This thesis explores the relationship between health access risk factors and diabetes in an urban First Nations population living in Canada. The proportion of Aboriginal peoples in Canada living in urban areas is increasing. Despite this, health data on urban Aboriginal populations in Canada is sparse and often unreliable. The Our Health Counts (OHC) study collected data from a self-identified urban First Nations population living in Hamilton, ON through respondent driven sampling. As statistical techniques for this data are not yet fully developed, advanced logistic regression modeling strategies were used to assess the relationship between health access risk factors and diabetes. Feeling health services were not culturally appropriate was significantly associated with an increased odds for diabetes (12.07, 95% 2.52, 57.91). A strong potential effect between diabetes was also found for the following barriers: not being able to locate a doctor in the area; feeling health care services accessed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Body composition and overweight prevalence in 1704 schoolchildren from 7 American Indian communities. AU - Caballero, Benjamin. AU - Himes, John H.. AU - Lohman, Timothy. AU - Davis, Sally M.. AU - Stevens, June. AU - Evans, Marguerite. AU - Going, Scott. AU - Pablo, Juanita. PY - 2003/8. Y1 - 2003/8. N2 - Background: Nationwide data on obesity prevalence in American Indian communities are limited. Objective: We describe the body composition and anthropometric characteristics of schoolchildren from 7 American Indian communities enrolled in the Pathways study, a randomized field trial evaluating a program for the primary prevention of obesity. Design: A total of 1704 children in 41 schools were enrolled in the study. Basic anthropometric measurements included weight, height, and triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses. Percentage body fat was estimated from bioelectrical impedance and anthropometric variables with the use of an equation developed and validated for this ...
SOURCES: World Development Indicators database; United Nations Population Division. Source tables; United Nations Population Division. Source tables; United Nations Population Division. Source tables; United Nations Population Division. Source tables; United Nations Population Division. Source tables; United Nations Population Division. Source tables; United Nations Population Division. Source tables; United Nations Population Division. Source tables; United Nations Population Division. Source tables; United Nations Population Division. Source tables; United Nations Population Division. Source tables; United Nations Population Division. Source tables; United Nations Population Division. Source tables; United Nations Population Division. Source tables; United Nations Population Division. Source tables; United Nations Population Division. Source tables; United Nations Population Division. Source tables; United Nations Population Division. Source tables; United Nations Population Division. Source ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Association of cardiometabolic genes with arsenic metabolism biomarkers in American Indian communities. T2 - Environmental Health Perspectives. AU - Balakrishnan,Poojitha. AU - Vaidya,Dhananjay. AU - Franceschini,Nora. AU - Saroja Voruganti,V.. AU - Gribble,Matthew O.. AU - Haack,Karin. AU - Laston,Sandra. AU - Umans,Jason G.. AU - Francesconi,Kevin A.. AU - Goessler,Walter. AU - North,Kari E.. AU - Lee,Elisa. AU - Yracheta,Joseph. AU - Best,Lyle G.. AU - Maccluer,Jean W.. AU - Kent,Jack. AU - Cole,Shelley A.. AU - Navas-Acien,Ana. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - Background: Metabolism of inorganic arsenic (iAs) is subject to inter-individual variability, which is explained partly by genetic determinants. oBjectives: We investigated the association of genetic variants with arsenic species and principal components of arsenic species in the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS). Methods: We examined variants previously associated with cardiometabolic traits (~ 200,000 from Illumina ...
CMS released its first monthly update of data that provides a snapshot of the impact of COVID-19 on the Medicare population. This snapshot includes data for American Indian/Alaskan Native Medicare beneficiaries. The new data indicate that American Indian/Alaskan Native beneficiaries have the second highest rate of hospitalization for COVID-19 among racial/ethnic groups after Blacks. Previously, the number of hospitalizations of American Indian/Alaskan Native beneficiaries was too low to be reported. The updated data confirm that the COVID-19 public health emergency is disproportionately affecting vulnerable populations, particularly racial and ethnic minorities. Read more here ...
Not necessarily. According to the National Center for Health Statistics, 41 percent of U.S. women of childbearing age (or their partners) had been surgically sterilized as of 1995-a surprisingly high number, Im sure youll agree. Surgical sterilization has grown to be the most common method of contraception among women of reproductive age in the United States, the NCHS says. I mention these facts to put claims about Native American sterilization in perspective. They may be greatly exaggerated-come on, 40 percent sterilized against their will?-but theyre not completely insane. Allegations of forced sterilization of Native American women were controversial in the 70s and are only slightly less so today. Some activists at the time accused the U.S. government of genocide. Scholar Jane Lawrence rehashed the whole affair in The Indian Health Service and the Sterilization of Native American Women, American Indian Quarterly, summer 2000, writing, Various studies revealed that the Indian Health ...
Compared with the non-Hispanic white (NHW) population, the urban American Indian and Alaskan Native (AIAN) community was more likely to have lower survival rates following invasive prostate and breast cancer, according to a new study by Emerson et al in Cancer Research.. Its been reported that the AIAN community has a higher cancer burden than other racial/ethnic groups, said lead author Marc A. Emerson, MPH, PhD candidate, of the Department of Epidemiology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, who was an Intramural Research Training Award fellow in the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences at the National Cancer Institute while conducting this work. However, accurate, population-based information on the cancer experience for this population residing in an urban setting is severely lacking.. Previous AIAN data regarding cancer incidence and mortality are linked with the Indian Health Service (IHS); however, access to IHS facilities for the majority of AIANs is ...
Arsenic exposure through drinking water is an established lung carcinogen. Evidence on non-malignant lung outcomes is less conclusive and suggests arsenic is associated with lower lung function. Studies examining low-moderate arsenic (| 50 μg/L), the level relevant for most populations, are limited. We evaluated the association of arsenic exposure with respiratory health in American Indians from the Northern Plains, the Southern Plains and the Southwest United States, communities with environmental exposure to inorganic arsenic through drinking water. The Strong Heart Study is a prospective study of American Indian adults. This analysis used urinary arsenic measurements at baseline (1989-1991) and spirometry at Visit 2 (1993-1995) from 2132 participants to evaluate associations of arsenic exposure with airflow obstruction, restrictive pattern, self-reported respiratory disease, and symptoms. Airflow obstruction was present in 21.5% and restrictive pattern was present in 14.4%. The odds ratio (95%
This fact-filled book on long-ago games played by Native Americans describes ball games that stretched over several miles. With many sidebars on Native American
An independent study by Dr. Connie Pinkerton-Uri, Choctaw/Cherokee, finds that one in four American Indian women had been sterilized without her consent. Pinkerton-Uris research also asserts that the Indian Health Service had singled out full-blooded Indian women for sterilization procedures.. ...
Founded on July 28, 1968 in an upstairs office on Plymouth Ave. in North Minneapolis, the American Indian Movement (AIM) became an activist organization to advocate for American Indians in the United States. On July 28, 1968, 200 American Indian men, women and children met to form the organization, and Clyde Bellecourt was elected chair of the new organization. AIM hoped to address the injustices occurring against American Indians, including mistreatment by authorities, treaty violations and issues of poverty, education, unemployment, racism and more. Soon chapters of AIM were opening all over the United States. In 1968, in order to keep streets safe after Indian people were being attacked, AIM formed the Minneapolis AIM Patrol. AIM also opened the Heart of the Earth Survival School in 1971, a K-12 school for American Indian students, and helped establish the Legal Rights Center and American Indian Opportunities Industrialization Center in Minnesota. AIM also famously occupied the Bureau of ...
RATIONALE: Studying samples of tumor tissue in the laboratory from Native American women with breast cancer may help doctors identify and learn more about biomarkers related to breast cancer in these patients. It may also help doctors learn more about the prognosis of these patients.. PURPOSE: This laboratory study is looking at biomarkers in Native American women with breast cancer. ...
National Jewish Health has launched a new quitline program aimed at reducing commercial tobacco use among American Indians. The American Indian commercial tobacco program launched on August 1, 2015, and is serving American Indians in Alabama, Arkansas, Colorado, Michigan, Montana, Nevada, Pennsylvania and Wyoming.. Nationally, American Indians are more likely to use commercial tobacco and have more difficulty quitting than those in other racial and ethnic groups. Culturally specific cessation resources are vital for tribal communities, which respect cultural traditions around tobacco, ways of communicating, and barriers to smoking cessation. Despite being relatively easy-to-access cessation resources, quitlines have been known for having low rates of use by American Indians and Alaska Natives. With strong oral traditions, tribal communities often value face-to-face communication over telephone communication. Add to that long histories of mis-treatment by and mis-trust of governmental agencies - ...
Diabetes-related kidney failure among Native American adults (American Indians/Alaskan Natives) decreased 54% between 1996 and 2013, following the implementation of population-based approaches to diabetes management and improvements in clinical care begun by the Indian Health Service (IHS) in the mid-1980s, according to a report in the CDCs Vital Signs.. Native Americans have a greater chance of developing diabetes than any other US racial/ethnic group. About 2 of 3 Native Americans with kidney failure have diabetes, according to the report. The rate of diabetes-related kidney failure in Native Americans has declined faster than any racial/ethnic group in the United States.. The 54% decline in kidney failure from diabetes followed implementation of public health and population approaches to diabetes as well as improvements in clinical care by the IHS, Mary L. Smith, Indian Health Service principal deputy director said during a press conference hosted by the CDC. We believe these strategies ...
Purpose: The AI/AN population has a proportionally high rate of binge drinking that accounts for significant morbidity and mortality. 1 This maladaptive behavior is the result of generations of psychosocial trauma and the subsequent loss of languages, traditions, family and hope, isolation, limited positive role models, and racism. The principle aim of this project was to review how tribal beliefs and practices are integrated into current treatment strategies and propose specific methodologies to measure outcomes demonstrating a reduction in binge drinking among the AI/AN population ...
Native American reservation inequality underlies a range of societal issues that affect the lives of Native American populations residing on reservations in the United States. About one third of the Native American population, about 700,000 persons, lives on an Indian Reservation in the United States. Reservation poverty and other discriminatory factors have led to persisting social inequality on Native American reservations. Disparities between many aspects of life at the national level and at the reservation level, such as quality of education, quality of healthcare, substance abuse, teenage pregnancy, violence, and suicide rates are significant in demonstrating the inequality of opportunities and situations between reservations and the rest of the country. Many contemporary disparities are rooted in the history of Indian reservations. The reservation system was created following the expansion of the United States into tribal lands throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, during United States ...
American Indians (AI) and Alaska Natives (AN) of the United States (US), and First Nations (FN) peoples of Canada, experience higher rates of many chronic diseases. While the burden of specific health issues differs by group, an increasing prevalence of cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes exists. For Northern Plains AI tribes of the US, rates of type-2 diabetes have reached epidemic levels. Research is needed to understand and address complex chronic health concerns for these groups, including efforts to resolve the disparity between need for kidney donation and donation consent rates. This presentation will describe an essential approach to intervention studies that incorporates participatory research principles and builds trusted partnerships with AI/AN and FN communities. The presentation will focus on the process and the outcomes of behavioral intervention research designed to increase intent to serve as an organ or tissue donor for Northern Plains AI tribes. Related future research ...
American Indians (AI) and Alaska Natives (AN) of the United States (US), and First Nations (FN) peoples of Canada, experience higher rates of many chronic diseases. While the burden of specific health issues differs by group, an increasing prevalence of cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes exists. For Northern Plains AI tribes of the US, rates of type-2 diabetes have reached epidemic levels. Research is needed to understand and address complex chronic health concerns for these groups, including efforts to resolve the disparity between need for kidney donation and donation consent rates. This presentation will describe an essential approach to intervention studies that incorporates participatory research principles and builds trusted partnerships with AI/AN and FN communities. The presentation will focus on the process and the outcomes of behavioral intervention research designed to increase intent to serve as an organ or tissue donor for Northern Plains AI tribes. Related future research ...
COVID-19 is the most recent example of the vulnerability of American Indian reservations to pandemic disease. The Navajo Nations COVID-19 infection rate is higher than that of any US state-even New York. This is especially puzzling when considering population density. The Navajo Nation encompasses over 27,000 square miles and has a population of about 150,000 people.
As deplorable health outcomes within Native American populations became too hard to ignore, the feds created Indian Health Services (IHS) within the Department of Health and Human Services in 1955. This agency ultimately helped facilitate the forced sterilization of Native American women.
Aboriginal people living in industrialized countries experience disproportionately high rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (diabetes), diabetes complications, and associated risk factors when compared to their non-Aboriginal counterparts [1-4]. In Canada, Aboriginal peoples are comprised of three distinct Indigenous groups, namely First Nations, Inuit and Métis. Rates of diabetes are 2.5 to 4 times higher among First Nations people than the general population, with higher rates among women than men and a younger age at diagnosis [5]. In addition, some First Nations people have higher rates of documented smoking, obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia and have increasing rates of serious diabetes-related complications [6-8]. This epidemiological trend requires urgent clinical action: primary prevention of diabetes is necessary to protect future generations, but initiatives to improve the quality of care provided to First Nations people already living with diabetes are urgently needed to reduce ...
According to national data, meth use rates for American Indian/Alaska Native populations remain among the highest of any ethnicity - almost two times higher than other groups, according to the 2008 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Specifically, American Indians or Alaska Natives almost are twice as likely to have used meth in the past year than whites (1.1% vs. 0.6%) or Hispanics (1.1% vs. 0.6%), and approximately five times more likely to have used meth than African Americans (1.1% vs. 0.2%).. The data about methamphetamine abuse in the Native American community are troubling, Kerlikowske said. This ad campaign will supplement the important work for prevention and treatment already being done by the Native American community, local prevention groups, law enforcement, and treatment providers.. The Native American Anti-Meth Campaign, in its third year coordinated by ONDCPs National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign, is the only national anti-meth advertising campaign tailored to reach ...
The ties between people and their natural environment is the subject for several artists in the second, relationship, portion of the show. Among the most striking items is a circular heap of broken bone china that is illuminated by a spotlight. On the wall beside it plays black-and-white footage of a hunt for buffaloes, a species that was driven to the verge of extinction. The buffalo were hunted in part for sport, in part for commercial ends-their bones used to make the china-and in part to destroy the livelihoods of Native Americans who could then more easily be forced to move by European settlers.. Power is the theme of the final portion of the show. This includes references to old and recent protests by Native Americans, such as against a proposed pipeline in South Dakota, and to the fact that Native American women helped to inspire the wider womens suffrage movement in America. The highlight of this section is a modern take on a wedding coat used by the Osage people. Such coats are ...
Earl Townsend Jr., who died in 2007, was a passionate collector and historian of Native American artifacts. His impressive collection of prehistoric stone artifacts remains one of the largest and best in existence. As an historian, he was widely recognized as the greatest authority of Native American birdstones. His landmark book, Birdstones of the North American Indian, originally published in 1959, is considered the premier reference book for birdstone study among collectors.. An enthusiastic and determined group of bidders helped make the Dec. 3 auction of Native American artifacts the most successful auction in Antique Helper history. It was a record-breaking sale for Antique Helper and the artifact collecting community. Bringing an unprecedented hammer total of $1.2 million, this was reportedly the most successful auction of Native American artifacts to date. Ninety-eight percent of the lots sold on auction day. The majority sold at, double, triple or even quadruple high estimate.. [This ...
In an FTC action challenging allegedly illegal business practices by a payday loan operation affiliated with American Indian Tribes, a United States Magistrate Judge just issued a report and recommendation on the scope of the FTC Act.
TITLE: Gerontology and Geriatric Research to Benefit American Indian/Alaskan Native (AI/AN) Elders & Tribes. WHEREAS, we, the members of the National Congress of American Indians of the United States, invoking the divine blessing of the Creator upon our efforts and purposes, in order to preserve for ourselves and our descendants the inherent sovereign rights of our Indian nations, rights secured under Indian treaties and agreements with the United States, and all other rights and benefits to which we are entitled under the laws and Constitution of the United States, to enlighten the public toward a better understanding of the Indian people, to preserve Indian cultural values, and otherwise promote the health, safety and welfare of the Indian people, do hereby establish and submit the following resolution; and. WHEREAS, the National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) was established in 1944 and is the oldest and largest national organization of American Indian and Alaska Native tribal ...
Write a 2-3 page paper analyzing the lives of Native American women in the second half of the nineteenth century. Answer the following questions within the text of your essay: How did the cultural experiences of Native American.
Poor glucose control during pregnancy is a significant concern for Canadian women with diabetes. This problem is magnified in First Nations women, who have among the highest rates of gestational diabetes (GDM) in the world (up to 18% of First Nations women will develop GDM during pregnancy and 70% of these will go on to develop type 2 diabetes later). Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) technology has the potential to help women maintain tighter control during pregnancy, however, in the First Nations population, there are many unique barriers that may affect use of this technology. Such barriers include remoteness of the community, cultural apprehension, lack or difficulty of access to care, and language differences.. A total of 60 participants from three participating First Nations communities in Southern Ontario will participate in the study. Participants will self-select to either the CGM group (n=30) or the control group (n=30) after consenting to participate in the study. Participants in ...
Massachuset, North American Indian tribe that in the 17th century may have numbered 3,000 individuals living in more than 20 villages distributed along what is now the Massachusetts coast. Members of the Algonquian language family, the Massachuset cultivated corn (maize) and other vegetables,
Despite this setback, the Executive Order raised awareness about the need to protect the public and workers from secondhand smoke and it laid the groundwork for a fourth campaign. With President Shellys support, Team Navajo introduced the Navajo Nation Commercial Tobacco-Free and Smoke-free Act of 2011 (legislation number 0261). In response, the NNGE introduced a counter proposal, Navajo Nation Smoking Regulation Act of 2011 (legislation number 0241). NNGEs bill proposed prohibiting the use of cigarettes and secondhand smoke in all public spaces and workplaces, except for casino gaming floors, and would have exempted casinos from secondhand smoke regulation until all their construction debts were paid.34 NNGE conducted a campaign alleging the loss of tribal revenues if smoking were prohibited in casinos. Team Navajos comprehensive secondhand smoke protection bill (legislation number 0261), with its inclusion of casinos, was not able to overcome these allegations, despite Team Navajos ...
Conversion of g, gram amounts of CATTAIL,NARROW LEAF SHOOTS (NORTHERN PLAINS INDIANS) into portion 100 g, grams measuring units. Exchange amounts between 1 g, gram and 1 or multiples of portion 100 g, grams measure of CATTAIL,NARROW LEAF SHOOTS (NORTHERN PLAINS INDIANS) product.
Total fertility rate: United Nations Population Division. Regional aggregates calculated by UNFPA based on data from United Nations Population Division.. The designations employed and the presentation of material on the map do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNFPA concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. The dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. The final status of Jammu and Kashmir has not yet been agreed upon by the parties.. ...
Laws and regulations that guarantee access to sexual and reproductive health care, information and education: The extent to which countries have national laws and regulations that guarantee full and equal access to women and men aged 15 years and older to sexual and reproductive health care, information and education. (SDG indicator 5.6.2 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Linkage analysis of glomerular filtration rate in American Indians. AU - Mottl, Amy K.. AU - Vupputuri, Suma. AU - Cole, Shelley A.. AU - Almasy, Laura. AU - Göring, Harald H.H.. AU - Diego, Vincent P.. AU - Laston, Sandra. AU - Franceschini, Nora. AU - Shara, Nawar M.. AU - Lee, Elisa T.. AU - Best, Lyle G.. AU - Fabsitz, Richard R.. AU - MacCluer, Jean W.. AU - Umans, Jason G.. AU - North, Kari E.. N1 - Funding Information: We thank the Strong Heart Family Study participants. Without their participation, this project would not have been possible. In addition, the cooperation of the Indian Health Service hospitals and clinics, and the directors of the SHS clinics, and the many collaborators and staff of the Strong Heart Study have made this project possible. This research was funded by a cooperative agreement that includes grants U01 HL65520, U01 HL41642, U01 HL41652, U01 HL41654, and U01 HL65521 from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. Development of SOLAR and the ...
Aboriginal: Aboriginal includes persons who reported being an Aboriginal person - that is, First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit), and/or those who reported Registered or Treaty Indian status registered under the Indian Act of Canada, and/or those who reported membership in a First Nation or Indian band. Age-standardization: Age-standardized rate is a rate that would have existed if the population had the same age distribution as the selected reference population. The BC Community Health Profiles use estimates for a given year (1991 or 2011) as the reference population, and chronic disease incidence and prevalence rates have been age-standardized using the direct standardization method with five-year age groups. Alcohol-related deaths: Alcohol-related deaths include deaths where alcohol was a contributing factor (indirectly related) as well as those due to alcohol (directly related). Chronic disease: Chronic diseases, also known as non-communicable diseases, are diseases ...
Aboriginal: Aboriginal includes persons who reported being an Aboriginal person - that is, First Nations (North American Indian), Métis or Inuk (Inuit), and/or those who reported Registered or Treaty Indian status registered under the Indian Act of Canada, and/or those who reported membership in a First Nation or Indian band. Age-standardization: Age-standardized rate is a rate that would have existed if the population had the same age distribution as the selected reference population. The BC Community Health Profiles use estimates for a given year (1991 or 2011) as the reference population, and chronic disease incidence and prevalence rates have been age-standardized using the direct standardization method with five-year age groups. Alcohol-related deaths: Alcohol-related deaths include deaths where alcohol was a contributing factor (indirectly related) as well as those due to alcohol (directly related). Chronic disease: Chronic diseases, also known as non-communicable diseases, are diseases ...
Fatty liver disease (FLD), hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, often leads to cirrhosis and cancer. Among American Indians (AI), chronic liver disease is the fifth...
Lack of dental care affects peoples ability to eat, work and go to school. When untreated, dental problems can lead to serious medical conditions like heart disease, diabetes, stroke and even death. A mothers poor oral health during pregnancy, for instance, increases her babys likelihood of being low-birthweight, which can be a predictor of lifelong health issues.. For American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children, lack of access to routine and preventive dental care is having disastrous consequences. American Indian children ages 2-5 have the highest rates of tooth decay, nearly three times the U.S. average. More than two-thirds of American Indian children ages 2-5 have untreated cavities. And here in Washington state, AI/AN children get dental sealants at much lower rates than AI/AN kids in Alaska, where dental therapists practice. Dental therapists are a successful, tribal-born solution that is based on a 90-year history of success around the world. Dental therapists are highly ...
George Catlin (1796-1872) Scalp Dance From The North American Indian Portfolio London, 1844 Lithographs with original hand-coloring Sheet size: approx. 16 1/2 x 23 George Catlin was the earliest great artist to travel extensively among the Plains Indians of North America and visually record their customs and artifacts
Lets start with the window dressing or as they say in politics, the talking points. Patients First has very little to do with patients. It is a document about the structure of health care and how it is delivered. It is about how the health care bureaucracy or system is to be organized. It claims it is about equity, helping individuals and groups that have barriers to accessing health care services but the model it is proposing has nothing to do with equity. Rather, the model being proposed is about providing a model of health care that provides equal access to all. That is not equity, that is equality. That is not dissimilar from our current model which has left many individuals and groups on the outside of the system looking in.. There is a specific reference to our First Nations population suggesting that Patients First will somehow improve their access to health care. I think we would all agree that the health status of our First Nations people is a national disgrace. While it is ...
Results: While the number of healthy weight, at-risk for overweight and overweight patients decreased between exit and post-intervention follow-up, the number of obese children doubled between these two time periods. The qualitative results revealed 1) barriers faced by the participating patients and their families; 2) the benefits and values of the FVRx program delivered to the participating families and community members; and 3) the meaningful and desirable changes the participating families made throughout and after FVRx. Both the quantitative and qualitative findings suggest that some of the pediatric patients might experience weight gain or rebound after weight loss once FVRx terminated after six months due to the families financial challenges in purchasing the same amount of fresh produce without the FVRx vouchers. ...
Adventures of the Ojibbeway and Ioway Indians in England, France, and Belgium: Being Notes of Eight Years Travels and Residence in Europe With His North American Indian ...
Ideas of cultural and physical difference frequently intertwined with ideas of descent and heredity in the 17th and 18th centuries. Nowhere, perhaps, is this clearer than in the puzzle of Indian origins, a pressing issue once it became clear that the Americas represented a new world. Geography, customs, beliefs, bodies, and languages were all pressed into service to answer a question of ancestry and migration. Theories were innumerable: the Indians were the inhabitants of Atlantis, or Phoenicians, or Welsh. Perhaps the most prominent view-first published in 1594, but probably discussed long before, and reaching its fullest articulation in the southeastern trader James Adairs History of the North American Indians (1775)-was that the Indians descended from the ten Lost Tribes, Jews who continued to keep the covenant even after being deported to Assyria after the conquest of Israel centuries before Christ. Another theory, first introduced by José de Acosta and increasingly accepted in the 18th ...
Mission Indians, North American Indians of what is now the southern and central California coast, among whom Spanish Franciscans and soldiers established 21 missions between 1769 and 1823. The major groups were, from south to north, the Diegueño, Luiseño and Juaneño, Gabrielino, Chumash, and
Seminole definition, a member of any of several groupings of North American Indians comprising emigrants from the Creek Confederacy territories to Florida or their descendants in Florida and Oklahoma, especially the culturally conservative present-day Florida Indians. See more.
Native American Indian Dog vs Siberian Husky. Comparison between Native American Indian Dog Dog and Siberian Husky Dog. compare height, weight, life span, lit..
PERHAPS the most familiar application of the principle that like produces like is the attempt which has been made by many peoples in many ages to injure or destroy an enemy by injuring or destroying an image of him, in the belief that, just as the image suffers, so does the man, and that when it perishes he must die. A few instances out of many may be given to prove at once the wide diffusion of the practice over the world and its remarkable persistence through the ages. For thousands of years ago it was known to the sorcerers of ancient India, Babylon, and Egypt, as well as of Greece and Rome, and at this day it is still resorted to by cunning and malignant savages in Australia, Africa, and Scotland. Thus the North American Indians, we are told, believe that by drawing the figure of a person in sand, ashes, or clay, or by considering any object as his body, and then pricking it with a sharp stick or doing it any other injury, they inflict a corresponding injury on the person represented. For ...
SOURCES: World Development Indicators database; United Nations Population Division. Source tables; United Nations Population Division. Source tables; United Nations Population Division. Source tables; United Nations Population Division. Source tables; United Nations Population Division. Source tables; United Nations Population Division. Source tables; United Nations Population Division. Source tables; United Nations Population Division. Source tables; United Nations Population Division. Source tables; United Nations Population Division. Source tables; United Nations Population Division. Source tables; United Nations Population Division. Source tables; United Nations Population Division. Source tables; United Nations Population Division. Source tables; United Nations Population Division. Source tables; United Nations Population Division. Source tables; United Nations Population Division. Source tables; United Nations Population Division. Source tables; United Nations Population Division. Source ...
Background Representing 2?% of the general human population, American Indians/Alaska Natives (AIs/ANs) had been connected with 0. specific complement of accidental injuries. Some seven logistic regression versions BEZ235 had been used to forecast DRF between racial organizations. Outcomes Among the 29,443 individuals inside our cohort, 52.4?% had been discharged to treatment services. AIs/ANs comprised 1.1?% of the populace, with 63.8?% dismissed to treatment. AIs/ANs were younger significantly, had an increased probability of loss of life, had longer medical center amount of stay (HLOS), and were much more likely to become discharged to treatment in comparison to non-AIs proportionately. Regression models proven increased probability of DRF for AIs/ANs in comparison to Hispanic and Asian racial/cultural organizations. Conclusions American Indians/Alaska Natives who maintain SCI gain access to rehabilitative care for a price equitable to or higher than additional races when multiple elements are ...
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Census 2000 Tribal Entity Counts for American Indian Reservations and Off-Reservation Trust Lands. U.S. Census Bureau, Geography Division. Available online. {Note: This census figure only accounts for tribal members living on the reservation or trust lands. Other enrolled tribal members may live off-reservation.) ...
American Indians and Alaska Natives are at greater risk for kidney disease and kidney failure than White Americans. In fact, American Indians and Alaska Natives are 50% more likely to have kidney failure compared to White Americans.
Objectives. We evaluated trends and disparities in stroke death rates for American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) and White people by Indian Health Service region.Methods. We identified stroke deaths among AI/AN persons and Whites (adults aged 35 years or older) using National Vital Statistics System data for 1990 to 2009. We used linkages with Indian Health Service patient registration data to adjust for misclassification of race for AI/AN persons. Analyses excluded Hispanics and focused on Contract Health Service Delivery Area (CHSDA) counties.Results. Stroke death rates among AI/AN individuals were higher than among Whites for both men and women in CHSDA counties and were highest in the youngest age groups. Rates and AI/AN:White rate ratios varied by region, with the highest in Alaska and the lowest in the Southwest. Stroke death rates among AI/AN persons decreased in all regions beginning in 2001.Conclusions. Although stroke death rates among AI/AN populations have decreased over time, ...
Objectives. We evaluated trends and disparities in stroke death rates for American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) and White people by Indian Health Service region.Methods. We identified stroke deaths among AI/AN persons and Whites (adults aged 35 years or older) using National Vital Statistics System data for 1990 to 2009. We used linkages with Indian Health Service patient registration data to adjust for misclassification of race for AI/AN persons. Analyses excluded Hispanics and focused on Contract Health Service Delivery Area (CHSDA) counties.Results. Stroke death rates among AI/AN individuals were higher than among Whites for both men and women in CHSDA counties and were highest in the youngest age groups. Rates and AI/AN:White rate ratios varied by region, with the highest in Alaska and the lowest in the Southwest. Stroke death rates among AI/AN persons decreased in all regions beginning in 2001.Conclusions. Although stroke death rates among AI/AN populations have decreased over time, ...
Public health services are delivered by a diverse and varied set of stakeholders and partners in tribal communities. Traditionally, healthcare has been delivered to American Indians and Alaska Natives through the Indian Health Service, an agency within the Department of Health and Human Services. The Indian Health Service (IHS) was established in 1955 as a comprehensive, primary care health system of hospitals and clinics located on or near Indian reservations. The Indian Health Service provides direct patient care, limited referral services and some public health services.. Since the 1970s, tribes have increasingly opted to enter into contracts or compacts with the federal government to administer the health programs in their community that were previously managed by the Indian Health Service. Public Law 93-638, the Indian Self-Determination and Educational Assistance Act of 1975, provided the authority for this transition to tribal management of federal health programs. Each tribe decides ...
How is Wisconsin American Indian Infant Mortality Review Project abbreviated? WAIIMR stands for Wisconsin American Indian Infant Mortality Review Project. WAIIMR is defined as Wisconsin American Indian Infant Mortality Review Project very rarely.
Data & statistics on Mortality Rates for Major Racial Groups in Alaska: All-Cause Age Adjusted Mortality Rates for Major Racial Groups in Alaska, 1990-1999, Mortality rates* for all types of cancer combined by region for American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) and members of other racial/ethnic groups (non-AI/ANs) living in counties served by the Indian Health Service, by region† - United States, 1994-1998, Among major racial/ethnic groups, Blacks have the highest rate of new cancers. Rates are relatively low among American Indians/Alaska Natives with regionally higher rates of some cancers. These disparities are not likely due to genetic differences. Rather, they are more likely due to social, cultural, behavioral, and environmental factors....
This pilot study was designed to assess the short-term effectiveness and side effects of methylphenidate in treating symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Native American children (5 to 12 years old) with documented fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) or partial fetal alcohol syndr …
2019 Jeep Grand Cherokee. After the best-selling Jeep models were the Cherokee and the Grand Cherokee, the designers finally accepted to turn precarious into a different exterior that jumps to pay. We keep our fingers crossed, well see what time will bring. Meanwhile, lets see exactly the changes they chose to suffer from this slowly revising 2019 Jeep Grand Cherokee. The next generation Jeep Grand Cherokee will see the light of the day soon. Since the model was completely refurbished two years ago, we believe that these changes will be somewhat limited. The current generation of Jeep Grand Cherokee has passed the market in 2010 and has received a major upgrade in 2015. The Grand Cherokee is now rising for the next round, with its new model - the 2019 Jeep Grand Cherokee. The car is finally being tested and from what weve seen, weve concluded that it will bring some new features. Expect to see a revised flat front with a newly grille, bumpers, lights, a new look of the cabin, and a modern ...
Sioux Lookout Water Aerodrome, (TC LID: CKA6), is located adjacent to Sioux Lookout, Ontario, Canada. The seaplane base serves multiple flights daily to northern communities and fly-in outpost customers. The aerodrome lies within the Sioux Lookout Airport mandatory frequency area served by the Sioux Lookout Flight Services Station on 122.0 mHz. ...
This Land Was Theirs: A Study of Native North Americans, Ninth Edition, examines the traditional and contemporary lifeways of twelve North American Indian tribes. Ranging from the Netsilik hunters who straddle the Arctic Circle to the Natchez farmers of the lower Mississippi River area, the tribes represent each culture area and various levels of socioeconomic complexity among Native Americans.
The 2-day commemoration included remarks from Navajo Nation President Jonathan Nez and Dr. Biden. Dr. Bidens advocacy for patients with cancer included support for this effort during the Obama administration and as part of the Biden Cancer Initiative. President Nez and Dr. Biden joined Lynette Bonar, Chief Executive Officer of Tuba City, and Kim Thiboldeaux, Chief Executive Officer of CSC, and other leaders, for a tour of the new treatment center, where they met with the oncologists providing care and heard from patients and caregivers. Additionally, they visited the House of Hope, a location near Tuba City where patients and caregivers can access support and navigation services (see photo).. Filling a Gap in Cancer Treatment. The new center will fill a gap in cancer treatment that affects many American Indians. The presence of a full-time cancer center serving the Navajo Nation will permit better access to cancer screening, treatment, navigation, counseling, and other patient-focused ...
Earliest discovery of reflexology was found in Egypt based on the observation of daily life activities including the medical practices.1 Other studies have reported that reflexology emerges from China for the last 5000 years ago but there is no documentation found, so with the finding of hieroglyphic mural in the pyramid located in Saggara, reflexology is considered as a part of Egyptian culture from 2330 BC.3 At the late of 14th century, reflexology was already applied throughout the Europe with another name; zone therapy.9 Father of modern reflexology, Dr. William Fitzgerald (1872-1942) has discovered that zone therapy has been used by Aboriginal American.9 Jenny Wallace from North American Indians tribes used pressure at the feet as one of the sources of healing process.9 Fitzgerald study has brought reflexology practice to be widely used in the United States.3 The discovery of zone therapy was developed from the finding of pressure applied on many parts of body such as hands, nose, ears, and ...
Earliest discovery of reflexology was found in Egypt based on the observation of daily life activities including the medical practices.1 Other studies have reported that reflexology emerges from China for the last 5000 years ago but there is no documentation found, so with the finding of hieroglyphic mural in the pyramid located in Saggara, reflexology is considered as a part of Egyptian culture from 2330 BC.3 At the late of 14th century, reflexology was already applied throughout the Europe with another name; zone therapy.9 Father of modern reflexology, Dr. William Fitzgerald (1872-1942) has discovered that zone therapy has been used by Aboriginal American.9 Jenny Wallace from North American Indians tribes used pressure at the feet as one of the sources of healing process.9 Fitzgerald study has brought reflexology practice to be widely used in the United States.3 The discovery of zone therapy was developed from the finding of pressure applied on many parts of body such as hands, nose, ears, and ...
Anodyne; Antiinflammatory; Antiscorbutic; Antiseptic; Cathartic; Diuretic; Expectorant; Febrifuge; Stimulant; Tonic.. Balsam poplar has a long history of medicinal use. It was valued by several native North American Indian tribes who used it to treat a variety of complaints, but especially to treat skin problems and lung ailments. In modern herbalism it is valued as an expectorant and antiseptic tonic. The buds are used as a stimulating expectorant for all conditions affecting the respiratory functions when congested. In tincture they have been beneficially employed in affections of the stomach and kidneys and in scurvy and rheumatism, also for chest complaints.. The leaf buds are covered with a resinous sap that has a strong turpentine odor and a bitter taste. They are boiled in order to separate the resin and the resin is then dissolved in alcohol. The resin is a folk remedy, used as a salve and wash for sores, rheumatism, wounds etc. It is made into a tea and used as a wash for sprains, ...
Abstract. Encephalitis produces considerable morbidity in the United States, but morbidity rates among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) people have not been described. Hospitalization records listing an encephalitis diagnosis were analyzed by using Indian Health Service direct/contract inpatient data. For 1998-2010, there were 436 encephalitis-associated hospitalizations among AI/AN people, an average annual age-adjusted hospitalization rate of 3.1/100,000 population. The rate for infants (11.9) was more than double that for any other age group. Death occurred for 4.1% of hospitalizations. Consistent with reports for the general U.S. population, the rate was high among infants and most (53.9%) hospitalizations were of unexplained etiology. The average annual rate during the study period appeared lower than for the general U.S. population, due particularly to lower rates in the elderly. Future community-based surveillance and mortality studies are needed to confirm these findings and examine reasons
Situated in Canada, Manitoba is a western province with 1.2 million residents, of whom approximately 70,000 self-identify as Métisa. The purpose of this study was to determine, using a population-based study, the comparative health status of the Métis people, as well as the risk and protective factors associated with diabetes and for related lower limb amputations.. The Métis are descendants of the early (17th century) economic, social, and political strategic relationships between North American Indians and Europeans [1]. Métis view themselves as distinct from either of their historical ancestors. This is evident in Section 35 of the Canadian Constitution Act of 1982 [2] that states (1) The existing aboriginal and treaty rights of the aboriginal people of Canada are hereby recognized and affirmed; and (2) In this Act, aboriginal peoples of Canada includes the Indian, Inuit and Métis peoples of Canada. Manitoba is considered the homeland of the Métis where they coalesced into a ...
The American Civil Liberties Union and the ACLU of South Dakota filed a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) lawsuit today against Indian Health Services (IHS) seeking information about reports that pregnant women on the Cheyenne River Sioux Reservation are being pressured into taking medication to induce labor against their wishes. The FOIA lawsuit also seeks information on plans to build a birthing unit on the reservation, funded in large part with federal stimulus dollars.
Objective: This study examined racial/ethnic differences in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in a nationally representative sample of adults with and without common psychiatric disorders. Method: Data were drawn from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (N= 34,653). Logistic regression models adjusting for sociodemographic variables and diabetes risk factors were used to examine racial/ethnic differences in 12-month prevalence rates of diabetes by psychiatric status. Results: Among people without psychiatric disorders, African Americans, Hispanics, and American Indians/Alaska Natives, but not Asians/Pacific Islanders, had significantly higher rates of diabetes than non-Hispanic whites even after adjusting for socio-demographic variables and diabetes risk factors. In the presence of psychiatric disorders, these health disparities persisted for African Americans and Hispanics, but not for American Indians/Alaska Natives. No significant interactions between race
LOS ANGELES - The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency last week ordered D&D Mobile Home Park to address violations of the Safe Drinking Water Act. D&D, located on the Torres Martinez Desert Cahuilla Indian Reservation in Riverside County, was found to have high levels of arsenic in its public system that provides drinking water to its 300 mobile park residents. The order requires D&D to come into compliance with the arsenic drinking water standard as well as conduct more consistent arsenic monitoring. Sampling data showed arsenic at concentrations as high as 0.059 milligrams per liter-almost six times the EPAs maximum contamination levels for arsenic. Sampling data also showed the presence of coliform bacteria. D&D is a privately owned and operated system on the Indian Reservation. The order requires D&D to submit, within 90 days, a written plan for EPA review that will demonstrate the mobile parks strategy to bring the water system into compliance with the federal arsenic standard by ...
Find 1549 listings related to Indian Health Services in San Antonio on YP.com. See reviews, photos, directions, phone numbers and more for Indian Health Services locations in San Antonio, TX.
Data availability varies by race and ethnicity groups. All birth data by race before 1980 are based on race of the child. Since 1980, birth data by race are based on race of the mother. For race, data are available for Black and White births since 1960, and for American Indians/Alaska Native and Asian/Pacific Islander births since 1980. Data on Hispanic origin are available since 1989. Teen birth rates for specific racial and ethnic categories are also available since 1989. From 2003 through 2015, the birth data by race were based on the bridged race categories (5). Starting in 2016, the race categories for reporting birth data changed; the new race and Hispanic origin categories are: Non-Hispanic, Single Race White; Non-Hispanic, Single Race Black; Non-Hispanic, Single Race American Indian/Alaska Native; Non-Hispanic, Single Race Asian; and, Non-Hispanic, Single Race Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander (5,6). Birth data by the prior, bridged race (and Hispanic origin) categories are included ...
Laura Jordan, a third-year medical student at UC Davis, received a Health Professions scholarship from the Indian Health Service (IHS), a federal health program for American Indians and Alaska natives, last month.. The scholarship covers the cost of tuition, required fees and additional education and living expenses for the next two academic years. Health Professions Scholarship Program recipients incur a service obligation of one year for each year of scholarship support, whereby she may elect to work serving the health-care needs of the American Indian population. The mission of the Indian Health Service, which is an agency within the Department of Health and Human Services, is to raise the physical, mental, social and spiritual health of American Indians and Alaska Natives to the highest level.. ...
More than 700 000 American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) children younger than 19 years old live in the United States.1 These AI/AN children experience higher rates of morbidity and mortality from unintentional injuries than do other US children. The 881 injury deaths to AI children between 1992 and 1994 translate to an overall rate of 52.3 deaths per 100 000 children per year. This rate is almost twice the US rate of 28.3 per 100 000 children for all races (1993).2 Rates of injury deaths are high for rural and urban AI/AN populations.3. Although rates of injury death have dropped considerably during the past 25 years, they remain disproportionately high among AI/AN children for the most common causes of injury. Fatality rates for motor vehicle occupant injuries are 3 times higher for AI/AN children than for white and black children.1 Pedestrian-motor vehicle collision deaths are almost 4 times that for all US races combined, and drowning, the second leading cause of injury death, occurs at ...
To ensure a future of improved Indian Heath Services (IHS), better health for American Indians and Alaskan Natives, and growing self-determination for the government of federally recognized tribes, the Director of the Indian Health Service launched Quality Management (QM) in the late summer of 1989. The QM is an agency-wide effort to provide responsible and efficient management of IHS resources. The QM is built on past accomplishments, making immediate corrections, encouraging innovation in management systems, and fostering in all IHS employees a commitment to professionalism, accountability, and continuous improvements. The IHS forged a process to achieve both ongoing solutions to immediate problems and to install a new management culture in the agency. Priority has been given to problems in which some immediate progress is possible. Six QM targets and special work groups were formed, and this report reports the work on their charge. The first part of this status report summarizes the ongoing
Around 1815 or so he married Margaret, maiden name unknown. Margaret was born c 1795. In my family the story always went that Margaret was half-Iroquois. Discussions with other descendants of James and Margarets son James Fuller Plymell have made connections to the Wyandot nation, a tribe that belongs within the Iroquoian Family of North American Indians. They are the descendants of the Tionnontates or Tobacco Nation of the Huron Confederacy. James Fullers family always contended that they were Wyandot. More research is needed to find out if Margaret, wife of James Plymell, was a Wyandot but unfortunately many of the records that would be helpful (like a marriage license) dont appear to exist any longer. A search in Marion, Madison and Wyandot counties came up negative and if they were married in Delaware County (as is suspected) we are truly out of luck. A fire destroyed all records of marriages prior to 1835 in Delaware Co OH ...
Cite this Record. Overview of Investigations at 45Sa Archaeology in the Columbia River Gorge. Rick Minor, K. Toepel, S. Beckham. Heritage Research Associates Cited by: 5. An Overview of Investigations at 45SA Archaeological in the Columbia River Gorge.. Report to Portland District U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Heritage Research Associates Report No. Overview of Investigation at 45SA Archaeology of the Columbia River Gorge. Eugene: Heritage Research Associates.. Pettigrew, Richard M. Prehistory of the Lower Columbia and Willamette Valley. In Handbook of North American Indians, Phebus, George E. and Drucker, Robert M. An overview of investigations at 45SA archeology in the Columbia River Gorge / by Rick Minor, Kathryn Anne Toepel, Stephen Dow Beckham.. Eugene, Or.: Heritage Research Associates, FL89 N4 L.A. city limits: African American Los Angeles from the Great Depression to the present / Josh Sides. Overview of Investigation at 45SA Archaeology of the Columbia River Gorge.. Eugene: Heritage ...
An epidemic in AD 180 killed as many as 7 million in Italy, Greece, Egypt and Asia Minor, possibly triggering the decline of the Roman Empire.. The inadvertent introduction of smallpox into the Americas by the Spanish killed millions of Aztecs, helping a few hundred conquistadors conquer an entire people.. Millions more North American Indians died, some at the hands of the British, who deliberately gave them gifts of blankets infested with smallpox scabs during the French and Indian Wars.. Only 40 years ago, 10 million to 15 million people worldwide contracted smallpox annually and 2 million of them died.. Yet through these centuries of horror came a slow, dawning knowledge -- and human beings began to fight back.. It had long been noted, for instance, that survivors were thereafter immune to the disease. Centuries ago, people translated this fact into a logical, if hazardous practice known as variolation, the first inoculation against an infectious disease.. An incision was made in the skin. ...
Blueberry juice has been used for hundreds of years by the North American Indians. It was consumed all year long to maintain a steady weight loss plan. They are wealthy in antioxidants, nutritional vitamins, minerals, and dietary fibers. The presence of anthocyanins enhances the benefits of vitamin C. Cranberry juice has been acknowledged by herbalists for its capacity to treat urinary tract an infection. It is identified for its therapeutic properties, which provoke the method of maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Its wealthy in phytonutrients and antioxidants.. The best way you care for your self counts and it counts large. The way you prioritize your self impacts your health and health objectives in addition to the time that you may commit to them. It impacts your eating. Emotional eating, together with stress eating, sky rockets when you dont get what you want in other areas of your life. When youre on the backside of your priority list, it affects how you show up in your relationships. For ...
The Indian Health Service (IHS), an agency within the Department of Health and Human Services, is responsible for providing federal health services to American Indians and Alaska Natives. The provision of health services to members of federally-recognized Tribes grew out of the special government-to-government relationship between the federal government and Indian Tribes. The IHS is the principal federal health care provider and health advocate for Indian people, and provides a comprehensive health service delivery system for American Indians and Alaska Natives. The IHS Mission is to raise the physical, mental, social, and spiritual health of American Indians and Alaska Natives to the highest level.
The Indian Health Service (IHS), an agency within the Department of Health and Human Services, is responsible for providing federal health services to American Indians and Alaska Natives. The provision of health services to members of federally-recognized Tribes grew out of the special government-to-government relationship between the federal government and Indian Tribes. The IHS is the principal federal health care provider and health advocate for Indian people, and provides a comprehensive health service delivery system for American Indians and Alaska Natives. The IHS Mission is to raise the physical, mental, social, and spiritual health of American Indians and Alaska Natives to the highest level.
Diaphoretic, emmenagogue.. Uses: Thuja was an old North American Indian remedy for delayed menstruation; scientific research has shown that it is a stimulant to smooth muscles, such as those of the uterus and bronchial passages. Its stimulating expectorant effect is useful for treating bronchitis. Externally, herbalists use an infusion as a wash for infectious skin diseases such as impetigo or scabies. An ointment is reputed cure for warts. A hot compress eases rheumatic pains.. Warning Warning! Not to be used during pregnancy. Thujone, the main constituent of the volatile oil, is toxic in any quantity, so the herb should only be taken in small doses and for no more than a week or two at a time. Thuja should only be used as prescribed by a qualified practitioner.. ...
Some interesting items of Missionary intelligence communicated at a public meeting in Boston, on Sunday last, are reported in the Traveller: Rev Mr. Treat, one of the Secretaries of the A. B. C. F. M. was present, and introduced the exercises by a very valuable statement respecting the present number, condition and prospects of the North American Indians; in part the result of his own observations during a recent extended tour among the different tribes ...
6/12/2006 • American History The intermittent war between the United States and the Plains Indians that stretched across some three decades after the Civil War came to an end on December 29, 1890, at the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota. The events leading up to its final act - the Wounded Knee Massacre - had been building since the late 1880s, when the son of a Paiute shaman named Wovoka had first introduced a series of new beliefs and practices to the Indian reservations of the West.. Fundamentally peaceful, Wovokas movement envisioned the coming of a new world populated solely by Indians living on the Great Plains where buffalo were again plentiful. Generation upon generation of Indians slain in combat would be reborn into this new world, and all - the living and the formerly dead - would live in bliss, peace and plenty. U.S. Indian authorities claimed that in the hands of the defeated and embittered leaders of the Teton Sioux - men like Short Bull, Kicking Bear and eventually ...