During the extreme polarized growth of fungal hyphae, secretory vesicles are thought to accumulate in a subapical region called the Spitzenkörper. The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans can grow in a budding yeast or hyphal form. When it grows as hyphae, Mlc1 accumulates in a subapical spot suggestive of a Spitzenkörper-like structure, while the polarisome components Spa2 and Bud6 localize to a surface crescent. Here we show that the vesicle-associated protein Sec4 also localizes to a spot, confirming that secretory vesicles accumulate in the putative C. albicans Spitzenkörper. In contrast, exocyst components localize to a surface crescent. Using a combination of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) and fluorescence loss in photobleaching (FLIP) experiments and cytochalasin A to disrupt actin cables, we showed that Spitzenkörper-located proteins are highly dynamic. In contrast, exocyst and polarisome components are stably located at the cell surface. It is thought that in
Hi Unusual hyphal branching is studied for edible mushrooms by the unsiversity of toronto. Maybe you may try to contact Prof. Horgen at phorgen at credit.erin.utoronto.ca who may tell you more about his current research. Leo van Griensven Mushroom Experimental Station Holland Begin forwarded message: Resent-From: server-daemon at dl.ac.uk Date: Wed, 1 Dec 1993 02:01:30 GMT Resent-Date: Wed, 1 Dec 93 0:0:20 UT Resent-Message-Id: ,CHC2yJ.A15 at massey.ac.nz, Precedence: list From: Richard Johnson ,R.D.Johnson at Massey.ac.nz, Reply-To: Richard Johnson ,R.D.Johnson at Massey.ac.nz, Sender: bionet.mycology mail newsgroup ,server-daemon at dl.ac.uk, To: bionet.mycology mail newsgroup ,bionet-news at dl.ac.uk, Subject: Unusual hyphal branching Comments: List problems/queries to ,biosci at daresbury.ac.uk, Comments: To mail both the group and netnews send to (mycology at dl.ac.uk) X-Article-Number: bionet.mycology Msg # 195 X-Listpath: bionet-news X-Mailer: MXT V 12.13.0 we have observed unusual ...
Hyphae can be classified into categories by their cell division, by their cell wall and overall form, and by their refractive appearance. Hyphae by cell division can be further classified as septate (with septa), aseptate (without septa), and pseudohyphae. The first two classifications are considered to be "true" hyphae.. In addition, hyphae classified by their cell walls are separated into three categories: generative, skeletal (which is divided into two - the classical form and fusiform skeletal), and binding. Unformed hyphae are called yeast - a substance that is very useful and applicable in many industries and fields.. ...
Given the apparent importance of hypha formation in pathogenicity and epithelial activation, determining how ECs are activated by the yeast and hyphal form of C. albicans is of fundamental importance. To this end, recently a novel mechanism was identified that enables oral ECs to discriminate between C. albicans yeast and hyphae. Oral ECs orchestrate responses to C. albicans via NF-κB and a bi-phasic MAPK signaling response. Activation of NF-κB and an initial, transient MAPK response, resulting in activation of the c-Jun transcription factor, is independent of morphology and thus activated by both yeast and hyphae. However, activation of a second, stronger MAPK response, resulting in activation of the c-Fos transcription factor and production and stabilisation of the MAPK phosphatase MKP1, is specifically associated with hypha formation and correlates with proinflammatory responses and cell damage. A key finding was that the hypha-mediated response was strongly dose-dependent, indicating that ...
Given the apparent importance of hypha formation in pathogenicity and epithelial activation, determining how ECs are activated by the yeast and hyphal form of C. albicans is of fundamental importance. To this end, recently a novel mechanism was identified that enables oral ECs to discriminate between C. albicans yeast and hyphae. Oral ECs orchestrate responses to C. albicans via NF-κB and a bi-phasic MAPK signaling response. Activation of NF-κB and an initial, transient MAPK response, resulting in activation of the c-Jun transcription factor, is independent of morphology and thus activated by both yeast and hyphae. However, activation of a second, stronger MAPK response, resulting in activation of the c-Fos transcription factor and production and stabilisation of the MAPK phosphatase MKP1, is specifically associated with hypha formation and correlates with proinflammatory responses and cell damage. A key finding was that the hypha-mediated response was strongly dose-dependent, indicating that ...
According to the science journal Nature, the differences between pseudohyphae and hyphae are dictated by the shape of the cells, the location of the septin ring and the septum relative to the mother...
Hyphae are clusters of cells in a fungus that grow in a branch-like design; mycelium are large groups of hyphae. Large groups of mycelium make up the body of a fungus. It forms after a single spore...
These studies suggested that cell lysates and supernatant collected from cultured PMNs that were exposed to cytokines or C. albicans hyphae opsonized with normal human serum had elevated levels of C6 and C7 proteins [18,19]; however, it was not conclusive that these proteins were produced by PMNs in culture because (1) the rise in C6 or C7 in culture could have been released by C. albicans hyphae or derived from normal human serum, (2) the inhibition of protein biosynthesis by cycloheximide did not affect the rise in C6 or C7 in PMN cultures [18], and (3) conclusive evidence showing that PMNs are actively expressing these terminal complement mRNAs or proteins has been lacking in the literature ...
Localization of Chs2-YFP in yeast and hyphal cells grown in the presence of caspofungin and CaCl2 and CFW. A-F. Yeast cells of the CHS2-YFP/chs2Δ0 strain wer
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Neutrophil engulfing thrush fungus. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a neutrophil white blood cell (pink) engulfing and destroying hyphae (orange) from a thrush (Candida albicans) fungus. This process is called phagocytosis. Neutrophils are the most abundant white blood cell and are part of the bodys immune system. Hyphae are the long, branching filamentous cells of a fungus. - Stock Image C004/9488
Neutrophil engulfing thrush fungus. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of a neutrophil white blood cell engulfing and destroying a hypha (blue) from a thrush (Candida albicans) fungus. This process is called phagocytosis. Neutrophils are the most abundant white blood cell and are part of the bodys immune system. Hyphae are the long, branching filamentous cells of a fungus. - Stock Image C004/9493
Epicoccum contains a single species, Epicoccum purpurascens. Epicoccum grows rapidly and produces woolly to cottony or felty colonies on potato dextrose agar* at 25°C. From the front, the colonies are yellow to orange, orange to red or pink initially and become greenish brown to black by aging. From the reverse, the same color is observed but is usually more intense than in the front view. Epicoccum may produce a diffusible pigment which turns the color of the inoculated medium to yellow, orange, red or brown. Black dots may be observed macroscopically on the colony surface. These are the tufts of hyphae which have conidiophores on their surface. These tufts of hyphae are cushion-shaped and non convoluted and are called sporodochia ...
The hyphal apex is a highly specialized region of the fungal cell where polarized growth and differentiation occur. Numerous cellular activities are involved in maintaining apical growth and...
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Wardell, JN, Stocks, SM, Thomas, CR and Bushell, ME (2002) Decreasing the hyphal branching rate of Saccharopolyspora erythraea NRRL 2338 leads to increased resistance to breakage and increased antibiotic production ...
Four germicidin homologs were isolated from a liquid culture of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). These were identified as germicidins A, B and C, and surugapyrone A (germicidin D). Absolute stereochemistry of the chiral center in germicidins A and C is determined to be S. All germicidins inhibited ger …
The production of toxins by A. fumigatus may help the fungus to colonize and invade the respiratory epithelium by modifying the natural clearance of the respiratory tract. Previous research has shown that A. fumigatus culture filtrate modifies the transepithelial resistance (Rt) and transepithelial potential differences (Vt) of HNEC, an in vitro model of the air-liquid interface of airway epithelium [11]. The aim of this study was to use HPLC and MS-MS to identify which toxins produced by A. fumigatus are responsible for these modifications. Our data suggest that verruculogen, which has never been implicated in invasive aspergillosis, is one of the probable candidates.. The fact that A. fumigatus produces a number of biologically active substances that slow ciliary beating, damage epithelium, and that may affect colonization of the airways has already been reported using culture explants [17]. Among these substances, such toxins as gliotoxin, fumagillin, and helvolic acid have been implicated in ...
Purpose: We investigated the expression and function of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) in telomerase-immortalized human corneal epithelial cells (THCEs) and telomerase-immortalized human stroma fibroblasts (THSFs) challenged by A. fumigatus hyphae and its relationship with Toll-like receptors (TLR).. Methods: We stimulated THCEs and THSFs with TLR2 Ligand zymosan, TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS), human recombinant TSLP or A. fumigatus hyphae for various periods, with or without the inhibition of TLR2, TLR4 or TSLP using monoclonal antibody or small interfering RNA previously. The release and expression of TLR2, TLR4, TSLP, IL-4, IL-8, IL-13 and TNF-α were measured by means of ELISA, quantitative RT-PCR or western blot.. Results: It was demonstrated that enhanced expression of TSLP, IL-4 and IL-13 was associated with the treatment of A. fumigatus hyphae in human corneal cell lines. Stimulation of THCEs and THSFs with TLR2 Ligand zymosan or TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced ...
The opportunistic human pathogen Candida albicans causes both superficial and life threatening systemic infections and is a leading cause of fungal disease in immunocompromised individuals such as those with AIDS. C. albicans can grow in different cell shapes, also known as morphologies, including yeast-like cells and a variety of filamentous forms, such as true hyphae and pseudohyphae. Yeast, hyphae and pseudohyphae, have been observed at the sites of Candida infection and there is strong evidence that morphogenesis, the transition between yeast and filamentous growth forms, is essential for its virulence. Many studies have implicated the second messenger molecule cAMP in the regulation of morphogenesis due to its role in activating filamentation. Our lab and others have previously characterized the impact of the negative regulators, Nrg1, Rfg1, and Tup1 on the expression of HWP1, a hyphal specific gene. The goal of this project is to characterize whether the addition of exogenous cAMP will ...
Candida albicans is a common fungal pathogen of humans that colonizes the skin and mucosal surfaces of most healthy individuals. Until recently, little was known about the mechanisms by which mucosal antifungal defences tolerate colonizing C. albicans but react strongly when hyphae of the same microorganism attempt to invade tissue. In this Review, we describe the properties of yeast cells and hyphae that are relevant to their interaction with the host, and the immunological mechanisms that differentially recognize colonizing versus invading C. albicans ...
Hyphal tip growth in fungi is important because of the economic and medical importance of fungi, and because it may be a useful model for polarized growth in other organisms. We have investigated the central questions of the roles of cytoskeletal elements and of the precise sites of exocytosis and endocytosis at the growing hyphal tip by using the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans. Time-lapse imaging of fluorescent fusion proteins reveals a remarkably dynamic, but highly structured, tip growth apparatus. Live imaging of SYNA, a synaptobrevin homologue, and SECC, an exocyst component, reveals that vesicles accumulate in the Spitzenkörper (apical body) and fuse with the plasma membrane at the extreme apex of the hypha. SYNA is recycled from the plasma membrane by endocytosis at a collar of endocytic patches, 1-2 μm behind the apex of the hypha, that moves forward as the tip grows. Exocytosis and endocytosis are thus spatially coupled. Inhibitor studies, in combination with observations of ...
A central theme in biology is to understand how different signaling outputs can be accomplished by changes to signal transduction pathways. Here, we examined epigenetic differences between two cell states in the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans. We show that cells in the "white" state are sterile due to multiple bottlenecks in MAPK signaling relative to mating-competent "opaque" cells. Alleviation of these bottlenecks by reverse engineering effectively converts sterile white cells into sexually competent cells. These results have broad implications for understanding how epigenetic changes can impact MAPK expression and signaling output, including events associated with tumorigenesis. We also propose a model for how the white-opaque switch gained control of sexual reproduction in Candida during evolution.. ...
Author Summary The innate immune system represents a key barrier that fungal pathogens such as Candida albicans must overcome in order to disseminate through the host. C. albicans cells phagocytosed by macrophages initiate a complex program that involves a large-scale reprogramming of metabolism and transcription and results in the switch to a hyphal form that can penetrate and kill the macrophage. Though a number of signals are known to induce this morphological transition in vitro, what does so following phagocytosis has been unclear. We previously showed that C. albicans rapidly neutralizes acidic, nutrient-poor media that resembles the phagolysosome and that this is deficient in mutants impaired in amino acid import due to a mutation in STP2. In this paper, we investigate whether this happens within the macrophage as well. We show here that, in contrast to wild-type cells, stp2Δ mutants occupy an acidic phagosome and are unable to initiate hyphal differentiation. Because of this, they are more
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 23616783. Front Microbiol 2013;4:81. In Aspergillus fumigatus like in other filamentous ascomycetes, β-1,3-glucan constitutes a prominent cell wall component being responsible for rigidity of the cell wall structure. In filamentous fungi, softening of the cell wall is absolutely required during conidial germination and hyphal branching. Because of the central structure of β-1,3-glucans, it is expected that β-1,3-glucanases play a major role in cell wall softening. Based on in silico and experimental data, this review gives an overview of β-1,3-glucan modifying enzymes in A. fumigatus genome and their putative role during morphogenesis.. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23616783 ...
THE opportunistic fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, grows invasively in tissues of candidiasis patients by converting from budding yeast form cells to filamentous forms. The ability to convert from one morphology to another is important for virulence (Sobelet al. 1984; Shepherd 1985; Ryley and Ryley 1990; Lebereret al. 1997; Loet al. 1997). To understand the mechanisms by which filamentous growth is stimulated during infection, regulation of hyphal development has been studied extensively (for review, see Gow 1997). Conditions that promote hyphal growth in the laboratory include growth at elevated temperature in medium containing special components. In the absence of these conditions, growth within a matrix also promotes hyphal growth (Brownet al. 1999). The embedded condition may simulate conditions encountered by the pathogen during growth in human tissue.. Several genes whose products regulate filamentous growth have been identified (for review, see Ernst 2000), including CPH1 (Liuet al. ...
The state-of-the-art of the bioengineering facets of the morphology of microorganisms and their courting to strategy functionality are defined during this quantity. fabrics and strategies of the electronic snapshot research and mathematical modeling of hyphal elongation, branching and pellet formation in addition to their software to varied fungi and actinomycetes through the construction of antibiotics and enzymes are awarded. ...
Our observation that hex1Δ infection hyphae are restricted in growth and incapable of advancing blast disease symptoms raised a possibility that these mutant infection hyphae were under some stress that presumably leads to cytolysis and premature death because of failure in septal plugging and membrane resealing.. Earlier studies have presented evidence that nutritional starvation, particularly nitrogen-limiting condition, is one of the key environmental factors that influences M. grisea growth in rice leaves (Lau and Hamer, 1996; Talbot et al., 1997). We therefore tested the growth characteristics of the hex1Δ mutant under conditions of nutrient deprivation (see Methods for details). Contrary to the wild-type strain, the hex1Δ mutant showed severely restricted growth on minimal medium that contained limiting amounts of nitrogen source (Figure 7A). However, under conditions of carbon limitation, hex1Δ mutant showed growth rates and proliferation comparable to the wild type (data not shown). ...
THE filamentous fungi form mycelial colonies that consist of networks of branched hyphae that grow by apical extension. In the higher fungi (i.e., Ascomycota and Basidiomycota), hyphae are compartmentalized by the formation of cross-walls, or septa. It has long been suspected that the presence of septa allows filamentous fungi to partition cellular environments within a hypha to support colony homeostasis and reproductive development (Gull 1978). The process of septum formation is similar to cytokinesis of animal cells, in that it coordinated with mitosis and requires formation of a contractile actin ring (CAR) (Balasubramanian et al. 2004). By analogy to the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the CAR likely provides a landmark that guides deposition of the septal wall material. However, unlike these yeasts, the septum is not subsequently degraded and cells remain attached. Furthermore, in most filamentous fungi, a small pore is retained to enable communication ...
... Aspergillus is a mould with narrow angled septate hyphae. Asexual conidia are arranged in chain, carried on elongated cells called sterigmata borne on expanded ends of conidiophores. Aspergillus fumig
Our results demonstrate that the Efg1p and Tup1p signal transduction pathways are particularly important in the interactions ofC. albicans with endothelial cells in vitro. In contrast, the MAPK pathway is less significant in these interactions.. The Δefg1 mutant did not germinate on endothelial cells, was only weakly endocytosed, and caused virtually no endothelial cell injury. Therefore, one or more factors that are regulated by Efg1p contribute significantly to the ability of C. albicans to invade and damage endothelial cells.. The Δtup1 mutant was also markedly deficient in its ability to invade and injure endothelial cells. However, this mutant formed extensive pseudohyphae on endothelial cells. These findings indicate that the ability to assume an elongated morphology per se is not sufficient for C. albicans to be endocytosed by and cause damage to endothelial cells under the conditions tested. One notable difference between the Δtup1 mutant and SC5314 was that the former strain grew as ...
Our results demonstrate that the Efg1p and Tup1p signal transduction pathways are particularly important in the interactions ofC. albicans with endothelial cells in vitro. In contrast, the MAPK pathway is less significant in these interactions.. The Δefg1 mutant did not germinate on endothelial cells, was only weakly endocytosed, and caused virtually no endothelial cell injury. Therefore, one or more factors that are regulated by Efg1p contribute significantly to the ability of C. albicans to invade and damage endothelial cells.. The Δtup1 mutant was also markedly deficient in its ability to invade and injure endothelial cells. However, this mutant formed extensive pseudohyphae on endothelial cells. These findings indicate that the ability to assume an elongated morphology per se is not sufficient for C. albicans to be endocytosed by and cause damage to endothelial cells under the conditions tested. One notable difference between the Δtup1 mutant and SC5314 was that the former strain grew as ...
Trichothecium roseum colonies are flat, granular, and powdery in appearance. [1] [2] The color of the colonies appears to be white and develops a light pink to peach color. [1] The genus Trichothecium is characterized by its pinkish colored colonies. [8]. Conidiophores of T. roseum are usually erect and are 200-300μm in length. [9] They arise singly or in loose groups. [1] Conidiophores are simple hyphae , [10] which are septate in their lower half, [6] and bear clusters of conidia at the tip. [2] These conidiophores are indistinguishable from vegetative hyphae until production of the first conidium. [1] Conidium development is distinctive [2] and was first described by Ingold in 1956. [6]Conidia arise as a blowout from the side of the conidiophore apex which is thus incorporated into the base of each spore. [6] After the first conidium is blown out, before it matures, the apex of the conidiophore directly below blows out a second conidium from the opposite side. [6] Conidia are pinched out of ...
I got my first hyphae today! They look just like I heard them described, like little white dreadlocks! So how long will it take these to turn into pins? Also, does 24/7 lighting as opposed to 12/12
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General Information: Isolation: Blade of grass from Raritan River NJ; Country: USA; Temp: Mesophile; Temp: 10-30C; Habitat: Soil. This bacterium produces the antibiotic nocardicin A. Soil dwelling, nonmotile aerobe it has fine hyphae which form aerial and substrate mycelia. Motile spores are borne on synnemata, compact groups of erect hyphae. It produces nocardicin antibiotics and is able to inhibit growth of several Gram-positive bacteria as well as some filamentous fungi and yeasts. ...
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Killed candida albicans hyphae herbal treatment for throat. Killed candida albicans hyphae s www bing com seek q yeast infection with will baking soda get rid of a yeast contamination and doylestown clinic cafeteria.. Candida albicans romana yeast contamination vinegar douche. Candida albicans romana yeast contamination raw skin with can you freeze brewers yeast and boric acid for male yeast infections are fungal contamination due to any styles of.. Candida albicans in sputum treatment male groin yeast infections. Candida albicans in sputum remedy domestic yeast contamination check package with ojo para candida infection and treating skin yeast discover records and facts about yeast.. Candida albicans leyla muedin hoffman middle. Leyla muedin at hoffman center explains what candida albicans are and what are taken into consideration yeastrelated fitness troubles by using candidaaware health practitioners.. Candida albicans everyday plants damage.Iyeastcure. Candida albicans ordinary flora candida ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Candida albicans ABG1 gene is involved in endocytosis. AU - Veses, Veronica. AU - Casanova, Manuel. AU - Murgui, Amelia. AU - Gow, Neil A R. AU - Martínez, José P. PY - 2009/3. Y1 - 2009/3. N2 - The human fungal pathogen Candida albicans undergoes reversible morphogenetic transitions between yeast, hyphal and pseudohyphal forms. The fungal vacuole actively participates in differentiation processes and plays a key role supporting hyphal growth. The ABG1 gene of C. albicans encodes an essential protein located in the vacuolar membranes of both yeast and hyphae. Using fluorescence microscopy of a green fluorescent protein-tagged version of Abg1p, a fraction of the protein was detected in hyphal tips, not associated with vacuolar membranes. Live cell imaging of emerging germ tubes showed that Abg1p migrated to the polarized growth site and colocalized with endocytic vesicles. Phenotypic analysis of a methionine-regulated conditional mutant confirmed that Abg1p is involved in ...
This chapter examines how cell identity influences mating-type determination, particularly in fungal pathogens. It explores cases where cell identity plays roles outside of mating type, affects cell morphology, and influences pathogenesis. The chapter begins with a description of cell type determination in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and uses this as a platform for exploring mechanisms in the human fungal pathogens Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans as well as the plant fungal pathogen Ustilago maydis. It concludes with a short description of the influence of cell identity on the behaviors of several other plant and human fungal pathogens and how cell identity in fungi is evolving to encompass a more diverse array of fungal behaviors. A fungal pathogen in which cell identity determination has come to the fore is in the basidiomycete fungus C. neoformans. There are two obvious possibilities for specifying haploid cell identity: either the pheromone and pheromone receptor alleles
Ashbya gossypii is a filamentous fungus that belongs to the order Saccharomycetales in the phylum Ascomycota. It is used as a model organism for studying filamentous growth because of the small size of the genome, its haploidy and ease of culturing. A. gossypii is also used commercially for the production of vitamin B2. The genome sequence was published in 2004. It comprises 9.2 Mb in seven chromosomes containing 4,718 predicted protein-coding genes. The Ashbya gossypii genome project was initiated when the conservation of gene order and orientation (synteny) compared to Saccharomyces cerevisiae was noted. ...
Fungal keratitis is a kind of intractable and sight-threatening diseases. Spleen-tyrosine kinase (Syk) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, which plays an important role in the signaling pathway of the receptors. In the current study, we investigate the expression and function of Syk in human corneal epithelial cells with Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) infection. Cultured telomerase-immortalized human corneal epithelial cells (THCEs) were treated with A. fumigatus hyphae with or without treatment of Syk inhibitors. Activation of Syk and the role of Syk in regulating inflammatory cytokines and chemokines expression were evaluated. The mRNA expression was determined by real time PCR, and protein activation was measured by western blotting. Syk protein was detected in THCEs, and its activation was enhanced after treatment of A. fumigatus hyphae. Expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and IL-6) and chemokines (IL-8 and CXCL1) mRNA were significantly increased after stimulation of A. fumigatus
Albrecht A., A. Felk, I. Pichova, J.R. Naglik, M. Schaller,P. de Groot, D. MacCallum, F.C. Odds, W. Schafer, F. Klis and others. 2006. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteases of Candida albicans target proteins necessary for both cellular pro-cesses and host-pathogen interactions. J. Biol. Chem. 281: 688-694.. Amberg D., D. Burke and J. Strathern. 2005. Yeast RNA isolations, Techniques and Protocols #6, pp. 127-131. In: Amberg D., D. Burke and J. Strathern (eds). Methods in Yeast Genetics. Cold Spring Har-bor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor.. Aoki W., N. Kitahara, N. Miura, H. Morisaka, Y. Yamamoto,K. Kuroda and M. Ueda. 2011. Comprehensive characterization of secreted aspartic proteases encoded by a virulence gene family in Candida albicans. J. Biochem. 150: 431-438.. Bertini A., F. De Bernardis, L.A. Hensgens, S. Sandini, S. Senesiand A. Tavanti. 2013. Comparison of Candida parapsilosis, Can-dida orthopsilosis, and Candida metapsilosis adhesive properties and pathogenicity. Int. ...
We have followed the migration of GFP-labelled nuclei in multinucleate hyphae of Ashbya gossypii. For the first time we could demonstrate that the mode of long range nuclear migration consists of oscillatory movements of nuclei with, on average, higher amplitudes in the direction of the growing tip. We could also show that mitotic division proceeds at a constant rate of 0. 64 microm/minute which differs from the biphasic kinetics described for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furthermore we were able to identify the microtubule-based motor dynein as a key element in the control of long range nuclear migration. For other filamentous fungi it had already been demonstrated that inactivating mutations in dynein led to severe problems in nuclear migration, i.e. generation of long nuclei-free hyphal tips and clusters of nuclei throughout the hyphae. This phenotype supported the view that dynein is important for the movement of nuclei towards the tip. In A. gossypii the opposite seems to be the ...
The Candida albicans MKC1 gene encodes a mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, which has been cloned by complementation of the lytic phenotype associated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae slt2 (mpk1) mutants. In this work, the physiological role of this MAP kinase in the pathogenic fungus C. albicans was characterized and a role for MKC1 in the biogenesis of the cell wall suggested based on the following criteria. First, C. albicans mkc1Δ/mkc1Δ strains displayed alterations in their cell surfaces under specific conditions as evidenced by scanning electron microscopy. Second, an increase in specific cell wall epitopes (O-glycosylated mannoprotein) was shown by confocal microscopy in mkc1Δ/mkc1Δ mutants. Third, the sensitivity to antifungals which inhibit (1,3)-β-glucan and chitin synthesis was increased in these mutants. In addition, evidence for a role for the MKC1 gene in morphological transitions in C. albicans is presented based on the impairment of pseudohyphal formation of mkc1Δ/mkc1Δ strains
Article Limited functional redundancy and oscillation of cyclins in multinucleated ashbya gossypii fungal cells. Cyclin protein behavior has not been systematically investigated in multinucleated cells with asynchronous mitoses. Cyclins are canonical...
The dimorphic fungus Candida albicans has both a yeast form and a hyphal form. When yeast-form cells were starved and then transferred to a N-acetylglucosamine medium, the formation of true hyphae...
The mycelium is the part of a fungus that is usually underground (or inside some another substance). It is composed of hyphae, which look like threads, or rootlets. The mat of hyphae may be very thickly woven. The fungus uses it to extract nutritients. The hyphae are usually syncytic, that is, they do not have complete cell walls. Fungal colonies composed of mycelium are found in and on soil and many other natural materials. A mycelium may be tiny, forming a colony that is too small to see, or it may be extremely large and cover the floors of a large forest. The part of the fungus which is most visible is the reproductive body. This is often, but not always, the stem and hat of the mushroom. ...