and why the Western world was ready for such a major shift in lifestyle and technological advancement. These...
Industry Sectors Covered: Biotechgate covers the Biotech, Pharma and Medical Technology (Medtech) industries. In addition the database includes companies providing tools and services to the industry (such as suppliers, investors, institutes or professional service companies).
There is a deeper, multi-year story to be told about the repair and restructuring of foundational elements underpinning economic performance. Id like now to give a progress report on certain of the economys fundamentals. I will comment on five.. The first of these is the condition of household finances. The financial health of households and consumers is better, broadly speaking, but not yet rosy-cheeked. The process of achieving full health will take longer. Consumer spending is in the long run driven by income growth and wealth. For quite a number of years, consumers believed house price appreciation could be counted on as a source of individual wealth accumulation. And consumers believed that income growth would continue more or less uninterrupted. As a consequence, households were highly leveraged as the recession hit. Consumer debt levels have since improved, admittedly in part because of charge-offs and foreclosures, but also thanks to higher saving rates and less inclination and ability ...
Bald eagles eat a wide variety of food, including other birds, mammals, reptiles, and invertebrates. They take their food live, freshly killed, frozen and left in the nest, or as carrion, and they can gorge food quickly and fast for days if need be. Peregrine falcons eat almost solely other birds they catch in flight, but many birds winter in Minnesota and Iowa, especially in cities and along open stretches of water. While there has historically been some natural open water along the Mississippi river during the winter (Eagle Valley, for example), the number of open water spots has increased with industrialization. Power plants discharge warm water that keeps stretches of rivers and lakes ice-free, providing spots for birds like swans and geese to winter (especially when people feed them, as they do here). Cities and industrial sites provide food and shelter for non-migratory birds like rock doves, which builds populations and makes wintering in place much easier. Even in the harshest winter, ...
CO2 emissions from manufacturing industries and construction , Million metric tons: CO2 emissions from manufacturing industries and construction (million metric tons). CO2 emissions from manufacturing industries and construction contains the emissions from combustion of fuels in industry. The IPCC Source/Sink Category 1 A 2 includes these emissions. However, in the 1996 IPCC Guidelines, the IPCC category also includes emissions from industry autoproducers that generate electricity and/or heat. The IEA data are not collected in a way that allows the energy consumption to be split by specific end-use and therefore, autoproducers are shown as a separate item (Unallocated Autoproducers). Manufacturing industries and construction also includes emissions from coke inputs into blast furnaces, which may be reported either in the transformation sector, the industry sector or the separate IPCC Source/Sink Category 2, Industrial Processes ...
This thesis focuses on exacerbating chemicals risk in workplaces under the background of rapid industrialization in developing countries. The overall aim is to investigate the development of regulatory tools which aim at minimizing the health risks from chemical substances in the workplace. The contents of the thesis are divided into three sections: the profile of occupational diseases in China (paper I), occupational exposure limits (paper II and III), and comparison between chemicals regulat ions in Europe and China (paper IV).. Paper I presents an analysis of the development of occupational diseases in China between 2000 and 2010. The number of recorded cases of occupational diseases increased rapidly in China during this period and the majority of cases were attributable to dust and other chemicals exposures. Difficulties in diagnosis and inefficient surveillance are major impediments to the proper identification and mitigation of occupational diseases. Migrant workers are extremely ...
Latest news on manufacturing sector, including, capital equipment, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, clothing, textiles, foundries, forges, die-casting, furniture, wood products, hydraulics, industrial filters, filtration, instrumentation and control, metals an
Latest news on manufacturing sector, including, capital equipment, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, clothing, textiles, foundries, forges, die-casting, furniture, wood products, hydraulics, industrial filters, filtration, instrumentation and control, metals an
Delta Governor, Senator (Dr) Ifeanyi Okowa, on Tuesday said activities would begin soon at Kwale Industrial Park as methanol and transmission tower manufacturing companies had indicated readiness to set up their plants in the state.. The governor made the disclosure at the South-South Export Enlightenment and Engagement Forum organised by the Nigeria Export-Import Bank (NEXIM Bank) in conjunction with Delta Government in Asaba.. He said "Our investment drives have started paying off; our state has commenced the process of take-off of the Kwale Industrial Park located along Ughelli-Asaba Expressway.. "Expected to drive this administrations industrialization agenda, the Park has the potential to be Nigerias biggest location for gas and energy intensive manufacturing such as ceramics, rubber and methanol.. "I can confidently say that we engaged in a successful road show at China which will bring about the establishment of a methanol manufacturing plant at the park within the next few months; pulp ...
Policy Forum , February 2, 2016. India needs to place the welfare of society above the quick gains of unfettered industrial expansion, write Asit K Biswas and Kris Hartley.. The perils of rapid industrialisation in developing countries are well documented. Traffic congestion, agricultural land conversion, and unsafe working conditions are hotly debated topics. As a by-product of unregulated industrial activity, pollution is perhaps the most visible and publicised issue. It may also be the deadliest. Pollution is not a new problem in India, but its recent intensity is a clarion call for policy action. Indias leaders can no longer afford to look away.. In the global media, Chinas pollution is the cautionary tale of choice, illustrated by photos of Dickensian cities choked with smoke. Earlier this year, a shocking study revealed that over 4,000 Chinese people die each day from health complications related to air pollution. Even by conservative estimates (half that rate), three-quarters of a ...
Theres should be compensation policy for new comers in industrial sector. Elite group and leading group will assure that domestic product will be sold in local market. In this regard bd govt should stop or impose high Tex on foreign products. If govt can assure the industrialization, then unemployment will be removed from our country and malnutrition will also be removed ...
Find industrial air handling fan articles on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource.
This misses the concept of "standing variation": that any population can have variation in a trait in the absence of any selection pressure for one version of the trait or the other. If you look at classic cases of dark coloured insects, like peppered moths, flourishing in industrial areas (industrial melanization, for those who know the fancy words), populations always had some dark insects around before industrialization. Thats standing variation. Later, the dark colour provided an advantage as the landscape got darker. But the key point is that the insects didnt newly evolve dark colouration as regions became industrialized, because they needed it ...
In 2012/13 manufacturing accounted for about 10% of the British workforce, but for almost one in five fatalities to employees and reported injuries to employees. There have been reductions in injury and ill health rates over the past decade.
After having increased for five consecutive months, Chinas manufacturing purchasing managers index (PMI) in August 2014 fell 0.6 percentage points
This research study is thus designed to compute total factor productivity (TFP) growth for Pakistans large scale manufacturing (LSM) sector for each five year period from 1970-71 to 2005-06.
Great post Katie !, its very interesting to me to read your experiences both in manufacturing and non manufacturing sector regarding Lean - TPS applications . I cant say fortunately but have Great post Katie !, its very interesting to me to read your experiences both in manufacturing and non manufacturing sector regarding Lean - TPS applications . I cant say fortunately but have had the opportunity to experience the healthcare service in Japan by myself last year (got a very bad cold a couple of months after my arrival in Japan) and other public services too like post office and I have found as you mention Japanese is not a synonymous of Lean there are many things that go against Lean but talking about the case of healthcare specifically when I had to visit the clinic that first time as patient , I was surprised because it was very good service in my opinion, the visit started with a friend helping me to in put some data in a machine (cant a read kanji ) about general illness and insurance ...
Politicians, scientists and engineers are tackling a bewildering array of issues, each laden with a full complement of buzzwords. Here, PM sorts through the biggest topics in climate change to prov...
Prevention and risk management have become major concerns for a large majority of French industrial facilities.. ARKOD Ingénierie is a recognized specialist in the risks assessment, mandatory since the decree of 21 September 1977 for most industrial sites, including classified installations for environmental protection (CIEP).. The objective is to analyze industrial risks with the environment and highlight the control of these risks. The study can be revised in the event of changes to the facility or its use, at least every five years for facilities Seveso, at any time upon request of the Prefect.. The ARKOD Ingénierie approach involves several steps:. - Identification and characterization of potential ...
With the recession of the early 1990s, small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) attracted increased attention from policy-makers and in public debate as it was realized that SMEs play an important role in employment, innovation and regional dynamics. At the same time researchers claimed that SMEs are at a disadvantage in raising investment funds. This thesis adopts the perspective of the SMEs, analysing the mechanisms whereby control aversion can be reduced in SMEs, and examining the related financial search activity in SMEs as well as the contributions that financiers make to SMEs.. The empirical basis of the thesis comprises two surveys with 281 and 459 respondents and a qualitative study consisting of 10 interviews. The results of the analysis indicate that control aversion is reduced by mechanisms related to learning and coercion, and that Swedish SMEs generally tend to follow the pecking order theory of finance. The contributions that financiers make to the SMEs differ, depending mainly on ...
In April 2002, CVC Funds acquired Adisseo. Adisseo is a global leader in the processing of feed additives for the animal nutrition industry, dedicated to helping pre-mixers and animal feed manufacturers to improve their performance, guarantee their competitiveness and facilitate the use of additives.. As pioneers in the animal nutrition industry, Adisseo were among the first to support the industrialisation of livestock farming by designing, developing and producing feed additives, such as amino acids, vitamins and enzymes. Adisseo is the only major producer of methionine, an essential amino acid. The company has a market share of approximately 30% in methionine production.. In January 2006, Drakkar Holdings (the parent company of Adisseo) was sold to China National Corporation (ChemChina).. ...
Afp Contributor / AFP / Getty Images. A wave of refinery, petrochemical plant, and other industrial facility damages and shutdowns along the Texas coast in response to Harveys wrath has led to the release of millions of pounds of pollutants into the air, according to company filings analyzed by BuzzFeed News.. One of the nations hot spots for refining and other chemical processing, Houston is especially vulnerable to hurricanes and other flooding. Early Thursday morning - after Harvey had hit the city with more than 49 inches of rain in some places - the Arkema chemical plant in Crosby, Texas, about 30 miles northeast of downtown Houston, exploded twice due to flooding. The ongoing fire has released black smoke, raising questions about whether large amounts of dangerous materials are being emitted.. Although Arkema has not yet filed a report estimating the air pollution triggered by this explosion, dozens of other industrial facilities already have.. Chevron Phillips, for example, moved to ...
One area that we have much less control over is toxins in our air supply. Save moving to a pristine location where little to no contamination occurs, we have to deal with varying levels of air pollution.. The main culprits for toxins in the air are factories, automobiles and heavy equipment, pesticide and herbicide spraying, and chem trails. Added to that we now have the radiation from Fukushima to deal with as well, which mainly affects those on the western coast of USA and Canada.. Since the industrialization period, factories of all types have popped up and created excessive amounts of CO2 by spewing various chemicals from smoke stacks of factories all across the world. There is plenty of research to prove these chemicals are very harmful to our health.. Automobiles were once considered a privilege, but have since become a mainstay in every driveway in North America. As a result of our reliance on this mode of transportation, we have chugged even more amounts of Co2 and other contaminants ...
Over the vast Northwest China, arid desert contains high concentrations of sulfate, chloride, and other chemicals in the ground water, which poses serious challenges to infrastructure construction that routinely utilizes portland cement concrete. Rapid industrialization in the region has been generating huge amounts of mineral admixtures, such as fly ash and slags from energy and metallurgical industries. These industrial by-products would turn into waste materials if not utilized in time. The present study evaluated the suitability of utilizing local mineral admixtures in significant quantities for producing quality concrete mixtures that can withstand the harsh chemical environment without compromising the essential mechanical properties. Comprehensive chemical, mechanical, and durability tests were conducted in the laboratory to characterize the properties of the local cementitious mineral admixtures, cement mortar and portland cement concrete mixtures containing these admixtures. The results from
Five months after President Akufo-Addo cut sod in the Central Region for what is supposed to be the first of his administrations many factories to be built in districts across the country, there is not much to show for the region.. The New Patriotic Party (NPP) government had promised during the 2016 election campaign that it would build a factory in each of the countrys districts under the One District One Factory (1D1F) initiative.. On August 22 this year, the President Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo launched the project with the promise to drive industrialization across the country.. At a ceremony at Ekumfi Nanabin in the Central Region, the President cut the sod for the construction of the first factory under the programme.. During the sod-cutting ceremony, the Coordinator of Governments One District One Factory Programme, Gifty Ohene Konadu, assured that the Exim Bank had released all the monies earmarked for the project while the Italian Company that will oversee the construction of the ...
This video is based on the writings of Robert C. Allen who wrote Farm to Factory: A Reinterpretation of the Soviet Industrial Revolution. The videos purpose is to make understanding Soviet economics and the industrialisation simple to the lay person. Allen carried out extensive research into the Soviet economy. I highly recommend his book to…
Opponents of fracking have a very long list of concerns when it comes to the technique: they say that it contributes to climate change and causes air pollution; that it uses unsustainable amounts of water while also contaminating drinking supplies with methane and toxic chemicals; that it wreaks havoc on landscapes and settlements through heavy industrialisation; and that it triggers earthquakes. Those who support the industry tend to dismiss such concerns as misguided or based on myth, with a recent Chatham House briefing on shale gas claiming its an area where popular ignorance overrules science. So, Resource thought it time to take our own look at the matter, with a specific focus on the waste it produces.. But first, a crash course in the technology itself. Though its rise to prominence has happened swiftly over the last few years, hydraulic fracturing (to give it its full name) was actually developed in the 1940s in Texas, and the ideas behind it can be traced to the 1860s, when ...
You will find a need for each sector with the society a take preventative action from the pollution thats generated in the united states, specially in produced nations like US. It is expected for the region to continue industrialization in spite of generating polluting of the environment. It is unattainable to stop the generation of the spend completely. The only method to mitigate the result of the polluting of the environment on the environment is to delete the generated waste inside Eco-friendly manner. The complete responsibility regarding reducing the polluting of the environment does not are lying solely together with the industries; action should be considered right from your house owners. The actual waste will be generated in various projects for example house redevelopment, construction venture, green property waste along with industrial spend. Proper action should be considered at every sector to recycle this generated spend to mitigate the end results of polluting of the environment. ...
Turkey Table of Contents By 1995 approximately two-thirds of Turkeys population lived in urban areas, which continued to grow rapidly (see Population Density, Distribution, and Settlement, this ch.). Urbanization and industrialization have helped to create social-class structures that are similar in all large cities (population of more than 100,000) and most smaller ones (population 20,000 to 100,000). Government officials, wealthy businesspeople, and professionals together constitute the urban upper class. The business elite in most cities is very diverse and generally includes industrialists, financiers, large-scale retailers and wholesalers, real estate developers, construction firm owners, transportation company operators, and, in Ankara and Istanbul, owners of commercial publishing and broadcasting companies. The business elite, which constitutes the largest component of the upper class, has been expanding since the early 1980s as a result of government incentives for private investors and ...
The main objective of the study was to establish the detention time within the water treatment plant. The estimated detention time was then used to determine the actual contact time, and subsequently assess the capability of the existing water treatment configuration.. ASI utilized the step-dose method for the tracer study. This involved injecting a tracer chemical at a constant dosage until the concentration at the desired end point reaches a steady-state level.. Following the study, ASI provided a formal report summarizing the tracer study results, methodology and recommendation strategies to improve the drinking water disinfection at the facility.. For more information about this project or other projects, please contact us. ...
The industrialization process has brought a large number of problems; one of them is related to industrial accidents. With advances in industrial processes, new type of dangers to life, limb and health are being increasingly introduced. Everyday employees are injured in factories due to accidents. The accidents may be caused as a result on any kind of unsafe activity, or act in their part or chance occurrences, or as a result of some unsafe working conditions or unsafe act of employees themselves, or defective plant or shop layout. The pain and suffering of the injured as well as the emotional loss to the victims of the accidents causing permanent disabilities are impossible to be summed up and evaluated. ...
The industrialization process has brought a large number of problems; one of them is related to industrial accidents. With advances in industrial processes, new type of dangers to life, limb and health are being increasingly introduced. Everyday employees are injured in factories due to accidents. The accidents may be caused as a result on any kind of unsafe activity, or act in their part or chance occurrences, or as a result of some unsafe working conditions or unsafe act of employees themselves, or defective plant or shop layout. The pain and suffering of the injured as well as the emotional loss to the victims of the accidents causing permanent disabilities are impossible to be summed up and evaluated. ...
LONDON - Globally, the submersible pumps market is set to climb to USD 16.3 billion by the year 2026, encouraged by such growth driving factors as surging demand for submersible pumps in the agriculture sector for irrigation purposes, rising necessity for wastewater treatment and decreasing levels of groundwater. Moreover, the worlds demand for submersible pumps is predicted to be propelled by robust industrialisation, and surging investments in the development of infrastructure and water treatment.. Some of the dominant participants in the global submersible pumps marketplace include Grundfos Holding A/S, Aktiengesellschaft, SPX Corporation, Wilo SE, ITT Goulds Pumps, Shakti Pumps (I), Ruhrpumpen GmbH, Atlas Copco AB, among others.. The cutting-edge topical study "Global Submersible Pumps Market By Type, By Mode of Operation, By Power Rating, By Head, Competition Forecast & Opportunities, 2012 - 2026" prepared by TechSci Research is aimed at providing a profound overview of the worlds market ...
Throughout history, food needs bonded humans to nature. The transition to agriculture constituted slow, but revolutionary ecological transformations. After 1500 ce, agricultural goods, as well as pests that undermined them, dominated the exchange of species between four continents. In the United States, increasingly more commercial efforts simplified ecosystems. Improved technologies and market mechanisms facilitated surpluses in the 19th century that fueled industrialization and urbanization. In the 20th century, industrial agriculture involved expensive machinery and chemical pesticides and fertilizers in pursuit of higher outputs and profits, while consumers relations with their food sources and nature became attenuated.
Throughout history, food needs bonded humans to nature. The transition to agriculture constituted slow, but revolutionary ecological transformations. After 1500 ce, agricultural goods, as well as pests that undermined them, dominated the exchange of species between four continents. In the United States, increasingly more commercial efforts simplified ecosystems. Improved technologies and market mechanisms facilitated surpluses in the 19th century that fueled industrialization and urbanization. In the 20th century, industrial agriculture involved expensive machinery and chemical pesticides and fertilizers in pursuit of higher outputs and profits, while consumers relations with their food sources and nature became attenuated.
3. By Region: North America: 30%; Europe: 15%; Asia-Pacific: 20%; RoW: 35% Note: *Others include sales managers, marketing managers, and product managers.. The tier of the companies is defined on the basis of their total revenue, as of 2013: Tier 1 ≥USD 10 billion, Tier 2 = USD 1 billion to USD 10 billion and Tier 3 ≤USD 1 billion.. The micro packaging market exhibits substantial progress due to rapid industrialization and urbanization. This market is going through continuous variations with regard to technological upgradation and economic factors. The micro packaging market is significantly affected by a trend where eco-conscious consumers prefer to the packaging with the use of biodegradable, recycled, or non-petroleum-based materials that reduce the amount of waste. This has pushed the key players to invest extensively for R&D initiatives that enable micro packaging. New developments such as Bayer Cropscience AG, the chemical and pharmaceutical company produced a transparent film called ...
NTRA (Nano Technology Research Association) is non-profit organization established in 2001. Currently NTRA has members from academia, research and industrial fields, covered all areas of NT private sector in Korea. In 2007, NTRA was assigned as one of the 15 Planning Supporting Bureaus by government, which is expected to co-operate national R&D programs. Through the activities, NTRA intend to accelerate NT Industrialization and commercialization.
With Delhi and Beijing choking on toxic air, S R JINDAL shares with us some natural solutions for preventing acute respiratory conditions. Are we killing ourselves in a world of our own creation? Modern ecologists say yes. The ever-increasing percentage of atmospheric pollution all around the globe is aggravated by the needs of an artificial lifestyle. Increased industrialisation, machines and motor vehicles are constantly adding to the percentage of carbon dioxide, other poisonous gases and minute particles of suspended solids in the air. Ecologists are also worried now as to how to stop depleting the ozone layer covering the earths atmosphere. There may be a time in future, when a man will have to come out wearing astronaut suits fitted with oxygen masks, if conditions are not improved drastically.. Air pollutants are mainly responsible for the development of acute conditions of the respiratory system, starting from the common cold to chronic conditions like bronchitis. When the bronchi ...
Benedict Oramah, President and Chairman of the Board of Directors of Afreximbank, says: There is an urgency to get the continent moving, and there is no better time than this AGM to discuss Impact 2021: Africa Transformed, our medium-term strategy to deliver on intra-African trade; industrialisation; trade finance leadership and solid financial performance. You can follow #AfreximAGM2017 for the latest...
I more or less knew all this about industrial food, of course: the corn belt made into a vast featureless starch factory, the corn hybrids that wont "come true," the steers early-weaned and force-fatted on the feedlots, the industrialization of the certified organics. I have a bit of history with all these things. My expensive education was paid for by a grandfather who was a pioneer in corn hybrids. (In selling them, that is, not in creating them. Slogan in the Depression: "DeKalb corn will lift your mortgage!") One summer in the 70s I worked on farm which must already have been, had I known it, old-fashioned: they still had much of the ecosystem right there - pigs and chickens to manure the hay and alfalfa, hay and alfalfa to feed the cows through the winter. The old man there, who had never learned to read, had homesteaded the place some seventy years before. I worked in a food co-op around the same time, so I had a sense for what real food looked like. When I first set foot in places like ...
To some extent, the history of human development has intimately related to the inventions of energy sources. For a long time in human history, people had relied mainly on natural energy sources like sunshine, windmill, water-flow, firewood and animal work. Up until just two recent centuries, along with industrial revolution, fossil fuels have been exploited and have quickly become dominant, accounting for approximately 80% of world primary energy consumption [1]. Pressure of industrialization and population on energy demand has increased dramatically. Within a rather short time of two hundreds years, we human have already burnt out an amount of fossil fuels that nature processes had taken millions of years to form! Obviously, these non-renewable energy sources will run out someday, and according to some estimate, that day will not be so far from now for oil. Actually, we are in the time of Peak Oil, the point when the maximum rate of global petroleum extraction is reached, after which the rate ...
As I write this, I realize that some of you may not feel you are safe to make these choices for yourselves either. After all, the society we live in today, even as American women, does not fully support gentle, peaceful childbirth. Childbirth is often driven by economic factors; i.e. how much a cesarean costs versus a vaginal birth or how long a doctor in a hospital may allow a woman to stay on a natural birth plan before he/she interferes. Hospital protocols are motivated by fear instilled by insurance companies. This is what is known as the "industrialization of childbirth." I am not against cesarean, it is a life-saving operation -and a medical miracle when needed and used wisely. However, I, like many gentle birth advocates, am against the misuse and overuse of a procedure that has many repercussions that can affect the bonding process of mother, child and family. In fact, the elevated cesarean rate has driven the maternal mortality rate up due to complications of the surgery and infection ...
With the high speed of transportations, mechanization, industrialization and sports activities, the incidence of trauma including trivial injury and certain orthopedic joint problems are constantly increasing in the society. Simple movements such as walking, bending, and turning require the use of hip and knee joints. Normally, all parts of these joints work together and the joint moves easily and without pain. But when the joint becomes diseased or injured, the resulting pain can severely limit ones ability to move and work. The international association for the study of pain has defined pain as "an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage". According to the World Health Organization (WHO), pain is the most common reason for which patients visit their physician (Katz, 2002). Pain can be divided into two basic categories, acute and chronic. A common definition of acute pain is "the normal, predicted ...
With the continuous progress of industrialization, atmospheric pollutants, long-term low-level exposure and health problems caused by the acute pollution events is particularly prominent, has been a s
This poses a problem to us, because it follows that The West of Bucholtz, Ferguson and Landes is seen from a tunnel, opening in the direction of what they express to hold dear. Then, the West is not the dictatorships of Franco or Pinochet, even though both were situated in the the West? Is it not the slums of former Western colonies? Is it not the antebellum United States, where the Congressmen wrote in high-born poetic prose about freedom, to hide the fact they were owning slaves? - And something that is too often under-communicated: The situation of the African slave, is not all to unlike to the situation of the European peasant from the 16th to the 19th century. Is The West, not the cheap labor of children in the coal-mines of South Yorkshire, that fueled the industrialization of England, and the constant state-sponsored murder of those that opposed the exploitation? Winston Churchill may not have had Gandhi murdered, as Adolf Hitler allegedly suggested to him. But the Great British ...
... The international global warming is not really an alien idea throughout the stylish culture happens to be related to man exercises. Environmentalists think individual routines available as harvesting, industrialization, mining, and development greatly bring about climate change. The fundamental reason for global warming would be the eliminating around the fossils that discharge carbon Intravenous oxide fuel with regard to the environment. The position of mankind in climate change may be quite controversial. The controversies at the rear of climatic change debate have fascinated further technological studies to establish apart from skepticism the validity the promises relating to the engagement of men and women in enviromentally friendly degradation.Research Paper Writing Service - Excellent Academic Help Scientists, in their information, have revealed that there is no more than enough or persuasive substantiation in guidance among the way of thinking that ...
The key to mans health lies largely in his environment & often man is responsible for the pollution of his environment through urbanization, industrialization ..
Seeing the mass die-off of humanity can not be stopped, after 2050 there will be little industrialization. With increasing climate fluctuation failing crops every third year or less, the agrarian society will have a tough go especially with roving bands of thieves and killers. With aquifers dry and most soil ruined, the population will not be able to rise much, and in fact will decrease as temperatures rise and other pollution or geologic events happen. The day of population zero will be when the surface is too inhospitable for human life. Underground and space colonies may or may not last very much longer. The underground colonies will run out of fuel or some critical supplies and the surface will not provide them sometime in the over 200K year resequestration period. The space voyager colonies may find a good planet, but the odds are against it. If they do, they probably will not return to Earth in several million years when it is liveable for humans (maybe) again ...
Shortly thereafter, Staffan organized the Kitava Study-- an investigation into the diet and health of one of the few remaining cultures scarcely touched by industrialization. Although Kitavans werent hunter-gatherers by any stretch of the imagination, they did eat a starchy diet free of grains, dairy, refined sugar, refined oils, and all processed foods. In a series of papers, Staffan reported that the Kitavans showed undetectable levels of obesity, diabetes, heart attacks, and stroke-- even in old age. He went on to conduct randomized, controlled trials on the Paleolithic diet, demonstrating that it can reduce chronic disease risk factors in a Western context. He published an overview his findings in a book, Food and Western Disease ...
Shortly thereafter, Staffan organized the Kitava Study-- an investigation into the diet and health of one of the few remaining cultures scarcely touched by industrialization. Although Kitavans werent hunter-gatherers by any stretch of the imagination, they did eat a starchy diet free of grains, dairy, refined sugar, refined oils, and all processed foods. In a series of papers, Staffan reported that the Kitavans showed undetectable levels of obesity, diabetes, heart attacks, and stroke-- even in old age. He went on to conduct randomized, controlled trials on the Paleolithic diet, demonstrating that it can reduce chronic disease risk factors in a Western context. He published an overview his findings in a book, Food and Western Disease ...
Large scale industrialization happened in the nation. It might be tough to have visitors to return. Cost is going to be a vital determinant of further uptake.. It stimulates urine creation and is regarded as a diuretic. This organic sediment ought to be thermally decomposed to get liquid shale oil. Since then many diverse chemicals are found to induce anesthesia.. Listeners may adore the content but never go to your site. Core classes have to be taken in order. If youre looking for pay someone to write a research paper the best internet AP courses, these are the qualities you should search for.. That said, students advise that a number of the training course material does require rote memorization, though other parts are somewhat more conceptual. I really like this CHEM101 class. A great course will be simple to navigate on your PC.. Even though the precise selection of such courses will be contingent on the students research interests, these necessary electives have to be four-unit courses ...
In the recent era, due to tremendous advancement in industrialization, pollution and other anthropogenic activities have created a serious scenario for biota survival. It has been reported that present biota is entering a “sixth” mass extinction, because of chronic exposure to anthropogenic activities. Various|i| ex situ|/i| and|i| in situ|/i| measures have been adopted for conservation of threatened and endangered plants and animal species; however, these have been limited due to various discrepancies associated with them. Current advancement in molecular technologies, especially, genomics, is playing a very crucial role in biodiversity conservation. Advance genomics helps in identifying the segments of genome responsible for adaptation. It can also improve our understanding about microevolution through a better understanding of selection, mutation, assertive matting, and recombination. Advance genomics helps in identifying genes that are essential for fitness and ultimately for
The anomaly of fertility decline in Orissa, one of the extremely backward states of India, with high infant mortality, extreme poverty, low female literacy and very low level of industrialization and urbanization, calls for an in-depth understanding of fertility transition, in particular of the dynamics of family building process in the state. An analysis of Period Parity Progression Ratios computed from fertility histories obtained in the NFHS III gives strong evidence of rapid transition toward two child families in Orissa. The Life Table analysis of spacing between births clearly suggests that median birth intervals have got longer after second birth. It is also found from proportional hazards model that, socio-economic differences show a large effect only at higher order births. Thus, this transition at low levels of socio-economic development questions the classical demand theories, which thought fertility reduction is possible only with considerable improvements either in economic or ...
Located on the Connecticut River in western Massachusetts, Hadley was settled in 1659 by English Puritans. The colonists laid out a village, common, and an "open-field" farming system in the Great Meadow. This arrangement of slender, unfenced, elongated land parcels bounded by the river has endured since the time of the allotments to original settlers. Open-field farming was widespread in medieval and early modern Europe, but only the earliest New England settlements set up this type of agricultural system, and most had disappeared by the 18th century. This survival on such a large scale, over the centuries and through American industrialization in the northeastern United States, is incredibly improbable. ...
Hi Percy,. Thanks for the reply. I see you also a New Englander (Im from Ipswich).. This has been an interest and fascination for me for quite sometime. I decided to dust off some old skills see what I can do. I havent coded in about 15 years, hence my choice of old school tools (c++ etc.).. You asked a great question, why.. There is a lot of interesting things going on right now regarding AI, neural nets, machine learning and genetic algorithms. I worked in Kendall Square Cambridge in the mid 80s next to what was called AI Alley. Every thing that was talked about then is happening now.. Neural nets and what Ill call mathematical machine learning has jumped the fence into a commercialization and industrialization phase.. The use of evolution (modeled like biological evolution) and using genetic algorithms as a tool is in a very interesting experimentation phase. Some have applied GA to specific problems (wind turbine optimization) and building simulated neural nets that do eye catching and ...
Garvey compares our inaction on climate change to walking past the drowning child. Perhaps Garvey doesnt sense any problem with this patronisation of both his readers and those he wishes to save from climate change.. Yes, the industrialised world can help the developing world. But, only by virtue of its industrialisation - the very thing that the ethics of climate change asks us to turn back the clock on. All he has to offer the poorer inhabitants of the planet - assuming firstly that the science is true, and secondly that mitigation will have any noticeable effect - is marginally different weather. Slightly different weather will not end poverty. It will not create opportunities for development, it will not even make soil more fertile, nor irrigate fields. It will not change the economic or political circumstances in the Third World. All it will do is put a greater number of the worlds population into a relationship with nature where human suffering is far more directly influenced by ...
Biology and Fertility of Soils publishes in English original papers, reviews and short communications on all fundamental and applied aspects of biology - microflora and microfauna - and fertility of soils. It offers a forum for research aimed at broadening the understanding of biological functions, processes and interactions in soils, particularly concerning the increasing demands of agriculture, deforestation and industrialization. The journal includes articles on techniques and methods that evaluate processes, biogeochemical interactions and ecological stresses, and sometimes presents special issues on relevant topics.. The Founding Editor is Johannes C. G. Ottow; the Editor-in-Chief is Paolo Nannipieri, Dipartimento Scienza del ...
Elders Academy prepares us through education for the second half of life. Although societies have found ways to initiate us for the demands of our first half of life through educating us for adulthood and middle adulthood, we are often less prepared to face the second half of life. Concepts such as retirement and golden years present a limited idea of the potential contained in our second half. Elders Academy re-establishes an important role that has been lost in the last few centuries of our industrialization: the role of the elder. Please contact Marlena del Hierro at [email protected] for more information.. ...
Quantitative models of Import demand have revolved around numerical estimates of demand elasticities for a number of theoretical and practical reasons. Especially in the Latin American context, much of stimulus and direction of postwar development is said to have its origin in the reaction to the trade constraint, and the style and speed of the industrialization in the reaction to the increasing pressure of import demand. A somewhat different model views development from the reverse angle and mechanically searches for evidence of the impediment that periodic trade imbalances supposedly place in 2 the path of growth.