1) Gurian-Sherman D., Lindow S.E. Bacterial Ice Nucleation: Significance and Molecular Basis. FASEB J., 1993, 7:1338-1343. (2) Morris C.E., Georgakopoulos D.G., Sands D.C. Ice Nucleation Active Bacteria and Their Potential Role in Precipitation. J. Phys. IV France, 2004, DOI:10.1051/jp4:2004121004 (3) Constantinidou H.A., Hirano S.S., Baker L.S., Upper C.D. Atmosphereic Dispersal of Ice Nucleation-Active Bacteria: The Role of Rain. Phytopathology, 1990, 80:934-937. (4) Deleon-Rodriquez N., Lathem T.L., Rodriguez-R L.M, Barazesh J.M., Anderson B.E., Beyersdorf A.J., Ziemba L.D., Bergin M., Nenes A. Microbiome of the upper troposphere: Species composition and prevalence, effects of tropical storms, and atmospheric implications. PNAS, 2013, 110:2575-2580. (5) Edwards A.R., Van Den Bussche R.A., Wichman H.A., Orser C.S. Unusual Pattern of Bacterial Ice Nucleation Gene Evolution. Mol. Biol. Evol., 1994, 11:911-920. (6) Kajava A.V., Lindow S.E. A Model of the Three-dimentional Structure of ...
1) Gurian-Sherman D., Lindow S.E. Bacterial Ice Nucleation: Significance and Molecular Basis. FASEB J., 1993, 7:1338-1343. (2) Morris C.E., Georgakopoulos D.G., Sands D.C. Ice Nucleation Active Bacteria and Their Potential Role in Precipitation. J. Phys. IV France, 2004, DOI:10.1051/jp4:2004121004 (3) Constantinidou H.A., Hirano S.S., Baker L.S., Upper C.D. Atmosphereic Dispersal of Ice Nucleation-Active Bacteria: The Role of Rain. Phytopathology, 1990, 80:934-937. (4) Deleon-Rodriquez N., Lathem T.L., Rodriguez-R L.M, Barazesh J.M., Anderson B.E., Beyersdorf A.J., Ziemba L.D., Bergin M., Nenes A. Microbiome of the upper troposphere: Species composition and prevalence, effects of tropical storms, and atmospheric implications. PNAS, 2013, 110:2575-2580. (5) Edwards A.R., Van Den Bussche R.A., Wichman H.A., Orser C.S. Unusual Pattern of Bacterial Ice Nucleation Gene Evolution. Mol. Biol. Evol., 1994, 11:911-920. (6) Kajava A.V., Lindow S.E. A Model of the Three-dimentional Structure of ...
Ice nucleation and growth is an important and widespread environmental process. Accordingly, nature has developed means to either promote or inhibit ice crystal formation, for example ice-nucleating proteins in bacteria or ice-binding antifreeze proteins in polar fish. Recently, it was found that birch pollen release ice-nucleating macromolecules when suspended in water. Here we show that birch pollen washing water exhibits also ice-binding properties such as ice shaping and ice recrystallization inhibition, similar to antifreeze proteins. We present spectroscopic evidence that both the ice-nucleating as well as the ice-binding molecules are polysaccharides bearing carboxylate groups. The spectra suggest that both polysaccharides consist of very similar chemical moieties, but centrifugal filtration indicates differences in molecular size: ice nucleation occurs only in the supernatant of a 100 kDa filter, while ice shaping is strongly enhanced in the filtrate. This finding may suggest that the ...
A novel model capable of quantitatively describing and predicting Intracellular Ice Formation (IIF) as a function of temperature in a cell population during the cooling stage of a cryopreservation protocol, without Cryo-Protective Agent (CPA) is proposed. The model accounts for water osmosis and IIF occurrence during freezing of the cell population, whose size distribution dynamics is simulated by means of a suitable population balance approach. It is found that IIF temperature depends upon the cell size, i.e. it is higher for larger cells. Correspondingly, the Probability of IIF (PIIF) results to be dependent on the initial size distribution of the cell population. Model reliability is successfully verified by predicting experimental data available in the literature of PIIF at different, constant cooling rates with better accuracy as compared to previous theoretical approaches.. ...
Definition of ice crystal in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is ice crystal? Meaning of ice crystal as a legal term. What does ice crystal mean in law?
And it is ice that draws paleoclimatologists literally to the ends of the Earth in the quest for knowledge about where our planet has been, where it is, and where it might be going. Ice cores provide a unique contribution to our view of past climate because the bubbles within the ice capture the gas concentration of our well-mixed atmosphere while the ice itself records other properties. Scientists obtain this information by traveling to ice sheets, like Antarctica or Greenland, and using a special drill that bores down into the ice and removes a cylindrical tube called an ice core.. Drilling thousands of meters into ice is a feat of technology, endurance, and persistence in extreme environments, exemplified by the joint Russian, U. In , Russian scientists extended the ice core to an incredible 3, meters, reaching Lake Vostok underneath the East Antarctic Ice Sheet. After scientists procure the cores, they slice them up into various portions each allotted to a specific analytical or archival ...
STONY BROOK, NY, August 7, 2020 - Ice crystal formation plays a crucial role in precipitation formation and alters the radiative properties of clouds, thereby affecting Earths climate system. In recent years there has been tremendous progress in understanding how liquid-phase droplets are formed (nucleation), yet the nucleation of ice crystals has remained elusive. Thats why Daniel Knopf, PhD, Professor in the School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences (SoMAS) at Stony Brook University, is studying the nucleation of ice crystals with the goal to improve current cloud and climate modeling approaches. The research is supported by a three-year $710,000 grant from the Department of Energy that starts September 15, 2020.. Ice formation is considered one of the remaining grand challenges in the atmospheric sciences, says Professor Knopf. The objective of the project is to gain a predictive understanding of the chain that leads from aerosols to ice-nucleating particles to ice crystal number ...
Melting ice from mountain glaciers particularly in Asia, are having a much smaller effect on sea levels than previously thought, with a negligible mass loss over the last ten years.. The new study, published in Nature, used satellites to measure the loss of ice from ice caps and glaciers for the first time from 2003 to 2010.. Less than 120 out of more than 160,000 across the world have actually been measured because of the difficulty of accessing freezing and remote regions.. The results found that overall ice loss from ice caps and glaciers on land, excluding the huge ice caps on Greenland and Antarctica, is adding 0.4 millimeter per year to sea levels compared to previous projections that estimated 1 millimeter per year.. The change in estimates could account for the fact that the satellite is measuring ice much higher up the mountain range rather than concentrating on more accessible glaciers in warmer areas.. It comes after the Himalayagate scandal forced the Intergovernmental Panel on ...
Ice nucleation (IN) active bacteria such as Pseudomonas syringae promote the growth of ice crystals more effectively than any material known. Using the specialized ice nucleation protein (INP) InaZ, P. syringae-the well studied epiphytic plant pathogen-attacks plants by frost damage and, likewise fascinating, drives ice nucleation within clouds when airborne in the atmosphere by linkage to the Earths water cycle. While ice nucleation proteins play a tremendous role for life on the planet, the molecular details of their activity on the bacterial membrane surface are largely unknown. Bacterial ghosts (BGs) derived from Escherichia coli can be used as simplified model systems to study the mode of action of InaZ. In this work, the authors used BGs to study the role of InaZ localization on the luminal side of the bacterial inner membrane. Naturally, P. syringae INPs are displayed on the surface of the outer membrane; so in contrast, the authors engineered an N-terminal truncated form of inaZ lacking ...
The goal of this project is to understand and predict the properties and formation conditions of atmospheric ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds (clouds that contain both ice particles and liquid water droplets) in the Arctic region. We will accomplish this goal by carrying out the following tasks:. (1) Through a series of focused laboratory studies, we will determine conditions at which ice nucleates on or in aerosol particles relevant for the Arctic region. Specifically, we will determine the conditions at which ice nucleates in water, aqueous ammonium sulfate, and aqueous sulfuric acid particles containing soot and mineral dust inclusions.. (2) From the laboratory data, we will determine the parameters necessary for improving the description of ice nucleation in atmospheric models.. The results from the laboratory experiments will be used to derive ice nucleation rates as well as relationships between the probability of freezing and temperature, ice saturation ratio, and size of the insoluble ...
This indicates again the importance of pre-conditioned thinning via melting. Wilkins Ice Shelf (WIS) refused to hibernate this winter. A previous post noted that the recent collapse of Wordie Ice Shelf, Mueller Ice Shelf, Jones Ice Shelf, Larsen-A and Larsen-B Ice Shelf on the Antarctic Peninsula has made us aware of how dynamic ice shelf systems are. The reasons for Ice Shelf collapse continue to be identified, but one key thread emerges. The decade prior to collapse the Larsen-B Ice Shelf had thinned primarily by melting of the ice shelf bottom (by the ocean) by 18 m (Shepard and others, 2003). Thinning preconditions the ice shelf for failure by weakening its connection to pinning points at the grounding line as the shelf becomes more buoyant. Glasser and Scambos (2008) observed that prior to collapse that rifts and crevasses parallel to the ice front crosscut the meltwater channels and ponds, hence, post dated them. The number and length of the rifts increased markedly in the year before ...
Dear Cecil:. A friend and I were watching some old James Bond movies and talking about their grandiose evil plans (as opposed to the mediocre evil plans of more recent movies). The conversation turned to melting the polar ice caps and flooding much of the world. His idea was to use a solar reflector; mine was to use nuclear weapons. Since neither of us knows any evil geniuses, we decided to consult a benevolent genius. So Cecil, how would you melt the polar ice caps if you snapped and decided to drown the Teeming Millions?. - Miguel Valdespino. Cecil replies:. Hmm, tough one. I came up with five scenarios, but Im not sure any of them would work.. The thing to realize is the magnitude of what were trying to accomplish. According to the U.S. Geological Survey, there are 33 million cubic kilometers of ice in the polar regions. This is grounded ice, sitting on land or the sea floor in or near Antarctica and Greenland. Theres also floating ice, such as that covering the North Pole for part of the ...
GeekAlerts has shown you a lot of cool ice cube trays for all your summertime parties. A few of my favorites were: Star Wars Han Solo in Carbonite, Cold Blooded, Moai, AK47 and the Chillbots Robots. With summer winding down, Im sure we will see less of these novelty ice trays and I wanted to squeeze this Brain Freeze Ice Cube Tray on to the list. I think this is a fitting ice cube for all your end of summer parties. Put your brain on ice, go a little numb and prepare yourself for the long winter ahead.. Brain Freeze Ice Cube Tray ...
An Ice Cube a Day. Keeps the Doctor Away.. WEPA! Heres some news we all can use! Were not saying you should do this instead of going to see the doctor, if your condition calls for it. Now, go get an ice cube…. Did you know that you can heal yourself and promote better health with one ice cube?!! Using a Chinese method called Feng Fu, you can place an ice cube on the back of your neck in-between the two tendons where your head and neck merge. It is best to lie on your stomach and place the ice cube in that position for around 20-30 minutes. If you find that you dont have the time to lie around for that long, you can also secure it there with a scarf or something and continue on with your daily activities.. ...
This project will drill and recover a new ice core from South Pole, Antarctica. The South Pole ice core will be drilled to a depth of 1500 m, providing an environmental record spanning approximately 40 kyrs. This core will be recovered using a new intermediate drill, which is under development by the U.S. Ice Drilling Design and Operations (IDDO) group in collaboration with Danish scientists. The intellectual merit of the work is that the analysis of stable isotopes, atmospheric gases, and aerosol-borne chemicals in polar ice has provided unique information about the magnitude and timing of changes in climate and climate forcing through time. The international ice core research community has articulated the goal of developing spatial arrays of ice cores across Antarctica and Greenland, allowing the reconstruction of regional patterns of climate variability in order to provide greater insight into the mechanisms driving climate change. The broader impacts of the project include obtaining the ...
Removable Ice Bin The Newair AI-215SS ice maker includes a handy removable ice bin for easy ice distribution. Its speed and power is unparalleled and it can produce up to 99 pounds of ice in just one day. Introduction Thank you for purchasing this ice maker from Luma Comfort, the world leader in home appliances and home comfort products. Merax Portable Countertop Clear Ice Maker, What to Look for When Buying an Ice Maker, The 8 Best Single Serve Coffee Makers of 2021, The 10 Best Fridge Organization Bins and More, The 10 Best Thermal Carafe Coffee Makers of 2021, The 9 Best Programmable Coffee Makers of 2021. To improve the taste of your ice, a countertop water filter may help purify and clarify the water youre using. CDN$ 325.31 Danby 12Kg Ice Maker, Stainless Steel. Get it as soon as Tue, Jan 5. Almost all portable ice maker storage bins are insulated but not refrigerated. If youâ re looking for a unit that can not only produce ice but also store it, then you should consider Luma Comfort ...
Figure 8 compares the experimental XAS for the various forms of ice and water. In general, the oxygen K-XAS can be divided into three regions. A pre-edge region (I) starts from the absorption threshold at 533 to 536 eV. A near-edge region (II) from 537 to 539 eV, and a post-edge region (III) from 539 eV and beyond. All the ice samples show a pre-edge absorption at 535 eV. Moreover, the intensity of this peak decreases in the order from liquid water to HDA, and is almost the same for cubic ice Ic, hexagonal ice Ih, and LDA. In addition, an unusual trend is observed in regions II and III where the XAS can be divided into two distinct groups with similar absorption profiles. The first group consists of water and HDA ice (group A) and the second group consists of ice Ic, ice Ih, and LDA (group B). In the near-edge region (II) the intensities of group A are stronger than group B but the reverse is observed in the post-edge region (III). Comparison of the XAS profile for groups A and B suggests that ...
Figure 8 compares the experimental XAS for the various forms of ice and water. In general, the oxygen K-XAS can be divided into three regions. A pre-edge region (I) starts from the absorption threshold at 533 to 536 eV. A near-edge region (II) from 537 to 539 eV, and a post-edge region (III) from 539 eV and beyond. All the ice samples show a pre-edge absorption at 535 eV. Moreover, the intensity of this peak decreases in the order from liquid water to HDA, and is almost the same for cubic ice Ic, hexagonal ice Ih, and LDA. In addition, an unusual trend is observed in regions II and III where the XAS can be divided into two distinct groups with similar absorption profiles. The first group consists of water and HDA ice (group A) and the second group consists of ice Ic, ice Ih, and LDA (group B). In the near-edge region (II) the intensities of group A are stronger than group B but the reverse is observed in the post-edge region (III). Comparison of the XAS profile for groups A and B suggests that ...
At the Niels Bohr Institutes section for the Physics of Ice, Climate and Earth, we are world leaders in drilling deep ice cores from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. We analyse the ice samples in our laboratories and study water stable isotopes, greenhouse gas, impurity concentrations, and ice properties. We interpret the data together with results from computer models of all parts of the climate system, including general circulation models and models of ice flow. We also work with theoretical aspects of meteorology, oceanography and complex system dynamics to understand both gradual and abrupt climatic changes of the past, present, and future. We study the physics of the solid Earth with seismic data, gravity and magnetic observations from satellites, inverse method theory and numerical modelling.. The Niels Bohr Institutes section for the Physics of Ice, Climate and Earth (PICE) was created in 2019 by merging the former sections for Ice and Climate and Climate and Computational ...
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Figure 2. Animation of sea ice age from September 2009 through September 2010. The color key denotes the age of ice (a value of 1 means first-year ice or ice that is 0-1 year old, etc.). The number in the lower right corner denotes the week of the year (1-52). Thanks to C. Fowler, Univ. of Colorado, for providing animation.. After the past couple of summers, there has been a build-up of young MYI - ice between 1 and 3 years old. It had been thought that this MYI would buffer the summer ice loss and keep extents from dropping too low. However, watch the animation (Figure 2) closely and see that the 3rd year ice (ice that is 2-3 years old, in green), dispersed and melted or exited out of the Arctic through the winter-spring of 2009-2010. So there was very little replenishment of the older ice. A lot of the 2nd year ice remained at the end of this summer, which has now aged into 3rd year ice. So maybe theres hope for next year, but what were seeing is that the MYI just is not surviving like ...
Q.: Why do I always get a lot of ice crystals in the bag when I freeze peppers or broccoli? I freeze the veggies on a cookie sheet first and then bag, but I still get the ice.- N.J., DoylestownA.: According to the National Center for Home Food Preservation at the University of Georgia, there are three main causes for frost or ice crystals appearing on the surface of frozen vegetables: inadequate draining of vegetables before freezing, slow freezing and fluctuation of storage temperatures above 0 degrees Fahrenheit while frozen.To combat this, make sure your veggies are very dry before freezing. Freeze items as quickly as possible. Avoid opening the freezer, causing the temperature to increase, until the veggies are frozen solid, which should take about two hours.Then, follow moms old advice and quit leaving the freezer door hanging open. Those temperature fluctuations can cause veggies to soften and firm up again, which pretty much guarantees ice crystals.Remember, for food…
Salinity and temperature measurements have been made beneath Ronne Ice Shelf, Antarctica. Access to the seawater was gained by hot-water drilling through 562 m of ice at a site 300 km from the ice front. The ice column is composed of 516 m of meteoric-origin ice, underlain by 31 m of consolidated saline ice, with a further 15 m of unconsolidated slush at the base. The 360-m-deep water column beneath the ice shelf consists broadly of a 210-m layer of Ice Shelf Water (ISW) at a potential temperature of −2.30°C and salinity 34.53, overlying a 100-m-thick layer of modified Western Shelf Water (−2.03°C, 34.64). The layers are separated by a weak 50-m-thick pycnocline. Isotopic analyses of water samples support this interpretation of the water types. Comparison of the data with published oceanographic observations from the shore lead indicate that the source of the water is either the western Berkner shelf or north of the ice front in the Ronne Depression. The measurements from the drill site ...
Secular scientists believe there have been at least five major ice ages during Earths history, and the most recent is thought to have begun about 2.6 million years ago. Within this Pleistocene ice age, ice sheets are thought to have advanced and receded over many tens of thousands of years, growing in size during shorter ice ages called glacials and shrinking during the warmer interglacial periods.. Because secular discussions of ice ages involve millions of years, Bible-believing Christians may wonder: Was there really an ice age?. Yes, there is strong geological evidence of an ice age. Today, receding glaciers often leave behind recognizable geological features such as drumlins (elongated ridges) and moraines (rock debris carved and then deposited either along the side or at the end of a melting, moving glacier). Since these features are also found in lower latitudes than todays ice sheets and glaciers, it is clear that both the northern and southern hemisphere ice sheets extended to lower ...
Pumpable ice (PI) technology is a technology to produce and use fluids or secondary refrigerants, also called coolants, with the viscosity of water or jelly and the cooling capacity of ice. Pumpable ice is typically a slurry of ice crystals or particles ranging from 5 to 10,000 micrometers (1 cm) in diameter and transported in brine, seawater, food liquid, or gas bubbles of air, ozone, or carbon dioxide. Besides generic terms such as pumpable, jelly or slurry ice, there are many trademark names for such coolant, like Deepchill, Beluga, optim, flow, fluid, jel, binary, liquid, maxim, whipped, bubble slurry ice. These trademarks are authorized by industrial ice maker production companies in Australia, Canada, China, Germany, Iceland, Israel, Russia, Spain, United Kingdom, and USA. There are two relatively simple methods for producing pumpable ice. The first is to manufacture commonly used forms of crystal solid ice, such as plate, tube, shell or flake ice, by crushing and ...
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Heterogeneous ice nucleation (HIN) on ionic surfaces is ubiquitous in a wide range of atmospheric aerosols and at biological interfaces. Despite its great importance in cirrus cloud formation and cryopreservation of cells, organs, and tissues, it remains unclear whether the ion-specific effect on ice nucleation exists. Benefiting from the fact that ions at the polyelectrolyte brush (PB)/water interface can be reversibly exchanged, we report the effect of ions on HIN on the PB surface, and we discover that the distinct efficiency of ions in tuning HIN follows the Hofmeister series. Moreover, a large HIN temperature window of up to 7.8°C is demonstrated. By establishing a correlation between the fraction of ice-like water molecules and the kinetics of structural transformation from liquid- to ice-like water molecules at the PB/water interface with different counterions, we show that our molecular dynamics simulation analysis is consistent with the experimental observation of the ion-specific ...
In the atmosphere, feldspar particles act as ice nuclei that make ice crystals grow in clouds and enable precipitation. The reason was found by researchers of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) and University College London (UCL) with the help of electron microscopy observations and molecular dynamics computer modeling. The ice nucleus proper is a quasi-hidden crystal surface of the feldspar that is exposed at surface defects only. The researchers present their findings in Science.
The early history of this collection is described in Thomsen (1947). In 1885, the DMI began systematically collecting information on sea ice in the Davis Strait. Ship captains sailing to settlements in west Greenland and residents of Greenland were asked to record all ice they observed. This sea ice observation program quickly grew to include observers on ships from other nations and to cover a wider geographic area. Beginning in 1900, these observations were collated and published annually in reports entitled The State of the Ice in the Arctic Seas. In 1901, the charts coverage expanded from a North Atlantic view to pan-Arctic coverage. Each chart shows observed ice (using standard phrases like unbroken polar ice or open ice) as well as the inferred ice edge in non-observed areas. The charts were published yearly along with a detailed written summary of pertinent ship logbook observations and ship traffic patterns.. Kelly (1978, 1979) recognized the value of these charts for research and ...
Other instruments flying include the Multichannel Coherent Radar Depth Sounder from the University of Kansas, which measures ice sheet thickness and the varied terrain below the ice. The Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor, developed at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Md., maps large areas of sea ice and glacier zones. A gravimeter from Columbia Universitys Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory in Palisades, N.Y., will give scientists their first opportunity to measure the shape of the ocean cavity beneath floating ice shelves in critical spots of Antarctica. A University of Kansas snow radar will measure the thickness of snow on top of sea ice and glaciers. NASAs Langley Research Center in Hampton, Va.; NASAs Ames Research Center in Moffett Field, Calif.; and the University of North Dakota in Grand Forks also are providing support for the campaign. NASA also is funding complementary airborne surveys as part of Operation Ice Bridge, including surveys of Alaskan glaciers by scientists ...
First-year land-fast sea ice growth in both the Arctic and the Antarctic is characterised by the formation of an initial ice cover, followed by the direct freezing of seawater at the ice-water interface. Such growth usually results, through geometric selection, in congelation ice. This is, in general, the typical crystal structure observed in first-year ice growth in the Arctic. However, in certain regions of the Antarctic, platelet crystals are observed to contribute significantly to the ice growth, beyond a depth of 1 m. This thesis will investigate a number of ideas as to why the platelet crystals only appear in the ice after a significant amount of congelation growth has occurred. One of the key premises will be that platelet ice forms when smaller frazil crystals, beneath the ice, rise up and attach to the interface. They are then incorporated into the ice cover and become the platelets seen in ice cores. The Shields criterion is used to find the strength of turbulence, associated with ...
A famous experiment by Richard Helmuth* showed that ice grows through the pores of cement paste or concrete at a rate controlled by diffusion of heat. The temperature of the water/ice interface rises until it is close to the melting point, and the melting point is depressed by the small size of the crystals (15-30 nm). A mysterious feature of Helmuths data is that the growth rate is very fast - in fact, it is too fast to be explained by heat flow. Recent simulations by Zhenhua Sun, using a level set method, show that there is a flaw in Helmuths experimental design. He immersed a sample of cement paste in a cold bath, then nucleated growth of ice at one end of the sample; he followed the rate of growth by noting the time at which a series of thermocouples, embedded along the length of the sample, detected the heat released by the ice. The simulations shown above reveal that the ice grows rapidly along the surface of the sample, where it is in contact with the cold bath, then dendrites grow ...
Chemical and isotopic records obtained from polar ice cores have provided some of the most iconic datasets in Earth system science. Here, I discuss how the different records are formed in the ice sheets, emphasising in particular the contrast between chemistry held in the snow/ice phase, and that which is tr Atmospheric chemistry
Ice-binding proteins (IBPs), a unifying name for antifreeze proteins, recrystallization inhibition proteins, and ice nucleating proteins, are found in organisms living in cold ecosystems where ice is present. Organisms from many branches of the tree of life use IBPs to embrace the consequences of freezing by several strategies such as preventing freezing or tolerating it. The program consists of plenary lectures, oral presentations, poster sessions, and an excursion.
Bubble enclosures in polar ice cores represent the only direct paleoatmospheric archive. To constrain past methane sources the isotopic composition (13C and D) of CH4 in high temporal resolution and with high precision is needed. High precision isotope analyses will be achieved by an online gas chromatography isotope ratio monitoring mass spectrometry technique (GC-irmMS) based on developments by Merritt et al. (1995). The method including air extraction from the ice, preconcentration of methane, separation of trace gases, pyrolysis (P) of methane and internal isotopic calibration is presented.The features of a newly built pyrolysis furnace and its power supply are presented. First results concerning precision in dD of methane standards suggest that only 500g of LGM ice will be required for analysis.. ...
The 181 m core was chemically analyzed with the technique of CFA-IC (Mettler-based continuous flow analysis with online ion chromatography detection) in the Ice Core and Environmental Chemistry Lab at South Dakota State University. The temporal resolution of chemical analysis is approximately 2 cm per measurement. The core was dated with annual layer counting and the age of the ice at the bottom of core is estimated to be 1828 years before 2004 or 176 C.E.. Concentrations of ions are expressed in micrograms per liter of meltwater or micrograms per kg of ice (parts per billion or ppb). Measurements were based on sample size (cm) along the vertical length of the ice core. Except for the top 2 meters, which were discretely sampled by manual cutting, the entire length of the ice core (a 3 by 3 cm cross section) was melted on an ice core melter. Sampling or measurement resolution in cm was determined by the number of ion chromatographic measurements made for a given length of core and the speed of ...
Horizontal gene transfer plays a major role in microbial evolution, allowing microbes to acquire new genes and phenotypes. Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs, a.k.a. conjugative transposons) are modular mobile genetic elements integrated into a host genome and are passively propagated during chromosomal replication and cell division. Induction of ICE gene expression leads to excision, production of the conserved conjugation machinery (a type IV secretion system), and the potential to transfer DNA to appropriate recipients. ICEs typically contain cargo genes that are not usually related to the ICE life cycle and that confer phenotypes to host cells. We summarize the life cycle and discovery of ICEs, some of the regulatory mechanisms, and how the types of cargo have influenced our view of ICEs. We discuss how ICEs can acquire new cargo genes and describe challenges to the field and various perspectives on ICE biology. ...
To explain that observation, the researchers developed a model in which each bump in the topography on the surface of Titan is offset by a deeper root big enough to overwhelm the gravitational effect of the bump on the surface. The root is like an iceberg extending below the ice shell into the ocean underneath it. Because ice is lower density than water, you get less gravity when you have a big chunk of ice there than when you have water, Nimmo explained.. An iceberg floating in water is in equilibrium, its buoyancy balancing out its weight. In this model of Titan, however, the roots extending below the ice sheet are so much bigger than the bumps on the surface that their buoyancy is pushing them up against the ice sheet. Its like a big beach ball under the ice sheet pushing up on it, and the only way to keep it submerged is if the ice sheet is strong, said Hemingway, a doctoral candidate in planetary geophysics at UCSC and lead author of the paper. If large roots are the reason for the ...
Large releases of carbon dioxide, primarily from oceans in the Southern Hemisphere, were the main factor in ending the last Ice Age, according to a study that confirms the key role of CO2 in warming the planet. Researchers from Harvard and Oregon State University collected 80 samples from ice and sea sediment cores to reconstruct CO2 and temperature levels as the last Ice Age ended beginning about 20,000 years ago. Previously, ice cores from Antarctica showed temperatures rising on that continent before CO2 levels started to climb, leading global warming skeptics to contend that CO2 was not the main driver of warming. But the new study, published in Nature, says that Antarctica was an anomaly and that the global ice and sediment cores unequivocally show that CO2 rose first, which then sparked temperature increases of 6 degrees F. The initial trigger to the end of the Ice Age was a change in the tilt of the Earths axis, which warmed land masses in the Northern Hemisphere and melted Arctic Ice, ...
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Photographs by Peter Frank Edwards. Trying for smelt before the ice melts.. Even in February, the ice conditions are iffy. We re driving through the Kennebec River towns north of Merrymeeting Bay, looking for fishing camps. Catching a bucket of smelt is our goal. But the frozen surfaces are thinner than usual this year, where there s ice at all. Photographer Peter Frank Edwards and I drive north from Bowdoinham through Dresden, Pittston, and Randolph. Thin, silvery-pink fish often not much longer than an outstretched hand, rainbow smelt are known to live primarily in saltwater bays, but spawn in fresh water famously, under the ice of the Kennebec River. For a couple of winters, we ve been wondering about the ice fishing shacks we sometimes see clustered on parts of the river. Neither of us has experienced the tradition of fishing for smelt before. We re eager to get on the ice.. It feels good to be out and about, driving in 30-degree temperatures and sunshine. At the hand-painted sign for Baker ...
Should you use heat or ice on your painful injury? The best method of solving this important riddle is to assess the nature and source of the pain. Essentially, a new injury, that is, one that you sustained within the last 48 hours, is best treated with ice. Chronic pain, or pain that you have had for a long time, is generally best treated with moist heat. Understanding the mechanisms of injury and the physiological and biochemical causes of pain helps us to differentiate the indications for applying ice or applying moist heat.. The primary rule is that you can never go wrong with applying ice. Ice calms things down and, although an ice application may be uncomfortably cold for a few moments, the overall effect is soothing. Cold decreases local metabolism and constricts small blood vessels (arterioles). Cold reduces nerve conduction velocity, that is, the speed at which nerve impulses are transmitted, and therefore reduces the number of pain signals that reach your brain per unit time. Thus, ice ...
Wadhams has spent many years collecting ice thickness data from submarines passing below the arctic ocean. He predicted the imminent break-up of sea ice in summer months in 2007, when the previous lowest extent of 4.17 million square kilometres was set. This year, it has unexpectedly plunged a further 500,000 sq km to less than 3.5 million sq. km. I have been predicting [the collapse of sea ice in summer months] for many years. The main cause is simply global warming: as the climate has warmed there has been less ice growth during the winter and more ice melt during the summer. ...
Medline English Style Ice Cap Reusable Ice Bag Heavy-duty ice bag has a flexible design that conforms to parts of the bodyScrew on cap helps prevent leaks Specifications:- Attachment Type: nondisclosure Type: Screw on the capLatex Free: YesProduct Shape: Round.
Quelccaya Ice Cap Wikipedia+ article with 207 related articles and pictures. Contents: Geography, Ice cap, Geomorphology, Climate, Vegetation and animal life.
Answers for What happens if you put ice on your pimples:If you put ice on your pimples, you get really cold pimples. It wont effect them other than that. ChaCha!
Hi I heard that when there is ice on suction line, its because there is too much or little refrigerant in the system. But as when there is little refrigerant, the system is superheated, I dont understand why there will be ice on suction line. I would appreciate if someone could clarify it. Moises
According to the scientists who conducted the study, the Arctic ice increased because the last couple of summers have been cooler than usual in the north polar regions. The scientists explain that this discovery suggests how changing the summer temperatures can be and how it can impact the ice platform.. However, even if the Arctic ice seems to have increased in the last 2 years, the experts are still worried that climate change and global warming continue to seriously affect the area, and will be melting massive sheets of ice in the future.. Previous studies have shown that in the last thirty years, the Arctic ice has been affected the most by the warming temperatures. The satellite images show that more than 40% of the ice that covers the region has melted away in the last 35 years.. Rachel Tilling, researcher at the University College London, and one of the lead authors of the paper, explained that her team analyzed different climate factors that could have damaging effects on the Arctic ice, ...
Enjoying a cold drink usually involves a little ice. Sometimes larger pieces are hard to resist as teeth crunch them into smaller fragments. The sound of ice crystals shattering reverberates across a room unlike any other chewing activity; up to 250 pounds of force may be needed to break ice cubes with your teeth! Some people who chew ice may suffer from an iron deficiency and inflammation of the tongue. But ice-chewing often becomes a habit that simply needs to be broken.. This unique chewing habit carries a higher risk of damage to your teeth than chewing many other types of hard foods. Your teeth are made of mineralized layers that protect the soft inner nerve and blood supply found at the center of each one. Enamel, the hardest substance in your body, provides a unique armor as the outer layer. Intricate crystal rods comprise this remarkable covering, although its relatively brittle without the support of the layer underneath it. If you compress firmly on an ice cube, an extreme temperature ...