Following the increased attention income differences/inequality has gained within the area of economic geography and among policy-planning; this study seeks to explore and analyze the factors affecting income differences in the regions of Ghana. From the use of regional (10 regions) panel data for 1960, 1970, 1984 and 2000; the results show a direct link between socio-demographic factors and regional income differences/inequality and also the impact of ethnic and religious composition on regional income differences. It was identified that ethnicity and religious compositions have different impacts on regional income differences. Christians have positive effect on regional income due to their fairly representation in almost all the regions likewise the Akans, but have negative effect on regional income. And also high population density in a region reduces the mean regional income, similarly high concentration of population aged 60years and over reduces the regional income. Evidence from the ...
Data & statistics on Trends in Income Distribution and Poverty Year: Impact on poverty headcount and income distribution, base year values and percentage variation, 2020, Impact on poverty headcount and income distribution, base year values and percentage variation, year 2020, Impact on poverty headcount and income distribution, base year values and percentage variation, year 2020...
Illumina annual/quarterly net income history and growth rate from 2006 to 2020. Net income can be defined as companys net profit or loss after all revenues, income items, and expenses have been accounted for. |ul style=margin-top:10px;| |li|Illumina net income for the quarter ending March 31, 2020 was |strong|$0.173B|/strong|, a |strong|25.75% decline|/strong| year-over-year.|/li| |li|Illumina net income for the twelve months ending March 31, 2020 was |strong|$942M|/strong|, a |strong|10.69% increase|/strong| year-over-year.|/li| |li|Illumina annual net income for 2019 was |strong|$1.002B|/strong|, a |strong|21.31% increase|/strong| from 2018.|/li| |li|Illumina annual net income for 2018 was |strong|$0.826B|/strong|, a |strong|13.77% increase|/strong| from 2017.|/li| |li|Illumina annual net income for 2017 was |strong|$0.726B|/strong|, a |strong|56.8% increase|/strong| from 2016.|/li| |/ul|
This paper quantifies the direct impact of taxes on income distribution at the household level in Chile and estimates the distributional effect of several changes in the tax structure. We find that income distributions before and after taxes are very similar (Gini coefficients of 0.448 and 0.496, respectively). Moreover, radical modifications of the tax structure, such as raising the value added tax from 18 to 25% or substituting a 20% flat tax for the present progressive income tax affect the after-tax distribution only slightly. We present some arithmetic showing that the scope for direct income redistribution through progressivity of the tax system is rather limited. By contrast, for parameter values observed in Chile, and possibly in most developing countries, the targeting of expenditures and the level of the average tax rate are far more important determinants of income distribution after government transfers. Thus, a high-yield proportional tax can have a far bigger equalizing impact than ...
The relative income hypothesis, that relative income has a direct effect on individual health, has become an important part of the literature on health inequalities. This paper presents a four-quadrant diagram, which shows the effect of income, relative income and aggregation bias on individual and …
Definition of Net Incomes in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Net Incomes? Meaning of Net Incomes as a legal term. What does Net Incomes mean in law?
Methods This study pooled individual data from the 2008 Behavioural and Risk Factor Surveillance System and state-level data from the US Census Bureau. The Behavioural and Risk Factor Surveillance System collected information on demographic characteristics (age, sex, race/ethnicity and marital status), socioeconomic position (education and annual household income) and tooth loss, which was self-reported on a 4-point scale (none, 1 to 5, 6 or more but not all, and all teeth). Income inequality at state level was measured with the Gini coefficient, based on household income for 1979, 1989 and 1999, respectively. Two-level ordered logit models with individuals nested within states were used to test the association of state Gini coefficient at different lag periods with tooth loss after adjustment for state median household income and individuals characteristics. ...
For many years Gini coefficient has been the measure for showing distribution of wealth or divide between rich and poor or discrepancy of income. From wikkipedia entry we define : The Gini coefficient (also known as the Gini index or Gini ratio) is a measure of statistical dispersion developed by the Italian statistician and sociologist Corrado Gini and published in his 1912 paper Variability and Mutability.…
Income-related inequalities in health and in health services use pose a disturbing and challenging issue in health systems, which are based on social health insurance such as Israel. To explore income-related inequalities in health and in health services use in Israel in 2009-2010. We used the Central Bureau of Statistics file, which linked information on 7,175 households (24,595 persons) from the 2009 Health Survey and the 2010 Incomes Survey. Raw and adjusted concentration curves and indices were calculated for ten chronic conditions (adjusting for age), visits to physicians and hospitalizations (adjusting for health and location). There is no income-related inequality in asthma and in cancer. The income-related inequality in the remaining eight conditions is pro-poor, namely, they are more prevalent among poor households. The order of the level of inequality is (from the least unequally distributed): any condition, hypertension, heart diseases, diabetes, depression, respiratory diseases, digestive
Downloadable (with restrictions)! In this paper we examine the impact of public spending, education, and institutions on income distribution in advanced economies. We also assess the efficiency of public spending in redistributing income by using a DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) nonparametric approach. We find that public policies significantly affect income distribution, notably via social spending, and indirectly via high quality education/human capital and via sound economic institutions. Moreover, for our set of OECD countries, and within a two-step approach, several so-called non-discretionary factors help explaining public social spending inefficiencies.(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)
Downloadable! In this paper we examine the impact of public spending, education, and institutions on income distribution in advanced economies. We also assess the efficiency of public spending in redistributing income by using a DEA (Data Envelopment Analysis) nonparametric approach. We find that public policies significantly affect income distribution, notably via social spending, and indirectly via high quality education/human capital and via sound economic institutions. Moreover, for our set of OECD countries, and within a two-step approach, several so-called non-discretionary factors help explaining public social spending inefficiencies. JEL Classification: C14, H40, H50
Net income from abroad (current LCU) in Eritrea was last measured at -429233169.77 in 2012, according to the World Bank. Net income includes the net labor income and net property and entrepreneurial income components of the SNA. Labor income covers compensation of employees paid to nonresident workers. Property and entrepreneurial income covers investment income from the ownership of foreign financial claims (interest, dividends, rent, etc.) and nonfinancial property income (patents, copyrights, etc.). Data are in current local currency.This page has the latest values, historical data, forecasts, charts, statistics, an economic calendar and news for Net income from abroad (current LCU) in Eritrea.
31 Studies of income and expenditure reported in HES surveys have shown that such households in the bottom income decile and with negative gross incomes tend to have expenditure levels that are comparable to those of households with higher income levels (and slightly above the average expenditures recorded for the fifth income decile). This suggests that these households have access to economic resources such as wealth, or that the instance of low or negative income is temporary, perhaps reflecting business or investment start up. Other households in the lowest income decile in past surveys had average incomes at about the level of the single pension rate, were predominantly single person households, and their main source of income was largely government pensions and allowances. However, on average, these households also had expenditures above the average of the households in the second income decile, which is not inconsistent with the use of assets to maintain a higher standard of living than ...
Adolescence is a critical period where many patterns of health and health behaviour are formed. The objective of this study was to investigate cross-national variation in the relationship between family affluence and adolescent life satisfaction, and the impact of national income and income inequality on this relationship. Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: WHO collaborative Study (N = 58,352 across 35 countries) were analysed using multilevel linear and logistic regression analyses for outcome measures life satisfaction score and binary high/low life satisfaction. National income and income inequality were associated with aggregated life satisfaction score and prevalence of high life satisfaction. Within-country socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction existed even after adjustment for family structure. This relationship was curvilinear and varied cross-nationally. Socioeconomic inequalities were greatest in poor countries and in countries with unequal income ...
In economics, the Gini coefficient (/ˈdʒiːni/ JEE-nee), sometimes called Gini index, or Gini ratio, is a measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent the income or wealth distribution of a nations residents, and is the most commonly used measurement of inequality. It was developed by the Italian statistician and sociologist Corrado Gini and published in his 1912 paper Variability and Mutability (Italian: Variabilità e mutabilità).[1][2] The Gini coefficient measures the inequality among values of a frequency distribution (for example, levels of income). A Gini coefficient of zero expresses perfect equality, where all values are the same (for example, where everyone has the same income). A Gini coefficient of 1 (or 100%) expresses maximal inequality among values (e.g., for a large number of people, where only one person has all the income or consumption, and all others have none, the Gini coefficient will be very nearly one).[3][4] However, a value greater than one may occur if ...
A nearly 10 percent drop in net income shadowed a modest increase in average loan volume for the first quarter of 2012 at CoBank, the Greenwood Village-based cooperative that serves Farm Credit associations nationally.. Credit quality of CoBanks loan portfolio also declined in the quarter, with 1.2 percent of its loans classified as adverse assets, up from 1.02 percent a year earlier.. A number of factors contributed to the 9.4 percent drop in net income to $208.8 million, officers said, such as lower net interest income and a greater level of losses on early extinguishments of debt.. Continued low interest rates affected net interest income most, down 3.4 percent on the quarter to $302.4 million. Average loan value rose 5.7 percent to $73.4 billion.. The bank issued $200 million in preferred stock months ago, and shareholder equity totaled $6.5 billion at the quarter . It reported a year-end surge in net income three months ago.. President and CEO Bob Engel said while hes pleased with the ...
Gross national income (constant LCU) in Malawi was last measured at 654964888749.57 in 2011, according to the World Bank. Gross national income is derived as the sum of GNP and the terms of trade adjustment. Data are in constant local currency.This page has the latest values, historical data, forecasts, charts, statistics, an economic calendar and news for Gross national income (constant LCU) in Malawi.
China is an emerging economy, with quarterly GDP growth rates averaging 9.31%[6] for the past two decades, powered mainly by strong exports. However, despite being the largest exporter for worlds demands, China still faces a number of development challenges and one of the most pressing socioeconomic issues is the increasing income disparity between different groups of citizens, largely characterized by rural-urban income inequality. Despite steady growth of Chinas economy since economic reforms in 1978, the rural urban income gap reached its widest in more than three decades in 2009.[7] According to data from National Bureau of Statistics of China, at its widest disparity, city dwellers were earning 3.33 times as much as farmers (income ratio of 3.33:1), with per capita disposable income of urban households standing at RMB17175 while per capita net income of rural households at RMB5153.[8] In contrast, the income disparity was at its narrowest in 1983, at 1.82:1, due to effects of the ...
According to the Sentier Research report mentioned above, incomes have been declining in all geographic regions of the country and in all sectors of the economy…. -Median household income for the self-employed has fallen 9.4 percent since June 2009. -Median household income for private sector employees has fallen 4.5 percent since June 2009. -Median household income for government workers has fallen 3.5 percent since June 2009. -Median household income for Americans living in the West has fallen 8.5 percent since June 2009. -Median household income for Americans living in the Northeast has fallen 4.9 percent since June 2009. -Median household income for Americans living in the South has also fallen 4.9 percent since June 2009. -Median household income for Americans living in the Midwest has fallen 1.1 percent since June 2009. Remember, the recession supposedly ended in June 2009. Since that time we have supposedly been in a recovery. So if it has seemed to you that American families have ...
Alerus Financial Corporation (Nasdaq: ALRS) reported net income of $17.7 million for the third quarter of 2020, or $0.99 per diluted common share, compared to net income of $11.5 million, or $0.65 per diluted common share, for the second quarter of 2020, and net income of $7.1 million, or $0.48 per diluted common share, for the third quarter of 2019.
During the past two decades Taiwan has undergone critical stages of economic transition and become a newly industrialised country. This study shows that, contrary to the weak relation of income inequality to mortality in 1976, counties and cities with more equal income distribution in 1995 were more likely, with the adjustment of median household disposable income, to have a lower mortality (table 3). Especially, in 1995 the effect of income distribution on mortality in children aged under 5 became highly significant and the effect of median household disposable income became non-significant. Therefore, the Taiwan case examined here supports Wilkinsons proposition that relative income is more important than absolute income in determining population health in developed countries.12. In attempting, however, to generalise from this study it should be noted that Taiwans success in economic development is unique. Firstly, Taiwan has achieved economic transition in a very short period. Secondly, it ...
Income. Median of equalised disposable income is the value of the equalised disposable income, which divides the population according to income amount into two equally numerous parts according to number of persons.. Equalised disposable income is defined as the total disposable income of household divided by the equalised number of household members. This income is assigned to each member of households.. Equalised scale is scale of coefficients used for calculation of indicators of poverty in accordance with Eurostat methodology, so called modified OECD scale, where coefficient 1 is assigned to the first adult household member, 0.5 to the second one and each adult household member, 0.5 to persons 14 years old and older and 0,3 to each child younger than 14 years. This scale is used for calculation of equalised household size.. Inequality of income distribution - Income ratio of upper and lower quintile (S80/S20) - is the ratio of the sum of equalised disposable income received by the 20% of the ...
Has income inequality increased over time? Who has gained and who has lost in this process? Has this process affected all OECD countries uniformly? These are some of the questions addressed in this OECD report that compares poverty and income distribution in 30 countries.
The Gini Index is a summary measure of income inequality. The Gini coefficient incorporates the detailed shares data into a single statistic, which summarizes the dispersion of income across the entire income distribution. The Gini coefficient ranges from 0, indicating perfect equality (where everyone receives an equal share), to 1, perfect inequality (where only one recipient or group of recipients receives all the income). The Gini is based on the difference between the Lorenz curve (the observed cumulative income distribution) and the notion of a perfectly equal income distribution. More information: [https://www.census.gov/topics/income-poverty/income-inequality/about/metrics/gini-index.html ...
If the book Thinking about Inequality: Personal Judgment and Income does into years that have 12-week to Eat into smaller ratings, it may demonstrate judgment supported with connection, keto, or selecting. be your book Thinking about Inequality: Personal into the privacy reader. If the book Thinking about Inequality: Personal Judgment and Income Distributions informs previous fat it may Cut bonne A structure.
Finland has a predominantly public health care system. All symptomatic acute MI events are treated in public (municipal) hospitals, where anybody can obtain treatment for a nominal fee. Therefore, it was a surprise that such large differences existed in the case fatality and one year prognosis of first MI events. A main part of the difference originated during the prehospital stage, but also among patients hospitalised alive 2-27 day case fatality was about two times higher in the low income group than in the high income group. Furthermore, among patients alive at day 28 after their first MI, the one year prognosis was clearly worse in the low income group than in the high income group.. There was no difference in the peak CK values between the income groups and among men the ECG changes were less often classified as definite in the low income group than in the other income groups. In fact, among men the proportion of definite MIs was higher in the high income group than in the low income group. ...
In this book, a model of long-term interrelationships between income distribution, population growth and economic development is developed and estimated from data for 54 countries. The results indicat
Pharma, Coatings, and Chemicals operating income solidly up Arnhem, the Netherlands, July 26, 2000 – Akzo Nobel, (AEX: AKZ; NASDAQ: AKZOY) the multinational pharmaceuticals, coatings and chemicals company, delivered solid second quarter results with net income at EUR265 million, up 24% on the corresponding period of the previous year. For the half year, net income was
The State Council meeting was confirmation of recent reports that China is to press ahead with its long-awaited income distribution reform.
Pointing out that the decline in workers bargaining power causes inequality doesnt fit with the right-wing, corporate agenda. So conservatives are embarking on a campaign to blame income inequality on things like government regulation and taxes on the rich. Thats like saying the obesity epidemic is the result of healthier food options.. If were serious about addressing income inequality, it must start with ensuring workers have the opportunity to stand together to demand big corporations share the enormous profits theyre reaping.. Seeing low-wage workers in fast food restaurants and Walmart rise up to fight for better wages is heartening. Immigrant workers in many industries are doing the same. Last year, California saw its union membership spike, as workers came together against extraordinary odds to bargain for better wages and benefits.. But more must be done. As the nations leading economists have made crystal clear, our economy hinges on closing the income gap. And closing the income ...
The Houston metro area also remained stagnant. Its poverty rate hovered at 14.8 percent, while its median household income was recorded at $61,708. Those numbers are not much different from what was recorded in 2015.. Many metropolitan areas fared better, achieving more dramatic reductions in poverty rates and steeper rises in median household income last year. Among them were the Dallas-Fort Worth metro area, the Detroit area, the Chicago area and large metropolitan areas of California, such as Los Angeles, San Diego and San Francisco.. The Dallas-Fort Worth areas poverty rate dropped to 12.7 percent, while its median household income rose to $63,812, a 2.7 percent boost from 2015.. Meanwhile, the Austin-Round Rock areas median household income surged to $71,000 last year, a nearly 5 percent increase from the year before.. If you look at San Antonio and Houston ... were not seeing any substantial movement, said Texas State Demographer Lloyd Potter.. You cant say that things are getting ...
Menu location: Analysis_Nonparametric_Gini Coefficient of Inequality. This method calculates the Gini coefficient (G) of inequality with bootstrap confidence intervals. A Lorenz plot is produced when a single variable is specified for analysis, otherwise the summary statistics alone are displayed for a group of variables.. The Gini coefficient was developed by the Italian Statistician Corrado Gini (Gini, 1912) as a summary measure of income inequality in society. It is usually associated with the plot of wealth concentration introduced a few years earlier by Max Lorenz (Lorenz, 1905). Since these measures were introduced, they have been applied to topics other than income and wealth, but mostly within Economics (Cowell, 1995, 2000; Jenkins, 1991; Sen, 1973).. G is a measure of inequality, defined as the mean of absolute differences between all pairs of individuals for some measure. The minimum value is 0 when all measurements are equal and the theoretical maximum is 1 for an infinitely large set ...
American Shared Hospital Services net income from 2006 to 2020. Net income can be defined as companys net profit or loss after all revenues, income items, and expenses have been accounted for.
LANSING, Mich., Sept. 23, 2010 - Neogen Corporation (Nasdaq: NEOG) announced today that its net income for the first quarter of FY 2011, which ended Aug. 31, increased 33% from the prior years $4,395,000 to $5,824,000, or to $0.25 per share compared to the prior years first quarter of $0.19, adjusted for a 3-for-2 stock split that was effective Dec. 15, 2009.. First quarter revenues also increased 33% from the previous years first quarter of $32,347,000 to $42,923,000 in FY 2011. The current years 33% revenue increase is comprised of a 14% increase in organic sales of product lines available in the prior years first quarter, and the addition of the BioKits and GeneSeek product lines. The first quarter revenues and net income represent quarterly records for the 28-year-old company.. We are very pleased with the results of the quarter and especially the dedication of our 600 employees who have kept our strong quarter-to-quarter growth going for almost 20 years, said James Herbert, Neogens ...
a)In general. If the separate share rule of section 663(c) is applicable for any taxable year of a trust, subpart D is applied as if each share were a separate trust except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section and in § 1.668(a)-1A(c). Thus, the amounts of an accumulation distribution, undistributed net income, undistributed capital gain, and capital gain distribution are computed separately for each share. (b)Allocation of taxes - undistributed net income. The taxes imposed on the trust attributable to the undistributed net income are allocated as follows: (1) There is first allocated to each separate share that portion of the taxes imposed on the trust attributable to the undistributed net income (as defined in § 1.665(d)-1A(b)), computed before the allowance of any credits under section 642(a), that bears the same relation to the total of such taxes that the distributable net income of the separate share bears to the distributable net income of the trust, adjusted for ...
US egg processor Cal-Maine Foods today (18 July) reported net income of US$316m for the fiscal 2016 year ended on 28 May - the highest annual net income in the companys history and 96% higher than the record set in fiscal 2015. related to Financials, Meat & poultry, Cal-Maine Foods,
October 20,2009- CN reports Q3-2009 net income of C$461 million, or C$0.97 per diluted share,compared with year-earlier net income of C$552 million, or C$1.16 per dilutedshare.
EOG Resources reported second quarter 2007 net income of $306.1 million, or $1.24 per share. This compares to second quarter 2006 net income of $329.6 million, or $1.34 per share.
Tokyo, Japan - August 9, 2007 - Trend Micro, Incorporated (TSE: 4704), a leader in network antivirus and Internet content security software and services, today announced record earnings results for the second quarter 2007(in accordance with Japan GAAP). Trend Micro posted consolidated net sales of 25.14 billion Yen (or US $207.84 million, 120.95JPY = 1USD), and operating income and net income both performed above expectations. The company posted operating income of 8.87 billion Yen (or US $73.33 million) and net income of 6.40 billion Yen (or US $52.95 million) for the quarter. These figures reflect 23 percent growth in net sales compared to the same period a year ago, a 37 percent growth in operating income and a 47 percent growth in net income for the same timeframe.. The Company continued to see strong growth, led by a 48 percent year-over-year revenue increase in North America, followed by a 22 percent increase both in APAC and Latin America. Europe and Japan achieved 17 and 14 percent ...
Users of ICT at Public Access Centers: Age, Education, Gender, and Income Differences in Users: 10.4018/jicthd.2011010101: Libraries, telecenters, and cybercafés offer opportunities for wider public access to information and communication technologies (ICT). This paper presents
Income disparities between men and women have led to a retirement shortfall of between 25% and 30%, a report released Tuesday by the Insured Retirement Institute found.
Siegel M, Allanson P (2015). Longitudinal analysis of income-related health inequalities: methods, challenges and applications. Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research in press. Siegel M, Mielck A, Maier W (2015). Individual income, area deprivation, and health: Do income-related health inequalities vary by small area deprivation? Health Economics 24(11):1523-1530. F. Henschel, M. Redaelli, M. Siegel, S. Stock (2015). Correlation of Incident Potentially Inappropriate Medication Prescriptions and Hospitalization: An Analysis Based on the PRISCUS List. Drugs - Real World Outcomes 2(3):249-259. Röttger J, Blümel M, Engel S, Grenz-Farenholtz B, Fuchs S, Linder R, Verheyen F, Busse R (2015): Exploring Health System Responsiveness in Ambulatory Care and Disease Management and its Relation to Other Dimensions of Health System Performance (RAC) - Study Design and Methodology. Int J Health Policy Manag. 2015;4(7): 431-437. Klein G, Lickfett L, Schreieck J, Deneke T, Wieczorek M, for the ...
Graph and download economic data for 90% Confidence Interval Upper Bound of Estimate of Median Household Income for Passaic County, NJ (MHICIUBNJ34031A052NCEN) from 1989 to 2018 about Passaic County, NJ; NJ; New York; median; households; income; and USA.
Summary:. This paper examines trends in income distribution in Brazil and the determinants of income inequality, including social expenditure. While recent data reveal reduced income inequality since the Real Plan of July 1994, the distribution of income is still among the most unequal in the world. Among the most important determinants of income inequality in Brazil is extreme disparity in educational attainment levels. Public expenditures on education, health, and social insurance have tended to exacerbate income inequality. A number of options for improving the equity and efficiency of Brazilian social expenditure merit further examination.. ...
While driving the clogged freeways of California, I listened to an NPR show in which the central complaint was the inequality of income distribution in the United States. Walter Benn Michaels bashes universities for being obsessed with admitting rich kids with Hispanic last names or dark skin, instead of kids from poor families. Nobody raised what to me seemed like obvious questions, e.g.,. 1) Should we stop accepting poor immigrants if we are worried about income distribution? A Somali immigrant might end up achieving a higher standard of living here than in Somalia, but he or she is going to swell the ranks of below-average earners.. 2) Are the people whom we consider poor today better or worse off, materially, than Americas poor were in the 1950s or 1970s?. 3) Is it inevitable that as an economy gets more complex, those who are clever and talented will find ways to get rich that werent available in a simpler economy? (And people who arent clever or talented wont get any boost.). Question ...
When we first meet with young health professionals, many are surprised when we inform them that they will owe personal income taxes come the following April. They are even more shocked when they learn that they are obligated to make quarterly income tax installments on a go-forward basis. Lets explain why self-employed health professionals are required to make quarterly income tax installments.. Medical residents and part-time workers are generally considered employees. The remuneration received is paid by an employer, who is legally obligated to withhold payroll source deductions (i.e. Employment Insurance premiums and Canada Pension Plan premiums) and personal income tax from the amounts paid. This is why your gross income may be, for example, $1,000 per week but you only receive $750 deposited into your bank account. When you receive your annual T4 slip it shows the total gross amount of income you earned in the prior year and the taxes and other deductions that were withheld at source. The ...
Leiden LIS Budget Incidence Fiscal Redistribution Dataset on Relative Income Poverty Rates (2019), assembled by Koen Caminada and Jinxian Wang (Version 1, February 2019), presents the disentanglement of relative income poverty measurers and the anti-poverty effects of social transfers and income taxes…
Income inequality has been growing for decades and-despite the recovery from the Great Recession-remains historically high. Today, the low end of the income spectrum (the 10th percentile) in California is 19% lower than what it was in 1980, and the upper end of the spectrum (90th percentile) is 40% higher, according to our new report. As a result of these trends, the ratio of high to low incomes-a key measure of income inequality-is nearly twice the size it was three decades ago.. In Los Angeles County, high-income families have 15 times more income than low-income families.. Both income and income inequality vary substantially across California. Looking at after-tax family incomes, we find that, in 2014, the Bay Area had the highest incomes. However, the gap between high and low incomes was biggest in Los Angeles County, the Central Valley, and northern parts of the state-places where low incomes tend to be particularly low. For example, in Los Angeles County, high-income families have 15 times ...
What do you have to do?: If youre excusing yourself to go pregnancy gifts for christmas the women room all night, decide up a being pregnant take a look at and call your doctor. If you enable your body to slouch ahead as the stomach muscle tissue weaken, youll increase the strain on your decrease again. i even have the dark line. Listed below are 5 ways through which you can start exercising after conception. Or your breasts would possibly really feel fuller and heavier. The relationship system works nicely for girls whove pretty regular menstrual cycles. Any concepts. Combination deficits of niacin, thiamin, nutritional vitamins A, B6, B12 have been famous in each of the trimesters. I hope the article on when does morning sickness start in pregnancy has been helpful to you. This resulted in The Fertility Weight loss plan teenage pregnancy poverty and income disparity by some as a way to improve your fertility. Your breasts enlarge additional and secrete colostrum. 07 ounces (2 grams). Apply ...
article{8c2b173c-e56d-4b35-8ed5-27e3c88a15b8, abstract = {,p,BACKGROUND: While psychosocial theory claims that socioeconomic status (SES), acting through social comparisons, has an important influence on susceptibility to disease, materialistic theory says that socioeconomic position (SEP) and related access to material resources matter more. However, the relative role of SEP versus SES in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk has still not been examined.,/p,,p,METHOD: We investigated the association between SES/SEP and COPD risk among 667 094 older adults, aged 55 to 60, residing in Sweden between 2006 and 2011. Absolute income in five groups by population quintiles depicted SEP and relative income expressed as quintile groups within each absolute income group represented SES. We performed sex-stratified logistic regression models to estimate odds ratios and the area under the receiver operator curve (AUC) to compare the discriminatory accuracy of SES and SEP in relation to ...
New evidence from this study shows that a higher percentage of people have migraine in low income groups because more people get migraine, not because people in lower income groups have migraine for a longer period of time, Stewart said. Because the remission rate does not differ by income, it means that the duration of time that people have migraine is not different by income level. These results strongly support the theory that stressors associated with lower income play an important role in the relationship between migraine and income. Identifying these factors may be a crucial step toward developing prevention strategies ...
In economies characterized by intergenerational rigidities, an increase in income inequality has persistent effects-for example by hindering human capital accumulation- thereby retarding future growth disproportionately. One of the biggest findings is that amongst the developed nations, higher GDP does not mean a better quality of life. Some of the negative impact of inequality on growth can be blamed on poor government policies in highly unequal countries. And on June 15th economists at the IMF released a study assessing the causes and consequences of rising inequality. Nevertheless, a relatively generalised pattern can be observed depending on a countrys degree of development. Sharp rise in public debt: will the euro area resist? The problem is that laissez-faire capitalism results in income inequality. (2016), «The Fading American Dream: Trends in Absolute Income Mobility since 1940», NBER Working Paper. (2016), «The Fading American Dream: Trends in Absolute Income Mobility since 1940», ...
Pharma, Coatings, and Chemicals operating income up sharply , the Netherlands, April 25, 2000 – Akzo Nobel, (AEX: AKZ; NASDAQ: AKZOY) the multinational pharmaceuticals, coatings and chemicals company, delivered strong first-quarter results with net income at EUR219 million, up 30% on the corresponding period of the previous year.
This index measures the degree of inequality in the distribution of family income in a country. The index is calculated from the Lorenz curve, in which cumulative family income is plotted against the number of families arranged from the poorest to the richest. The index is the ratio of (a) the area between a countrys Lorenz curve and the 45 degree helping line to (b) the entire triangular area under the 45 degree line. The more nearly equal a countrys income distribution, the closer its Lorenz curve to the 45 degree line and the lower its Gini index, e.g., a Scandinavian country with an index of 25. The more unequal a countrys income distribution, the farther its Lorenz curve from the 45 degree line and the higher its Gini index, e.g., a Sub-Saharan country with an index of 50. If income were distributed with perfect equality, the Lorenz curve would coincide with the 45 degree line and the index would be zero; if income were distributed with perfect inequality the Lorenz curve would coincide ...
financial results and guidance presented in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), the company uses certain non-GAAP (also referred to as adjusted or non-GAAP adjusted) financial measures in this press release and the accompanying tables. In particular, the company presents non-GAAP adjusted net income (and the related per share measure) and its line item components, as well as certain non-GAAP adjusted financial measures derived therefrom, including non-GAAP adjusted gross margin percentage and non-GAAP adjusted effective tax rate. Non-GAAP adjusted net income (and the related per share measure) and its line item components exclude from reported GAAP net income (and the related per share measure) and its line item components certain items, as detailed in the reconciliation tables that follow, and in the case of non-GAAP adjusted net income (and the related per share measure), adjust for the income tax effect of non-GAAP adjustments. In this regard, the components ...
A population-based program promoting the Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT) for colorectal cancer screening was introduced in 2008 in Ontario, Canada, where opportunistic screening with colonoscopy had been increasing in frequency. We evaluated the impact of the program on income and immigration-related disparities in screening. We used linked administrative data to calculate colorectal cancer screening rates for eligible Ontarians in each year between 2001/02 (n=2,852,619) and 2013/14 (n=4,139,304). We quantified disparities using an inequality ratio of screening rates in the most disadvantaged group relative to the most advantaged group. We performed segmented logistic regression analyses stratified by screening modality and adjusted for age, sex, rurality, co-morbidity, and morbidity. Between 2001/02 and 2013/14, the income and immigration inequality ratios narrowed from 0.74 to 0.80 and 0.55 to 0.69, respectively. Before the screening program, the income inequality ratio was widening by 1% per ...
Income poverty in Tanzania as elsewhere in developing countries is predominantly a rural phenomenon and affects largely households relying on subsistence farming. This is despite the fact that poverty reduction strategies have devoted increasing attention on the role farm employment in enhancing household income. This paper argues that, off-farm employment may have potential to contribute to reduction of rural households income poverty. Hence the main objective of the paper is set to examine effects of off-farm employment on income poverty. Data was collected from a random sample of 309 households in the first quarter of 2014 in five villages of Kilombero Valley, Tanzania using a structured questionnaire. Income poverty was analysed using the Foster-Greer-Thorbecke (FGT) poverty index and two stage least square (2SLS) regression. Households with off-farm employment income were found to be less poor based on all the three FGT parameters which are incidence, depth and severity of poverty. ...
Tax unit: In Belgium, the tax unit is the adult, single or married, with children or other dependent persons. The legal cohabitants are assimilated to spouses.. Taxable income includes real-estate income, income from movable property, miscellaneous income and earned income. There are specific rules for the calculation of the net income for each of these categories.. Certain income was sometimes classified in different categories, such as copyright. A new tax regime applies now to copyright in order to specify the income category it belongs to. 1. Real estate income - General rules. The taxable amount of the real property is established separately for each spouse and the jointly owned property is apportioned on a fifty-fifty basis between the spouses. The taxable amount of real estate income is determined, according to the case, either on the basis of the cadastral income or on the basis of the rent. The net amount is then obtained by deducting interests on loans. The taxpayers dwelling-house ...
The Walt Disney Co. said Wednesday that its first quarter net income increased 33 percent to $1.8 billion.. Disney had increases in sales across all of its divisions, from its theme parks to its retail stores. Overall revenues were up 9 percent to $12.3 billion. These results reflect the strength of our unprecedented portfolio of brands, a constant focus on creativity and innovation, and the continued success of our long-term strategy, said CEO and Chairman Robert A. Iger in a statement. Disneys studio entertainment division saw sales increase 23 percent to nearly $1.9 billion. The company attributed the growth to the strong performance of Frozen and Marvels Thor: The Dark World, compared to Wreck-It Ralph and no Marvel film during the same period last year.. Iger said in a conference call with investors that the companys studio strategy is working, aimed at three types of movies: bigger releases with broad appeal, animation like Frozen and lower budget original films like Saving ...
The global mobile phone accessories market is segmented into product type such as battery, charger, power bank, earphone/headphone, memory card, mobile phone cases, mobile phone protective cases and mobile phone battery cases. Increasing number of smart phone users is a major factor which is augmenting the demand for mobile phone accessories across the globe.. Global mobile phone accessories market is expected to register a robust CAGR over the forecast period. Moreover, the global mobile phone accessories market was valued at USD 62,713.4 Million in 2016 and is expected to reach at notable revenue by the end of 2023. The global mobile phone accessories market is primarily driven by a number of factors such as rising disposable income of the consumers coupled with changing lifestyle of medium class population and availability of smart phones at affordable price.. The multi-brand store segment by distribution channel is likely to grow at remarkable pace during the forecast period. Consumers ...
Rockwell Automation Inc. said Monday that its fiscal fourth-quarter net income fell 3 percent, as the continued sluggish economy hurt demand for its products and services.
Although the trickle-down hypothesis never had much in the way of supporting evidence, empirical testing was difficult because its proponents never specified the time period over which the benefits of growth were supposed to percolate through to the poor. But, just as the crises of the 1970s marked the end of the Bretton Woods era, the global financial crisis marks the end of the era of finance-driven market liberalism. To the extent that any assessment of the distributional effects of market liberal policies will ever be possible, it is possible now.. The trickle-down theory can be examined using the tools of econometrics. But, at least for the US, no such sophisticated analysis is required. The raw data on income distribution shows that households in the bottom half of the income distribution gained nothing from the decades of market liberalism. Although apologists for market liberalism have offered various arguments to suggest that the raw data gives the wrong impression, none of these ...
Income inequality generates and amplifies incentives, particularly incentives for individuals to elevate or maintain their status, with important consequences for the individuals involved and aggregate outcomes for their societies [R. G. Wilkinson, K. E. Pickett, Annu. Rev. Sociol. 35, 493-511 (2009)]. Economically unequal environments intensify mens competition for status, respect, and, ultimately, mating opportunities, thus elevating aggregate rates of violent crime and homicide [M. Daly, M. Wilson, Evolutionary Psychology and Motivation (2001)]. Recent evidence shows that women are more likely to post sexy selfies on social media and that they spend more on beautification in places where inequality is high rather than low [K. R. Blake, B. Bastian, T. F. Denson, et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 115, 8722-8727 (2018)]. Here we test experimentally for causal links between income inequality and individual self-sexualization and status-related competition. We show that manipulating income ...
A measure of the real purchasing power of income generated by domestic production is the chain volume measure of GDP adjusted for the terms of trade effect, which is referred to as real gross domestic income (see Glossary for definition). The graph below provides a comparison of quarterly movements in trend GDP (volume measure) and real gross domestic income. During the December quarter, trend real gross domestic income increased by 1.0%, compared to the increase in the trend volume measure of GDP of 0.5%, reflecting a 2.0% improvement in the terms of trade. Trend and seasonally adjusted estimates of real gross domestic income are shown in tables 1 and 2. ...
We show that differences in childhood environments play an important role in shaping gender gaps in adulthood by documenting three facts using population tax records for children born in the 1980s. First, gender gaps in employment rates, earnings, and college attendance vary substantially across the parental income distribution. Notably, the traditional gender gap in employment rates is reversed for children growing up in poor families: boys in families in the bottom quintile of the income distribution are less likely to work than girls. Second, these gender gaps vary substantially across counties and commuting zones in which children grow up. The degree of variation in outcomes across places is largest for boys growing up in poor, single-parent families. Third, the spatial variation in gender gaps is highly correlated with proxies for neighborhood disadvantage. Low-income boys who grow up in high-poverty, high-minority areas work significantly less than girls. These areas also have higher rates ...
Dramatically high percentages of Americans even in the upper income categories are likely to run short of money after 10 or 20 years of retirement, according to a new study.. A new analysis by the nonpartisan Employee Benefit Research Institute finds that almost two-thirds (64 percent) of Americans in the two lowest pre-retirement income levels will be running short after 10 years in retirement.. However, the EBRI study also finds that after 20 years of retirement, almost a third (29 percent) of those in the next-to-highest income level will run short of money, as will more than 1 in 10 (13 percent) of those in the highest-income level. Not surprisingly, those with the highest income are at the lowest risk of running short of money but many in the highest income category still face significant risks of not being able to pay basic expenses and uninsured medical expenses for the remainder of their lives.. The study finds that nearly half of early Baby Boomers those on the verge of retirement, ...
It is occasionally claimed that these tax expenditures are not hugely important for the very rich (say the top 1 percent), but are instead really important to the entire top fifth of the income distribution. However, for some deductions such as the deduction for state and local taxes and the deduction for charitable contributions, this is an incorrect perception. According to the CBO (2013b), 80 percent of the benefit of the deduction for state and local taxes goes to the top 20 percent, with 30 percent of the benefit going to the top 1 percent alone. Likewise, 84 percent of the benefit of the deduction for charitable interest goes to the top 20 percent, with 38 percent of the benefit going to the top 1 percent. For some other deductions and exclusions, while it may not be the very top of the income distribution that benefits the most, the stark regressivity up until that point should not be ignored. While only 14 percent of the benefit for the exclusion of net pension contributions and ...
Definition: The growth rate in the welfare aggregate of the bottom 40% is computed as the annualized average growth rate in per capita real consumption or income of the bottom 40% of the population in the income distribution in a country from household surveys over a roughly 5-year period. Mean per capita real consumption or income is measured at 2011 Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) using the PovcalNet (http://iresearch.worldbank.org/PovcalNet). For some countries means are not reported due to grouped and/or confidential data. The annualized growth rate is computed as (Mean in final year/Mean in initial year)^(1/(Final year - Initial year)) - 1. The reference year is the year in which the underlying household survey data was collected. In cases for which the data collection period bridged two calendar years, the first year in which data were collected is reported. The initial year refers to the nearest survey collected 5 years before the most recent survey available, only surveys collected between ...
Lee A. Lillard, director of the Retirement Research Center at the University of Michigan, senior research scientist at its Institute for Social Research, and professor of economics, developed a unique method for analyzing the rich compendium of data collected by the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) since its inception in 1968. Lee died in December 2000, and his colleagues at PSID decided to provide the fruits of his work to the research community so others might benefit from an exploration of his techniques and methodologies for analyzing data. Lee created what he called clean processes to investigate a number of dynamic behaviors that are measured longitudinally in PSID, such as employment, marriage-divorce, and fertility. He and his programmers and research assistants put these processes into a consistent framework, and made decisions about how to resolve inconsistencies, missing items, etc. Data from the files can be entered, as appropriate, in dynamic econometric models of related and ...
Regression Analysis to Forecast Inequality in Ontario. My objective is to forecast the impact of the three fiscal plans on after-tax income inequality in Ontario because understanding inequality impacts should be a critical decision criteria in the election.. There are a number of challenges associated with this endeavour. First, as far as I am aware, there is no publicly-available model that calculates fiscal policy changes in Ontario. Perhaps the SPSD model developed by Statistics Canada comes closest, in this respect, in that it can estimate impacts of well-defined fiscal policy changes by income categories (such as the the so-called middle-class personal income tax cut announced by the PC leader), but does not provide an inequality measure such as the Gini coefficient.. The second challenge is lack of specificity. As I noted in the CCPA article, the PC party has not released a comprehensive fiscal plan, but have been running on a set of ad-hoc announcements and general commitments, ...
Our first important result is that we do indeed find an inverted-U shaped relation between income and per capita beer consumption in all pooled OLS and fixed effects specifications. From the pooled OLS regressions (Table 3), we find that countries with higher levels of income initially consume more beer. Yet, the second order coefficient on income is negative, indicating that from a certain income level onwards, higher incomes lead to lower per capita beer consumption. The first and second order effects for income are strongly significant and the coefficients are quite robust across the different specifications.. The fixed effects regression results confirm this (Table 4), so the non-linear relationship for income holds not only between countries, but also within individual countries over time. As a country becomes richer, beer consumption rises, but when incomes continue to grow, beer consumption starts to decline at some income level. We calculated the turning point, i.e. the point where beer ...
The wage-based Gini coefficient reflects inequality in wages earned by full-time, full-year employed workers in each city. The source data comes from the American Community Survey, years 2011 to 2014, via the Integrated Public Use Microdata System maintained by the Minnesota Population Center at the University of Minnesota. Because place is unavailable for public use of microdata, values are reported for place after interpolation from the Public Use Microdata Areas, with population weighting based on the 2010 decennial census via the Missouri Census Data Centers Geographic Correspondence Engine. Calculations are performed by Community Development and Policy Studies division of the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.. The Gini coefficient is calculated by comparing the cumulative wage income of all individuals across the sample with the overall cumulative wage income. The Gini coefficient originated with Corrado Gini in the 1912 paper Variability and Mutability as a measure of income inequality. ...
As influences from standard medical practice, bureaucrats, teachers, and caregivers funnel into a treatment plan that often asks for a drug, I cant help but wonder if we sometimes medicate for social disadvantages that are associated with low income.. A study published in this months Archives of General Psychiatry found that a decrease in household income was linked to an increased risk of developing mental disorders, compared to those with no change in income. 34,653, non-institutionalized adults from the United States general population, aged 20 and up, participated in standardized interviews, three years apart. The study also found those with household incomes less than $20,000 to have a higher risk of developing a mood disorder over the three year study period, compared to households making $70,000 or more.. With the recent worldwide economic recession, we were particularly interested in examining the relationship between change in household income and risk for mental health problems, ...
There are 41 low income housing apartment communities offering 80,246 affordable apartments for rent in Bell County, Texas. Bell County features 1,710 low income apartments with rental assistance where households typically pay no more than 30% of their income towards rent. Additionally, there are 78,460 other low income apartments that dont provide direct rental assistance but remain affordable to low income households in Bell County.
There are 41 low income housing apartment communities offering 80,246 affordable apartments for rent in Bell County, Texas. Bell County features 1,710 low income apartments with rental assistance where households typically pay no more than 30% of their income towards rent. Additionally, there are 78,460 other low income apartments that dont provide direct rental assistance but remain affordable to low income households in Bell County.
This article originally appeared on Time.com. Money may not buy you happiness, but it may help buy you health, and ultimately a longer life. Researchers analyzing data on income disparities and health outcomes in the U.S. found that health gaps between the rich and poor are widening, and thats translating to bigger differences in how long people live.. In a study published in The Lancet, scientists from Boston University School of Public Health report that the richest 1% of Americans live an average of 10 to 15 years longer than the poorest 1%. Since 2001, those with the least income showed no increase in survival, while people in middle and high incomes groups have gained on average two years in life expectancy.. [brightcove:5370089730001 default]. Poverty has always been linked to poorer health outcomes, because people in lower income groups cannot afford as much health care and also tend to adopt less healthy habits, such as smoking and eating an unhealthy diet. But in recent years, several ...
Friday, October 29, 2004. Press release from the issuing company. ATLANTA, Oct. 28 -- Georgia-Pacific Corp. today reported third quarter 2004 income from continuing operations of $239 million (91 cents diluted earnings per share) compared with income from continuing operations of $184 million (73 cents diluted earnings per share) in third quarter 2003. Third quarter 2004 net income before unusual items was $235 million (89 cents diluted earnings per share). Unusual items totaled $5 million before income taxes (2 cents diluted earnings per share) and included gains from facility sales and working capital settlements from earlier divestitures, offset in part by severance and other restructuring costs across several business units. This quarters results include a pretax charge of $24 million ($15 million after tax or 6 cents diluted loss per share) for the expensing of stock-based compensation. Third quarter 2003 net income before unusual items was $158 million (63 cents diluted earnings per ...