To date,hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy is refractory, including after carbon monoxide poisoning, cardiopulmonary resuscitation,hemorrhagic shock and cerebral infarction etc. We used Mesenchymal Stem Cells via portal vein infusion method to treat hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. With different durations of follow-up, we cleared therapeutic effect, the quality of life and prognostic implications of the cord blood stem cell infusion on hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, and evaluated the adverse reactions, through the neurological function score (NIHSS3Barthel Index), cognitive score (MoCA, MMSE),and the international uniform Parkinson Rating Scale score (UPDRS). Here, we seek new means for the treatment of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, and provide the basis for clinical for further application of umbilical cord blood derived Mesenchymal stem cells.. On the basis of conventional therapy, at the same time, selected patients were given by intravenous infusion of umbilical cord blood stem cells ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reduction in cerebral blood flow volume in infants complicated with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy resulting in cerebral palsy. AU - Fukuda, Sumio. AU - Mizuno, Keisuke. AU - Kawai, Satomi. AU - Kakita, Hiroki. AU - Goto, Tatenobu. AU - Hussein, Mohamed Hamed. AU - Daoud, Ghada A.. AU - Ito, Tetsuya. AU - Kato, Ineko. AU - Suzuki, Satoshi. AU - Togari, Hajime. PY - 2008/4/1. Y1 - 2008/4/1. N2 - Hypoxic ischemic brain can result in cerebral palsy, mental retardation, and learning disabilities in surviving children. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the cerebral blood flow volume in infants complicated with brain damage after the birth. Nine term infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and 41 normal term infants were studied. Four infants with HIE suffered from CP or mental retardation, and the other five infants exhibited normal neurodevelopment. The mean blood flow velocity and diameter of the internal carotid artery and the vertebral artery were measured for 28 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Servo controlled versus manual cooling methods in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. AU - Buchiboyina, Ashok. AU - Ma, Eric. AU - Yip, Andrew. AU - Wagh, Deepika. AU - Tan, Jason. AU - McMichael, Judy. AU - Bulsara, Max K.. AU - Rao, Shripada. PY - 2017/9/1. Y1 - 2017/9/1. N2 - Background Therapeutic hypothermia is known to improve outcomes in neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). There are no studies that have compared servo controlled cooling (SCC) versus manually controlled cooling (MCC) methods in HIE. Aim To compare the outcomes of SCC versus MCC in neonates with HIE. Methods and outcome measures Between Jan 2008 and May 2011, MCC with cool-gel packs was used to achieve rectal temperatures of 33.5 to 34.5 °C in our units. Subsequently, we changed to SCC to achieve rectal temperatures of 33 to 34 °C. 105 neonates received SCC whereas 95 received MCC. Retrospective study with multivariate analysis was conducted comparing thermoregulation (primary ...
One of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity in children is perinatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI). In spite of the advances in neonatology, its incidence is not diminishing, generating a pediatric population that will require an extended amount of chronic care throughout their lifetime. For this reason, new and more effective neuroprotective strategies are urgently required, in order to minimize as much as possible the neurological consequences of this encephalopathy. In this sense, interest has grown in the neuroprotective possibilities of melatonin, as this hormone may help to maintain cell survival through the modulation of a wide range of physiological functions. Although some of the mechanisms by which melatonin is neuroprotective after neonatal asphyxia remain a subject of investigation, this review tries to summarize some of the most recent advances related with its use as a therapeutic drug against perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, supporting the high interest in this indoleamine as
We performed unilateral carotid artery occlusion on postnatal day 7-10 CD-1 mouse pups to create a neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) model ...
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity during the perinatal period, and currently no therapeutic drug is available. Minocycline, an antibiotic, has recently been shown to have neuroprotective effects distinct from its antimicrobial effect in several neurological disorders including ischemic brain injury. We examined the effect of minocycline on neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury by using histologic scoring in both mouse and rat models. Mouse (C57Bl/6) and rat (SD) pups were exposed to a unilateral hypoxic-ischemic insult at 8 and 7 days of age, respectively. Minocycline hydrochloride was administered according to protocols that were reported to provide neuroprotection in adult or neonatal rats. Seven days after the insult, we examined brain injury in Nissl stained sections. Although minocycline ameliorated brain injury in the developing rat, it increased injury in the developing mouse. This detrimental effect in the mouse was consistent across ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Long-term histological outcome after post-hypoxic treatment with 100% or 40% oxygen in a model of perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. AU - Grafe, Marjorie. AU - Woodworth, K. Nina. AU - Noppens, Kristin. AU - Perez-Polo, J. Regino. PY - 2008/2. Y1 - 2008/2. N2 - Hypoxic newborns have traditionally been given supplemental oxygen, and until recently, guidelines for neonatal resuscitation recommended that 100% oxygen be used. Exposure to 100% oxygen after hypoxic injury, however, may exacerbate oxidative stress. The current study evaluated the effect of exposure to 100, 40 or 21% oxygen after neonatal hypoxic-ischemic injury on the severity of brain injury after long-term survival. The severity of histological brain injury was not different in animals exposed to 100% oxygen versus room air. Male animals treated with 40% oxygen post-hypoxia had the lowest mean total histology scores, but this was not statistically significant due to the large variation in injury within each ...
우리는 출생 후 하루에 일방적인 경 동맥 폐색을 수행 7-10 CD-1 신생아 hypoxic-허 혈 성 (HI) 모델을 만드는 새끼 마우스와 뇌 손상의 영향을 조사. 우리는 운영 되지 않은 정상 쥐에 비해 이러한 마우스...
To examine the blood glucose profile and the relationship between blood glucose levels and neurodevelopmental outcome in term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Blood glucose values within 72 hours of birth were collected from 52 term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy. Hypoglycaemia [| 46.8 mg/dL (2.6 mmol/L)] and hyperglycaemia [| 150 mg/dL (8.3 mmol/L)] were correlated to neurodevelopmental outcome at 24 months of age. Four fifths of the 468 blood samples were in the normoglycaemic range (392/468:83.8%). Of the remaining 76 samples, 51.3% were in the hypoglycaemic range and (48.7%) were hyperglycaemic. A quarter of the hypoglycaemic samples (28.2%:11/39) and a third of the hyperglycaemic samples (32.4%:12/37) were recorded within the first 30 minutes of life. Mean (SD) blood glucose values did not differ between infants with normal and abnormal outcomes [4.89(2.28) mmol/L and 5.02(2.35) mmol/L, p value = 0.15] respectively. In term infants with hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy,
Purpose : We demonstrate use of bedside eye imaging to detect severity of retinal abnormalities in infants with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). In prior neurodevelopmental research retinal findings on OCT were linked to brain injury and poor outcomes in preterm infants. We hypothesize that retinal injury will reflect patterns and severity of brain injury due to HIE. Methods : We used a hand-held, bedside, non-contact spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT) imaging system (Envisu 2300, Bioptigen, North Carolina) under a protocol approved by Duke Institutional Review Board and after obtaining consent from a parent/guardian. All infants were imaged without pharmacologic dilation. Eligible preterm and term infants with HIE were imaged within 24 hours of hypothermia initiation (cooling), 72 hours after birth (re-warming), 5 days (time of magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI)) and weekly thereafter until discharged depending on the systemic stability of the infant. We compared retinal ...
Learn more about Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy at Colleton Medical Center DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
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Neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy is a dramatic perinatal complication due to brain asphyxia. Neurological and neurosensory sequelae are frequent in survivors, due to neuronal damage and loss.. Currently, only total or partial body hypothermia can partially prevent cell loss. However, no treatment exists to restore neuronal functions.. Cord blood stem cells are a promising treatment for the near future.. The primary objective of this study is to test the safety and feasibility of a curative treatment with autologous cord blood stem cell in neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy.. The secondary objectives are to test the efficacy of this curative treatment with cell with neurogenic potential on the prevention of neurologic sequelae, as well as to test the optimum timing of cell preparation administration ...
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Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), sodium butyrate (SB), has been shown to be neuroprotective in adult brain injury models. Potential explanation for the inhibitor action involves among others reduced inflammation. We therefore anticipated that SB will provide a suitable option for brain injury in immature animals. The aim of our study was to test the hypothesis that one of the mechanisms of protection afforded by SB after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia is associated with anti-inflammatory action. We examined the effect of SB on the production of inflammatory factors including analysis of the microglial and astrocytic cell response. We also examined the effect of SB on molecular mediators that are crucial for inducing cerebral damage after ischemia (transcription factors, HSP70, as well as pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins). Seven-day-old rat pups were subjected to unilateral carotid artery ligation followed by 60 min of hypoxia (7.6% O2). SB (300 mg/kg) was administered in a 5-day regime with the first
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic insults are a significant cause of pediatric encephalopathy, developmental delays, and spastic cerebral palsy. Although the developing brains plasticity allows for remarkable self-repair, severe disruption of normal myelination and cortical development upon neonatal brain injury are likely to generate life-persisting sensory-motor and cognitive deficits in the growing child. Currently, no treatments are available that can address the long-term consequences. Thus, regenerative medicine appears as a promising avenue to help restore normal developmental processes in affected infants. Stem cell therapy has proven effective in promoting functional recovery in animal models of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic injury and therefore represents a hopeful therapy for this unmet medical condition. Neural stem cells derived from pluripotent stem cells or fetal tissues as well as umbilical cord blood and mesenchymal stem cells have all shown initial success in improving functional ...
Cerebral hypoxia-ischemia in human infants presents a complex clinical problem in that no standardized treatment currently exists. With an understanding of the cellular and metabolic changes brought about during hypoxia-ischemia in the immature brain, researchers can better understand the course of damage caused by ischemia. Such damage was induced in young rats in an attempt to learn more about the mechanisms of hypoxia-ischemia. Seven-day-old rat pups underwent permanent unilateral carotid artery ligation and then were exposed to systemic hypoxia. At 15 days of postnatal age, researchers used neuropathologic analysis, gross examination, and staining of brain slices to assess the severity of damage from hypoxia-ischemia. Hypoxic preconditioning appeared to reduce or prevent tissue damage during a subsequent hypoxic-ischemic event.
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The purpose of this study is to develop a new automated system to classify susceptibility weighted images (SWI) obtained to evaluate neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic injury, by detecting and analyzing ridges within these images. SW images can depict abnormal cerebral venous contrast as a consequence of abnormal blood flow, perfusion and thus oxygenation in babies with HIE. In this research, a dataset of SWI-MRI images, acquired from 42 infants with HIE during the neonatal period, features are obtained based on ridge analysis of SW images including the width of blood vessels, the change in intensity of the veins pixels in comparison with neighboring pixels, the length of blood vessels and Hessian eigenvalues for ridges are extracted. Normalized histogram parameters in the single or combined features are used to classify SWIs by kNN and random forest classifiers. The mean and standard deviation of the classification accuracies are derived by randomly selecting 11 datasets ten times from those with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hypoxia-Ischemia and Hypothermia Independently and Interactively Affect Neuronal Pathology in Neonatal Piglets with Short-Term Recovery. AU - OBrien, Caitlin E.. AU - Santos, Polan T.. AU - Kulikowicz, Ewa. AU - Reyes, Michael. AU - Koehler, Raymond C.. AU - Martin, Lee J.. AU - Lee, Jennifer K.. PY - 2019/9/1. Y1 - 2019/9/1. N2 - Therapeutic hypothermia is the standard of clinical care for moderate neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. We investigated the independent and interactive effects of hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and temperature on neuronal survival and injury in basal ganglia and cerebral cortex in neonatal piglets. Male piglets were randomized to receive HI injury or sham procedure followed by 29 h of normothermia, sustained hypothermia induced at 2 h, or hypothermia with rewarming during fentanyl-nitrous oxide anesthesia. Viable and injured neurons and apoptotic profiles were counted in the anterior putamen, posterior putamen, and motor cortex at 29 h after HI injury ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Incidence and prediction of outcome in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in Japan. AU - Hayakawa, Masahiro. AU - Ito, Yushi. AU - Saito, Shigeru. AU - Mitsuda, Nobuaki. AU - Hosono, Sigeharu. AU - Yoda, Hitoshi. AU - Cho, Kazutoshi. AU - Otsuki, Katsufumi. AU - Ibara, Satoshi. AU - Terui, Katsuo. AU - Masumoto, Kouji. AU - Murakoshi, Takeshi. AU - Nakai, Akihito. AU - Tanaka, Mamoru. AU - Nakamura, Tomohiko. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Background Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is one of the most critical pathologic conditions in neonatal medicine due to the potential for neurological deficits in later life. We investigated the incidence of term infants with moderate or severe HIE in Japan and identified prognostic risk factors for poor outcome in HIE. Methods Data on 227 infants diagnosed with moderate or severe HIE and born between January and December 2008 were collected via nationwide surveys from 263 responding hospitals. Using logistic regression, we examined the ...
This article summarized findings of current preclinical studies that implemented hydrogen administration, either in the gas or liquid form, as treatment application for neurological disorders including traumatic brain injury (TBI), surgically induced brain injury (SBI), stroke, and neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain insult (HI). Most reviewed studies demonstrated neuroprotective effects of hydrogen administration. Even though anti-oxidative potentials have been reported in several studies, further neuroprotective mechanisms of hydrogen therapy remain to be elucidated. Hydrogen may serve as an adjunct treatment for neurological disorders.
Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI) is the most common cause of cerebral palsy, and an important consequence of perinatal HI is epilepsy. Epilepsy is a disorder in which the balance between cerebral excitability and inhibition is tipped toward uncontrolled excitability. Selected neuronal circuits as well as certain populations of glial cells die from the excitotoxicity triggered by HI. Excitotoxicity, a term referring to cell death caused by overstimulation of the excitatory glutamate neurotransmitter receptors, plays a critical role in brain injury caused by perinatal HI. Ample evidence suggests distinct differences between the immature and mature brain with respect to the pathology and consequences of hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Thus, the intrinsic vulnerability of specific cell types and systems in the developing brain is particularly important in determining the final pattern of damage and functional disability caused by perinatal HI. These patterns of neuronal vulnerability are associated ...
DISCUSSION. This study reports on a three-year experience of administering hypothermia therapy to asphyxiated newborns in a tertiary-level university hospital. The criteria for infant inclusion and exclusion were based on previous studies on safety. The gestational age for inclusion in the study (more than 35 weeks) made it possible to differentiate encephalopathy attributed to perinatal hypoxia from other problems relating to prematurity.17 Hypothermia is applied within the first six hours of life because this is the therapeutic window within which the neu-roprotective effect relating to reduction of cerebral metabolism, reduction of excitatory neurotransmitter activity, suppression of free radical release, inhibition of the apoptotic process and reduction of the release of inflammatory mediators is most effective. In general, the efficacy of the neuroprotective effect diminishes if the cooling period starts after the therapeutic window, but evidence suggests that the neurological injury in HIE ...
Background:Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy is a major cause of mortality and disability in the newborn. The authors investigated the protective effects of argon combined with hypothermia on neonatal rat hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.Methods:In in vitro studies, rat cortical neuronal cell cultures we
Boriosi JP, Sapru A, Hanson JH, Asselin J, Gildengorin G, Newman V, Sabato K, Flori HR. Efficacy and safety of lung recruitment in pediatric patients with acute lung injury. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2010 Nov 4.. Cengiz P, Kleman N, Uluc K, Kendigelen P, Hagemann T, Akture E, Messing A, Ferrazzano P, Sun D. Inhibition of Na(+)/H(+) Exchanger Isoform 1 Is Neuroprotective in Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Brain Injury. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2010 Dec 4.. Kleman NW, Sun D, Cengiz P. Mechanisms underlying neonatal hypoxia ischemia. The Open Drug Discovery Journal. 2010; 2:129-137.. Liu Y, Kintner DB, Begum G, Algharabli J, Cengiz P, Shull GE, Liu XJ, Sun D. Endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ signaling and mitochondrial Cyt c release in astrocytes following oxygen and glucose deprivation. J Neurochem. 2010 Sep 1;114(5):1436-46.. Amann M, Regan MS, Kobitary M, Eldridge MW, Boutellier U, Pegelow DF, Dempsey JA. Impact of pulmonary system limitations on locomotor muscle fatigue in patients with COPD. Am J Physiol Regul ...
Fetal goiter is a rare potential cause of airway obstruction and neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury or death.1 MR imaging evaluation of the enlarged gland and airway can provide information crucial to perinatal management. Because the neuroradiologist may be required to apply expertise in MR imaging and in head and neck anatomy to these cases, we describe imaging findings in fetal goiter and discuss fetal MR imaging protocol optimization.. Screening sonography of the 33-week fetus of a woman with Graves disease on propylthiouracil (PTU) therapy revealed a homogeneous 5.3-cm bilobed anterior neck mass suspicious for goiter and mild polyhydramnios. The distal femoral ossification center was not seen, and fetal heart rate was normal. The PTU dose was reduced, and subsequent fetal MR imaging (Fig 1) at 34.5 weeks gestation demonstrated a T1 hyperintense and T2 low-intensity bilobed anterior neck mass consistent with goiter, slightly decreased in size. The airway was poorly visualized at the ...
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Hypothermia improves survival and neurodevelopment in newborns with moderate to severe HIE.Total body cooling and selective head cooling are effective methods in treating newborns with HIE. Clinicians should consider offering therapeutic hypothermia as part of routine clinical care to these newborns …
Sekhon, Ainslie and Griesdale identify Cerebral Oedema as one of the factors relevant to secondary brain injury after Hypoxic Ischaemic Brain Injury (HIBI). The authors note that Cerebral Oedema leads to intracranial hypertension which leads to Decreasing Cerebral Perfusion Pressure which leads to Decreasing Cerebral Blood Flow which leads to Reduced regional oxygen saturation…
Ann Marie Looney is a HRB funded PhD student working within the Neonatal Brain Research Group, Cork University Maternity Hospital. She graduated with a BSc (Hons) Neuroscience, University College Cork in 2009 and was awarded her Master of Science in 2012 for a joint project between the Department of Paediatric and Child Health and the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology through the Anu Research Centre, Cork University Maternity Hospital. Focusing on Neonatal Asphyxia and Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy, this project examined the feasibility of using placental biopsies to obtain a potential biomarker for the condition.. Ann Marie is currently working in the area of detection and validation of potential cord blood Biomarkers for Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy, through the BiHIvE 2 project. Her PhD has a specific focus on the miRNA profile of cord blood from the asphyxiated neonate ...
The contribution of heme oxygenase (HO)-linked pathways to neurodegeneration following cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) remains unclear. We investigated whether HO modulators affected HI-induced brain damage and explored potential mechanisms involved.
Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social deficits (social communication and social interaction) and restricted repetitive patterns of behavior, interests and activities. The cause and development of autism spectrum disorder is not completely understood by the medical community.
Excitotoxic mechanisms in the neuron and astrocyte. In the neuron, glutamate is released from the pre-synaptic terminal into the synaptic cleft. The glutamate
Excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptor overactivation plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia. During cerebral hypoxia-ischemia, the uptake of glutamate the major excitato... more
OBJECTIVES: To determine the long-term neurodevelopmental outcome for children after hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) without major disability, and to examine neonatal injury patterns detected on cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in relation to later deficits. STUDY DESIGN: Prospectively enrolled children with HIE and neonatal cerebral MRI data (n = 68) were examined at a mean age of 11.2 years (range, 8.2-15.7 years). Eleven children had a major disability (ie, cerebral palsy or mental retardation). Brain injury was scored according to the region and extent of injury. RESULTS: Children without major disability (n = 57) had lower full-scale and performance IQ scores compared with norms (P = .02 and .01, respectively), and the proportion of children with an IQ ,85 was higher than expected (P = .04). Motor performance on the Zurich Neuromotor Assessment was affected in the pure motor, adaptive fine motor, and gross motor domains, as well as in the movement quality domain (all P , ...
Severe perinatal asphyxia with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy occurs in approximately 1-2/1000 live births and is an important cause of cerebral palsy and associated neurological disabilities in children. Multiorgan dysfunction commonly occurs as part of the asphyxial episode, with cardiovascular dysfunction occurring in up to a third of infants. This narrative paper attempts to review the literature on the importance of early recognition of cardiac dysfunction using echocardiography and biomarkers such as troponin and brain type natriuretic peptide. These tools may allow accurate assessment of cardiac dysfunction and guide therapy to improve outcome.. ...
Therapeutic hypothermia is indicated for infants with moderate-to-severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Supportive management is also critical to prevent additional injury from seizure activit... more
Whole-body hypothermia reduces the risk of death or disability in infants with moderate or severe hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy
Anemia Drug May Help Babies at High-Risk of Brain Injury. Anemia Drug May Help Babies at High-Risk of Brain Injury A new study suggests that babies born with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) that were treated with erythropoietin, a synthetic version of the hormone that stimulates red blood cell production, experienced lesser brain injuries. Researchers indicate that erythropoietin infusions coupled with hypothermia treatment contributed to fewer incidents of brain injury, […]. ...
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a limitation of oxygen and blood flow around the time of birth. Learn more about HIEs causes, treatments and more.
Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) show promise for regenerative medicine researches and able to differentiate into either endothelial or neuronal lineages The current study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of human adipose-derived stem cell for hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury The HI brain injury was created by right common carotid artery ligation and then exposure to hypoxia (8% O2) for 2h The human ASCs were differentiated into NPCs and EPCs by culturing ASCs in the chitosan and shear stress microenvironments The rat pups were divided into 5 groups to receive different treatments by using intra-peritoneum injection including Na?ve PBS hASCs EPCs NPCs and combination of EPCs and NPCs (E+N) All rat pups were sacrificed at 7th day after HI The infracted area and ratio of cell apoptosis were determined by TTC and Nissl staining Our results showed significant reduction of cerebral infarction increase of neurons and decrease of cell apoptosis after injected with therapeutic cells ...
Babies experience hypoxia (H) and ischemia (I) from stroke. The only approved treatment for stroke is fibrinolytic therapy with tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA). However, tPA potentiates H/I-induced impairment of responses to cerebrovasodilators such as hypercapnia and hypotension, and blockade of tPA-mediated vasoactivity prevents this deleterious effect. Coupling tPA to RBCs reduces its CNS toxicity through spatially confining the drug to the vasculature. Mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK), a family of at least 3 kinases, is upregulated after H/I. In this study we determined if RBC-tPA given before or after cerebral H/I would preserve responses to cerebrovasodilators and prevent neuronal injury mediated through the ERK MAPK pathway. Animals given RBC-tPA maintained responses to cerebrovasodilators at levels equivalent to pre-H/I values. CSF and brain parenchymal ERK MAPK was elevated by H/I and this upregulation was potentiated by tPA, but blunted by RBC-tPA. U 0126, an ERK MAPK antagonist
ABSTRACT: One of the most important causes of brain injury in the neonatal period is a perinatal hypoxic-ischemic event. This devastating condition can lead to long-term neurological deficits or even death. After hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, a variety of specific cellular mechanisms are set in motion, triggering cell damage and finally producing cell death. Effective ... Continue Reading ...
Journal Article: Neural Stem Cells Expressing bFGF Reduce Brain Damage and Restore Sensorimotor Function after Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia. Ye, Qingsong, Wu, Yanqing, Wu, Jiamin, Zou, Shuang, Al-Zaazaai, Ali Ahmed, Zhang, Hongyu, Shi, Hongxue, Xie, Ling, Liu, Yanlong, Xu, Ke, He, Huacheng, Zhang, Fabiao, Ji, Yiming, He, Yan and Xiao, Jian (2017) Neural Stem Cells Expressing bFGF Reduce Brain Damage and Restore Sensorimotor Function after Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia. Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology, 45 1: 108-118. doi:10.1159/000486226. ...
The immature brain has a high oxygen consumption and consists of a high concentration of free iron, water content and easily oxidised unsaturated fatty acids. In addition, low myelination and a low expression of antioxidant enzymes [SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] consequently lead to an underdeveloped antioxidant system, rendering it particularly vulnerable to oxidative damage, with both ROS and RNS strongly influencing excitotoxicity, cell death and mitochondrial impairment [30-34].. Studies of neonates with HIE identified evidence of oxidative stress [35,36] as well as evidence suggesting that therapeutic hypothermia reduced lipid peroxidation among its many benefits [36]. It is therefore critical that mechanisms specific to immature brain are identified in order to develop interventions. NOS and mitochondrial electron leakage are believed to be the major contributors of ROS/RNS in the immature brain [37,38] Following HI in the neonatal rat, there is an increase in expression of ...
Neurology Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies focusing on diseases of the nervous system, as well as normal neurological functioning. The journal will consider basic, translational, and clinical research, including animal models and clinical trials.
Scientists at Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute and Loma Linda University Health have demonstrated the promise of applying magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to predict the efficacy of using human neural stem cells to treat a brain injury-a first-ever biomarker for regenerative medicine that could help personalize stem cell treatments for neurological disorders and improve efficacy. The researchers expect to test the findings in a clinical trial evaluating the stem cell therapy in newborns who experience a brain injury during birth called perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HII). The study was published in Cell Reports.
Albano C, Comandante L, Nolan S. Innovations in the management of cerebral injury. Crit Care Nurs Q. 2005;28(2):135-149.. Biagas K. Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury: Advancements in the understanding of mechanisms and potential avenues for therapy. Curr Opin Pediatr. 1999;11(3):223-228.. Hopkins R, Haaland K. Neuropsychological and neuropathological effects of anoxic or ischemic induced brain injury. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2004;10(7):957-961.. Juul S. Erythropoietin in the central nervous system, and its use to prevent hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. Acta Paediatr Suppl. 2002;91(438):36-42.. NINDS cerebral hypoxia information page. National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/All-Disorders/Cerebral-Hypoxia-Information-Page. Accessed June 18, 2018.. Ramani R. Hypothermia for brain protection and resuscitation. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2006;19(5):487-491.. Rubinos C, Ruland S. Neurologic complications in the intensive care unit. Curr ...