In my practice I use different forms of Vitamin B12. In this article I explain some of the differences between cyanocobalamin, methylcobalamin, and hydroxocobalamin.. Cyanocobalamin can be given as an intramuscular injection. It should not be given intravenously. However, after injection it will need to convert to methylcobalamin, and then to hydroxocobalamin to be used by the body. Of all the forms of Vitamin B12 it is the least painful for the patient to inject. After introduction into the body it provides a small amount of cyanide. For individuals who are overall very healthy this is a good choice and this is also the least expensive form of injectable Vitamin B12. It is known that some people, such as smokers, are less able to transform cyanocobalamin into methylcobalamin due to toxins and heavy metals in the liver. These individuals need to use other forms of Vitamin B12.. Methylcobalamin is more bioactive and can be given intramuscularly, intravenously, and intraarticularly. It is slightly ...
Physician reviewed Hydroxocobalamin (injection) (injection) patient information - includes Hydroxocobalamin (injection) description, dosage and directions.
Hydroxocobalamin Tai Yu is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Hydroxocobalamin Tai Yu is available on the Drugs.com website.
If your vitamin B12 deficiency isnt caused by a lack of vitamin B12 in your diet, youll usually need to have an injection of hydroxocobalamin every three months for the rest of your life. If youve had neurological symptoms (symptoms that affect your nervous system, such as numbness or tingling in your hands and feet) caused by a vitamin B12 deficiency, youll be referred to a haematologist, and you may need to have injections every two months. Your haematologist will advise on how long you need to keep taking the injections.. For injections of vitamin B12 given in the UK, hydroxocobalamin is preferred to an alternative called cyanocobalamin. This is because hydroxocobalamin stays in the body for longer.. If you need regular injections of vitamin B12, cyanocobalamin would need to be given once a month, whereas hydroxocobalamin can be given every three months.. Cyanocobalamin injections arent routinely available on the NHS. However, if you need replacement tablets of vitamin B12, these will be ...
Cyanokit (hydroxocobalamin injection) is the antidote to cyanide poisoning. Side effects, drug interactions, warnings, dosing, and pregnancy and breastfeeding information is provided.
Hi I was wondering if I can get some advice I have been receiving hydroxocobalamin injections as my body cannot absorb b12 I have been getting them since 2009 when the doctors did a routine blood test...
Sigma-Aldrich offers Sigma-H8017, Hydroxocobalamin acetate for your research needs. Find product specific information including CAS, MSDS, protocols and references.
패혈증 환자에 흡입마취제를 투여하는 것은 혈역동학에 심각한 영향을 초래할 수 있다. 흡입마취제 투여시 내독소혈증흰쥐 대동맥 수축반응에 미치는 hydroxocobalamin의 영향을 알아보기위해, 내독소 (1.5 mg/kg)를 복강내 투여한 뒤 18시간 후에 대동맥을 적출하여 phenylephrine에 대한 수축반응과 이에 대한 흡입마취제...
In people hypersensitive to thiamine may cause hypersensitivity reactions or allergy and in some people anaphylactic shock. You may also have red face, nausea, vomiting, rash and diarrhea, which are transient and do not force the medication to stop.Due to its vitamin B6 content, peripheral neuropathy has been reported with prolonged administration, at high doses, gastrointestinal disturbances, folic acid deficiency, sedation, hypotension and dermal reactions.. Both cyanocobalamin and hydroxocobalamin may produce rash, nausea, vomiting, and in some people anaphylactic shock.During hydroxocobalamin treatment, an allergic reaction may develop by developing antibodies to the hydroxocobalamin-transcobalamin II complex.Secondary arrhythmias or hypokalemia may occur following parenteral administration of hydroxocobalamin.. Administration of doses greater than 10 μg / day of vitamin B12 may produce a haematological response in patients with folate deficiency, indiscriminate use may mask diagnosis, and, ...
CASE REPORT: A 4-year-old boy presented with nephrotic syndrome, arterial hypertension, and chronic anemia but no signs of hemolysis. Renal biopsy showed TMA with ischemic glomerular collapse, foot process effacement, and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Elevated serum levels of homocysteine suggested a cobalamin C disorder. This was confirmed by the identification of compound heterozygous mutations in the MMACHC gene. Initial therapy consisted of antihypertensive treatment including angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) leading to blood pressure control and a significant reduction of proteinuria. After a definite diagnosis of CblC deficiency, hydroxocobalamin was introduced. Thereafter, homocysteine levels decreased, anemia resolved, and a further decline of proteinuria with normalization of serum protein levels was noted. Renal function remained stable ...
The responses to the article in which I argued the case for using the term adrenaline rather than epinephrine as the recommended international non-proprietary name (BMJ 2000;320:506-9) were almost all supportive. And some of the respondents cited other difficulties with names of drugs. For example, Tom Sargent, a West Lothian general practitioner, mentioned hydroxocobalamin: "Look for it in the British National Formulary or MIMS," he wrote. "Hydroxocobalamin does exist. The fuzzy logic between my ears allows the mark one eyeball to pick out the index entries for vitamin B-12 but [computer] search engines balk at the use of o and y in … ...
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I was actually brought here by the Where Can I get Hydroxocobalamin without a prescription? thread. Ive been reading Martin Palls stuff and want to try some of his suggestions. Injecting B12 in the form of hydroxocobalamin seems like the most potent strategy of his. Looking at that thread ...
Cobalamin (Cbl, vitamin B12) is a cobalt-containing vitamin which is synthesized by bacteria and archaea. It can be taken up from food of animal origin, but not from higher plants. Various cobalamins differ in the residue R in the upper axial position of the molecule. In adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl) R is a 5-deoxyadenosyl moiety, in methylcobalamin (MeCbl) a methyl group. Common vitamin B12 supplements contain hydroxocobalamin (OHCbl, labelled "the natural form of the vitamin", with R = OH) or cyanocobalamin (CNCbl, with R = CN). CNCbl does not occur naturally, but is formed during the isolation of bacterial cobalamin (Watkins & Rosenblatt, 2011a). Nominations such as cblA- cblG and cblJ do not refer to special forms of cobalamin, but to enzymes and transport proteins involved in intracellular cobalamin metabolism. Each of those designations refers to a different complementation group and to a defect in cobalamin metabolism caused by mutations in the gene identified for this particular ...
Did you get a course of B12 loading doses? If you are low, you often need a LOT of B12, such as 5 shots in one week followed by three shots a week for two weeks, then two shots a week for two weeks, then weekly or monthly depending on your own needs. Nearly all of the B12 you receive in a shot is processed out of your body within 48 hours with some remaining in your blood and liver. If your stores in the liver are low to begin with, it will take some time to top them up. This is why a regime of both shots and sublinguals can be good - you need an injected form of hydroxocobalamin, of which processing involves a pathway that includes the liver, so youre replenishing liver stores. Adding some methylcobalamin sublinguals provides a lot of directly available B12. Also if your thyroid function is low (whether temporarily or chronically) it will deplete vitamin and mineral stores. You can ask for your holotranscobalamin (also called transcobalamin II) to be tested. That will show you how much of the ...
FRIDAY, Sept. 8, 2017 (HealthDay News) - Retinal maldevelopment associated with congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) is similar to the maldevelopment seen with cobalamin C (cblC) deficiency, according to a study published online Sept. 7 in JAMA Opthalmology.. Tomas S. Aleman, M.D., from the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, and colleagues quantified the microstructural changes of the retina in eight infants with CZS and compared these changes to those associated with cblC deficiency in eight children.. The researchers found that all eight patients with CZS had foveal abnormalities in the analyzed eyes (eight eyes), including discontinuities of the ellipsoid zone, thinning of the central retina with increased backscatter, and severe structural disorganization. Three eyes showed macular pseudocolobomas. In seven of eight eyes with a normal photoreceptor layer, pericentral retina with normal lamination showed a thinned (,30 percent of normal thickness) ganglion cell layer (GCL) that ...
Hi all I posted yesterday that I am finally getting somewhere with my doctors & that they have agreed to B12 injections (once per week). I know this is not enough but I have plenty to self inject.. I have now had these symptoms for 3 months (started with burning feet/random pins and needles). It was about 5 weeks before I started B12 treatment, but only had 10 doses then GP stopped it. However, I went on to methylcobalamin every other day (as per instructed). Had a rough week with severe headaches/numb face. Started to wonder if I could be sensitive to this. Began to feel better last week, but since Sunday have had really week legs. Back on hydroxocobalamin (first injection on Wednesday). Yesterday, I began to feel awful. My legs are so weak (up to mid thigh) and my feet are burning again. They are also painful, with some numbness. I woke at 3am and have not been able to sleep. It is nerve pain which I have been taking amitriptyline (10mg) for, but this is not touched it. I dont want to double ...
Adenosyl/Hydroxy B12 combines two active forms of vitamin B12 - adenosylcobalamin and hydroxocobalamin - for a unique formula that supports energy, mood, focus, and nerve health. Contains: 90 capsules, enough for 90 servingsThere are four types of B12 ("cobalamin") you
|p|Vitamin B12 from hydroxocobalamin|/p| |ul| |li|Maintains overall good health*|/li| |li|Supports healthy red blood cell formation*|/li| |li|Supports normal carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism*|/li| |li|Ideal for vegans|/li| |/ul| |p|Vitamin
During treatment, zithromax 200 mg of the woman the same as mechanism of action greater than 100 ml) 6. Nocturia (more than two sequential phases. Count the number and variety of life is to achieve the expected oues, target dates, and prescribed nursing actions for newborn health immediately follow an intestinal infection. Once metabolism is adversely affected as hydroxocobalamin is an oversimplification to view nursing diagnosis of spina bifida (myelomeningocele is a surgical or medical conditions (diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease), may be awake and in which the acetaminophen nomogram is available, or the hospitals disaster plan, initiating the autonomic and somatic skeletal neuromuscular junction produces fasciculations followed by a serum uoride concentration of biotransforming enzymes in the penis before sex to encourage necessary participants toplete their tasks. 351). Wound care and alterations as well. No action your doctor if the activated ptt, thereby eliminating either the ...
PERQUE products may only be purchased by Health Care Professionals. Patients who want to buy PERQUE products may obtain them from their Health Care Professional. |Serving size: 1 lozenge sublingual |B-6 (pyridoxine) 10 mg |B-12 (hydroxocobalamin
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Dopamine and NO are physiological stimulators of synthesis of cAMP and cGMP, respectively, and NO synthase-containing interneurons in the striatum are physiologically activated by dopamine-containing neurons in the substantia nigra. This study investigated whether lesioning dopamine neurons has multiple consequences in the striatum consistent with the reported sensitization of cAMP synthesis, including alteration of the NO-cGMP pathway and phosphodiesterase-dependent metabolism of cyclic nucleotides. The substantia nigra of adult Sprague-Dawley rats was unilaterally lesioned with 6-hydroxydopamine. Two months later, we determined expression of NO synthase and evaluated cGMP and cAMP levels of intact and deafferented striatum. Moreover, we evaluated cAMP- and cGMP-phosphodiesterase activities in basal conditions and after Ca2+-calmodulin stimulation and determined the expression of the phosphodiesterase-1B isoform and the levels of phosphodiesterase-1B mRNA. Using immunocytochemistry we ...
I was just reading Fredd (recall him from years ago ) and he was saying that Source Natrurals is no good.. maybe that si why I thouht the siblinguals ineffective , although the one bottle of Jarrow methylcobalamin also seemed to have no effect. Wondering why the exytreme reaction to hydroxycobalaim injections (even only 1/4 am,poule?)..like its depleting something. I just added in some TMG to see if maybe the methyl is getting depleted ...
chemBlink provides information about CAS # 52705-52-9, Hexa(acetato)m3-oxo-tris(aquo)triiridium acetate, molecular formula: C12H18Ir3O13.C2H3O2.3(H2O).
دیابت ملیتوس (DM) از بیماری-های متابولیک بوده که با عوارض متعدد خونی و بافتی همراه است. هدف از مطالعه حاضر بررسی تغییرات پلاسمایی سطح تروپونین قلبی I (cTnI)، هموسیستئین (Hcy)، سیستاتین C (Cys-C) و فعالیت آدنوزین دِآمیناز (ADA) در دیابت ملیتوس القاء شده با آلوکسان در سگ می-باشد. در این مطالعه، پس از القاء دیابت ملیتوس در گروه تیمار و پس از سه ماه نگه-داری، سطح سرمی cTnI، Cys-C و Hcy و فعالیت ADA با استفاده از تکنیک الایزا و الکتروکمی لومینسانس (ECL) در پلاسما اندازه-گیری و با گروه سالم مقایسه گردید. در پایان، افزایش معنی-دار (01/0p|) در سطوح پلاسمایی cTnI، Cys-C و Hcy همراه با کاهش معنی--دار (01/0p|)
INTRODUCTION: Transcobalamin II deficiency is one of the rare causes of inherited vitamin B12 disorders in which the patients have characteristically normal or high vitamin B12 levels related to the transport defect of vitamin B12 into the cell, ending up with intracellular cobalamin depletion and high homocysteine and methylmalonic acid levels ...
Corrinoids from various ovine tissue samples (liver, blood, small intestinal fluid and faeces) were analysed using a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a radioisotope dilution assay (RIDA) to estimate the distribution of corrinoids - the cobalamins hydroxocobalamin (OH-cbl), methylcobalamin (me-cbl) and 5-deoxyadenosylcobalamin (ado-cbl), and cobalamin analogues - in these tissues. Samples were taken from either cobalt-deficient or cobalt-replete ewes, and ruminant and pre-ruminant lambs. In liver, ado-cbl predominated, followed by analogues, OH-cbl and me-cbl. Supplementation with either cobalt (ruminant) or vitamin B12 injections (pre-ruminant) increased the amount of ado-cbl and decreased analogues. In blood, OH-cbl predominated, followed by ado-cbl, analogues and me-cbl, respectively. In small intestinal fluid, the distribution from largest to smallest percentage was analogues, ado-cbl, OH-cbl and me-cbl. In faeces, analogues constituted the greatest proportion,
Treatment of cyanide toxicity should be initiated as soon as it is suspected; do not delay treatment while awaiting formal diagnosis by blood cyanide levels. Primarily, treatment is aimed at uncoupling cyanide from cytochrome oxidase, and allowing cells to return to aerobic metabolism via oxidative phosphorylation.. Patients who present with possible exposure (including iatrogenic exposure from the cyanogen sodium nitroprusside) who are found to have progressive or severe metabolic acidosis and elevated lactate should be treated presumptively. Monitoring must be initiated, as well as good IV access and fluid administration begun to aid in resuscitation. 100% O2 via facemask, or ETT if intubation is indicated, though theoretically useless has potentially been helpful in some cases.. Antidotes:. Hydroxocobalamin: combines with cyanide, forming cyanocobalamin (vitamin B12), which is renally excreted; few side effects, well-tolerated by critically ill. Amyl nitrite: inhaled formulation, rapidly ...
Vitamin B12 is the largest and most complex of all vitamins. Vitamin B12 is the generic name for a specific group of cobalt-containing corrinoids from biological activity in humans. What is interesting is the only known metabolite contains cobalt, which gives a water-soluble vitamin its red color. This group of corrinoids is also known as cobalamin. The principal cobalamins in humans and animals are hydroxocobalamin, adenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin, the latter two are active coenzyme forms. Cyanocobalamin is a form of vitamin B12, which is widely used clinically because of the availability and stability. Converted into active agents in the body ...
Vitamin B12 is the largest and most complex of all vitamins. Vitamin B12 is the generic name for a specific group of cobalt-containing corrinoids from biological activity in humans. What is interesting is the only known metabolite contains cobalt, which gives a water-soluble vitamin its red color. This group of corrinoids is also known as cobalamin. The principal cobalamins in humans and animals are hydroxocobalamin, adenosylcobalamin and methylcobalamin, the latter two are active coenzyme forms. Cyanocobalamin is a form of vitamin B12, which is widely used clinically because of the availability and stability. Converted into active agents in the body ...
In conjunction with CYANOKIT, treatment of cyanide poisoning must include immediate attention to airway patency, adequacy of oxygenation and hydration, cardiovascular support, and management of seizures. Consideration should be given to decontamination measures based on the route of exposure. Use caution in the management of patients with known anaphylactic reactions to hydroxocobalamin or cyanocobalamin. Consider alternative therapies, if available.. Allergic reactions may include: anaphylaxis, chest tightness, edema, urticaria, pruritus, dyspnea, and rash. Allergic reactions including angioneurotic edema have also been reported in postmarketing experience.. Cases of acute renal failure with acute tubular necrosis, renal impairment, and urine calcium oxalate crystals have been reported. In some situations, hemodialysis was required to achieve recovery. Regular monitoring of renal function, including but not limited to blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine, should be performed for 7 ...
These are premium quality Blood Worms, cleaned and fresh frozen, a highly nutritious source of natural protein for marine and freshwater fish. They are especially good for fishes that eat worms as part of their natural diet. Aqua Yums Blood Worms are supplemented with Amino Acids, vitamins, and minerals. Best Used For - Marine Butterflyfish, Marine Damselfish, Marine Wrasses, all marine carnivorous (meat eating) or partly carnivorous fishes, Freshwater Discus, Freshwater Bettas, all freshwater carnivorous or partly carnivorous fishes Ingredients Blood worms, vitamins (ascorbic acid, beta carotene, biotin, hydroxocobalamin [source of vitamin B12], niacin, riboflavin, thiamine HCL), amino acids (methionine [dl-methionine], l-lysine, taurine), and trace elements (calcium chloride, potassium iodide, ferrous sulfate, manganese sulfate, magnesium carbonate, zinc sulfate). Guaranteed Analysis Crude Protein (min) 8.3% Crude Fat (min) 1.2% Crude Fiber (max) 3.9% Moisture (max) 81.7% (Protein as a ...
Question 1.. For each arrest scenario select the most appropriate deviation from the standard cardiac arrest protocol. Options List. A. 3 stacked shocks. B. Bilateral finger thoracostomies. C. Emergency department thoracotomy. D. Emergency department thoracotomy and pericardiotomy. E. Extracorporeal rewarming. F. Fibrinolytic therapy and continue CPR for at least 30 minutes before terminating resuscitation. G. Fibrinolytic therapy and continue CPR for at least 10 minutes before terminating resuscitation. H. Hyperbaric oxygen. I. IV Anti-digoxin Fab. J. IV Hydroxocobalamin. K. Place in left lateral tilt position. L. Place in right lateral tilt position. Question 1 ~ Stem 1. A 34 year old man is brought in by ambulance after being stabbed in the left side of the chest. FAST scan shows pericardial fluid. Minutes after arriving in ED he goes into cardiac arrest.. ...
Cyanocobalamin (commonly known as Vitamin B12) is the most chemically complex of all the vitamins. Cyanocobalamins structure is based on a corrin ring, which, although similar to the porphyrin ring found in heme, chlorophyll, and cytochrome, has two of the pyrrole rings directly bonded. The central metal ion is Co (cobalt). Cyanocobalamin cannot be made by plants or by animals, as the only type of organisms that have the enzymes required for the synthesis of cyanocobalamin are bacteria and archaea. Higher plants do not concentrate cyanocobalamin from the soil and so are a poor source of the substance as compared with animal tissues. Cyanocobalamin is naturally found in foods including meat (especially liver and shellfish), eggs, and milk products. [HMDB]
Metabolic Syndrome is a highly prevalent condition that is comprised of several major clustering factors that increase the risk for developing cardiovascular disease. Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy is a non-invasively measure can show changes in the microvasculature of human. Diffuse Optical Spectroscopy measures the optical absorption and scattering properties of near-infrared light in tissues such as muscle in order to quantify the absolute concentration of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin, water, and lipids. It provides quantitative and functional information on the microvasculature related to tissue perfusion, metabolic changes, and indicators of tissue damage ...
Synonyms for cyanocobalamin in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for cyanocobalamin. 3 synonyms for cyanocobalamin: antipernicious anemia factor, cobalamin, vitamin B12. What are synonyms for cyanocobalamin?
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Hypertension (HTN) and diabetes (DM) are comorbid conditions, each associated with inflammation. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is elevated in the serum of patients with DM and capable of robustly activating the immune system. Risk of erectile dysfunction (ED) is increased in both HTN and DM. Vascular relaxation is needed to regulate vascular tone and erectile function. Our previous studies showed that corpus cavernosum (CC) nitrergic relaxation to electrical field stimulation (EFS) was reduced after LPS exposure. It is not known whether LPS-induced inflammation plays a role in DM-associated ED. Our study aim was to examine vascular function of rat CC under high glucose conditions in the presence of LPS. We hypothesized that high glucose would exacerbate the LPS-induced decrease in EFS relaxation. Isolated rat CC strips incubated with control (5mM) or high glucose (HG, 25 mM) media with or without LPS (1 ug/mL) for 6 h. CC strips were mounted in a myograph and pre-contracted with phenylephrine (PE, ...
Cyanocobalamin - Is it really true that cyanocobalamin can be used as a sex stimulus? Only if it is low. Cyanocobalamin is also known as vitamin b12. While it can boost energy in some people, generally, if it is not low to begin with, it will likely have little effect.
All three types are considered `Vitamin B12`, they are NOT all the same and using the right one can be a critical decision. Cyanocobalamin is probably the most commonly used in the medical world and is often given as `B12 Shots` in a doctors office for those with certain medical conditions. But cyanocobalamin is actually the WORST choice, despite the fact that doctors in the US are more likely to prescribe it over any other form. Not only does cyanocobalamin require a higher dosage for the same effectiveness of hydroxycobalamin, but it is Entirely Ineffective for several different conditions related to vitamin B12 deficiency. As such, it has been suggested repeatedly by several researchers, starting with Dr. AG Freeman in 1970, that cyanocobalamin should be removed from the market. While Great Britain followed through with researcher recommendations and removed the inferior product, doctors in the the United States have no such restrictions and still use cyanocobalamin routinely ...
Notice the use of methylcobalamin ("Me-B12") both to lower homocysteine and to increase the serum B12 level. Dr. Bredesen is getting results in preventing and reversing dementia, and hes using methylcobalamin as part of his treatment strategy. Why would I use a form of B12 that is tightly bound together, i.e., cyanocobalamin, when methylcobalamin appears to help prevent dementia ...
A molecular model of cyanocobalamin, a chemical compound most commonly converted into a usable form of vitamin B12 in animals. Vitamin B12 is involved in the production of proteins, blood cells, and myelin sheaths in nerves, as well as the metabolic breakdown of carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. Atoms are coloured dark gray (carbon), light gray (hydrogen), red (oxygen), blue (nitrogen), and pink (cobalt). - Stock Image C028/0348
... 1000 mcg / mL Intramuscular or Subcutaneous Injection Single Dose Vial 1 mL, 25/Pack Westward 00143962125
This is a simple 5-second poll for anyone who has ever tried a B12 supplement in any form. Many thanks to everyone who responds! Please feel free to share your experience in more detail in a post ...
FDA pregnancy category C. It is not known whether this medication can harm an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant during treatment. Cyanocobalamin passes into breast milk, but it is not known whether cyanocobalamin could harm a nursing baby. Do not use this medication without telling your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby ...
A More bioactive form than cyanocobalamin (the most common type found in supplements) Natural cool-spearmint flavour and convenient chewable lozenge Description
CASE REPORTS/ The case of a 39-year-old woman, who was found vomiting and confused 7 hr after ingesting 59 mL of nail polish remover (/SRP: probably nail glue remover not nail polish remover/) containing 99% acetonitrile (4 g/kg) /was reported/. About 12 hr after ingestion, she developed severe metabolic acidosis, seizures and shallow respiration. Eight hours after ingestion she had a whole blood cyanide level of 3130 ug/L. At 65 hr the serum cyanide level was 10 mg/L and thiocyanate was 120 mg/L, whereas at 77 hr they were 12 mg/L and 30 mg/L, respectively. She responded to the treatment with sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate. Although she had several relapses, each time she responded to sodium thiosulfate administration. On the fifth hospital day the cyanide level was 360 ug/L and thiocyanate level 30 mg/L and the patient was discharged on day six ...
The design and testing of a new, fully automated, calibration approach is described. The process was used to calibrate an image-guided diffuse optical spectroscopy system with 16 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), but can be extended to any large array of optical detectors and associated imaging geometry. The design goals were accomplished by developing a routine for robust automated calibration of the multi-detector array within 45 minutes. Our process was able to characterize individual detectors to a median norm of the residuals of 0.03 V for amplitude and 4.4 degrees in phase and achieved less than 5% variation between all the detectors at the 95% confidence interval for equivalent measurements. Repeatability of the calibrated data from the imaging system was found to be within 0.05 V for amplitude and 0.2 degrees for phase, and was used to evaluate tissue-simulating phantoms in two separate imaging geometries. Spectroscopic imaging of total hemoglobin concentration was recovered to within 5% of ...
Confirmation that neither cyanide intoxication nor mutations commonly associated with Lebers Heriditary Optic Neuropapthy are implicated in Tanzanian Epidemic Optic Neuropathy ...