Recent studies reported that exposure of juvenile rats to cranial irradiation affects hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stability, leading to its activation along with radiation-induced inflammation. In the present study, we hypothesized whether inflammatory reaction in the CNS could be a mediator of HPA axis response to cranial irradiation (CI). Therefore, we analyzed time-course changes of serum corticosterone level, as well IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha level in the serum and hypothalamus of juvenile rats after CI. Protein and gene expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and nuclear factor kappaB (NF kappa B) were examined in the hippocampus within 24 h postirradiation interval. Cranial irradiation led to rapid induction of both GR and NF kappa B mRNA and protein in the hippocampus at 1 h. The increment in NF kappa B protein persisted for 2 h, therefore NF kappa B/GR protein ratio was turned in favor of NF kappa B. Central inflammation was characterized by increased IL-1 be...ta in ...
In clinic studies, altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function has been associated with fibromyalgia, a syndrome characterised by chron
One of the most important functions of the HPG axis is to regulate reproduction by controlling the uterine and ovarian cycles.[7] In females, the positive feedback loop between estrogen and luteinizing hormone help to prepare the follicle in the ovary and the uterus for ovulation and implantation. When the egg is released, the empty follicle sac begins to produce progesterone to inhibit the hypothalamus and the anterior pituitary thus stopping the estrogen-LH positive feedback loop. If conception occurs, the placenta will take over the secretion of progesterone; therefore the mother cannot ovulate again. If conception does not occur, decreasing excretion of progesterone will allow the hypothalamus to restart secretion of GnRH. These hormone levels also control the uterine (menstrual) cycle causing the proliferation phase in preparation for ovulation, the secretory phase after ovulation, and menstruation when conception does not occur. The activation of the HPG axis in both males and females ...
Our results collectively indicate that (i) HPA axis activation is not required for diabetic hyperglycemia, (ii) normalization of the HPA axis can be achieved using a dose of leptin below that needed to normalize glycemia, and (iii) the ability of leptin to lower plasma glucocorticoid levels is not required for its glucose-lowering action. Thus, the effect of leptin to normalize elevated HPA axis activity in rats with STZ-DM is neither necessary nor sufficient to explain how it normalizes glycemia. While these findings are consistent with and extend several previous studies (1, 9, 10, 12, 13), they are inconsistent with recent evidence from Shulman and colleagues (15) showing that diabetic hyperglycemia is normalized by physiological leptin replacement and that suppression of the HPA axis mediates this effect. Although we endeavored to replicate protocols employed by the Shulman group (15) in several instances, the outcomes do not agree, and a compelling explanation for this discrepancy is not ...
This article is from Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, volume 18.AbstractMale reproduction is governed by the classical hypothalamo-hypophyseal...
As well as the well-characterized part from the sex steroid receptors in regulating fertility and duplication, reproductive events will also be mediated from the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in response to a persons environment. signaling takes on a significant part through the entire hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and Go 6976 IC50 characterizing these results as permissive or inhibitory with regards to facilitating reproductive achievement. Life background theory asserts the allocation of enthusiastic resources is definitely a trade-off between success and duplication (1, 2). The intrinsic and extrinsic environment will travel age the 1st reproductive event, quantity and size of offspring, and reproductive life-span. DIRS1 In the physiological level, the department of resources is probable mediated, partly, through rules of the strain response from the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Activation from the HPA axis leads to elevated degrees of glucocorticoids, which ...
Principal Investigator:FUKAMI MAKI, Project Period (FY):2011-11-18 - 2014-03-31, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Section:一般, Research Field:Endocrinology
Filaretova L., Bagaeva T., Morozova O., Myazina M. Stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis is a source of healthy influence of stress on the gastric mucosa // Int. ulcer week 2012: The 40 th meet. of the Jap. soc. of ulcer res., The 14 th Meet. of Int. conf. on ulcer res., A Satellite symp. of IUPHAR-GI section; 12 th -14 th July, 2012, Tokyo: progr. and abstr. [Tokyo?], 2012 P. 84 ...
... emphasizes signal transduction and gene regulation in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Lectures cover physiologic to molecular actions of peptide, protein and steroid hormones and the intracellular signaling as well as the transcriptional gene regulatory mechanisms that drive reproductive biology. Section 1 laboratories teach methods key to studying hormone action and cell biology. Techniques include quantification of second messengers and transcriptional activity; cell culture and transient transfection; western blot analysis; ELISAs; quantitative RT-PCR; gene silencing; chromatin immunoprecipitation; immunofluorescence and in situ hybridization; mutagenesis; tissue dissection. Principles of microscopy and imaging methods are also discussed and applied.. The schedule for Section 1 of FIR2018 can be downloaded here. ...
CONCLUSIONS: The HPT axis in patients with subclinical hyper- and hypo-thyroidism is significantly modified with respect to normal subjects. The status of the axis, as evaluated by the relationship between the three hormones (FT4, FT3, TSH) together considered, is characteristic of the normal or pathologic condition. A reliable method based on the regression analysis is proposed to correctly evaluate the status of the HPT axis..... Read abstract Full text PDF ...
The curtain is pulled back and the great OZ is exposed.. If you want to run faster, jump higher and swim farther, then theres nothing that replaces planned biological stress that trains muscle memory and invokes hypertrophy. That being said the idea of calories in - calories out doesnt fail because a "calorie is not a calorie," but rather because the output isnt really exercise.. You cant out-exercise your mouth.. While this became fundamentally important to me years ago, it is only in the last year that I have had the ability to dive in and actually test it. Read Full Article →. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gender differences in cardiovascular and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to psychological stress in healthy older adult men and women. AU - Traustadottir, Tinna. AU - Bosch, Pamela R. AU - Matt, K. S.. PY - 2003/6. Y1 - 2003/6. N2 - Gender differences in the neuroendocrine and cardiovascular response to psychological stress may contribute to the gender differences in the prevalence of diseases associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes and hypertension. We measured plasma ACTH, cortisol, heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP) responses in 8 men and 8 women (55-75 years) exposed to the Matt Stress Reactivity Protocol (MSRP), a psychological challenge. The MSRP elicited significant increases in HR, systolic-, and diastolic BP, ACTH and cortisol (all p , 0.01). Men had significantly greater cortisol and diastolic BP responses compared to women (p , 0.05). Additionally, a positive correlation ...
Xu, Y., Day, Trevor A. and Buller, K. M. 1999, The central amygdala modulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to systemic interleukin-1beta administration, Neuroscience, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 175-183, doi: 10.1016/S0306-4522(99)00311-5. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The dual nature of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation in dyads of very preterm infants and their mothers. AU - Provenzi, L.. AU - Giusti, L.. AU - Fumagalli, M.. AU - Frigerio, S.. AU - Morandi, F.. AU - Borgatti, R.. AU - Mosca, F.. AU - Montirosso, R.. N1 - Export Date: 27 August 2019 CODEN: PSYCD Correspondence Address: Provenzi, L.; 0-3 Center for the at-Risk Infant, Scientific Institute IRCCS Eugenio Medea, via don Luigi Monza 20, Italy. PY - 2019. Y1 - 2019. KW - Cortisol. KW - HPA axis. KW - Mother-infant interaction. KW - NICU. KW - Preterm birth. KW - Stress regulation. KW - hydrocortisone. KW - adaptive behavior. KW - adult. KW - Article. KW - biological rhythm. KW - child behavior. KW - controlled study. KW - female. KW - human. KW - hypothalamus hypophysis adrenal system. KW - infant. KW - major clinical study. KW - male. KW - mental stress. KW - mother child relation. KW - prematurity. KW - priority journal. KW - reaction time. KW - saliva level. KW - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Sex differences in activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis by methamphetamine. AU - Zuloaga, Damian G.. AU - Johnson, Lance A.. AU - Agam, Maayan. AU - Raber, Jacob. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation is associated with changes in addiction-related behaviors. In this study, we tested whether sex differences in the acute effects of methamphetamine (MA) exposure involve differential activation of the HPA axis. Male and female mice were injected with MA (1 mg/kg) or saline for comparison of plasma corticosterone and analysis of the immediate early gene c-Fos in brain. There was a prolonged elevation in corticosterone levels in female compared to male mice. C-Fos was elevated in both sexes following MA in HPA axis-associated regions, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), central amygdala, cingulate, and CA3 hippocampal region. MA increased the number of c-Fos and c-Fos/glucocorticoid ...
The combined effects of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and autonomic nervous system (ANS) arousal were examined on developmental trajectories of childrens comorbid internalizing and externalizing problems. Participants were 394 urban dwelling, primarily African American, youth (50% male, age 11-12 years). Parent-reported child behavior problems were obtained initially, 3, 6, and 12 months later. Saliva samples (collected at the initial assessment) were assayed for cortisol (HPA) and alpha-amylase (ANS). Cross-domain latent class growth analysis identified a stable comorbid trajectory and four other distinct short-term developmental trajectories of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. ANS arousal was negatively associated with the probability of stable comorbidity, but only among youth who also had high levels of HPA axis activity. Findings underscore the predictive value of the interaction of HPA axis activity and ANS arousal in differentiating children with ...
Background In this study the predictive value of the combined dexamethasone/CRH test (DEX/CRH test) for acute antidepressant response was investigated. Methodology/Principal Findings In 114 depressed inpatients suffering from unipolar or bipolar depression (sample 1) the DEX/CRH test was performed at admission and shortly before discharge. During their stay in the hospital patients received different antidepressant treatment regimens. At admission, the rate of nonsuppression (basal cortisol levels |75.3 nmol/l) was 24.6% and was not related to the later therapeutic response. Moreover, 45 out of 114 (39.5%) patients showed an enhancement of HPA axis function at discharge in spite of clinical improvement. In a second sample, 40 depressed patients were treated either with reboxetine or mirtazapine for 5 weeks. The DEX/CRH test was performed before, after 1 week, and after 5 weeks of pharmacotherapy. Attenuation of HPA axis activity after 1 week was associated with a more pronounced alleviation of
We determined the effects of prenatal dexamethasone administration in early gestation on development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA
Neuromedin U (NMU) is a highly conserved neuropeptide that has been implicated in the stress response. To better understand how it influences various aspe...
Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a disease which defined as medically unexplained, disabling fatigue of 6 months or more duration and often accompanied by several of a long list of physical complaints. We aimed to investigate abnormalities of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis hormones and cortisol concentrations in premenopausal women with CFS and find out effects of depression rate on these hormones. We examined follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estradiol, progesterone and cortisol concentrations in 43 premenopausal women (mean age: 32.86 ± 7.11) with CFS and compared matched 35 healthy controls (mean age: 31.14 ± 6.19). Patients were divided according to menstrual cycle phases (follicular and luteal) and compared with matched phase controls. Depression rate was assessed by Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and patients with high BDI scores were compared to patients with low BDI scores. There were no significant differences in FSH, LH, estradiol and progesterone
The amygdala plays a central role in emotional processing and has an activating influence on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Structural changes in the amygdala have been associated with early adversity and, in principle, may contribute to the later emergence of emotional pathologies by influencing the way that the brain responds to stress provocation. The present study examined the relationship between amygdala volumes and cortisol secretion in response to a social stressor among young adults who were or were not exposed to maternal postnatal depression (PND) early in development (referred to as PND offspring and controls, respectively). Hierarchical Linear Modelling (HLM) revealed that, on a sample-wide level, there was no evidence of a relationship between total amygdala volume, or the volume of the right or left hemisphere amygdala taken separately, and cortisol reactivity. Unexpectedly, for PND offspring, larger right hemisphere amygdala volume was associated with lower ...
The dopaminergic system has a pivotal role in the central nervous system but also plays important roles in the periphery, mainly in the endocrine system. Dopamine exerts its functions via five different receptors, named D(1)-D(5), belonging to the category of G protein coupled membrane receptors. Dopamine receptors are heterogeneously expressed in different cells, tissues and organs, where they stimulate or inhibit different functions, including neurotransmission and hormone synthesis and secretion. In particular, the dopamineric system has a pivotal role in the physiological regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. Recent data have demonstrated the expression and function of dopamine receptors not only in endocrine organs but also in endocrine tumors, mainly those belonging to the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, and also in the so-called neuroendocrine tumors. These data confirm the important role of the dopaminergic system in this endocrine axis, as well as in the ...
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During the preovulatory surge of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a very large amount of the peptide is released in the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal blood for 24-36H00. To study whether this release is linked to a modification of the morphological organization of the GnRH-containing neurons, i.e. morphological plasticity, we conducted experiments in intact ewes at 4 different times of the oestrous cycle (before the expected LH surge, during the LH surge, and on day 8 and day 15 of the subsequent luteal phase). The cycle stage was verified by determination of progesterone and LH concentrations in the peripheral blood samples collected prior to euthanasia. The distribution of GnRH-containing neurons throughout the preoptic area around the vascular organ of the lamina terminalis was studied following visualisation using immunohistochemistry. No difference was observed in the staining intensity for GnRH between the different groups. Clusters of GnRH-containing neurons (defined as 2 or more neurons
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Individual differences in early adolescents latent trait cortisol (LTC). T2 - Relation to recent acute and chronic stress. AU - Stroud, Catherine B.. AU - Chen, Frances R.. AU - Doane, Leah. AU - Granger, Douglas A.. PY - 2016/8/1. Y1 - 2016/8/1. N2 - Research suggests that environmental stress contributes to health by altering the regulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Recent evidence indicates that early life stress alters trait indicators of HPA axis activity, but whether recent stress alters such indicators is unknown. Using objective contextual stress interviews with adolescent girls and their mothers, we examined the impact of recent acute and chronic stress occurring during the past year on early adolescent girls latent trait cortisol (LTC) level. We also examined whether associations between recent stress and LTC level: a) varied according to the interpersonal nature and controllability of the stress; and b) remained after accounting for the effect ...
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release from the pituitary gland via V1B stimulation is central to the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress response (Carrasco & Van de Kar-2003, Herman & Cullinan-1997, Sapolsky et al-2000; Tsigos & Chrousos-2002). Chronic dysregulation of the HPA axis is common in major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and substance abuse disorders characterized by elevated AVP, increased responsiveness to AVP, as well as either increased or decreased overall HPA axis activity or responsiveness (Dinan & Scott-2005). HPA axis normalization via pituitary V1B antagonism is a mechanism for potential ABT-436 efficacy in these disorders (Schüle et al-2009). Limbic V1B antagonism in the brain may also contribute to efficacy (Roper et al-2011).. Alcohol dependence, or alcoholism, is characterized by a chronic relapsing course, in which alcohol-associated cues and stress are known relapse triggers (Brownell et al-1986, Heilig & Egli-2006, Sinha & Li-2007). Recent ...
Stress enhances the behavioral effects of cocaine, perhaps via hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Yet, compared to Fischer 344 (F344) rats, Lewis rats have hyporesponsive HPA axis function and more readily acquire cocaine self-administration. We hypothesized that stress would differentially affect cocaine behaviors in these strains. The effects of three stressors on the discriminative stimulus and response rate effects of cocaine were investigated. Rats of both strains were trained to discriminate cocaine (10 mg/kg) from saline using a two-lever, food-reinforced (FR10) procedure. Immediately prior to cumulative dose (1, 3, 10 mg/kg cocaine) test sessions, rats were restrained for 15-min, had 15-min of footshock in a distinct context, or were placed in the shock-paired context. Another set of F344 and Lewis rats were tested similarly except they received vehicle injections to test if stress substituted for cocaine. Most vehicle-tested rats failed to respond after stressor exposures.
I am all over this theory lately, but for the first time, I have been too busy to research it. I fully expect to hit a dead end (LOL) but at the same time, this is the first time peoples bloodwork has actually matched HPA Dysfunction. That is something that cant be said about any of the other theories I have floated. The beauty of the dysfunction is that it can be in either direction. DHEA can be sky high, or too low. Testosterone usually low. Cortisol can be too high, or too low. Dysfunction leaves it wide open. But as I mentioned to Chrissi on Skype, I still have to somehow correlate twitching with HPA Dysfunction. Or maybe not. You can google adrenal fatigue and see plenty of people reporting systemwide twitching. Your theory may be valid, but I know nothing about it just yet. As a side note: Even if this is the true cause of BFS, the exercise/stress management/diet change theories still fit perfectly. Science has proven that all three of these play significant roles in the ...
I am all over this theory lately, but for the first time, I have been too busy to research it. I fully expect to hit a dead end (LOL) but at the same time, this is the first time peoples bloodwork has actually matched HPA Dysfunction. That is something that cant be said about any of the other theories I have floated. The beauty of the dysfunction is that it can be in either direction. DHEA can be sky high, or too low. Testosterone usually low. Cortisol can be too high, or too low. Dysfunction leaves it wide open. But as I mentioned to Chrissi on Skype, I still have to somehow correlate twitching with HPA Dysfunction. Or maybe not. You can google adrenal fatigue and see plenty of people reporting systemwide twitching. Your theory may be valid, but I know nothing about it just yet. As a side note: Even if this is the true cause of BFS, the exercise/stress management/diet change theories still fit perfectly. Science has proven that all three of these play significant roles in the ...
Current research interests include determining the mechanisms responsible for cellular and subcellular alterations following soft tissue trauma, bone fracture, hemorrhage and sepsis. Additionally, the use of novel, readily available, FDA approved inexpensive therapeutic agents to attenuate such alterations in patients following trauma is planned. Other areas include evaluation of: (1) gender dimorphism and the mechanisms responsible for producing cardiovascular and hepatocellular dysfunction and immunological alterations following trauma-hemorrhage; (2) trauma-induced changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis; (3) apoptosis of immune cells; and (4) traumatic brain injury. Specific research interests include determining the mechanism of regulation of estradiol levels by hypothalamic/pituitary factors, adrenals and steroidogenic enzyme activity and how differences in estradiol levels or the estradiol:androgen ratio due to the estrus cycle, ovariectomy, and age affect immune responses ...
While activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can be an adaptive response to tension excessive HPA axis reactivity could be a significant marker of years…. Continue reading While activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can be an adaptive. Comments closed ...
The secretion of cortisol is mainly controlled by three inter-communicating regions of the body, the hypothalamus in the brain, the pituitary gland and the adrenal gland . This is called the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. When cortisol levels
There are many reasons to question the conventional approach to thyroid levels which insists on the central and absolute position of TSH. Thankfully, at least some medical/scientific folk do have an...
Sample description : qualitative variables be expressed as percentages, numbers and 95% confidence intervals Quantitative variables will be expressed as means, standard deviations or medians, range, interquartile intervals Description of biological stress : it will be described by calculating the difference between the observed peek or peeks of cortisol ans the cortisol level measured at rest (means, standard deviations or medians, range, interquartile intervals) Description of perceived stress : the AVS will be described in terms of means and standard deviation Comparison of the peek-delta/base level of cortisol in the 3 different workstations of the call center operators according to the non parametrical Kruskall Wallis test. Same for the lengthof service of the call operator, the severity of the call and the status of the doctor The AVS score (perceived stress) will be compared to the peek-delta/base level of cortisol (biological stress) thanks to the Spearmann correlation coefficient ...
Pigs experience biological stress such as physiological, environmental, and social challenges when weaned from the sow. The process of weaning is one of the most stressful events in the pigs life that can contribute to intestinal and immune system dysfunctions that result in reduced pig health, growth, and feed intake, particularly during the first week after weaning. Technological improvements in housing, nutrition, health, and management have been used to minimize some of the adverse effects of weaning stress, but a greater understanding of the biological impact of stress is needed to improve strategies to overcome weaning stress. The focus of this review paper is to briefly describe how the biological stress associated with weaning impacts intestinal morphology, structure, physiology, and intestinal immune responses that can impact subsequent production efficiencies such as growth, intake, morbidity, and mortality.
in General and Comparative Endocrinology (2008), 157(3), 266-74. Traditionally, the production and regulation of steroid hormones has been viewed as a multi-organ process involving the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis for sex steroids and the hypothalamic ... [more ▼]. Traditionally, the production and regulation of steroid hormones has been viewed as a multi-organ process involving the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis for sex steroids and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis for glucocorticoids. However, active steroids can also be synthesized locally in target tissues, either from circulating inactive precursors or de novo from cholesterol. Here, we review recent work demonstrating local steroid synthesis, with an emphasis on steroids synthesized in the brain (neurosteroids) and steroids synthesized in the immune system (immunosteroids). Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that other components of the HPG axis (luteinizing hormone and gonadotropin-releasing ...
Lead poisoning is a stealthy threat to human physiological systems as chronic exposure can remain asymptomatic for long periods of time before symptoms manifest. We presently review the biophysical mechanisms of lead poisoning that contribute to male infertility.
Video created by Duke University for the course Introductory Human Physiology. IIn this module, we return our attention to the endocrine system and its role in the maintenance of homeostasis. In particular we consider the hypothalamus-pituitary ...
Researchers may have a new way to detect hypertension & diabetes in people with obesity: an alteration in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis.
Semantic Scholar extracted view of The participation of the vegetative nervous system in the neuroendocrine regulation of adaptive reactions. by Eörs Bajusz
Certain scenarios result in acute spikes in plasma cortisol levels which appear to be coordinated by the hypothalamic-pituitary axis described above and thus occur in response to increased pituitary release of ACTH. Common acute inducers of ACTH release include highly stressful situations which emotive or physical such as burns, Surgery, or infections. Intense hypoglycemia also results in increased levels of cortisol and is likely used as a last resort for correcting insufficient blood glucose levels as will be described more fully in the future under the blood glucose regulation page ...
I was a critical care medic in FL in the back of the ambulance going code emergency with my patient when we had an accident- my head rotated and I couldnt move my right arm or neck.I was sideways bent...
Dr. Gariepy examines how the organization of the stress response system, conceived as a physiological interface between the organism and its environment, is shaped by experience and relates to individual differences in patterns of socio-emotional adaptation. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis … Continued. ...
University of Bristol - person profile - MRC Centre for Synaptic Plasticity - Professor Stafford Lightman - Regulation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in health and disease.
The results of this study indicate that MA causes sex-dependent activation of the HPA axis with females showing a more prolonged elevation in plasma corticosterone compared to males. In females, the plasma corticosterone response following MA exposure peaked at 70 min post injection and subsequently decreased, but remained elevated above baseline levels at 120 min. In males, MA induced an earlier peak plasma corticosterone response at 30 min with a faster decline by 70 min and levels similar to baseline at 120 min. This sex difference in HPA axis activation with greater plasma corticosterone responses in females than males is similar to that observed in adult rodents following novelty and restraint stress (Handa et al. 1994a, 2009; Zuloaga et al. 2011), as well as administration of pharmacological agents such as the SSRI citalopram (Goel et al. 2011). Furthermore, the pattern of sex difference in HPA axis activation seen in the current study is similar to that seen following chronic exposure to ...
ABSTRACT The elucidation of Δ9‐tetrahydrocannabinol as the active principal of Cannabis sativa in 1963 initiated a fruitful half‐century of scientific discovery, culminating in the identification of the endocannabinoid signaling system, a previously unknown neuromodulatory system
Chapter 6 - The Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis: Anatomy and Physiology. Thyroid hormones act as key homeostatic regulators in all tissues and exert their effects during fetal development and postnatal growth and in adulthood. It is, therefore, critical to maintain circulating thyroid hormone concentrations within the physiological reference range and this is achieved by the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis.. About the book. Impairments in the interaction between the central nervous system and the endocrine system can lead to a number of disorders in children. These include type 1 diabetes, growth disorders, adrenal thyroid and pituitary problems, Addisons disease and Cushing syndrome, among others.. Neuroendocrine Disorders in Children provides a comprehensive examination of paediatric and adolescent disorders focusing on the basic science and its clinical relevance. Complex issues are discussed in an easy-to-follow manner and the latest developments in the area are ...
Lung maturation is modulated by several factors, including glucocorticoids. Expression of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis-related components, with proposed or described local regulatory systems analogous to the HPA axis, was reported in peripheral tissues. Here, HPA axis-related genes were studied in the mouse developing lung during a period overlapping the surge of surfactant production. Expression of genes encoding for corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), CRH receptors (CRHR) 1 and 2beta, CRH-binding protein, proopiomelanocortin (POMC), melanocortin receptor 2 (MC2R), and glucocorticoid receptor was quantified by real-time PCR and localized by in situ hydridization in fetal lungs at gestational days (GD) 15.5, 16.5, and 17.5, and was also quantified in primary mesenchymal- and epithelial cell-enriched cultures. In addition, the capability of CRH and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) to stimulate pulmonary expression of enzymes involved in the adrenal pathway of glucocorticoid synthesis
Other hypothalamic neurones release hormones (called releasing hormones or releasing factors) into capillaries in the hypothalamus. These capillaries are one part of a portal system: they join togther to form the pituitary portal vein, which in turn opens up into a second set of capillaries within the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysisis). This specialised system of blood vessels, the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system (the pituitary portal system), carries releasing hormones from the hypothalamic capillaries to the adenohypophysial capillariesof the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, where the releasing factors regulate the secretion of anterior pituitary hormones. Neurosecretion is the process whereby neurones release hormones (releasing hormones) into the vascular system. In the neurohypophysis the release is directly into the systemic circulation, but in the hypothalamus the hormones are released into the pituitary portal system ...