In rats with long-term or chronic renovascular hypertension, we found that neither the change in BP or CO nor the renal vasoconstriction evoked by acute inhibition of NO synthesis was diminished compared with rats with early-phase 2K1C hypertension. Contrary to what we expected, this suggests that NO still contributes significantly to maintaining vascular tone in chronic 2K1C hypertension and that prolonged hypertension is apparently not exacerbated by developing endothelial dysfunction with diminished NO production. We had hypothesized that this chronic phase of 2K1C hypertension would be characterized by the loss of endothelial function and, therefore, a diminished influence of NO on vascular resistance. On the basis our bioassay of hemodynamic responses to NO synthesis inhibition, neither systemic nor renal endothelial dysfunction are factors in these rats. We further propose that in the chronic phase, blocking the AT1 receptor would no longer have a profound effect on BP or renal perfusion ...
BACKGROUND: Enhanced mechanical forces, e.g. in arterial hypertension, stimulate the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the NAD(P)H oxidase. Since bone marrow derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contribute to vascular remodeling and repair, we investigated whether renovascular hypertension stimulates EPC mobilization in a NAD(P)H oxidase-dependent manner. METHODS: Renovascular hypertension was induced by two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) in C57BL/6 (WT) and in mice lacking the p47phox subunit of the NAD(P)H oxidase (p47phox-/-). RESULTS: In WT, 2K1C increased blood pressure levels by 32.4 +/- 4 mmHg, which was associated with a four-fold increase in circulating EPCs (Sca-1+;Flk-1+). In p47phox-/- mice, the increase in blood pressure was significantly reduced (15.1 +/- 1.8 mmHg, P , 0.05) and not associated with increased EPCs. Inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and nonspecific vasodilators normalized blood pressure and inhibited EPC mobilization in WT mice after 2K1C. ...
1. The possible contribution of changes in cardiac β-adrenoceptors to alterations in cardiac responses to isoprenaline were investigated in hearts isolated from rats with renovascular hypertension (two-kidney, one-clip Goldblatt), 6, 12 and 18 weeks after renal artery clipping. Cardiac responses were determined in vitro (Langendorff preparation), and ventricular β-adrenoceptors ([3H)dihydroalprenolol, [3H]DHA) were then assayed in the same 44 hearts.. 2. There was no difference between renovascular hypertensive rats (RHR) and matched normotensive controls as regards chronotropic responses to isoprenaline or in atrial β-adrenoceptor numbers or apparent affinity.. 3. Inotropic responses were significantly lower in all stages of RHR than in matched normotensive controls.. 4. There was also a significant (P , 0.001) decrease in ventricular β-adrenoceptor density with no significant change in apparent affinity (Kd). Inotropic responsiveness to isoprenaline (max. increment in peak dP/dt) was ...
The effect of regression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) on ventricular performance was studied in two-kidney, one clip Goldblatt hypertensive rats (2K1C) treated with methyldopa or by unclipping. Sham operations were performed in a total of 21 rats; 12 and nine were studied after 4 and 6 weeks, respectively. Hypertension was induced in 38 additional rats. Of these, 11 were studied at 4 weeks. Cardiac index was measured by electromagnetic flowmetry under light ether anesthesia, and ventricular performance was assessed by rapid intravenous saline infusion. Of the remaining 27 hypertensive rats at 4 weeks postclipping, 10 were treated with methyldopa (400 mg/kg/day) and nine were unclipped; eight were left untreated as controls. Two weeks thereafter, ventricular performance was determined as described above. When expressed as the relationship between cardiac index and LV end-diastolic pressure, ventricular performance tended to be depressed in 2K1C. Ventricular performance, mean arterial ...
It has been reported that immunization against tonin normalizes blood pressure, and that sialoadenectomy, during which the tonin-rich salivary glands are removed, decreases blood pressure in one-kidney, one-clip hypertension. To investigate the role of tonin on this form of hypertension further, we actively immunized one-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rabbits with tonin and measured both the blood pressure response and the titer of antibodies raised against tonin. In addition, because sialoadenectomy may alter food intake, we assessed the effect of sialoadenectomy on the blood pressure of one-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats fed a liquid diet to facilitate eating. After immunization, all rabbits developed antitonin-antibody titers ranging from 1:300 to 1:56,000. However, in none of the rabbits did the blood pressure decrease significantly (114 +/- 3 mm Hg before immunization; 129 +/- 6 mm Hg at 16 weeks after immunization). In one-kidney, one-clip hypertensive rats, sialoadenectomy did not ...
Hypertension (HTN) may lead to left ventricular hypertrophy and vascular dysfunction, which are independent factors for adverse cardiovascular outcomes. We hypothesized that decreased blood pressure by percutaneous transluminal renal angioplasty (PTR
Suspicion of secondary hyperaldosteronism is raised by moderate to severe hypertension that is relatively unresponsive to therapy, combined with evidence of renovascular disorders or diagnoses that may be associated with renovascular disorders. Abdominal bruits serve as a clinical sign of vascular stenosis. Difference in kidney size or unexplained renal insufficiency also raises clinical suspicion. Most patients with hypertension have essential hypertension of unknown cause, but renovascular hypertension is one of the more common forms of secondary hypertension. In adults younger than 30 years of age, renal artery stenosis may result from fibromuscular dysplasia of renal vessels. In patients older than 50 years of age, atherosclerosis is the leading cause; less frequent causes are renal artery aneurysm, renal vascular thrombosis, and other processes, such as vasculitis affecting renal vessels. Occasionally, external masses may compress the renal artery. Rarely, renin is produced by renal tumors. ...
Renovascular hypertension (RVHT) denotes nonessential hypertension in which a causal relationship exists between anatomically evident arterial occlusive disease and elevated blood pressure (see the images below). RVHT is the clinical consequence of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone activation as a result of renal ischemia.
1. Within 24 h of surgical reversal of chronic Goldblatt two-kidney, one-clip hypertension in the rat, of ,4 months duration, blood pressure had fallen to normal levels. At this time there was no difference between the effects of removal of the clip or the ischaemic kidney but, at 60 days after reversal, the blood pressure of rats which had been nephrectomized was significantly higher than that of normal controls.. 2. The fall in blood pressure was associated with a fall in total peripheral resistance to normal by 24 h despite the previous established fact that structural vascular changes take much longer to reverse. There was a corresponding rise in cardiac output, mainly due to an increase in stroke volume. Nephrectomized rats had a significantly higher stroke volume compared with those unclipped 24 h after operation.. 3. As blood pressure can become normal in the presence of structural cardiovascular change by a fall in total peripheral resistance it would seem unlikely that resistance vessel ...
The angiotensin-II analogue sar1-ala8- Summary angiotensin II (Saralasin) was administered intravenously in different doses to two patients with unilateral renovascular hypertension. On a sodium intake of 100 meq., infusion of the analogue resulted in a decrease in blood-pressure by 10-20 mm. Hg, a striking sodium retention, and a fall in ... read more effective renal plasma flow. In one patient the analogue infusion was repeated after sodium depletion : blood-pressure fell to normal within 10 minutes. After corrective surgery plasma-renin activity returned to normal within 1 day, but in both patients blood-pressure reached normal values only 2-3 weeks later. These results suggest that two mechanisms are acting jointly in the maintenance of the hypertension in these two cases of unilateral renal-artery stenosis. show less ...
Renal artery stenosis is the main cause of renovascular hypertension and results in ischemic nephropathy characterized by inflammation, oxidative stress, microvascular loss, and fibrosis with consequent functional failure. Considering the limited number of strategies that effectively control renovascular hypertension and restore renal function, we propose that cell therapy may be a promising option based on the regenerative and immunosuppressive properties of stem cells. This review addresses the effects of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) in an experimental animal model of renovascular hypertension known as 2 kidney-1 clip (2K-1C). Significant benefits of MSC treatment have been observed on blood pressure and renal structure of the stenotic kidney. The mechanisms involved are discussed ...
Angiotensin II blockade with sarcosine1-alanine8-angiotensin II (saralasin, P-113) was done in 40 studies of 20 hypertensive patients. Eleven of 12 patients with a depressor response to angiotensin II blockade had significant renovascular or renal disease, and nine of 10 had renal vein renin measurements that lateralized to the abnormal kidney. In contrast, none of the patients without a depressor response had renovascular abnormalities. Plasma renin activity was usually high in responders to saralasin (18 ng/ml · h) when compared with nonresponders (0.5 ng/ml · h). In these studies a correlation between the fall in blood pressure and the rise in plasma renin activity during angiotensin II blockade was observed while renin was unchanged in the absence of depressor responses. In two renovascular renin-dependent hypertensive patients, treatment with diuretics induced severe hyperreninemia and a rise in blood pressure that was reversed by sodium loading. ...
Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system plays a critical role in the development of chronic renal damage in patients with renovascular hypertension. Although angiotensin II (Ang II) promotes oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis, it is not known how these pathways intersect to produce chronic renal damage. We tested the hypothesis that renal parenchymal cells are subjected to oxidant stress early in the development of RVH and produce signals that promote influx of inflammatory cells, which may then propagate chronic renal injury. We established a reproducible murine model of RVH by placing a tetrafluoroethhylene cuff on the right renal artery. Three days after cuff placement, renal tissue demonstrates no histologic abnormalities despite up regulation of both pro- and anti-oxidant genes. Mild renal atrophy was observed after seven days and was associated with induction of Tnfα and influx of CD3+ T cells and F4/80+ macrophages. By 28 days, kidneys developed severe renal atrophy with
Activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system plays a critical role in the development of chronic renal damage in patients with renovascular hypertension. Although angiotensin II (Ang II) promotes oxidative stress, inflammation, and fibrosis, it is not known how these pathways intersect to produce chronic renal damage. We tested the hypothesis that renal parenchymal cells are subjected to oxidant stress early in the development of RVH and produce signals that promote influx of inflammatory cells, which may then propagate chronic renal injury. We established a reproducible murine model of RVH by placing a tetrafluoroethhylene cuff on the right renal artery. Three days after cuff placement, renal tissue demonstrates no histologic abnormalities despite up regulation of both pro- and anti-oxidant genes. Mild renal atrophy was observed after seven days and was associated with induction of Tnfα and influx of CD3+ T cells and F4/80+ macrophages. By 28 days, kidneys developed severe renal atrophy with
Objective : Hypertension secondary to renal injury is an unusual problem, but one that occurs with some frequency in an active trauma unit. The incidence and management of posttraumatic renovascular hypertension at our Level I trauma center was reviewed. Methods : A retrospective review of a trauma database was performed on patients treated by...
Learn more about Renovascular Hypertension at Medical City Dallas DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
The role of prostaglandins in blood pressure regulation was studied in normal rats and in animals with renal artery constriction. The effects of chronic inhibition of prostaglandin (PG) synthesis on arterial pressure were observed, and renal medullary PG synthesis was measured in vitro. The prostaglandin synthetase inhibitor indomethacin was given in a dose of 2 mg/kg/day by mouth to one of two groups of male Wistar rats with a unilateral renal artery constriction and the other kidney untouched, and to one of two sham-clipped groups. Systolic blood pressures were higher in indomethacin-treated clipped rats than in non-indomethacin-treated clipped animals, and at 18 days averaged 188 mm Hg (plus or minus SEM 5.9, n = 36) and 162 mm Hg (plus or minus SEM 7.6, n = 34), respectively (P less than 0.005 for data pooled from two experiments). Indomethacin did not affect pressures of sham-clipped animals treated for 40 days. Analysis of PG synthesis by gas-liquid chromatography in renal medullary slices
Aim. To analyze time trends in invasive treatment of renovascular disease in one country.. Method Data have been analyzed from registrations in the Swedish Vascular Registry.. Results. Invasive treatment for renovascular disease contributes around 1% of all vascular surgery within the Swedish Vascular Registry. Over the twenty-year period 1987-2006 the population-based frequency of invasive treatment for renovascular disease has increased; 1597 procedures have been registered with an increase over time. The age of the treated patients has increased over the period (P,0.001). There has been a shift from open to endovascular procedure and from isolated percutaneous transluminal. renal angioplasty (PTRA) to PTRA combined with a stent. Complications and mortality are significantly higher in patients undergoing open reconstruction (P,0.01). One year follow-up is incomplete and long-term results are therefore not possible to evaluate through registry-data only.. Conclusion Using nation-wide registry ...
1. Micropuncture and clearance experiments in two-kidney, one-clip renal vascular hypertensive rats examined the ability of the kidney contralateral to renal vascular stenosis to maintain renal function during conditions of reduced renal arterial blood pressure.. 2. At their respective spontaneous blood pressures, renal vascular resistance was higher and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal blood flow were not different in the contralateral kidneys of the hypertensive rats (170 ± 5 mmHg) compared with normal animals (129 ± 1 mmHg). Urine flow and absolute and fractional excretion of electrolyte were greater from the kidneys of the hypertensive animals. However, pressures in cortical structures were similar in the two groups.. 3. As blood pressure was reduced acutely, the kidney contralateral to the renal artery stenosis achieved only small decreases in renal vascular resistance that failed to allow GFR, renal blood flow or pressures in cortical structures to be maintained. In contrast, ...
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Antiserum specific for purified canine renal renin was used to inhibit this enzyme in trained, conscious dogs. The antiserum did not affect blood pressure in sodium-replete dogs but decreased plasma renin activity and blood pressure in sodium-depleted animals. The antiserum also reduced blood pressure to control levels concomitant with suppression of plasma renin activity in uninephrectomized dogs with acute renovascular hypertension. These observations establish the role of the renin-angiotensin system in the maintenance of blood pressure in the sodium-depleted state as well as in the initiation of renovascular hypertension. ...
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Diagnosis Code I15.0 information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, diagnostic related groups, ICD-9 conversion and references to the diseases index.
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To investigate the relation of pressure and vascular wall thickening in hypertension, we coarcted the abdominal aorta upstream to the renal arteries in 14 rats. Sham-coarcted (n = 16) and two-kidney, one-clip (Goldblatt) hypertensive rats (n = 13) served as controls. Tail, femoral, and carotid arterial pressures rose (p less than 0.01) in the two-kidney, one-clip hypertensives; only carotid pressure rose (p less than 0.01) in the coarcted rats, tail and femoral pressures remaining normal (p greater than 0.25). Thus, the hindquarters of the coarcted rats remained normotensive. Four to six weeks after surgery we perfusion-fixed vascular tissues of the hindquarters, including kidneys, with formalin at in vivo levels of pressure. Glycol methacrylate-embedded tissues were sectioned at 1 micron thickness and vessels quantitatively evaluated. The outer medial and lumen perimeters of abdominal aorta, femoral artery, and renal arterioles were measured; from these measurements, vessel outer and lumen ...
Roger Goldblatt is responsible for advising the Bureau Chief of FCCs Consumer & Governmental Affairs Bureau on consumer outreach and consumer education activities related to the digital transition (DTV). Currently he is serving as the Pacific Region Coordinator for the Commissions Nationwide DTV outreach program. He has concentrated his efforts on the Commissions Outreach towards underserved communities, such as non English speaking, low income, seniors, children and the disabled community. Mr. Goldblatt has created our DTV deputy program and leads presentations of the program nationally. Mr. Goldblatt has been with the FCC since the year 2000. Prior to joining the Commission, he was the Federal Outreach Manager for the federal Governments Y2K transition, working with other federal and local agencies, businesses and associations. He created and managed the Y2K federal hotline and Web site, organized informational town hall meetings and worked extensively with the media. As a senior public ...
Beta-catenin/Tcf reporter mice. These mice express GFP gene under the control of the Tcf/Lef binding sites and a minimal thymidine kinase promoter from the TOPFLASH plasmid. Immunohistochemistry with a GFP antibody can be used to assess the Tg expression in the intestine. In other organs except for the intestine. In the splenocytes, expression of GFP was observed by FACS analysis, In other organs, the GFP expression patterns are not examined yet ...
The RescueHer kit contains 34 high quality, must have, cosmetics and essential items (a $120+ value) that ensure todays woman is never left in need. Even better is it all comes inside of a plush PU leather bag with satin lining. That fits inside your big bag and turns into your little bag with included silver clip on
During a 6 year period 60 patients with atherosclerotic renovascular disease were followed by a single renal unit. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors were being taken by 22% of patients at the time of diagnosis of the atherosclerotic renovascular disease. Intervention to revascularize renal tissue by surgery or angioplasty was performed...
Selective renal vein renin studies were performed in seven male patients with severe hypertension and atherosclerotic occlusion of a main renal artery. In five patients, peripheral plasma renin activity was increased, and there was evidence for hypersecretion of renin from the affected kidney and suppression of renin release from the opposite kidney. In one patient, who had occlusion of one renal artery and a high-degree stenosis of the contralateral renal artery, the two kidneys appeared to contribute equally to the high circulating plasma renin activity. Removal of the atrophic, ischemic kidney from these patients, plus bypass of the contralateral renal artery in one patient, resulted in cure or improvement of their hypertension. In one patient, despite hypersecretion of renin from the atrophic kidney, surgery was not recommended because his systemic blood plasma renin activity was not elevated. Histologic examination of the excised kidneys revealed moderate glomerular scarring and tubular ...
The most common primary renal diseases of the renal arteries are atherosclerotic RAS and fibromuscular dysplasia. These lesions are associated with two common syndromes-namely, hypertension and ischaemic nephropathy. Fibromuscular dysplasia accounts for 10% of these stenoses, the rest being atherosclerotic. The prevalence of RAS in atherosclerotic patients increases with age, particularly in patients with diabetes, peripheral arterial occlusive disease, atherosclerosis, and coronary artery disease.9 The existing data on the prevalence of renovascular hypertension are based on necropsy findings and angiography carried out owing to renovascular hypertension. Renovascular hypertension accounts for about 5% of the American hypertensive population.2 Several studies have shown a correlation between increasing age and the presence of renal artery atherosclerosis.2,10 Bacha et al described an increased prevalence of renovascular disease (20%) in patients with diabetes and hypertension.11,12 The mean age ...
There is bilateral renal artery stenosis. The infrarenal abdominal aorta is narrowed corresponding to the findings noted on the CT scan. The SMA is not opacifie
Hyponatremic hypertensive syndrome (HHS) is an uncommon disorder, in which hypertension is associated with profound hyponatremia. It is mostly encountered in adults with unilateral renal artery stenosis. Although renovascular hypertension is one of t
My peak systolic velocity of right renal artery is 95 cm/sec whereas left renal artery is 215cm/sec. (Normal being around 100cm/sec) with turbulence in the mid arterial segment. My renal artery to aortic ratio is within normal limits at 1.24. There may be a stenosis and it may not be hemodynamically significant ...
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Lisinopril (Prinivil), (A), is an ace inhibitor and should be initiated in heart failure patients. However, BV has an absolute contraindication to ACE inhibitor therapy, bilateral renal artery stenosis. Other absolute contraindications for ACE inhibitors are pregnancy and angioedema. Valsartan (Diovan), (C), is an ARB and may be initiated in heart failure patients as an alternative to ACE inhibitors. BV has an absolute contraindication to ARB therapy, bilateral renal artery stenosis. Eprelenone (Inspra), (D), is an aldosterone antagonist used in the management of systolic heart failure after the patient is on standard therapy with an ACE inhibitor and beta blocker. ...
Disease affecting the arterial supply to the kidneys, leading to ischaemia and resultant stimulation of the renin-*angiotensin-aldosterone axis. In the major vessels, the most common cause is atheromatous plaque disease. Other causes are fibromuscular dysplasia and Takayasus disease. ...
CASE SUMMARY A 28-year-old man presented to the emergency department with an abdominal mass and five days of headache with nausea and vomiting. He was two mo...
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HISTORICAL CONTRIBUTIONS highlight the greatest academic manuscripts from the Brady Urological Institute over the past 100 years. As the Brady Urological Institute approaches its centennial, we will present a HISTORICAL CONTRIBUTION from each of the past 100 years. In the most recent experience, the most highly cited article from each year is selected; older manuscripts were selected based on their perceived impact on the field. We hope you enjoy! ...
Free, official info about 2015 ICD-9-CM diagnosis code 405.11. Includes coding notes, detailed descriptions, index cross-references and ICD-10-CM conversion info.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Renal Failure Limiting Antihypertensive Therapy as an Indication for Renal Revascularization. T2 - A Case Report. AU - Textor, Stephen C.. AU - Novick, Andrew C.. AU - Steinmuller, Donald R.. AU - Streem, Stevan B.. PY - 1983/11. Y1 - 1983/11. N2 - Although surgical repair of renal artery stenosis occasionally improves renal function, it is not yet known when revascularization is indicated for that reason. We report the results observed in a patient with renovascular hypertension and additional stenosis in the contralateral kidney whose renal function deteriorated on repeated occasions during antihypertensive therapy. Renal hemodynamic studies during sodium nitroprusside infusion showed severely impaired autoregulation of blood flow, and glomerular filtration rate was corrected after revascularization of the contralateral kidney alone. After surgery, normal BPs were tolerated without loss of function. These findings demonstrate a specific clinical indication for renal ...
Overview of renal artery stenosis (RAS) and renovascular hypertension. Describes causes of RAS, symptoms, complications, diagnosis, and treatment.
Yet another related disorder causing hypertension is glucocorticoid remediable aldosteronism, which is an autosomal dominant disorder in which the increase in aldosterone secretion produced by ACTH is no longer transient, causing of primary hyperaldosteronism, the Gene mutated will result in an aldosterone synthase that is ACTH-sensitive, which is normally not.[22][23][24][25][26] GRA appears to be the most common monogenic form of human hypertension.[27] Compare these effects to those seen in Conns disease, an adrenocortical tumor which causes excess release of aldosterone,[28] that leads to hypertension.[29][30][31] Another adrenal related cause is Cushings syndrome which is a disorder caused by high levels of cortisol. Cortisol is a hormone secreted by the cortex of the adrenal glands. Cushings syndrome can be caused by taking glucocorticoid drugs, or by tumors that produce cortisol or adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).[32] More than 80% of patients with Cushings syndrome develop ...
In two-kidney Goldblatt hypertensive, spontaneously hypertensive, and normotensive control rats the activity of the renin-angiotensin system was tested during variation of sodium balance. Acute,...
Chen JL, Shang QH, Hu W, et al. Role of TGF-β1/Smads pathway in carotid artery remodeling in renovascular hypertensive rats and prevention by Enalapril and Amlodipine. J Geriatr Cardiol. 2012 Jun;9(2):185-91. PMID: 22916067.. Kornhuber J, Tripal P, Reichel M, et al. Functional Inhibitors of Acid Sphingomyelinase (FIASMAs): a novel pharmacological group of drugs with broad clinical applications. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2010;26(1):9-20. PMID: 20502000.. Wang JG. A combined role of calcium channel blockers and angiotensin receptor blockers in stroke prevention. Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2009;5:593-605. PMID: 19688100. ...
Open Abdominal Procedures Used to Treat the Following: AAAs (Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms) TAAs (Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms) TAAAs (Thorocoabdominal Aortic Aneurysms Renal Artery Aneurysms Renal Artery Stenosis or Renovascular Hypertension Aortoilliac Occlusion Superior Mesenteric Artery Stenosis Removal of Infected Graft
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Genetic variance on blood pressure was shown about 100 years ago; a Mendelian inheritance was initially presumed. Platt and Pickering conducted a lively debate, whether blood pressure was inherited in a Mendelian fashion or whether the condition was polygenic. Genetic-hypertension research has appropriately followed both pathways. RECENT FINDINGS: Genome-wide association studies, Pickering model, have identified more than 500 blood-pressure loci, the targets of which are waiting to be evaluated. Then, come the dark-horses of hypertension, namely secondary causes. These conditions have been remarkably elucidative including pheochromocytoma, primary aldosteronism, Cushings syndrome, and even renovascular hypertension. All these conditions feature genetic causes. Finally, arrive the Platt followers. A plethora of Mendelian conditions located within the kidney are established. These syndromes involve increased sodium (as chloride) absorption in the distal nephron. Finally, ...
o Experimental and clinical aspects of arterial hypertension and cardiovascular risk factors o Experimental and clinical aspects of endothelial function and oxidative stress. o Experimental and clinical aspects of arterial stiffness o Oxidative stress, isoprostanes and platelet activation in cardiovascular disease o Eicosanoids in the development of renovascular hypertension, essential hypertension and pre-eclampsia o Heritability of blood pressure and blood pressure variability. o Heritability of metabolic syndrome and its individual components. o Genes implicated in blood pressure regulation and metabolic syndrome development o Monogenic forms of hypo-/hypertension and in particular Gitelman syndrome o Pharmacogenetics of antihypertensive and other types of cardiovascular drugs o Nutritional aspect in the development of obesity and hypertension in children and adults o Nutritional aspect in the development of early vascular damage o Experimental and clinical aspects of non-alcoholic fatty ...
There are several types of kidney scans used to evaluate the kidneys. One or more different types of scans may be performed during a single procedure, depending on the type of information needed to diagnose the kidney condition. A renal scan is particularly useful when a patient has a known sensitivity to contrast media or underlying renal insufficiency.. To evaluate perfusion to the kidney tissue, a renal blood flow scan may be done. This type of scan may show decreased blood flow to the kidneys due to a blockage or narrowing of blood vessels to the kidneys. A renal blood flow scan may also be used to assess renovascular hypertension (high blood pressure in the kidneys blood vessels), rejection of a transplanted kidney, or the presence of renal cell carcinoma (cancer of the kidney).. A renal structural scan may be used to examine the structure of the kidneys. Conditions that may affect the size and/or shape of the kidneys include tumors, cysts, abscesses, and congenital disorders. This type of ...