Indoleacetic acid (IAA) is a breakdown product of tryptophan metabolism and is often produced by the action of bacteria in the mammalian gut. Some endogenous production of IAA in mammalian tissues also occurs. It may be produced by the decarboxylation of tryptamine or the oxidative deamination of tryptophan. IAA frequently occurs at low levels in urine and has been found in elevated levels in the urine of patients with phenylketonuria ((PMID: 13610897 ). Using material extracted from human urine, it was discovered by Kogl in 1933 that Indoleacetic acid is also an important plant hormone (PMID: 13610897 ). Specifically IAA is a member of the group of phytohormones called auxins. IAA is generally considered to be the most important native auxin. Plant cells synthesize IAA from tryptophan. (wikipedia) IAA and some derivatives can be oxidised by horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to cytotoxic species. IAA is only toxic after oxidative decarboxylation; the effect of IAA/HRP is thought to be due in part to ...
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The plant specific transcription factor LEAFY (LFY) plays a pivotal role in the developmental switch to floral meristem identity in Arabidopsis. Our recent study revealed that LFY additionally acts downstream of AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR5/MONOPTEROS to promote flower primordium initiation. LFY also promotes initiation of the floral organ and floral organ identity. To further investigate the interplay between LFY and auxin during flower development, we examined the phenotypic consequence of disrupting polar auxin transport in lfy mutants by genetic means. Plants with compromised LFY activity exhibit increased sensitivity to disruption of polar auxin transport. Compromised polar auxin transport activity in the lfy mutant background resulted in formation of fewer floral organs, abnormal gynoecium development, and fused sepals. In agreement with these observations, expression of the auxin response reporter DR5rev::GFP as well as of the direct LFY target CUP-SHAPED COTYLEDON2 were altered in lfy mutant flowers.
The phytohormone auxin is transported through the plant body either via vascular pathways or from cell to cell by specialized polar transport machinery. This machinery consists of a balanced system of passive diffusion combined with the activities of auxin influx and efflux carriers. Synthetic auxins that differ in the mechanisms of their transport across the plasma membrane together with polar auxin transport inhibitors have been used in many studies on particular auxin carriers and their role in plant development. However, the exact mechanism of action of auxin efflux and influx inhibitors has not been fully elucidated. In this report, the mechanism of action of the auxin influx inhibitors (1-naphthoxyacetic acid (1-NOA), 2-naphthoxyacetic acid (2-NOA), and 3-chloro-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (CHPAA)) is examined by direct measurements of auxin accumulation, cellular phenotypic analysis, as well as by localization studies of Arabidopsis thaliana L. auxin carriers heterologously expressed in ...
PINOID, a serine threonine protein kinase in Arabidopsis, controls auxin distribution through a positive control of subcellular localization of PIN auxin efflux carriers. Compared with the rapid progress in understanding mechanisms of auxin action in dicot species, little is known about auxin action in monocot species. Here, we describe the identification and characterization of OsPID, the PINOID ortholog of rice. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the rice genome contains a single PID ortholog, OsPID. Constitutive overexpression of OsPID caused a variety of abnormalities, such as delay of adventitious root development, curled growth of shoots and agravitropism. Abnormalities observed in the plants that overexpress OsPID could be phenocopied by treatment with an inhibitor of active polar transport of auxin, indicating that OsPID could be involved in the control of polar auxin transport in rice. Analysis of OsPID mRNA distribution showed a complex pattern in shoot meristems, indicating that it ...
Lateral roots are initiated postembryonically in response to environmental cues, enabling plants to explore efficiently their underground environment. However, the mechanisms by which the environment determines the position of lateral root formation are unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that in Arabidopsis thaliana lateral root initiation can be induced mechanically by either gravitropic curvature or by the transient bending of a root by hand. The plant hormone auxin accumulates at the site of lateral root induction before a primordium starts to form. Here we describe a subcellular relocalization of PIN1, an auxin transport protein, in a single protoxylem cell in response to gravitropic curvature. This relocalization precedes auxin-dependent gene transcription at the site of a new primordium. Auxin-dependent nuclear signaling is necessary for lateral root formation; arf7/19 double knock-out mutants normally form no lateral roots but do so upon bending when the root tip is removed. Signaling ...
Further evidence for a role of EIR1 in auxin transport comes from Luschnig et al.s experiments with the altered lateral root1 (alf1) mutant, in which elevated endogenous auxin levels lead to decreased root elongation and increased lateral root formation (Celenza et al., 1995). The double mutant eir1 alf1 does not display the root-elongation defect, suggesting that eir1 acts to suppress the effects of high endogenous auxin levels conferred by alf1. Importantly, the eir1 mutation does not confer resistance to auxin that is simply added to the medium, a characteristic that experiments with the aux1 mutant suggest is more likely to be associated with defects in an auxin influx carrier.. Perhaps the most compelling evidence offered by Luschnig et al. (1998) that the eir1 mutation causes defects in an auxin efflux carrier comes from their experiments with EIR1-expressing yeast cells, which are resistant to toxic fluoroindoles. Although other explanations are possible, resistance to these compounds is ...
Lateral roots originate deep within the parental root from a small number of founder cells at the periphery of vascular tissues and must emerge through intervening layers of tissues. We describe how the hormone auxin, which originates from the developing lateral root, acts as a local inductive signal which re-programmes adjacent cells. Auxin induces the expression of a previously uncharacterized auxin influx carrier LAX3 in cortical and epidermal cells directly overlaying new primordia. Increased LAX3 activity reinforces the auxin-dependent induction of a selection of cell-wall-remodelling enzymes, which are likely to promote cell separation in advance of developing lateral root primordia.. Nature Cell Biology 10 (8), 946-954 ...
Conversely, cytokinin regulates auxin biosynthesis. By measuring the incorporation of deuterium into IAA by gas chromatography - multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry (GC-MRM-MS), Jones et al. (Jones et al., 2010) observed that treatment with various cytokinins led to increased auxin synthesis in young leaves, the shoot apex and the root system; this effect was amplified in the cytokinin hypersensitive ARR mutant arr3 arr4 arr5 arr6. By contrast, treatment of the cytokinin-insensitive quadruple AHP mutant ahp1 ahp2 ahp3 ahp4 resulted in a decrease in IAA biosynthesis, suggesting that the relationship between cytokinin signalling and auxin synthesis may not be straightforward; roots of this mutant also had a higher baseline rate of IAA biosynthesis than wild type, further hinting at the complexity of this interaction. Cytokinin treatments did not increase IAA biosynthesis in the axr3-1 mutant, which is hypersensitive to auxin because the increased stability of the AXR3/IAA17 protein; ...
Chlorophyta appear to encode at least some of the proteins necessary for auxin biosynthesis and metabolism, which correlates with auxin measurements in members of this division of green algae (Cooke et al., 2002; Lau et al., 2009; Ross and Reid, 2010). On top, putative auxin transport proteins such as AUX1-like and ABCB/PGP-like proteins appear to be present in Chlorophyta, while PIN-like proteins are only encoded in some Streptophyta. While single-celled Chlorophyta seem to possess the potential to transport auxin, at present it is not clear if they import and export auxin from and to the environment, respectively. In the absence of PIN-like auxin carriers, the AUX1-like and ABCB/PGP-like proteins could facilitate putative auxin fluxes in Chlorophyta. While our analyses of S. pratensis and C. orbicularis EST libraries suggest that PIN proteins emerged in the Streptophyta clade, functional data will be required to determine if directional PIN-mediated auxin transport emerged to coordinate ...
Although polar transport and the TIR1-dependent signaling pathway of the plant hormone auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) are well characterized, understanding of the biosynthetic pathway(s) leading to the production of IAA is still limited. Genetic dissection of IAA biosynthetic pathways has been complicated by the metabolic redundancy caused by the apparent existence of several parallel biosynthetic routes leading to IAA production. Valuable complementary tools for genetic as well as biochemical analysis of auxin biosynthesis would be molecular inhibitors capable of acting in vivo on specific or general components of the pathway(s), which unfortunately have been lacking. Several indole derivatives have been previously identified to inhibit tryptophan-dependent IAA biosynthesis in an in vitro system from maize endosperm. We examined the effect of one of them, 6-fluoroindole, on seedling development of Arabidopsis thaliana and tested its ability to inhibit IAA biosynthesis in feeding experiments ...
The phytohormone auxin regulates diverse aspects of plant development, including tissue elongation, tropic growth, embryogenesis, apical dominance, lateral root initiation, and vascular differentiation (Teale et al., 2006). Proteins in the TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE1/AUXIN SIGNALING F-BOX protein (TIR1/AFB) family have recently been demonstrated to function as nuclear receptors for auxin (Dharmasiri et al., 2005a; Kepinski and Leyser, 2005). The auxin signal transduction system operating via the E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex SCFTIR1/AFB (for Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein), which includes TIR1/AFBs, plays a critical role in many auxin-mediated responses through transcriptional regulation (Mockaitis and Estelle, 2008).. Auxin-induced elongation of plant organs, such as hypocotyls, coleoptiles, and roots, has been explained by the acid-growth theory since the 1970s (Rayle and Cleland, 1970; Hager et al., 1971; Moloney et al., 1981). The theory states that auxin enhances proton extrusion via the plasma ...
Auxins are key regulators of plant development. Plants employ a specialized delivery system termed polar auxin transport to convey indole-3-acetic acid from source to target tissues. Auxin transport is mediated by the combined activities of specialized influx and efflux carriers. Mutational approaches in the model plant, Arabidopsis thaliana, have led to the molecular genetic characterization of putative auxin influx and efflux carrier components, AUX1 and AtPIN1. Both genes belong to distinct gene families that are being functionally characterized by using a reverse genetic approach in Arabidopsis. AtPIN proteins are asymmetrically localized within plant plasma membranes, providing a molecular mechanism for the characteristic polarity of auxin transport. We outline the epitope tagging strategy being used in our laboratory to immunolocalize AUX1 and discuss the implications of its subcellular localization for auxin redistribution within root apical tissues. Lastly, we describe a novel ...
The plant growth hormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) transcriptionally activates expression of several genes in plants. We have previously identified a 164-bp promoter region (-318 to -154) in the PS-IAA4/5 gene that confers IAA inducibility. Linker-scanning mutagenesis across the region has identified two positive domains: domain A (48 bp; -203 to -156) and domain B (44 bp; -299 to -256), responsible for transcriptional activation of PS-IAA4/5 by IAA. Domain A contains the highly conserved sequence 5-TGTCCCAT-3 found among various IAA-inducible genes and behaves as the major auxin-responsive element. Domain B functions as an enhancer element which may also contain a less efficient auxin-responsive element. The two domains act cooperatively to stimulate transcription; however, tetramerization of domain A or B compensates for the loss of A or B function. The two domains can also mediate IAA-induced transcription from the heterologous cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (-73 to +1). In vivo ...
The NH2-terminal sequence of ARF1 is similar to that in twoArabidopsis expressed sequence tags (GenBank accession numbers Z37232 and R30405), IAA24 (GenBank accession number U79556) and ARF3 (6) and the COOH-terminal region of the maize transcriptional activator Viviparous-1 (VP1) (7) and itsArabidopsis homolog ABI3 (8) (Fig. 2B). The COOH-terminal sequence of ARF1 is similar to the COOH-terminal regions of Aux/IAA proteins, including IAA24 (Fig. 2C). The Aux/IAA proteins contain four islands of amino acid sequence similarity (boxes I to IV, Fig. 2A) (1). ARF1 and IAA24 differ from most Aux/IAA proteins in being larger and containing boxes III and IV only. Box III is part of a motif related to the amphipathic βαα-fold found in β-ribbon DNA-binding domains of prokaryotic Arc and MetJ repressor proteins, and Aux/IAA proteins are hypothesized to be transcription factors (9). Analyses with both Garnier-Osguthorpe-Robson and Chou-Fasman algorithms predict that box III in ARF1 conforms to an ...
Most legume plants can form nodules, specialized lateral organs that form on roots, and house nitrogen-fixing bacteria collectively called rhizobia. The uptake of the phytohormone auxin into cells is known to be crucial for development of lateral roots. To test the role of auxin influx in nodulation we used the auxin influx inhibitors 1-naphthoxyacetic acid (1-NOA) and 2-NOA, which we found reduced nodulation of Medicago truncatula. This suggested the possible involvement of the AUX/LAX family of auxin influx transporters in nodulation. Gene expression studies identified MtLAX2, a paralogue of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) AUX1, as being induced at early stages of nodule development. MtLAX2 is expressed in nodule primordia, the vasculature of developing nodules, and at the apex of mature nodules. The MtLAX2 promoter contains several auxin response elements, and treatment with indole-acetic acid strongly induces MtLAX2 expression in roots. mtlax2 mutants displayed root phenotypes similar to ...
Adventitious root (AR) formation in the stem base of cuttings is the basis for propagation of many plant species and petunia is used as model to study this developmental process. Following AR formation from 2 to 192 hours after excision (hpe) of cuttings, transcriptome analysis by microarray revealed a change of the character of the rooting zone from stem base to root identity. The greatest shift in the number of differentially expressed genes was observed between 24 and 72 hpe, when the categories storage, mineral nutrient acquisition, anti-oxidative and secondary metabolism, and biotic stimuli showed a notable high number of induced genes. Analyses of phytohormone-related genes disclosed multifaceted changes of the auxin transport system, auxin conjugation and the auxin signal perception machinery indicating a reduction in auxin sensitivity and phase-specific responses of particular auxin-regulated genes. Genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis and action showed a more uniform pattern as a high number
The plant hormone indoleacetic acid (IAA or auxin) transcriptionally activates a select set of early genes. The Auxl IAA class of early auxin-responsive genes encodes a large family of short-lived, nuclear proteins. Aux/IAA polypeptides homo-and heterodimerize, and interact with auxin-response transcription factors (ARFs) via C-terminal regions conserved in both protein families. This shared region contains a predicted βαα motif similar to the prokaryotic β-Ribbon DNA binding domain, which mediates both protein dimerization and DNA recognition. Here, we show by circular dichroism spectroscopy and by chemical cross-linking experiments that recombinant peptides corresponding to the predicted βαα region of three Aux/IAA proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana contain substantial α-helical secondary structure and undergo homo- and heterotypic interactions in vitro. Our results indicate a similar biochemical function of the plant βαα domain and suggest that the βαα fold plays an important ...
Several recent observations indicated a link between ROP function and PIN endocytosis (Chen et al., 2012; Lin et al., 2012; Nagawa et al., 2012). Our results (Figure 10) show that downregulating ROP signaling or loss of ROP3 function disrupts PIN1 and PIN3 recycling. Together, these results imply that different ROPs could perform distinct functions in the regulation of PIN trafficking, thereby leading to altered PIN polarity and perturbing directional auxin transport. Moreover, our results also show that ROP3 differentially affects auxin transporters, even within the PIN family (Figure 9; Supplemental Figure 8). On the other hand, despite overlapping with AUX1 in its expression domain, ROP3 has no impact on the polarity of AUX1 (Figures 9P to 9R). These data suggest that ROP3 specifically affects the localization of PIN proteins in regions of the root where they coexpress during development.. ROPs are activated by auxin (Tao et al., 2002; Xu et al., 2010) and activated ROPs interact with ...
How did selectivity for the one natural auxin IAA evolve? Are there still novel natural auxins to be discovered? From the structural biology of the auxin receptor TIR1 we have learnt a great deal about how auxin is recognised and how it starts the signalling cascades which alter plant development. Work in our lab has also shown how a different member of the auxin receptor family (AFB5) has a different, wider selectivity profile. An important family of auxin herbicides work through AFB5, and AFB5 is also implicated in the control of branching. This project will explore how and why the receptors have come to differ, and whether there might be a novel plant hormone to be discovered.. Structural biology of auxin transport proteins: a project with Dr Alex Cameron (Life Sciences, Warwick). The goal is to express, purify and determine the structure of auxin transport proteins by crystallography. These transporters determine some of the most profound morphogenic events in biology, such as polarity in ...
p,Ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation is a common feature in diverse plant cell signaling pathways; however, the factors that control the dynamics of regulated protein turnover are largely unknown. One of the best-characterized families of E3 ubiquitin ligases facilitates ubiquitination of auxin (aux)/indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) repressor proteins in the presence of auxin. Rates of auxin-induced degradation vary widely within the Aux/IAA family, and sequences outside of the characterized degron (the minimum region required for auxin-induced degradation) can accelerate or decelerate degradation. We have used synthetic auxin degradation assays in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and in plants to characterize motifs flanking the degron that contribute to tuning the dynamics of Aux/IAA degradation. The presence of these rate motifs is conserved in phylogenetically distant members of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) Aux/IAA family, as well as in their putative Brassica rapa orthologs. We ...
The periodic formation of plant organs such as leaves and flowers gives rise to intricate patterns that have fascinated biologists and mathematicians alike for hundreds of years. The plant hormone auxin plays a central role in establishing these patterns by promoting organ formation at sites where it accumulates due to its polar, cell-to-cell transport. Although experimental evidence as well as modeling suggest that feedback from auxin to its transport direction may help specify phyllotactic patterns, the nature of this feedback remains unclear. Here we reveal that polarization of the auxin efflux carrier PIN-FORMED 1 (PIN1) is regulated by the auxin response transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP). We find that in the shoot, cell polarity patterns follow MP expression, which in turn follows auxin distribution patterns. By perturbing MP activity both globally and locally, we show that localized MP activity is necessary for the generation of polarity convergence patterns and that localized MP ...
The establishment of embryonic polarity axes foreshadows the main body structure of multicellular adult organisms. Plants developed a polar cell-to-cell transport of the growth hormone auxin to generate an asymmetric auxin response in embryos, instructive for apical-basal polarity axis formation. Using theory-guided experiments, I recently established that the dynamic spatial and temporal onset of auxin biosynthesis is a trigger to orient auxin fluxes and therefore apical-basal axis body axis, at various time points of Arabidopsis embryo development. Here I proposed a direct approach to understand how auxin biosynthesis influences embryo patterning and how this is translated into gene expression changes. The objectives of my project are: (i) to characterize the downstream elements of the auxin response activated by a embryonic local auxin production, (ii) to identify the factors that dynamically and developmentally control auxin biosynthetic genes expression. The proposed research is ...
In shoots, polar auxin transport is basipetal (that is, from the shoot apex toward the base) and is driven by the basal localization of the auxin efflux carrier complex. The focus of this article is to summarize the experiments that have examined how the asymmetric distribution of this protein compl …
phdthesis{3006170, abstract = {Plants as sessile organisms evolved a specific body structure and at the cellular level mechanisms that allow to survive under extreme environmental conditions. The body shape and subcellular processes are largely dependent on coordinated activity of a small molecule indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), auxin. Local gradients of IAA correlate spatiotemporally with such developmental events like embryogenesis, phyllotaxis, organ initiation or tropisms. Auxin maxima and minima are mostly mediated by auxin efflux carriers PINs. Asymmetric distribution of these proteins determines the directional flow and facilitates the auxin gradient formation. Aberrations in apical or basal auxin-carriers localisation leads to severe developmental defects. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms initiating and controlling polar proteins localisation. Next to polarly distributed PINs, there is a growing group of polarly localized proteins transporting hormones or nutrients ...
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Vegetative propagation of economically important woody, horticultural and agricultural species rely on an efficient adventitious root (AR) formation. The formation of ARs is a complex genetic trait regulated by the interaction of environmental and endogenous factors among which the phytohormone auxin plays an essential role. This article summarizes the current knowledge related to the intricate network through which auxin controls adventitious rooting. How auxin and recently identified auxin-related compounds affect AR formation in different plant species is discussed. Particular attention is addressed to illustrate how auxin has a central role in the hormone cross-talk leading to AR development. In parallel, we describe the molecular players involved in the control of auxin homeostasis, transport and signaling, for a better understanding of the auxin action during adventitious rooting. ...
HHMI researchers have identified an enzyme involved in the production of auxin, a plant growth hormone that influences plant growth. Although auxin has been studied for more than 100 years, scientists have not had a good grasp of how the hormone is synthesized by plants
We carried out several experiments to show directly thatyucca plants contain elevated auxin levels. First, we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to measure endogenous levels of free IAA (15). To obtain sufficient quantity of tissue for IAA measurements, we used a rather weak recapitulation line. This line contained about 50% more free IAA than wild-type plants, suggesting that strong yucca alleles contain even higher levels of free IAA (Fig. 2A).. Next, we used physiological and genetic experiments to test whether this modest increase in free IAA is physiologically important. It has been established previously that Arabidopsis explants cannot proliferate without addition of auxin to the medium. It has also been established that the ratio of auxin to cytokinin determines the relative growth of roots, shoots, and callus (16). In general, a high ratio of auxin to cytokinin leads to root growth, but a lower ratio induces callus and shoot growth (16). Extensive root growth was observed ...
Auxin is involved in many aspects of root development and physiology, including the formation of lateral roots. Improving our understanding of how the auxin response is mediated at the protein level over time can aid in developing a more complete molecular framework of the process. This study evaluates the effects of exogenous auxin treatment on the Arabidopsis root proteome after exposure of young seedlings to auxin for 8, 12, and 24 h, a timeframe permitting the initiation and full maturation of individual lateral roots. Root protein extracts were processed to peptides, fractionated using off-line strong-cation exchange, and analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography and data independent acquisition-based mass spectrometry. Protein abundances were then tabulated using label-free techniques and evaluated for significant changes. Approximately 2000 proteins were identified during the time course experiment, with the number of differences between the treated and control roots increasing over
Polar transport of the phytohormone auxin through PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers is essential for the spatiotemporal control of plant development. The Arabidopsis thaliana serine/threonine kinase D6 PROTEIN KINASE (D6PK) is polarly localized at the plasma membrane of many cells where it colocalizes with PINs and activates PIN-mediated auxin efflux. Here, we show that the association of D6PK with the basal plasma membrane and PINs is dependent on the phospholipid composition of the plasma membrane as well as on the phosphatidylinositol phosphate 5-kinases PIP5K1 and PIP5K2 in epidermis cells of the primary root. We further show that D6PK directly binds polyacidic phospholipids through a polybasic lysine-rich motif in the middle domain of the kinase. The lysine-rich motif is required for proper PIN3 phosphorylation and for auxin transport-dependent tropic growth. Polybasic motifs are also present at a conserved position in other D6PK-related kinases and required for membrane and ...
The phytohormone auxin controls processes such as cell elongation, root hair development and root branching. Tropisms, growth curvatures triggered by gravity, light and touch, are also auxin-mediated responses. Auxin is synthesized in the shoot apex and transported through the stem, but the molecula …
Plant development is regulated by a number of mobile factors. The Arabidopsis BYPASS1 (BPS1) gene was previously shown to control shoot and root development by preventing formation of a mobile compound, but how this compound functions and whether it modulates other signalling pathways is unclear. Now, Leslie Sieburth and colleagues show that Arabidopsis BPS1, as well as two related genes, BPS2 and BPS3, control the production of a mobile factor, the bps signal, which regulates patterning and growth in parallel with auxin signalling (p. 805). By analysing single, double and triple mutants, the researchers show that all three BPS genes control bps signal synthesis. Importantly, bps triple mutants display severe embryogenesis defects, including disruptions to vascular, root and shoot stem cell populations. Finally, bps triple mutants exhibit normal auxin-induced gene expression and localisation of the PIN1 auxin transporter, suggesting that the bps signal functions in an auxin-independent manner. ...
Sugar regulates a variety of genes and controls plant growth and development similarly to phytohormones. As part of a screen for Arabidopsis mutants with defects in sugar-responsive gene expression, we identified a loss-of-function mutation in the HOOKLESS1 (HLS1) gene. HLS1 was originally identified to regulate apical hook formation of dark-grown seedlings (Lehman et al., 1996, Cell 85: 183-194). In hls1, sugar-induced gene expression in excised leaf petioles was more sensitive to exogenous sucrose than that in the wild type. Exogenous IAA partially repressed sugar-induced gene expression and concomitantly activated some auxin response genes such as AUR3 encoding GH3-like protein. The repression and the induction of gene expression by auxin were attenuated and enhanced, respectively, by the hls1 mutation. These results suggest that HLS1 plays a negative role in sugar and auxin signaling. Because AUR3 GH3-like protein conjugates free IAA to amino acids (Staswick et al., 2002, Plant Cell 14: ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Bending models of halotropism. T2 - Incorporating protein phosphatase 2A, ABCB transporters, and auxin metabolism. AU - Han, Eun Hyang. AU - Petrella, Dominic P.. AU - Blakeslee, Joshua J.. PY - 2017/6/1. Y1 - 2017/6/1. N2 - Salt stress causes worldwide reductions in agricultural yields, a problem that is exacerbated by the depletion of global freshwater reserves and the use of contaminated or recycled water (i.e. effluent water). Additionally, salt stress can occur as cultivated areas are subjected to frequent rounds of irrigation followed by periods of moderate to severe evapotranspiration, which can result in the heterogeneous aggregation of salts in agricultural soils. Our understanding of the later stages of salt stress and the mechanisms by which salt is transported out of cells and roots has greatly improved over the last decade. The precise mechanisms by which plant roots perceive salt stress and translate this perception into adaptive, directional growth away from ...
To cause growth in the required domains, auxins must of necessity be active preferentially in them. Local auxin maxima can be formed by active biosynthesis in certain cells of tissues, for example via tryptophan-dependent pathways,[14] but auxins are not synthesized in all cells (even if cells retain the potential ability to do so, only under specific conditions will auxin synthesis be activated in them). For that purpose, auxins have to be not only translocated toward those sites where they are needed but also they must have an established mechanism to detect those sites. Translocation is driven throughout the plant body, primarily from peaks of shoots to peaks of roots (from up to down). For long distances, relocation occurs via the stream of fluid in phloem vessels, but, for short-distance transport, a unique system of coordinated polar transport directly from cell to cell is exploited. This short-distance, active transport exhibits some morphogenetic properties. This process, polar auxin ...
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To control morphogenesis, molecular regulatory networks have to interfere with the mechanical properties of the indi-vidual cells of developing organs and tissues, but how this is achieved is not well known. We study this issue here in the shoot meristem of higher plants, a group of undifferenti-ated cells where complex changes in growth rates and direc-tions lead to the continuous formation of new organs [1, 2]. Here, we show that the plant hormone auxin plays an impor-tant role in this process via a dual, local effect on the extracellular matrix, the cell wall, which determines cell shape. Our study reveals that auxin not only causes a limited reduction in wall stiffness but also directly interferes with wall anisotropy via the regulation of cortical microtubule dy-namics. We further show that to induce growth isotropy and organ outgrowth, auxin somehow interferes with the cortical microtubule-ordering activity of a network of proteins, in-cluding AUXIN BINDING PROTEIN 1 and KATANIN 1. Numer-ical
Actinorhizal symbioses are mutualistic interactions between plants and the soil bacteria Frankia that lead to the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules. Little is known about the signaling mechanisms controlling the different steps of the establishment of the symbiosis. The plant hormone auxin has been suggested to play a role. Here we report that auxin accumulates within Frankia-infected cells in actinorhizal nodules of Casuarina glauca. Using a combination of computational modeling and experimental approaches, we establish that this localized auxin accumulation is driven by the cell-specific expression of auxin transporters and by Frankia auxin biosynthesis in planta. Our results indicate that the plant actively restricts auxin accumulation to Frankia-infected cells during the symbiotic interaction.. Plant Physiology 154 (3), 1372-1380 ...
article{445484, abstract = {The rate, polarity, and symmetry of the flow of the plant hormone auxin are determined by the polar cellular localization of PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin efflux carriers. Flavonoids, a class of secondary plant metabolites, have been suspected to modulate auxin transport and tropic responses. Nevertheless, the identity of specific flavonoid compounds involved and their molecular function and targets in vivo are essentially unknown. Here we show that the root elongation zone of agravitropic pin2/eir1/wav6/agr1 has an altered pattern and amount of flavonol glycosides. Application of nanomolar concentrations of flavonols to pin2 roots is sufficient to partially restore root gravitropism. By employing a quantitative cell biological approach, we demonstrate that flavonoids partially restore the formation of lateral auxin gradients in the absence of PIN2. Chemical complementation by flavonoids correlates with an asymmetric distribution of the PIN1 protein. pin2 complementation ...
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ONeill, DP and Ross, JJ (2002) Auxin regulation of the gibberellin pathway in pea. Plant Physiology, 130 (4). pp. 1974-1982. ISSN 0032-0889 ...
The evolution of complex body plans in land plants has been paralleled by gene duplication and divergence within nuclear auxin-signaling networks. A deep mechanistic understanding of auxin signaling proteins therefore may allow rational engineering of novel plant architectures. Toward that end, we analyzed natural variation in the auxin receptor F-box family of wild accessions of the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana and used this information to populate a structure/function map. We employed a synthetic assay to identify natural hypermorphic F-box variants and then assayed auxin-associated phenotypes in accessions expressing these variants. To more directly measure the impact of the strongest variant in our synthetic assay on auxin sensitivity, we generated transgenic plants expressing this allele. Together, our findings link evolved sequence variation to altered molecular performance and auxin sensitivity. This approach demonstrates the potential for combining synthetic biology approaches ...
Multipotent stem cell populations, the meristems, are fundamental for the indeterminate growth of plant bodies. One of these meristems, the cambium, is responsible for extended root and stem thickening. Strikingly, although the pivotal role of the plant hormone auxin in promoting cambium activity has been known for decades, the molecular basis of auxin responsiveness on the level of cambium cells has so far been elusive. Here, we reveal that auxin-dependent cambium stimulation requires the homeobox transcription factor WOX4. In Arabidopsis thaliana inflorescence stems, 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid-induced auxin accumulation stimulates cambium activity in the wild type but not in wox4 mutants, although basal cambium activity is not abolished. This conclusion is confirmed by the analysis of cellular markers and genome-wide transcriptional profiling, which revealed only a small overlap between WOX4-dependent and cambium-specific genes. Furthermore, the receptor-like kinase PXY is required for a stable auxin
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One of the most fascinating aspects of plant morphology is the regular geometric arrangement of leaves and flowers, called phyllotaxy. The shoot apical meristem (SAM) determines these patterns, which vary depending on species and developmental stage. Auxin acts as an instructive signal in leaf initiation, and its transport has been implicated in phyllotaxy regulation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Altered phyllotactic patterns are observed in a maize (Zea mays) mutant, aberrant phyllotaxy1 (abph1, also known as abphyl1), and ABPH1 encodes a cytokinin-inducible type A response regulator, suggesting that cytokinin signals are also involved in the mechanism by which phyllotactic patterns are established. Therefore, we investigated the interaction between auxin and cytokinin signaling in phyllotaxy. Treatment of maize shoots with a polar auxin transport inhibitor, 1-naphthylphthalamic acid, strongly reduced ABPH1 expression, suggesting that auxin or its polar transport is required for ABPH1 ...
The molecular mechanisms underlying gravity perception and signal transduction which control asymmetric plant growth responses are as yet unknown, but are likely to depend on the directional flux of the plant hormone auxin. We have isolated an Arabidopsis mutant of the AtPIN2 gene using transposon mutagenesis. Roots of the Atpin2::En701 null-mutant were agravitropic and showed altered auxin sensitivity, a phenotype characteristic of the agravitropic wav6-52 mutant. The AtPIN2 gene was mapped to chromosome 5 (115.3 cM) corresponding to the WAV6 locus and subsequent genetic analysis indicated that wav6-52 and Atpin2::En701 were allelic. The AtPITN2 gene consists of nine exons defining an open reading frame of 1944 bp which encodes a 69 kDa protein with 10 putative transmembrane domains interrupted by a central hydrophilic loop. The topology of AtPIN2p was found to be similar to members of the major facilitator superfamily of transport proteins. We have shown that the AtPIN2 gene was expressed in ...
Hormone Biology. Rahman, Abidur [1], Bannigan, Alex [3], Sulaman, Waheeda [3], Pechter, Priit [2], Blancaflor, Elison [2], Baskin, Tobias [3]. Auxin, actin, and growth of the Arabidopsis thaliana primary root.. To understand how auxin regulates root growth, we quantified cell division, elemental elongation, and examined actin in the primary root of Arabidopsis thaliana . In treatments for 48 hours that inhibit root elongation rate by 50%, we find that auxins and auxin-transport inhibitors can be put into two classes based on their effects on cell division, elongation, and actin. Indoleacetic acid (IAA), 1-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), and tri-iodobenzoic acid (TIBA) inhibit root growth primarily through reducing the length of the growth zone rather than the maximal rate of elemental elongation and they do not reduce cell production rate. These three compounds have little effect on the extent of filamentous actin, as imaged in living cells or with chemical fixation and immuno-cytochemistry, but ...
Auxin induces rapid gene expression changes throughout root development. How auxin-induced transcriptional responses relate to changes in protein abundance is not well characterized. This report identifies early auxin responsive proteins in roots at 30 min and 2 h after hormone treatment using a quantitative proteomics approach in which 3,514 proteins were reliably quantified. A comparison of the ,100 differentially expressed proteins at each the time point showed limited overlap, suggesting a dynamic and transient response to exogenous auxin. Several proteins with established roles in auxin-mediated root development exhibited altered abundance, providing support for this approach. While novel targeted proteomics assays demonstrate that all six auxin receptors remain stable in response to hormone. Additionally, 15 of the top responsive proteins display root and/or auxin response phenotypes, demonstrating the validity of these differentially expressed proteins. Auxin signaling in roots dictates ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Free and conjugated lndole-3-acetic acid in developing bean seeds. AU - Bialek, Krystyna. AU - Cohen, Jerry D.. PY - 1989. Y1 - 1989. N2 - The changes in conjugated indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) levels compared to the levels of free IAA have been analyzed during the development of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seed using quantitative mass spectrometry. Free and ester-linked IAA levels are both relatively high in the early stages of seed development but drop during seed maturation. Concomitantly, the amide-linked IAA becomes the major form of IAA present as the seed matures. In fully mature seed, amide IAA accounts for 80% of the total IAA. The total IAA pool in the seed is maintained at approximately the same level (150-170 nanograms/seed) once the level of free IAA has attained its maximum. Thus, the amount of amide IAA conjugates that accumulate in mature seed is closely related to the amounts of free and ester-linked IAA that disappeared from the rapidly growing seed. Analysis of ...
Bibliographic details on The discovery of novel auxin transport inhibitors by molecular modeling and three-dimensional pattern analysis.
The plant pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas savastanoi, the causal agent of olive and oleander knot disease, uses the so-called indole-3-acetamide pathway to convert tryptophan to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) via a two-step pathway catalyzed by enzymes encoded by the genes in the iaaM/iaaH operon. Moreover, pathovar nerii of P. savastanoi is able to conjugate IAA to lysine to generate the less biologically active compound IAA-Lys via the enzyme IAA-lysine synthase encoded by the iaaL gene. Interestingly, iaaL is now known to be widespread in many Pseudomonas syringae pathovars, even in the absence of the iaaM and iaaH genes for IAA biosynthesis. Here, two knockout mutants, ΔiaaL and ΔiaaM, of strain Psn23 of P. savastanoi pv. nerii were produced. Pathogenicity tests using the host plant Nerium oleander showed that ΔiaaL and ΔiaaM were hypervirulent and hypovirulent, respectively and these features appeared to be related to their differential production of free IAA. Using the Phenotype ...
Pollination in flowering plants requires that anthers release pollen when the gynoecium is competent to support fertilization. We show that in Arabidopsis thaliana, two paralogous auxin response transcription factors, ARF6 and ARF8, regulate both stamen and gynoecium maturation. arf6 arf8 double-null mutant flowers arrested as infertile closed buds with short petals, short stamen filaments, undehisced anthers that did not release pollen and immature gynoecia. Numerous developmentally regulated genes failed to be induced. ARF6 and ARF8 thus coordinate the transition from immature to mature fertile flowers. Jasmonic acid (JA) measurements and JA feeding experiments showed that decreased jasmonate production caused the block in pollen release, but not the gynoecium arrest. The double mutant had altered auxin responsive gene expression. However, whole flower auxin levels did not change during flower maturation, suggesting that auxin might regulate flower maturation only under specific envi
1OVM: Crystal structure of thiamindiphosphate-dependent indolepyruvate decarboxylase from Enterobacter cloacae, an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of the plant hormone indole-3-acetic acid
Changes in distribution of trans-zeatin (t-Z), gibberellin A7 and A4(GA7/4), ( + )abscisic acid [( + )ABA] and indoleacetic acid (IAA) in the egg cells of Nicotiana tabacum var. macrophylla before and after fertilization were studied with immunoelectron microscopy. The ovules just at pollination or 96 h after pollination were fixed with 2% EDC [ 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide] and then with the mixed paraformaldehyde and glutaraldehyde for acidic phytohormones (or only with the aldehydes for t-Z), then slightly posffixed in 0.5% OsO4 solution for 30 min. After etched in 1% H2O2 for 10 min, the ultrathin sections embedded in Epon 812 resin were immunostained with rabbit anti-t-Z (and t-ZR) polyclonal antibody (PAB), anti-lAA methyl ester PAb, mouse anti-GA7 and GA4 methyl esters monoclonal antibody(MAb), or anti-( + ) ABA methyl ester MAb, respectively. Protein A- or sheep anti-mouse IgG-colloidal gold (Φ 10 nm) were used to indicate rabbit PAbs or mouse MAbs respectively. In the ...
The other IBA-response mutants utilize stored fatty acids during germination normally (Figure 3, Table 2). Because these mutants are generally as resistant to IBA as the putative peroxisomal mutants (Figure 2), we do not believe that they are simply extremely leaky peroxisomal mutants. These nonperoxisomal mutants can be further subdivided into three classes. The class 2 mutants (ibr1-1, ibr1-2, ibr2, and ibr3) are resistant to the auxin effects of IBA on both root elongation and lateral root proliferation, but have wild-type responses to other auxins (IAA and 2,4-D) and auxin transport inhibitors (NPA, TIBA, and HFCA). The class 2 mutants could be defective in enzymes that convert IBA to IAA but are not necessary for the β-oxidation of seed storage lipids. Alternatively, these mutants may be defective in an IBA receptor, signaling pathway, or response factor. If these mutants have normal IBA to IAA conversion, it will suggest that IBA plays at least two roles in the promotion of lateral roots, ...
A plant growth enhancing composition comprising as an active ingredient a synergistic mixture of (a) gibberellins, (b) the heteroauxin indole-3-acetic acid and the cytokinin 6-(4-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-tr
Synchronized tissue polarization during regeneration or de novo vascular tissue formation is a plant-specific example of intercellular communication and coordinated development. According to the canalization hypothesis, the plant hormone auxin serves as polarizing signal that mediates directional channel formation underlying the spatio-temporal vasculature patterning. A necessary part of canalization is a positive feedback between auxin signaling and polarity of the intercellular auxin flow. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of this process are still poorly understood, not the least, because of a lack of a suitable model system. We show that the main genetic model plant, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) can be used to study the canalization during vascular cambium regeneration and new vasculature formation. We monitored localized auxin responses, directional auxin-transport channels formation, and establishment of new vascular cambium polarity during regenerative processes after stem ...
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Author SummaryLeaf venation patterns of most angiosperm plants are hierarchical structures that develop during leaf growth. A remarkable characteristic of these structures is the abundance of closed loops: the venation array divides the leaf surface into disconnected polygonal sectors. The initial vein generations are repetitive within the same species, while high-order vein generations are much more diverse but still show preserved statistical properties. The accepted view of vein formation is the auxin canalization hypothesis: a high flow of the hormone auxin triggers cell differentiation to form veins. Although the role of auxin in vein formation is well established, some issues are difficult to explain within this model, in particular, the abundance of loops of high-order veins. In this work, we explore the previously proposed idea that elastic stresses may play an important role in the development of venation patterns. This appealing hypothesis naturally explains the existence of hierarchical
1. Evidence has accumulated that the action of auxins in promoting growth is exerted not upon the cell wall but upon the cell contents; i.e ., the protoplasm. Following indications previously obtained, therefore, the effect of auxins on the rate of protoplasm streaming in the Avena coleoptile was studied. 2. Indole-3-acetic acid, the most active auxin available in pure form, was found to increase the rate of streaming in the epidermal cells of the Avena coleoptile at concentrations between 0.5 and 0.002 mg. per liter, the maximum increase being brought about at 0.01 mg. per liter. This concentration is approximately that which, applied in agar to one side of the decapitated coleoptile, would give a curvature of 1°; i.e ., it is well within the range of concentrations active in growth promotion. It is, however, much less than that which produces maximum elongation in immersed sections of Avena coleoptiles. 3. This accelerating effect is readily determined quantitatively by comparison with the ...
A new study conducted by scientists from Tel Aviv University (TAU) finds that a unique mechanism involving calcium, the plant hormone auxin, and a calcium-binding protein is responsible for regulating plant growth. The researchers involved in the study say that a protein that binds to calcium regulates both auxin responses and calcium levels, creating an interface that determines how plants grow.. For several decades, it was believed that calcium and auxin interfaced during plant development, but the mechanism behind such process were unclear. Now, the research group led by Prof. Shaul Yalovsky of TAUs George S. Wise Faculty of Life Sciences has discovered that auxin communicates with calcium through a binding protein called CMI1.. Auxin levels determine where leaves develop on a plant, how many branches a plant has, and how roots develop. Calcium levels change in plants in response to environmental signals like high or low temperatures, touch and soil salinity, as well as in response to auxin ...
AUX/LAX genes encode a family of auxin influx transporters that perform distinct functions during Arabidopsis development. Péret B, Swarup K, Ferguson A, Seth M, Yang Y, Dhondt S, James N, Casimiro I, Perry P, Syed A, Yang H, Reemmer J, Venison E, Howells C, Perez-Amador MA, Yun J, Alonso J, Beemster GT, Laplaze L, Murphy A, Bennett MJ, Nielsen E, Swarup R. Plant Cell. 2012 24:2874-85 (2012). -. The Arabidopsis YUCCA1 flavin monooxygenase functions in the indole-3-pyruvic acid branch of auxin biosynthesis. Stepanova AN, Yun J, Robles LM, Novak O, He W, Guo H, Ljung K, Alonso JM. Plant Cell. 23:3961-3973 (2011). -. A Small-Molecule Screen Identifies L-Kynurenine That Competitively Inhibits TAA1/TAR Activity in Ethylene-Directed Auxin Biosynthesis and Root Growth. He W, Brumos J, Li H, Ji Y, Ke M, Gong X, Zeng Q, Li W, Zhang X, An F, Wen X, Li P, Xie D, Stepanova A, Alonso J, and Guo H. Plant Cell. 23: 3944-3960 (2011). -. Bypassing transcription: a shortcut in cytokinin-auxin interactions. ...
The plant hormone auxin has long been known to play a significant role in plant growth, even featuring in Charles Darwins book The Power and Movement of Plants.. However until the mid-2000s the identity of any receptor for the hormone remained a mystery. Until that time, the site of auxin reception was somewhat of an enigma with the main candidate being a protein named Auxin Binding Protein (ABP) that, in many biochemical studies, was shown to bind auxin at physiological concentrations (for review of ABP1 work1). This protein is present in Arabidopsis but investigations into its in vivo function were somewhat stalled by a 2001 publication that demonstrated that an abp1 T-DNA insertion mutant was embryo lethal2. This did not overly surprise the research community given the fundamental and wide-ranging role of auxin in plant development.. Meanwhile researchers at York University in the UK and at Indiana University in the US were working on a novel hypothesis that proposed the auxin receptor ...
Swarup K, Benková E, Swarup R, Casimiro I, Péret B, Yang Y, Parry G, Nielsen E, De Smet I, Vanneste S, Levesque M, Carrier D, James N, Calvo V, Ljung K, Kramer E, Roberts R, Graham N, Marillonnet S, Patel K, Jones J, Taylor C, Schachtman D, May S, Sandberg G, Benfey P, Friml J, Kerr I, Beeckman T, Laplaze L, Bennett M. 2008. The auxin influx carrier LAX3 promotes lateral root emergence. Nature Cell Biology. 10(8), 946-954 ...
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In a second part of the course, the student will investigate the effects of the plant hormone auxin on root growth (few concentrations tested) and on reporter lines for the hormone signalling pathway. Activation or repression of the signalling pathways will be tested by colorimetric staining. Results will be collected and conclusion will be written and discussed. This part of the practical includes tissue culture as in the first part (including preparation of the growth medium), result analysis (root growth measurements), colorimetric staining and microscopy ...
cd - Nakasone et al.: A gene encoding SMALL ACIDIC PROTEIN 2 potentially mediates the response to synthetic auxin, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, in Arabidopsis thaliana. [6] kommt man leider noch nicht dran!----In diesem Zusammenhang aber auch vielleicht interessant: A small acidic protein 1 (SMAP1) mediates responses of the Arabidopsis root to the synthetic auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2006)[7] ...
When conditions get tough, animals typically fight or flee, but plants are rooted in their environment, and, as a result, have become remarkably adaptable. The Friml group investigates the mechanisms underlying plants adaptability during embryonic and postembryonic development.. Plants and animals have different life strategies. Plants are highly adaptive, and able to modify development and physiology to environmental changes; they can easily regulate growth, initiate new organs or regenerate tissues. Many of these developmental events are mediated by the plant hormone auxin. The Friml group investigates the unique properties of auxin signaling, which can integrate both environmental and endogenous signals. Employing methods spanning molecular physiology, developmental and cell biology, genetics, biochemistry, and mathematical modeling, the group focuses on auxin transport, cell polarity, endocytic recycling, as well as non-transcriptional mechanisms of signaling. In their work, the Friml group ...
Plant Growth Hormones. Castings conatin Auxins and Cytokinins, which are growth hormones for bigger and more fibrous plant roots. ROOTS CAN EASILY GROW FAST, FULL AND FIBROUS.. High Availability of Nutrients. The TRACE ELEMENTS combined with its structure and high MICROBIAL ACTIVITY allow it to out perform what is expected of a low analysis (NPK) fertilizer.. All of these elements working together allow our worm castings to DRAMATICALLY EXCEED EXPECTATIONS!. ...
to identify novel components of SCF complex regulation and/or auxin signaling we used the f-box protein and auxin receptor mutant tir1-1 for a second site forward genetic screen. in a previous screen in [http://www.cbs.umn.edu/plantbio/faculty/GrayWilliam bill grays lab] several enhancers of tir1-1-mediated auxin resistance had been identified (see zhang et al., [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18550827?dopt=AbstractPlus pnas 2008]; ito and gray, [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16877699?ordinalpos=1&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum plant physiology 2006]; quint et al., [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16045473?ordinalpos=2&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum plant journal 2005]; chuang et al., [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15208392?ordinalpos=3&itool=EntrezSystem2.PEntrez.Pubmed.Pubmed_ResultsPanel.Pubmed_RVDocSum plant cell 2004]; gray et al., ...