Colon cancers are thought to be an inevitable result of aging, while testicular cancers are thought to develop in only a small fraction of men, beginning in utero. These models of carcinogenesis are, in part, based upon age-specific incidence data. The specific incidence for colon cancer appears to monotonically increase with age, while that of testicular cancer increases to a maximum value at about 35 years of age, then declines to nearly zero by the age of 80. We hypothesized that the age-specific incidence for these two cancers is similar; the apparent difference is caused by a longer development time for colon cancer and the lack of age-specific incidence data for people over 84 years of age. Here we show that a single distribution can describe the age-specific incidence of both colon carcinoma and testicular cancer. Furthermore, this distribution predicts that the specific incidence of colon cancer should reach a maximum at about age 90 and then decrease. Data on the incidence of colon carcinoma
Small bowel tumours occurred rarely, with an average annual incidence rate of 9.9 per million people. Carcinoid tumours and adenocarcinomas were the most common histological subtypes, with average annual incidence rates of 3.8 and 3.7 per million people respectively, followed by lymphomas (1.1 per million people) and sarcomas (1.3 per million people). For all histological subtypes, men had higher rates than women. Most tumours occurred in older adults; over 90% of cases occurred in people over the age of 40. During the 18-year study period, the incidence of small bowel tumours has risen slowly. In white men, black men and black women, rises in the incidence of adenocarcinomas, malignant carcinoids and lymphomas contributed to this trend. In white women, the incidence of adenocarcinomas, was stable while malignant carcinoids and lymphomas rose. The incidence of sarcomas was steady for all groups except black women, for which it fell. The histological types were distributed by anatomical subsite: ...
Manoharan, N., Tyagi, B. B., & Raina, V. (2010). Cancer incidences in rural Delhi--2004-05. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 11(1), 73-77. Abstract There are no data available on cancer incidence pattern in rural Delhi. This is the first report on cancer incidence among Delhi Rural population during 2004-05 which gives the first hand information on cancer incidence. The data for this report has been collected by Delhi Population based cancer registry. The sources for cancer registration are more than 162 Government Hospitals/centers and 250 private hospitals and nursing homes. A total of 594 cancer cases with 317 males and 277 females were registered during the period 1st January 2004 to 31st December 2005. The age adjusted (world population) incidence rates for all sites were 55.2 per 100,000 for... Show More ...
Metro/Nonmetro: USDA Economic Research Service. Tier: NC Department of Commerce. Population: US Census - Population Estimates Program. Child Population: US Census - Population Estimates Program. Elderly Population: US Census - Population Estimates Program. White: US Census - Population Estimates Program. Hispanic/Latinx: US Census - Population Estimates Program. African American: US Census - Population Estimates Program. Asian: US Census - Population Estimates Program. Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander: US Census - Population Estimates Program. American Indian: US Census - Population Estimates Program. Two or More Races: US Census - Population Estimates Program. High School Graduation: NC Department of Instruction. Reading Proficiency: NC Department of Instruction. College Graduation: U.S. Census - American Community Survey. Uninsured Adults: US Census - Small Area Health Insurance Estimates. Uninsured Children: US Census - Small Area Health Insurance Estimates. Medicaid & CHIP Enrollees: NC ...
Metro/Nonmetro: USDA Economic Research Service. Tier: NC Department of Commerce. Population: US Census - Population Estimates Program. Child Population: US Census - Population Estimates Program. Elderly Population: US Census - Population Estimates Program. White: US Census - Population Estimates Program. Hispanic/Latinx: US Census - Population Estimates Program. African American: US Census - Population Estimates Program. Asian: US Census - Population Estimates Program. Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander: US Census - Population Estimates Program. American Indian: US Census - Population Estimates Program. Two or More Races: US Census - Population Estimates Program. High School Graduation: NC Department of Instruction. Reading Proficiency: NC Department of Instruction. College Graduation: U.S. Census - American Community Survey. Uninsured Adults: US Census - Small Area Health Insurance Estimates. Uninsured Children: US Census - Small Area Health Insurance Estimates. Medicaid & CHIP Enrollees: NC ...
Objectives To examine trends in prostate cancer incidence and mortality in England and Wales between 1971 and 1998, using a newly developed and validated national cancer database and the national mortality database.. Methods Age-standardized incidence and death rates were calculated directly and trends in relative survival rates among men with prostate cancer registered during 1971-1990 were examined.. Results The annual number of new cases of prostate cancer registered in England and Wales increased by 179% between 1971 and 1993, from 6174 to 17 210. Directly age-standardized incidence rates increased by 104% between 1971 and 1993, from 29 to 59 per 100 000. The number of deaths from prostate cancer increased by 113% between 1971 and 1998, from 4027 to 8570. Directly age-standardized death rates increased by 49% between 1971 and 1995 and then decreased by 8% between 1995 and 1998, an overall increase of 38% (20 to 27 per 100 000) between 1971 and 1998. The relative survival rate for prostate ...
Background: The advent of PSA testing in the late 1980s substantially increased prostate cancer incidence rates. Concerns about overscreening and overdiagnosis subsequently led professional guidelines (circa 2000 and later) to recommend against routine PSA testing. We evaluated trends in prostate cancer incidence, including late-stage diagnoses, from 1995 through 2012. Methods: We used joinpoint regression analyses to evaluate all-, localized/regional-, and distant-stage prostate cancer incidence trends based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data. We stratified analyses by age (50-69, 70+). We reported incidence trends as annual percent change (APC). Results: Overall age-adjusted incidence rates for localized/regional stage PCa have been declining since 2001, sharply from 2010 to 2012 (APC -13.1, 95% CI -23.5 to -1.3). Distant-stage incidence rates have declined since 1995, with greater declines from 1995 to 1997 (APC - 8.4, 95% CI -2.3 to -14.1) than from 2003 to 2012 (APC ...
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Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been shown to predict occurrence of cardiovascular events in the general population. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of NLR to predict major cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in HIV-infected subjects. We performed a retrospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients residing in the Local Health Authority (LHA) of Brescia, northern Italy, from 2000 to 2012. The incidence of CVD events in HIV-positive patients was compared with that expected in the general population living in the same area, computing standardized incidence ratios (SIRs). To evaluate the predictive role of NLR, univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were applied, computing hazard ratios (HRs). A total of 3766 HIV-infected patients (mean age 38.1 years, 71.3% males) were included (person-years 28768.6). A total of 134 CVD events occurred in 119 HIV-infected patients. A 2-fold increased risk (SIR 2.02) of CVD was found in HIV-infected patients compared to the ...
Background: Secular trends in incidence and prognosis of molecular breast cancer subtypes are poorly described. We studied long-term trends in a population of Norwegian women born 1886-1977.. Methods: A total of 52,949 women were followed for breast cancer incidence, and 1,423 tumors were reclassified into molecular subtypes using IHC and in situ hybridization. We compared incidence rates among women born 1886-1928 and 1929-1977, estimated age-specific incidence rate ratios (IRR), and performed multiple imputations to account for unknown subtype. Prognosis was compared for women diagnosed before 1995 and in 1995 or later, estimating cumulative risk of death and HRs.. Results: Between 50 and 69 years of age, incidence rates of Luminal A and Luminal B (HER2−) were higher among women born in 1929 or later, compared with before 1929 [IRRs 50-54 years; after imputations: 3.5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.8-6.9 and 2.5; 95% CI, 1.2-5.2, respectively], with no clear differences for other subtypes. ...
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multi-factorial disease in which diet is believed to play a role. Little is known about the health effects of specific regional diets. The Nordic diet is high in fat and sugar but also includes a range of traditional products with anticipated health-promoting effects. The aim of this cohort study was to determine whether a healthy Nordic food index consisting of fish, cabbage, rye bread, oatmeal, apples, pears and root vegetables was related to CRC incidence. Data were obtained from a prospective cohort study of 57,053 Danish men and women aged 50-64 years, of whom 1025 developed CRC (13 years follow-up). Incidence rate ratios (IRR) with 95 % CI were calculated from Cox proportional hazard models. Women who strongly adhered to a healthy Nordic food index had a 35 % lower incidence of CRC than women with poor adherence (adjusted IRR, 0·65; 95 % CI 0·46, 0·94); a similar tendency was found for men. Women had a 9 % lower incidence of CRC per point adherence to the ...
Data analysis. The average annual incidence of cancer in Gipuzkoa for the period 1998-2002 is presented for all sites together, and also for specific sites, and expressed in rates per 100,000 persons at risk per year. Crude, agespecific and age-standardized incidence rates were calculated by gender, using the direct method and adjusted with European and World population data3. Furthermore, cumulative incidence rates were calculated for each site and gender, from birth to 65 and 75 years of age.. The cancer incidence trend for the period 1986-2002 was studied for all tumours and the most frequent sites. The general trend was quantified by applying the Poisson regression12, after adjusting for age, with separate models for men and women. In this model, a linear trend was assumed for the logarithm of the rates. Goodness of fit was assessed by devianceand its degrees of freedom. The significance level was set at 0.05. In the case of prostate cancer, the Poisson model did not fit correlated as a ...
Exposed incidence rate = 0.000552. Non-exposed incidence rate = 0.001166. Incidence rate difference = -0.000613. Approximate 95% confidence interval = -0.000965 to -0.000261. Chi-square = 11.678635 P = .0006. Incidence rate ratio = 0.473934. Exact 95% confidence interval = 0.295128 to 0.746416. Conditional maximum likelihood estimate of rate ratio = 0.473934. Exact Fisher 95% confidence interval = 0.295128 to 0.746416. Exact Fisher one sided P = 0.0004, two sided P = 0.0007. Exact mid-P 95% confidence interval = 0.302362 to 0.730939. Exact mid-P one sided P = 0.0003, two sided P = 0.0006. Here we may conclude with 95% confidence that the true population value for the difference between the two incidence rates lies somewhere between -0.001 and 0.0003. We may also conclude with 95% confidence that the incidence rate for those who used postmenopausal hormones in the circumstances of the study was between 0.30 and 0.75 of that for those who did not take post- menopausal hormones.. P values ...
Breast cancer accounts for one-third of cancer diagnoses and 15% of cancer deaths in U.S. women. Its 192,000 cases and 40,000 deaths in 2001 make it the most common incident cancer (excluding superficial skin cancers) and second leading cause of cancer death. Over one-half of the 300,000 breast cancer deaths worldwide in 1990 (the latest year with such data) occurred in developed countries, but annual mortality rates ranged from 27/100,000 women in northern Europe to 4/100,000 women in Asia. Incidence data are less complete, although 1988-1992 rates varied threefold: low in Asia, intermediate in South America and Eastern Europe, and high in North America and Western Europe. Migrant studies suggest that lifestyle factors largely explain these international differences. U.S. incidence rates are generally 20%−40% higher in white women than in non-white women, but are higher in young (under age 40) black women than in young white women. Incidence rates rose in the 1970s, leveled off in the 1990s, ...
Objective : To facilitate the quantitative comparison of AIDS incidence statistics between countries and with other diseases using statistics based on age-standardized incidence rates instead of absolute number of cases. Design : AIDS incidence rates for 19 countries belonging to the World Health Organization WHO European region, and for...
From 1980 to 2010, the crude incidence of diagnosed diabetes increased 161% from 3.3 to 8.6 per 1,000 population. Similarly, the age-adjusted incidence increased 140% from 3.5 to 8.4 per 1,000 population, suggesting that the majority of the change was not due to the aging of the population. However, from 1980 to 2010, incidence did not increase at a constant rate. Both crude and age-adjusted incidence remained unchanged in the 1980s, and then increased in the 1990s through 2010. From 2008 through 2010, both crude and age-adjusted incidence has shown little change.
The National Incidence Study (NIS) is a congressionally mandated, periodic research effort to assess the incidence of child abuse and neglect in the United States. Information is provided in the following categories:
Brown, L., Hoover, R., Silverman, D., Baris, D., Hayes, R., Swanson, G., ... Fraumeni, J. (2001). Excess Incidence of Squamous Cell Esophageal Cancer among US Black Men: Role of Social Class and Other Risk Factors. American Journal of Epidemiology, 153, 114 - 122. ...
Background: The prevalence of asthma has been rising all over the world. The causes of this epidemic are still not completely known. In this study we aim to estimate the separate effects of age, period and birth cohort on the trends of asthma incidence in Italy.. Methods: Individual information on the history of asthma was collected on 35,375 adults aged 20-64 and born from 1940 to 1989, who were randomly sampled from the general Italian population in 1990/93, 1998/2000 and 2007/10. Overall 3,295 subjects reported asthma from 1,293,801 person-years at risk. Age-specific incidence rates were estimated for both sexes using 5-year age classes in different cohorts and period. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the incidence rates by age, birth cohort and period in males and females.. Results: Age, period and cohort showed significant independent effects (p<0.001) on incidence rates of asthma, which was greater in younger subjects and dramatically increased in recent generations. ...
56 Cancers originate due to the accumulation of multiple mutations. The mechanism causing this, particularly in the case of epithelial cancers, or carcinomas, has not been clearly determined. Epidemiological studies indicate that environmental and lifestyle factors can account for most carcinomas, but do not point to a specific mechanism. Some models for human carcinogenesis suggest that the accumulation of four to six somatic mutations drives the neoplastic transformation. The number of mutations, four to six, is based almost exclusively on the analysis of age-specific incidence data. Several anomalies exist with the age-specific incidence data. For instance, breast carcinoma incidence data does not follow this model. (This has been explained by suggesting that breast tissue ages at a different rate than calendar time.) Prostate carcinoma incidence increases more rapidly with age than most others, implying that 15 to 20 mutations are required. Hence, one approach to better understand epithelial ...
Aims/hypothesis This study is an analysis of the relationship between ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiance, the primary source of circulating vitamin D in humans, and age-standardised incidence rates of...
BACKGROUND: Timely assessment of the burden of HIV/AIDS is essential for policy setting and programme evaluation. In this report from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we provide national estimates of levels and trends of HIV/AIDS incidence, prevalence, coverage of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and mortality for 195 countries and territories from 1980 to 2015.. METHODS: For countries without high-quality vital registration data, we estimated prevalence and incidence with data from antenatal care clinics and population-based seroprevalence surveys, and with assumptions by age and sex on initial CD4 distribution at infection, CD4 progression rates (probability of progression from higher to lower CD4 cell-count category), on and off antiretroviral therapy (ART) mortality, and mortality from all other causes. Our estimation strategy links the GBD 2015 assessment of all-cause mortality and estimation of incidence and prevalence so that for each draw from the uncertainty distribution ...
OBJECTIVE A prospective study was conducted to assess the evolution of the incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (insulin-dependent) in Málaga among children less than 14 years of age between 1982 and 1993. PATIENTS AND METHODS The capture-recapture method was chosen for estimating the probability of ascertainment and two sources were used: The hospital registry and Málaga Diabetes Association members. RESULTS We detected 437 children and the ascertainment achieved was 98.8%. The average annual incidence was 14.3/10(5) and the prevalence at the end of the period was 0.78 patients/10(3). During the last 6 years of the observation period, the incidence rose by 42%. The highest incidence was found among children between 10 and 13 years of age in both sexes. The age of onset and female/male ratio increased during the study period. There was an inverse relationship with monthly temperature. CONCLUSIONS In comparison with other European epidemiological studies, we found a higher incidence and
Official descriptive data from France showed a strong increase in breast-cancer incidence between 1980 to 2005 without a corresponding change in breast-cancer mortality. This study quantifies the part of incidence increase due to secular changes in risk factor exposure and in overdiagnosis due to organised or opportunistic screening. Overdiagnosis was defined as non progressive tumours diagnosed as cancer at histology or progressive cancer that would remain asymptomatic until time of death for another cause. Comparison between age-matched cohorts from 1980 to 2005. All women residing in France and born 1911-1915, 1926-1930 and 1941-1945 are included. Sources are official data sets and published French reports on screening by mammography, age and time specific breast-cancer incidence and mortality, hormone replacement therapy, alcohol and obesity. Outcome measures include breast-cancer incidence differences adjusted for changes in risk factor distributions between pairs of age-matched cohorts who had
The moving average rates for the animated map were calculated by summing the number of cases from the current year, the two previous years and the next two years. The same process was used for state and individual county populations. The case sum was divided by the population sum and then multiplied by 100,000 to yield a five-year average incidence rate per 100,000 population. For more information about rates and their calculation please refer to the glossary. The results of these calculations are shown in the accompanying table. These rates are also depicted as part of the dynamic legend in the animated map. All rates for the maximum county column are based on twenty or more cases.. The rate classification scheme shown in the time series maps is based on equal numbers of counties in each of the four rate classes at the initial time period, labeled 1982. The values that demarcate the boundary between any two of the classes are held constant throughout the progression of maps. Over time, one can ...
While the use of older protease inhibitors (PIs) including indinavir (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.47/5 years) and lopinavir boosted with ritonavir (/r) (IRR 1.54/5 years) has been associated with excess risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) it is unknown whether this also applies to contemporarily used PIs.. D:A:D study participants under follow-up (FU) after 01.01.2009 were followed to the earliest of CVD, last visit plus 6 months or 01.02.2016. CVD was defined as centrally validated myocardial infarction, stroke, sudden cardiac death or invasive cardiovascular procedures (coronary bypass, coronary angioplasty and carotid endarterectomy). Poisson regression models assessed associations between CVD and use of two contemporarily and frequently used PIs atazanavir (ATV/r) and darunavir (DRV/r).. Of 35,711 included persons, 1,157 developed CVD (IR 5.3/1000 PYFU [95%CI 5.0-5.6]) during 7.0 (IQR 6.3-7.1) years median FU. The crude CVD IR increased gradually from 4.91/1000 PYFU [4.59-5.23] in those ...
The Millennium Declaration in 2000 brought special global attention to HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria through the formulation of Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 6. The Global Burden of Disease 2013 study provides a consistent and comprehensive approach to disease estimation for between 1990 and 2013, and an opportunity to assess whether accelerated progress has occured since the Millennium Declaration.To estimate incidence and mortality for HIV, we used the UNAIDS Spectrum model appropriately modified based on a systematic review of available studies of mortality with and without antiretroviral therapy (ART). For concentrated epidemics, we calibrated Spectrum models to fit vital registration data corrected for misclassification of HIV deaths. In generalised epidemics, we minimised a loss function to select epidemic curves most consistent with prevalence data and demographic data for all-cause mortality. We analysed counterfactual scenarios for HIV to assess years of life saved through prevention of
Patients eligible for inclusion numbered 1480; of these, 11% died during ART treatment, 11% were lost to follow-up, and 6% transferred out. Median follow-up was 2.1 years (range, 1.0-4.5 years). There were a total of 203 incident TB infections (7.3 cases/per 100 person years [p100py]), of which 64% were microbiologically confirmed. At baseline, 448 (30%) persons were considered to have prevalent TB. The number of new TB cases was the highest during the first 4 months of ART at 18.8 cases p100py (95% confidence interval [CI]: 15.2-23.3). In multivariate analysis, the incidence rate during the early ART period remained significantly higher than in the late ART period (adjusted incident rate ratio [IRR]=1.7; 95% CI: 1.1-2.6; P=0.03), even adjusting for a history of TB, baseline CD4 cell count, and updated viral load. During long-term ART, TB incidence was highest during person-time accrued within the CD4 cell stratum of ,100 cells/mL (16.7 cases p100py; 95% CI: 12.8-21.6). At CD4 counts of 200-500 ...
Even as the cure rate continues to improve, the incidence of childhood cancer has been steadily increasing over the last few decades.
In the U.S., breast cancer is the second most common cancer in women after skin cancer. It can occur in both men and women, but it is rare in men. Each year there are about 100 times more new cases of breast cancer in women than in men.. ...
We analysed 32 national cross-sectional datasets. Exposure of women in their first or second pregnancy to full malaria prevention with IPTp or ITNs was significantly associated with decreased risk of neonatal mortality (protective efficacy [PE] 18%, 95% CI 4-30; incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0•820, 95% CI 0•698-0•962), compared with newborn babies of mothers with no protection, after exact matching and controlling for potential confounding factors. Compared with women with no protection, exposure of pregnant women during their first two pregnancies to full malaria prevention in pregnancy through IPTp or ITNs was significantly associated with reduced odds of low birthweight (PE 21%, 14-27; IRR 0•792, 0•732-0•857), as measured by a combination of weight and birth size perceived by the mother, after exact matching and controlling for potential confounding factors. ...
When ε = 0, our baseline BED incidence was an impossibly high 9.5% and, against reasonable expectation, was a nondecreasing function of age, independent of the assumed value of Ω (Fig. 1b). Conversely, the Hargrove adjustment, with ε = 0.052, gave plausible incidence estimates, decreasing with age as expected [2].. Thus, insisting that ε = 0 implies unrealistically long estimates of the mean window period and an inappropriate age-specific incidence function. The problem can be resolved by considering the results for 918 HIV positive women whose baseline CD4 level (,350 cells/μl) suggested that the majority had already been HIV positive for more than 2 years. One year later, when most had then been positive for more than 3 years, 35 tested recent by BED. This implies at least one of the following scenarios: There are window periods more than 3 years, contrary to Brookmeyers assumption but consistent with other evidence (Fig. 1a); in some cases ODn had declined secondarily, as noted ...
Over the years, the age-adjusted incidence rate due to invasive cancer has continued to decline for NJ males but has remained fairly steady for NJ females. In the total NJ population and among each racial/ethnic group, males have higher incidence rates compared to females. The age-adjusted incidence rate of total invasive cancer among NJ Black males, which has historically ranked highest for decades, is now trending below White males in recent years. For recent years, county incidence rates range from a low of 389 per 100,000 population in Hudson County to a high of 544 per 100,000 population in Gloucester County ...
Results Among men without T2DM, age-standardised incidence of lung cancer (per 100,000 of population) in the least deprived and most deprived quintiles was, respectively, 165.2 (95% CI 155.7, 174.8) and 551.0 (533.4, 568.7). Corresponding rates in men with T2DM were 208.1 (172.4, 243.8) and 363.3 (322.7, 403.8). Relative risk of lung cancer (T2DM vs. no diabetes) ranged from 1.22 (0.98, 1.53) in the least deprived quintile to 0.67 (0.59, 0.76) in the most deprived quintile, decreasing monotonically in intermediate quintiles. Across all SES quintiles combined RR of lung cancer in men with T2DM was 0.81 (0.73, 0.89). The interaction of SES with T2DM was highly significant (p , 0.001).. ...
Biological measures of aging are important for understanding the health of an aging population, with epigenetics particularly promising. Previous studies found that tumor tissue is epigenetically older than its donors are chronologically. We examined whether blood Δage (the discrepancy between epigenetic and chronological ages) can predict cancer incidence or mortality, thus assessing its potential as a cancer biomarker. In a prospective cohort, Δage and its rate of change over time were calculated in 834 blood leukocyte samples collected from 442 participants free of cancer at blood draw. About 3-5 years before cancer onset or death, Δage was associated with cancer risks in a dose-responsive manner (P = 0.02) and a one-year increase in Δage was associated with cancer incidence (HR: 1.06, 95% CI: 1.02-1.10) and mortality (HR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07-1.28). Participants with smaller Δage and decelerated epigenetic aging over time had the lowest risks of cancer incidence (P = 0.003) and mortality ...
Urinary tract inFection is very common and has a very high incidence rate in Indonesia. Usually it caused by bacterial infection, so the diagnostic microbiology play a very important role in the management of antibiotic ...
Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, with increasing incidences in all countries regardless of their economic status [1]. It is estimated that in 2012 there were 14 million new cases of cancer [1], and 8.2 million related deaths [2]. In the case of breast cancer, one of the most frequently diagnosed in women, incidence rates vary greatly worldwide, ranged between 19.3 and 89.7 per 100 000 women, and in most of the developing regions the incidence rates are below 40 per 100,000 [3], representing 6.35% of all cancer-related deaths [2 ...
CONTEXT: B vitamins and factors related to 1-carbon metabolism help to maintain DNA integrity and regulate gene expression and may affect cancer risk. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if 1-carbon metabolism factors are associated with onset of lung cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) recruited 519,978 participants from 10 countries between 1992 and 2000, of whom 385,747 donated blood. By 2006, 899 lung cancer cases were identified and 1770 control participants were individually matched by country, sex, date of birth, and date of blood collection. Serum levels were measured for 6 factors of 1-carbon metabolism and cotinine. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Odds ratios (ORs) of lung cancer by serum levels of 4 B vitamins (B(2), B(6), folate [B(9)], and B(12)), methionine, and homocysteine. RESULTS: Within the entire EPIC cohort, the age-standardized incidence rates of lung cancer (standardized to the world population, aged 35-79 years) ...
Now these days, breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer occur in females which are diagnosed as ductal carcinoma and lobular carcinoma. It also occurs in males, however it is more prevalent in females and quite rare in males but incidence trends are same for both genders. It is one of the leading causes of mortality in many developing countries and has a high incidence rate in developed nations including England, Japan, US and many other European countries. Since, developed nations... ...
This report describes studies on HIV incidence estimates in European countries and contains the results of a literature review of published incidence studies using Recent Infection Testing Algorithms (RITA) assays, an epidemiological framework for HIV incidence studies in Europe and a technical guide on how to integrate RITA as part of routine HIV surveillance. ...
Breast cancer incidence varies widely among countries of the world for largely unknown reasons. We investigated whether country-level light at night (LAN) is associated with incidence. We compared inc
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Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is one of the three causes of death that have most increased worldwide in the last 20 years. However, CKD is not homogeneously distributed. A series in the Clinical Kidney Journal (CKJ) identifies CKD hotspots, defined as countries, regions, communities or ethnicities with higher than average incidence of CKD, and, thus, help find risk factors.. ...
I do not suggest that the incidence of words at different Yngvean depths can be predicted purely from statistics on the average incidence of nonterminal and terminal daughters in individual productions. If that were possible, the figures of Table 2 would display a regularity that we do not find. Assuming that not only the proportion L of left-branching daughters but also the mean number b of daughter nodes per mother node, and the proportion R of rightmost daughters which are nonterminal, are constant for different sentence-lengths, then each figure in Table 2 ought to differ by a constant factor bL/(1 - R) from its predecessor. Even if the figures of Table 2 were not to hand, we would know that things are not that simple. The great majority of root nodes in the modified SUSANNE Corpus have the same label S, main clause, and the class of those productions which share some particular mother label will not in general contain the same proportion of left-branching daughters as found in all ...
Objective - The objective of *** is from the Healthy People 2020 project done by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.. Incidence Rate (95% Confidence Interval) - The incidence rate is based upon 100,000 people and is an annual rate (or average annual rate) based on the time period indicated. Rates are age-adjusted by 5-year age groups to the 2000 U.S. standard million population ...
Objective - The objective of *** is from the Healthy People 2020 project done by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.. Incidence Rate (95% Confidence Interval) - The incidence rate is based upon 100,000 people and is an annual rate (or average annual rate) based on the time period indicated. Rates are age-adjusted by 5-year age groups to the 2000 U.S. standard million population ...
Classic (or "cumulative") case-control sampling designs do not admit inferences about quantities of interest other than risk ratios, and then only by making the rare events assumption. Probabilities, risk differences, and other quantities cannot be computed without knowledge of the population incidence fraction. Similarly, density (or "risk set") case-control sampling designs do not allow inferences about quantities other than the rate ratio. Rates, rate differences, cumulative rates, risks, and other quantities cannot be estimated unless auxiliary information about the underlying cohort such as the number of controls in each full risk set is available. Most scholars who have considered the issue recommend reporting more than just the relative risks and rates, but auxiliary population information needed to do this is not usually available. We address this problem by developing methods that allow valid inferences about all relevant quantities of interest from either type of case-control study ...
Classic (or "cumulative") case-control sampling designs do not admit inferences about quantities of interest other than risk ratios, and then only by making the rare events assumption. Probabilities, risk differences, and other quantities cannot be computed without knowledge of the population incidence fraction. Similarly, density (or "risk set") case-control sampling designs do not allow inferences about quantities other than the rate ratio. Rates, rate differences, cumulative rates, risks, and other quantities cannot be estimated unless auxiliary information about the underlying cohort such as the number of controls in each full risk set is available. Most scholars who have considered the issue recommend reporting more than just the relative risks and rates, but auxiliary population information needed to do this is not usually available. We address this problem by developing methods that allow valid inferences about all relevant quantities of interest from either type of case-control study ...
There were 73,111 admissions and 704 index IHCAs, yielding an incidence rate of 9.6 IHCAs per 1000 admissions. The 2 procedure codes were not utilized during this period, but 466 admissions were billed for ICD‐9 427.50, of which 300 were confirmed prospectively (see Table 1). However, the restocking charge was utilized in 544 instances, of which 406 were true instances. Table 1 shows the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for each of the measures, individually and combined. Using the ICD‐9 code alone would have yielded a calculated incidence of 6.3.. ...
The identification of changes in the recent trend is an important issue in the analysis of cancer mortality and incidence data. We apply a joinpoint regression model to describe such continuous changes and use the grid-search method to fit the regression function with unknown joinpoints assuming con …
Although popular literature cites between 25,000 and 100,000 parental child snatchings a year, no empirical studies have been conducted to support this estimate. To determine an empirical estimate of the extent of parental child snatchings, telephone interviews were conducted by Louis Harris and Associates with a representative cross section of adults, 18 years of age and over, at 3,745 sampling points within the United States, between June and August of 1982. Respondents were read a definition of child snatching and were subsequently asked if they knew of an instance of parental child snatching in their family or in a family they personally knew. Respondents who answered
Researchers found that declining cancer mortality rates reduced the burden of mortality from leading cancers, but this progress was offset by cancer incidence increases.
The analysis of epidemiologic cohort studies usually requires person-years (py) calculation to measure the exact time at risk. Person-years are not only used to compute different rates within a cohort resulting in e.g. rate ratios (RR), but also to calculate the commonly applied standardized incidence or mortality ratio (SIR, SMR) to compare the observed number of certain events with the expected number given the rates in the underlying population [1]. A SIR or a SMR estimates the occurrence of an event in a population relative to what might be expected if the population had the same experience as some larger comparison population designated as normal or average or reference.. To be able to calculate the exact accumulated number of person-years within a cohort, the dates (i) begin of follow-up and (ii) end of follow-up must be known for each individual. For estimating the SIR, the date of disease onset and reference incidence rates for comparison (to calculate the expected number of cases) ...
A rate is the number of events in a given population over a defined time period and has 3 components: a numerator, a denominator, and time. A crude rate is based on direct computation of incidence for the whole population without taking into consideration sub-group variations. It is therefore misleading and unrepresentative. Inference and population comparisons based on crude rates are not valid. Rates can be specific for age, gender, race, and cause. Specific rates are more informative than crude rates but are cognitively difficult to internalize, digest, and understand so many rates or be able to reach some conclusions. An Adjusted or standardized rate is a representative summary that is a weighted average of specific rates free of the deficiencies of both the crude and specific rates. Standardization eliminates the confusing or confounding effects due to subgroups. Standardization of rates is achieved using mathematical formulas and procedures that we will not discuss in this preliminary ...
Other articles where Legal incidence is discussed: government economic policy: Incidence of taxation and expenditure: …usual to distinguish between the legal incidence of a tax and its effective, or final, incidence. The legal incidence is on the person or company who is legally obliged to pay the tax. Effective, or final, incidence refers to who actually ends up paying the tax; if, for example, the…
Using in thought the at any time-expanding inhabitants, the incidence of AMD will only maximize. In The usa by yourself, it is assumed the incidence may double in another 20 years [one], and so will the means and energy put in in the region. Even though anti-VEGF brokers are made more cost-effective and more readily available, A growing number of patients must depend on them, and Therefore the load to the healthcare system will probably be greater [8 ...
It is possible to put upper confidence bounds on event risks when no events are observed, which may be useful when trying to ascertain possible risks for serious adverse events. A simple rule termed the rule of threes has been proposed such that if no events are observed in a group, then the upper confidence interval limit for the number of events is three, and for the risk (in a sample of size N) is 3/N (Hanley 1983). The application of this rule has not directly been proposed or evaluated for systematic reviews. However, when looking at the incidence of a rare event that is not observed in any of the intervention groups in a series of studies (which randomized trials, non-randomized comparison or case series), it seems reasonable to apply it, taking N as the sum of the sample sizes of the arms receiving intervention. However, it will not provide any information about the relative incidence of the event between two groups.. The value 3 coincides with the upper limit of a one-tailed 95% ...
Incidence Rates for Spontaneous MI in the BMS group.(A) Incidence rates of spontaneous MI in the BMS group in the pre-specified time intervals, and (B) cumulati
As incidence we understand the sum of new instances happening in a defined period of clip. The chance of developing a specific disease during a specified period of clip is the incidence rate.. Incidence rate = new instances in specified period of clip ten factor ( 100,1000aˆ¦ ). Entire population at hazard during the period. Low incidence ( LI ) occurs when new instances emerge in a lower and slower rate than before within a period of clip in the targeted population. Is this low incidence step existent and important adequate to province that bTB is under control and even taking to a possible obliteration? The reply is likely, No.. Low incidence might non reflect the existent state of affairs on a national degree. Low incidence of bTB can propose that the disease is by and large non distributing fast, but has a changeless, slow tendency within the cattle population. The incidence could be higher in some portion of the state and really low in others. We need the prevalence , in order to ...
Figure 2 - Age-standardised incidence of lung cancer by sex, 2008. Data from Ferlay et al., GLOBOCAN 2008 v2.0, 2010. Download Raw Data ...
Decrease the average national incidence density rate (ID) of VAPs to less than 9 episodes per 1000 days of mechanical ventilation. This represents a 40% decrease of the average rate of incidence recorded for 2000-2008 in the Spanish ICUs and a 25% reduction compared with 2009-2010. ...
Weekly log 10 incidence rates from 2001 to 2013 for cities that hostgames, teams (basecamps), or both.(A) Locations of World Cup cities, (B) Log 10incidence rat
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A research is student is interested at looking at a certain effect of a drug. He has database with 15 year worth of information. He intends to measure the risk by using incidence rate. To get the exposure in terms of person-years.
Significant progress has been made in the reduction of cancer incidence and mortality rates. Delay-adjusted incidence rates for all low-income, racial, and ethnic groups combined decreased by 0.7% per year from 1999 to 2007, after stabilizing from 1989 to 1999 and increasing by 1.2% per year from 1975 to 1989. The decline in overall mortality rates accelerated from 1.1% per year from 1993 to 2001 to 1.6% per year from 2001 to 2007 (Jemal et al., 2008). This is real progress. However, very real and widening gaps are masked by these statistics. ...
Larger variance in globally breast cancer incidence could, similarly, manufacturerbe also relevant to absence of put up-industrialization lifetime-types and/or
Results. We identified 2087 patients with L-TGCT and 574 patients with D-TGCT. Their incidence rates per million person-years were 30.3 (95% CI 29.1-31.7) and 8.4 (95% CI 7.7-9.1), respectively. At the end of 2012, prevalence per 100,000 persons was 44.3 (95% CI 42.4-46.3) for L-TGCT and 11.5 (95% CI 10.6-12.6) for D-TGCT. Women made up 61% of the patients with L-TGCT and 51% of the patients with D-TGCT. Median age at diagnosis was 47 years. Ten-year risk of recurrence was 9.8% (95% CI 8.4-11.3%) after L-TGCT and 19.1% (95% CI 15.7-22.7%) after D-TGCT. ...
The analysis of smaller bowel tumors is an ongoing obstacle because of aAZD-7762 collection of drawbacks, such as very low incidence, atypical scientific
incidence definition: The work or an instance of happening; incident: failed to expect criticism and ended up being surprised by its occurrence.; Extent or regularity of event: a higher occurrence of…
What is the angle of incidence? The model rc planes is great when flying in the air, particularly a scale warbird model plane. Trainer plane is more relax in
Figure 1 - Incidence rate of lung cancer (age-standardised rate per 100 000). Data from Ferlay et al., GLOBOCAN 2008 v2.0, 2010. Download Raw Data ...
United States December 2016 - Calendar with American holidays. Monthly calendar for the month December in year 2016. Calendars - online and print friendly - for any year and month
In the the case where a date is accidentally mis-typed leading to a gross mis-calculation of the date range (i.e. 2018 is mis-typed as 3018), a warning will be issued. The default threshold is set at 18262 days (50 years), but the user can define their own threshold by setting the ...
United States January 2011 - Calendar with American holidays. Monthly calendar for the month January in year 2011. Calendars - online and print friendly - for any year and month
Data & statistics on Indiana Lung Cancer Average Incidence and Mortality Rates ALL RACES: Indiana Lung Cancer Average Incidence and Mortality Rates, 1996-2000, Average Indiana Cancer Incidence and Mortality, 1996-2000, Average Indiana Cancer Incidence and Mortality, 1996-2000...
Data & statistics on age-sex distribution and age-specific incidence rate of reported hepatitis e in singapore: Age-sex distribution and age-specific incidence rate of reported hepatitis E in Singapore, 1993 - 2001, Age-sex distribution, age-specific incidence rates, and case-fatality rates of reported legionellosis in Singapore, 1998-2002, Age-specific incidence rates of reported indigenous cases of dengue, Singapore, 2005 and 2007...
Background. A seven-county, predominantly black, rural-poor population in Alabama is targeted for a program aimed at improving access to state-of- the-art cancer care. This paper presents combined age-adjusted cancer incidence rates for predominantly black, rural counties in North Carolina and Georgia similar to the Alabama counties and compares these rates with Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) incidence rates. Methods. Cancer incidence data from 1990 to 1993 were obtained from the Georgia Center for Cancer Statistics for 10 rural counties with predominantly black populations. Likewise, cancer incidence data from 1990 to 1993 were obtained for seven rural-poor counties in North Carolina from the North Carolina Central Cancer Registry. SEER incidence rates from 1990 to 1992 were obtained for nine SEER sites. Results. The overall cancer incidence rare from North Carolina and Georgia is lower by 22% than the SEER rate. Cancer incidence rates for cancers of the breast, ...
The incidence of malignant melanoma has increased markedly among white populations in the recent decades. This may suggest that the incidence of melanoma in situ (MIS), the precursor of malignant melanoma, has also increased; however, few studies have assessed the incidence of MIS drawing on large population-based data sets. The present study aimed to assess MIS incidence trends in Denmark from 1997 to 2011. Data on MIS overall and on the histological subtypes superficial spreading MIS (SSM) and lentigo maligna (LM) were obtained from the Danish Nationwide Registry of Pathology. We calculated overall and age-specific incidence rates for both sexes, age-adjusted according to the world standard population. The average annual percentage change (AAPC) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using log-linear Poisson models. Among both sexes, a high continued increase in MIS incidence rates overall and in that of the histological subtypes SSM and LM were observed during the period from 1997 to ...
BACKGROUND: Contemporary population-based data on age-specific incidence and outcome from acute abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) events are needed to understand the impact of risk factor modification and demographic change, and to inform AAA screening policy. METHODS: In a prospective population-based study (Oxfordshire, UK, 2002-2014), event rates, incidence, early case fatality and long-term outcome from all acute AAA events were determined, both overall and in relation to the four main risk factors: smoking, hypertension, male sex and age. RESULTS: Over the 12-year interval, 103 incident acute AAA events occurred in the study population of 92,728 (men 72·8 per cent; 59·2 per cent 30-day case fatality rate). The incidence per 100,000 population per year was 55 in men aged 65-74 years, but increased to 112 at age 75-84 years and to 298 at age 85 years or above. Some 66·0 per cent of all events occurred in those aged 75 years or more. The incidence at 65-74 years was highest in male smokers (274 per
Studies of the population of Rochester, Minnesota, have provided the only data on temporal trends for the incidence of stroke in North America. Among the residents of Rochester, the average annual incidence rate of stroke declined by 46%, from 213 to 115 per 100,000 population, between 1950-1954 and 1975-1979. The decline occurred in all age and sex groups, but it occurred earlier in women than in men. The rates stabilized in the 1970s, and did so earlier in women. For 1980-1984, the incidence rate of stroke was 17% higher than that for 1975-1979. The onset of the decline in incidence rates coincided with the introduction of effective antihypertensive therapy, but stabilized and increased rates were associated with continuing improvement in the control of hypertension. The increase in the incidence rates of stroke coincided with the introduction of computed tomography, which appeared to increase the detection of less severe strokes. ...
Of 47,000 women followed since 1968, those who had used oral contraceptives (ever-users) had a significantly higher incidence rate of cervical cancer than never-users. After standardisation of rates by age, parity, smoking, social class, number of previously normal cervical smears, and history of sexually transmitted disease, the excess was 41 per 100,000 woman-years for carcinoma-in-situ and 8 per 100,000 woman-years for invasive cervical cancer. Incidence increased with increasing duration of use: the standardised incidence rate for cervical cancer in women who had taken the pill for more than 10 years was four times than in never-users. Ever-users had a lower incidence of other uterine cancers (deficit 5 per 100,000 woman-years); a lower incidence of ovarian cancer was also found (deficit 4 per 100,000), but was not statistically significant. Overall, ever-users had an excess incidence for genital tract cancers 37 per 100,000 woman-years. This excess was mainly from carcinoma-in-situ of the cervix;
The National Cancer Institutes Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program The SEER program, a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute, collects cancer data on a routine basis from designated population-based cancer registries in various areas of the country. Trends in cancer incidence, mortality and patient survival in the United States, as well as many other studies, are derived from this data bank.. Goals of the SEER program are:. , Assembling and reporting, on a periodic basis, estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. , Monitoring annual cancer incidence trends to identify unusual changes in specific forms of cancer occurring in population subgroups defined by geographic, demographic, and social characteristics. , Providing continuing information on changes over time in the extent of disease at diagnosis, trends in therapy, and associated changes in patient survival. , Promoting studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer ...
Thyroid cancer has the fastest growing incidence in the US. However, the underlying causes are still under debate. We analyzed thyroid cancer incidence in the SEER-9 registry from 1973-2010 using multistage carcinogenesis and age-period-cohort models. Multistage models were used to investigate differences in initiation, promotion and malignant conversion rates of thyroid tumors by sex, race, stage, and histology. Models were adjusted for period and cohort trends to investigate the contributions of each factor, and determine whether birth- or diagnosis-year better correlate with observed incidence patterns. Significant increases in thyroid cancer incidence by period or calendar-year were found for all sex, race, stage and histology combinations, particularly for localized cases (a 3- and 4-fold increase from 1973-2010 for females and males, respectively). Multistage analyses suggest that the 3-fold higher incidence in women could be explained by 1.5-fold higher initiation and promotion rates. Analyses by
The National Cancer Institutes Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program The SEER program, a continuing project of the National Cancer Institute, collects cancer data on a routine basis from designated population-based cancer registries in various areas of the country. Trends in cancer incidence, mortality and patient survival in the United States, as well as many other studies, are derived from this data bank.. Goals of the SEER program are:. , Assembling and reporting, on a periodic basis, estimates of cancer incidence and mortality in the United States. , Monitoring annual cancer incidence trends to identify unusual changes in specific forms of cancer occurring in population subgroups defined by geographic, demographic, and social characteristics. , Providing continuing information on changes over time in the extent of disease at diagnosis, trends in therapy, and associated changes in patient survival. , Promoting studies designed to identify factors amenable to cancer ...
The highest risk of imported malaria in Illinois is associated with travel to countries of origin by immigrants to visit family and friends. We used Join point regression to analyze Malaria crude incidence rate (mCIR) trend from 1990 through 2013. We found join point regression a useful way to summarize mCIR trends because it connected the linear line segments over a fixed time interval (annual) and allowed characterization of the trends using the Annual Percent Change.
Cancer incidence data collected by the Guam Cancer Registry for the period 1998 through 2002 were analyzed by cancer site, age, and ethnicity. Ethnicity and site specific age-adjusted cancer incidence rates for Guam residents were calculated utilizing Guam 2000 census data and the U.S. 2000 standard population and were compared to U.S. 2000 data. Age-adjusted total cancer incidence rates per 100,000 population for the major ethnic groups represented on Guam were generally lower than U.S. averages (the exception was the Caucasian group which was higher). Some highlights include: 1). Chamorros (the indigenous people of the Mariana Islands) living on Guam had a slightly lower total cancer incidence rate than the total U.S. population (406.8/100,000 vs. 478.6 U.S.). Chamorros had high age-adjusted incidence rates for cancers of the mouth and pharynx (24.4 vs. U.S. 10.7), nasopharynx (13.9 vs. 0.6 U.S.), liver (13.2 vs. 5.2 U.S.), and cervix (16.2 vs. 9.6 U.S.). Rates for prostate cancer ( 103.9 vs. ...
Results There were a total of 160 male patients (48%) and 173 female patients (52%). The median age at diagnosis was 66 years (range 31-95) for male subjects and 67 years (35-99) for female subjects. The average annual age-standardised incidence rate of all eyelid cancers over the 13 years was 5.0 per million. A significant decrease in rates from 6.6 per million in the 1996-1998 period to 3.9 per million in the 2005-2008 period with an annual percentage change of 3.6% (95% CI −6.5 to 0.7%; p=0.02) was noted for women. The most common cancer was basal cell carcinoma (82%), followed by sebaceous gland carcinoma (11%) and squamous cell carcinoma (4%).. ...
The aim was to investigate the incidence rate of dementia for community residents aged 85 years and over. It was a two wave community study of 224 subjects (community residents including those residing in a nursing home) older than 85 years, restudied 4.1 years after a community prevalence study. A two stage method was used, comprising the mini mental state examination followed in a stratified sample by the geriatric mental state schedule (A3)/AGECAT. Incidence rates were based on person-years at risk. The overall incidence of dementia was 6.9 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 4.8-9.1) per 100 person-years at risk. The incidence was significantly higher for women than for men; respectively 8.9 (95% CI 5.9-11.9) v 2.7 (95% CI 0.5-4.9) per 100 person-years at risk. In the fastest growing age group seven out of 100 persons develop dementia each year. Women, who constitute two thirds of the oldest old, seem to have a higher risk. Further research is needed into the risk factors for dementia in this ...
Editorial Note: According to current estimates, 130,000 women in the United States will be diagnosed with invasive breast cancer and 41,000 women will die from the disease in 1987 (6). Breast cancer accounts for 27% of all newly diagnosed female cancers and 18% of female cancer deaths and was only recently surpassed by lung cancer as the leading cause of cancer mortality among females (6). An examination of incidence rates between 1975 and 1984 reveals a small but gradual increase of about 1% per year. Overall, age-adjusted incidence rates are higher for white women than for black women, but this difference appears to be declining over time (3). The age-adjusted mortality rate from breast cancer for all females has not changed significantly in the past 10 years. Mortality rates for black women and white women are similar, although 5-year relative survival is measurably poorer among black women than among white women for the period 1975-1984. The difference is substantially reduced when the ...
Results-We identified 580 and 544 first-ever strokes in the 2 studies. World age-standardized incidence rates decreased by 30.6% in overall (111 [95% confidence interval, 102-120] versus 77 [95% confidence interval, 70-84]). Rate decline was greater in women than in men (34% versus 26%) particularly in women aged 65 to 74 years (−69%) and 75 to 84 years (−43%). Frequencies of hypertension and diabetes mellitus were unchanged, whereas dyslipidemia, smoking, and atrial fibrillation significantly increased. Only ischemic stroke types showed significant rate reduction in overall and in women, incidence rate ratio (95% confidence intervals) of 0.69 (0.50-0.97) and 0.61 (0.42-0.88), respectively. The overall 30-day case-fatality ratio remained stable (19.3%/17.6%), whereas a better 30-day outcome was found (modified Rankin Score, ≤2 in 47%/37.6%; P=0.03).. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Decrease in Incidence of Colorectal Cancer Among Individuals 50 Years or Older After Recommendations for Population-based Screening. AU - Murphy, Caitlin C.. AU - Sandler, Robert S.. AU - Sanoff, Hanna K.. AU - Yang, Y. Claire. AU - Lund, Jennifer L.. AU - Baron, John A.. PY - 2017/6/1. Y1 - 2017/6/1. N2 - Background & Aims The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the United States is increasing among adults younger than 50 years, but incidence has decreased among older populations after population-based screening was recommended in the late 1980s. Blacks have higher incidence than whites. These patterns have prompted suggestions to lower the screening age for average-risk populations or in blacks. At the same time, there has been controversy over whether reductions in CRC incidence can be attributed to screening. We examined age-related and race-related differences in CRC incidence during a 40-year time period. Methods We determined the age-standardized incidence of CRC from ...
The Oman National Cancer Registry was established in 1985 as a hospital based registry. This is the 14th annual report of cancer incidence in Oman and covers incidence and mortality for the year 2009. All cancer cases are reported to the National Cancer Registry and are coded using ICDO-3. The report includes a section on cancer trends from 1997-2009 and provides tables on frequency of cancers by cancer site during those years for males and females, separately. Additional tables provide incidence data broken down by 5-year age group, sex, and cancer site for the year 2009. Maps display cancer incidence by cancer site and region for 10 governorates in Oman.. Other sections in the report include childhood cancers, cancers among non-citizens in Oman, and hospital-based deaths due to cancer.. The full report is available for download from the Ministry of Health website.. ...
The epidemiology of child abuse was investigated with data from the second national incidence and prevalence study of child abuse and neglect. A statistical comparison of incidence income, and ethnicity were risk factors for both sexual abuse and physical abuse, but county metrostatus was not. Gender was a risk factor for sexual abuse but not...
In India, similar to other lower- and middle-income countries, HIV incidence has declined over the past decade following scale-up of HIV prevention and treatment services for heterosexual populations. While prevalence data among people who inject drugs (PWID) and men who have sex with men (MSM) suggest increasing burden, HIV incidence data among these groups are sparse.. As part of a cluster-randomized trial among PWID and MSM in India, integrated care centers (ICCs) were established in 11 cities (6 PWID and 5 MSM) and have been running for nearly two years. ICCs provide core and PWID- or MSM-focused HIV prevention and treatment services, including HIV counseling and testing, in a single venue. HIV negative clients are actively tracked to promote annual HIV testing. HIV incidence rates were calculated for clients with ≥2 HIV tests and negative on the first test. Multi-level Poisson regression models were used to explore correlates of HIV incidence.. 5,012 ICC clients (3,430 PWID and 1,582 MSM) ...
HIV infection incidence estimates are important, not only for determining specific populations where community HIV education sessions can have the most benefit or where changes in infection patterns are occurring, but also to target these populations for therapeutic interventions and measure their effect in the community. It is estimated that half of all new HIV infections in the United States occur in persons under the age of 25 each year, translating to approximately 20,000 new HIV-infected young people annually.. Incidence can be estimated by testing a cohort of individuals for antibody at two different time periods and observing the number of new infections, or by demonstrating the presence of HIV p24 or viral RNA in antibody-negative persons. Since these strategies are logistically difficult, expensive, and/or require significant laboratory infrastructure, new laboratory-based strategies were devised that can classify individuals as recently infected or with established infection. These ...
This study used the largest and most geographically diverse US population sample to estimate current and future AF incidence and prevalence. Assuming the 2000 US Census population projections and that relative survival in AF patients remains the same over time, a logarithmic growth model projected that there will be 12.1 million diagnosed cases of AF in 2030, with an annual growth rate of 4.3% for AF prevalence and 4.6% for AF incidence over the period of 2010-2030. The analysis indicates that the public health burden of AF may reach concerning levels by 2030 and additional research is needed to investigate what factors may be contributing to this increasing trend in AF incidence and prevalence, and possible means to mitigate them.. ...
Panhandle Health District I - This indicator shows the age and sex-adjusted incidence rate for cervical cancer in cases per 100,000 population. Panhandle Health District I, Idaho
The National Cancer Registry of Ireland has released its 22nd annual statistical report. This report summarises cancer incidence, mortality and survival in Ireland for the period 1994-2015, and provides projected estimates for incidence for the most recent three-year period: 2015-2017. The cumulative lifetime risk (to age 75 years) of an invasive cancer diagnosis was approximately 1 in 3 for men and 1 in 4 for women. The absolute risk difference between the most and least deprived 20% of the population was highest for pancreatic (+14%), lung (+9%), colon (+8%), oesophageal (+8%), and ovarian cancers (+7%). Age-standardized rates of all invasive cancers (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC)) were 26% higher in men than in women. Overall, taking the first recorded invasive cancer (exc. NMSC) for each patient, the proportion of cases presenting as an emergency was 15% (of all cases whose admission type was known). The cancers with the highest proportion of emergency presentation were: pancreas ...
Ethylene oxide (ETO) is a sterilant gas considered to be a human carcinogen, due primarily to excess hematopoietic cancer in exposed cohorts. ETO causes mammary tumors in mice, and has been associated with breast cancer incidence in one small epidemiologic study. We have studied breast cancer incidence in a cohort of 7576 women employed for at least one year and exposed for an average 10.7 years w