TY - JOUR. T1 - Synthesis, anion exchange, and delamination of Co-Al layered double hydroxide. T2 - Assembly of the exfoliated nanosheet/polyanion composite films and magneto-optical studies. AU - Liu, Zhaoping. AU - Ma, Renzhi. AU - Osada, Minoru. AU - Iyi, Nobuo. AU - Ebina, Yasuo. AU - Takada, Kazunori. AU - Sasaki, Takayoshi. PY - 2006/4/12. Y1 - 2006/4/12. N2 - This paper describes a systematic study on the synthesis, anion exchange, and delamination of Co-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH), with the aim of achieving fabrication and clarifying the properties of LDH nanosheet/polyanion composite films. Co-Al-CO3 LDH hexagonal platelets of 4 μm in lateral size were synthesized by the urea method under optimized reaction conditions. The as-prepared CO3 2--LDH was converted to Cl-LDH by treating with a NaCl-HCl mixed solution, retaining its high crystallinity and hexagonal platelike morphology. LDHs intercalated with a variety of anions (such as NO3 -, ClO4 -, acetate, lactate, dodecyl sulfate, ...
Hydroxyl radical (.OH) formation by neutrophils in vitro requires exogenous iron. Two recent studies [Britigan, Rosen, Thompson, Chai & Cohen (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 17026-17032; Winterbourn (1987) J. Clin. Invest. 78, 545-550] both reported that neutrophil degranulation could potentially inhibit the formation of .OH, but differed in their conclusions as to the responsible factor, myeloperoxidase (MPO) or lactoferrin (LF). By using a previously developed spin-trapping system which allows specific on-line detection of superoxide anion (O2-) and .OH production, the impact of MPO and LF release on neutrophil .OH production was compared. When iron-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetic acid-supplemented neutrophils were stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or opsonized zymosan, .OH formation occurred, but terminated prematurely in spite of continued O2- generation. Inhibition of MPO by azide increased the magnitude, but not the duration, of .OH formation. No azide effect was noted when MPO-deficient ...
Hydrolysis literally means reaction with water. It is a chemical process in which a molecule is cleaved into two parts by the addition of a molecule of water. One fragment of the parent molecule gains a hydrogen ion (H + ) from the additional water molecule. The other group collects the remaining hydroxyl group (OH − ). To illustrate this process, some examples from real life and actual living systems are discussed here. The most common hydrolysis occurs when a salt of a weak acid or weak base (or both) is dissolved in water. Water autoionizes into negative hydroxyl ions and hydrogen ions. The salt breaks down into positive and negative ions. For example, sodium acetate dissociates in water into sodium and acetate ions. Sodium ions react very little with hydroxyl ions whereas acetate ions combine with hydrogen ions to produce neutral acetic acid, and the net result is a relative excess of hydroxyl ions, causing a basic solution. However, under normal conditions, only a few reactions between ...
A method is provided for making mirrors having enhanced reflective layer resistance to corrosion. The reflective layer of the mirror, typically silver, is contacted, preferably simultaneously, with a first solution containing a specific cation and a second solution containing a specific anion, or alkaline material which forms hydroxyl ions, the specific cation and specific anion or hydroxyl ion reacting to form a water insoluble precipitate on the silver surface. The mirror may then be painted to provide additional corrosion resistance to the mirror. The method eliminates the need for a copper layer on the silver surface and the method may be incorporated into existing mirror production lines as a replacement for the copper layering step. Also provided are an apparatus for making the mirrors and the mirrors made using the method and apparatus of the invention. A preferred cation containing solution contains tin (e.g., SnCl2) and a preferred anion containing solution contains hydroxyl ions (e.g., NaOH).
This study explores the possibilities of using solid base catalysts, mainly hydrotalcites, for the transesterification of triglycerides (TAG) possessing alkyl groups in the range of C4-C18. The aim of the research is to design various types of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) formulated with different atomic ratio of M2+/Al3+ (M = Zn2+, Ni2+ and Mg2+), spanning from 1.5-4.0 via an alkali-free method. To enhance the physicochemical properties of the LDH, catalysts were calcined-rehydrated via gas-phase (GP), liquid-phase (LP), and hydrothermal (HTM) pathways. Extensive characterisation of both structural and base properties of these materials was conducted to provide a greater insight into the role of base sites for heterogeneously catalysed transesterification. Results showed HTM reconstructed method enhances the LDH reconstruction purity, surface area and basicity. A positive trend in initial rates was observed as GP , LP , HTM with reconstruction on conventional ZnAl LDH. Following this, the ...
The discard of used adsorbents may pose a great threat to human health and ecological environment. This work herein reported a facile and feasible method, with aims of (i) reusing the calcined layered double hydroxide (CLDH) adsorbent after azo dye adsorption, and (ii) being further used as a photocatalyst to enhance the degradation of typical pharmaceuticals. Calcination under inner gas flow has been utilized to carbonize adsorbed azo dye and a kind of novel carbonaceous CLDH composite material (CM-CLDH) was synthesized. This fabricated material was used as a catalyst for Ibuprofen removal in water samples under simulated sunlight irradiation. According to our experimental results, combination of carbonaceous material with CLDH showed an enhanced photocatalytic performance compared to original CLDH materials. More than 90% of Ibuprofen could be removed in less than 180 min. Introduction of carbon material narrowed catalysts band gap and turned its conduct band potential to a more negative state, which
Page contains details about stearate modified magnesium aluminum layered double hydroxides nano-sheets . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Page contains details about nanocrystalline carbonate-intercalated Ni(II)-Fe(III) layered double hydroxide . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
Effective adjuvants in anti-tumour vaccine formulations are very important in the development of new-generation vaccines. In this study, two layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanomaterial forms, i.e. nanoparticles (NPs) and nanosheets (NSs), were synthesised and examined as adjuvants to provoke the immune respo
Example: What is solubility of Ni(OH)2 in: i) pure water; and ii) a solution adjusted to pH = 10 by addition of NaOH.?. For M = Ni, Table 10.1 gives Sj - 0.23 V and S2 - 0.66 V. From these standard electrode potentials, Ksp = 2.6xJ0J5. Irrespective of the nature of the aqueous phase, the nickel ion and hydroxide concentrations must satisfy:. i) pure water. The water dissociation equilibrium is:. and electrical neutrality of the solution requires that:. Substituting the two mass action equations into the condition of electrical neutrality yields:. Because is ,, 1, the first term on the left hand side of this equation is negligible, and the hydroxyl ion concentration is:. or pH = - log(1014/1.73x105) = 9.2 From the solubility-product equilibrium, the solubility of nickel in pure water is:. ii) NaOH solutions with a pH = 10. For this solution, the hydroxyl ion concentration is 10-4 M and the solubility of nickel from solid Ni(OH)2. Nickel solubility from Ni(OH)2 in pure water is 30 times larger ...
Atom - One unit of a certain kind of element. Molecule - Two or more atoms bonded together. Chemical formula C6H12O6 - Shows how many atoms are in a molecule. N = Nitrogen H = Hydrogen - Na = Sodium K = Potassium C = Carbon O = Oxygen Ca = Calcium Non-polar - Substance does not have charged ends. Hydrophobic - Substance does not dissolve in water. Water H2O - Universal Solvent. Polar - Substance does have charged ends (+ & -). Hydrophilic - Dissolves in water. Cohesion - Attraction of water molecules to each other. Adhesion - water is attracted to other polar molecules. High specific heat - has to gain or lose a lot of energy before it changes temperature. Acid - Has more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions Hydrogen ion H+ - Naked proton. Base - Has more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions Hydroxide ion OH- - pH - Ratio of H+ to OH- 0-6=Acid 7=Neutral 8-14=Base Macromolecules - Large molecules made up of repeating units Monomers - One unit of a macromolecule Polymers - 3 or more monomers ** ...
Synonyms for anion in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for anion. 5 words related to anion: ion, hydroxide ion, hydroxyl ion, superoxide anion, superoxide. What are synonyms for anion?
La motivación de esta tesis es la aplicación de hidróxidos dobles laminares (HDLs) en los campos de catálisis heterogénea, composite & síntesis de materiales híbridos y para el montaje de dispositivos LED (light-emitting diode). La reacción catalítica estudiada en este trabajo es la eterificación de glicerol a poligliceroles de cadena corta usando MgAl y CaAl hidróxidos dobles laminares (MgAl-HDLs y CaAl-HDLs, respectivamente). Para estudiar el efecto de la temperatura de calcinación en la actividad catalítica, una muestra se calcinó a más altas temperaturas. El comportamiento catalítico se correlacionó con las propiedades ácido-base de los catalizadores. La estabilidad de los catalizadores se comprovó. Cuando los HDLs son deslaminados, las nanoláminas cargadas positivamente se pueden usar para síntesis de composites y de materiales híbridos. La deslaminación también facilita el acceso a la región interlaminar de los HDLs. Se ha estudiado la deslaminación en diversos ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Sárka Paušová, Josef Krýsa, Jaromír Jirkovský, Gilles Mailhot, Vanessa Prevot].
The nonmetals in Groups 6A and 7A ____. a. lose electrons when they form ions b. have a numerical charge that is found by subtracting 8 from the group number c. all have ions with a -1 charge d. end in -ate Check my thinking but asked by Maye on July 4, 2007 ...
fffH? Ffhah? Whats that? Oh, like shampoo? Does it have pH in it? What is pH? Who the dickens cares? Why is it that this window into water quality (chemistry/physics) is such a powerful tool/consideration? Heres my version of what everyone should basically (pun intended) know about what pH is, its importance & what you can & should do about it.. What:. pH is a Measure. The symbol pH is a contraction standing for pondus Hydrogenii (=the weight of hydrogen, the simplest element); pH is the relative measure of hydrogen ion concentration. Put another way, pH is the relative presence of H+ (Hydrogen ions) versus OH- (= Hydroxyl ions). Note when these two types of charged species get together they form an uncharged water (H2O) molecule.. You finally will understand this. In a pure solution of nothing but water there is a concentration of @ 10-7, thats ten to the minus seventh (0.0000001), or one in ten million molecules of water that on average have fallen apart/& are getting back together. ...
a : the liquid that descends from the clouds as rain, forms streams, lakes, and seas, and is a major constituent of all living matter and that when pure is an odorless, tasteless, very slightly compressible liquid oxide of hydrogen H2O which appears bluish in thick layers, freezes at 0° C and boils at 100° C, has a maximum density at 4° C and a high specific heat, is feebly ionized to hydrogen and hydroxyl ions, and is a poor conductor of electricity and a good solvent. Dynamics word origin is not as direct as water but originally comes from Greek meaning "power". Here is Merriam-Webster definition of dynamics - https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/dynamics.. Research webpage made by UWO librarian Joe Pirillo: (Thanks so much for sharing Joe Pirillo ...
A layered structure can be formed having immobilized or segregated pH buffering groups that can be used to separate carbon dioxide or other gases. The pH buffering groups can be immobilized within a matrix, confined within a gel, or segregated by a semi-permeable membrane. The pH buffering groups can be configured to increase the efficiency of the system by maintaining a desirable pH profile within the cell and to permit the flow of the carbon-containing ions within the system while controlling diffusion of protons and/or hydroxyl ions.
XRD Analysis of the Structural Properties of Layered Double Hydroxides Comprising Zn and Al Partially Substituted with Cu and Ce and their Derived Mixed Oxides ...
This is a review game to go over the concepts of acids and bases before a test. Some topics include: identifying if something is an acid or base based on pH, formula, and common items, calculating pH and pOH, calculating concentrations of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions, molarity, and dilution calculations.
Biologists are sometimes confused by the non-standard[1] chemical unit of normality N. N refers in general to salts while its most commonly used in the context of acid and bases. N can refere to either the cation or the anion in a hydrolysis. In the context of acid and bases it is generally assumed that N refers to the proton or the hydroxide ion. ...
Just like acids, bases can also be either strong or weak. A strong base is simply a chemical compound that breaks apart completely into water and yield hydroxide ion
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JIAO, F.P. et al. Synthesis and structural characterization of L-(-)-malic acid pillared layered double hydroxides. Lat. Am. appl. res. [online]. 2009, vol.39, n.2, pp. 127-130. ISSN 0327-0793.. A new organic-inorganic hybrid material was obtained by the intercalation of L-(-)-malic acids into Magnesium Aluminum layered double hydroxides (LDHs). The intercalation was performed by reprecipitation and coprecipitation method, respectively, from which high crystallized supramolecular chrial materials were obtained and L-(-)-malic acid was orientated perpendicularly between layers without carbonate ions. The structure of supramolecular chrial materials was characterized using XRD, FT-IR and DSC-TG, EA, ICP, and the supramoleclar structural model of the compound was given.. Palabras clave : Layered Double Hydroxides; L-(-)-Malic Acid; Intercalation; Reprecipitation And Coprecipitation; Structural Characterization. ...
Potassium hydroxide KOH. The chemical reactions with potassium hydroxide KOH. Obtaining potassium hydroxide KOH. Properties: creates a high alkaline environment. Reacts with acids, non-metals, oxides of nonmetals.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Spin trapping evidence for myeloperoxidase-dependent hydroxyl radical formation by human neutrophils and monocytes. AU - Ramos, C. L.. AU - Pou, S.. AU - Britigan, B. E.. AU - Cohen, M. S.. AU - Rosen, G. M.. PY - 1992/1/1. Y1 - 1992/1/1. N2 - Using the electron spin resonance/spin trapping system, 4-pyridyl 1-oxide N-tert-butylnitrone (4-POBN)/ethanol, hydroxyl radical was detected as the α-hydroxyethyl spin trapped adduct of 4-POBN, 4-POBN-CH(CH3)OH, from phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-stimulated human neutrophils and monocytes without the addition of supplemental iron. 4-POBN-CH(CH3)OH was stable in the presence of a neutrophil-derived superoxide flux. Hydroxyl radical formation was inhibited by treatment with superoxide dismutase, catalase, and azide. Treatment with a series of transition metal chelators did not appreciably alter 4-POBN-CH(CH3)OH, which suggested that hydroxyl radical generation was mediated by a mechanism independent of the transition metal- catalyzed ...
In this research, we reported a novel modified carbon ceramic electrode (CCE) using Ni/Al Layered double hydroxide as modifier was fabricated by sol-gel technique. The Ni/Al Layered double hydroxide modified sol gel derived carbon ceramic (Ni/Al LDH-SGD-CC) electrode was used for electrocatalytic oxidation of acetaldehyde. The oxidation of acetaldehyde happens at the potential where Ni (III) species are generated. The modified electrode exhibited remarkable electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of acetaldehyde under alkaline conditions, indicating that the anodic oxidation of acetaldehyde could be catalyzed at Ni/Al LDH-SGD-CC electrode. This proves that the Ni/Al LDH bears the main role in electro-catalytic oxidation of acetaldehyde. Finally, by using the cyclic voltammetry, chronoamperometric and tafel plots method, the catalytic rate constant, charge-transfer coefficient, the number of electrons involved in the rate-determining step (nα) and exchange current density for chemical reaction of
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Potassium hydroxide, also known as caustic potash, is an inorganic compound with various industrial and niche applications. With chemical formula KOH, potassium hydroxide is a compound produced on a large scale globally. It is highly basic and forms strong alkaline solutions in water. Its production is stated to grow consistently in following years ...
... solute at 45 degrees Celsius. What will happen to the mass of the potassium hydroxide if the temperature is raised to 50 degrees Celsius? (Given that heat of solution is -57.6kJ/mol)Please explain as well. ...
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1. The intercellular matrix of the cells on the gills of Mytilus edulis is readily dispersed by hydroxyl ions.. 2. All cations inhibit the action of hydroxyl ions, but the divalent metals are much more powerful than the monovalent metals. All divalent metallic ions except magnesium irreversibly coagulate the matrix at the hydroxyl ion concentration of seawater. This does not occur in the presence of magnesium ions.. 3. There is a marked difference between the action of different non-electrolytes, since in the absence of salts the matrix remains stable for a much longer period in sugar, or glycerine, than in urea. Alcohol in certain concentrations has a marked stabilising action in the absence of salts.. 4. With pure solutions of different monovalent sodium salts the anions can be arranged in a well-marked series in which the matrix is most readily dispersed in sodium iodide. I, Br. NO, , C1, Ac.. 5. The relationship of the matrix to ions is similar to that between protein systems and ions, ...
Exchange reactions of anions, especially ferrocyanide and carbonate, with layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were investigated in relation to the origin of life on the early Earth. The effect on ferrocyanide exchange of concentration, pH, reaction time and cations are discussed.
We report here the use of methylaluminoxane (MAO) modified aqueous miscible organic solvent treated (AMOST) layered double hydroxide, Mg6Al2(OH)16CO3·4H2O (AMO-Mg3Al-CO3) as a catalyst support system for the slurry phase polymerisation of ethylene using immobilised metallocene and non-metallocene metal compl Celebrating the 2016 RSC Prize and Award Winners
Layered double hydroxides having different cationic (Mg2+, Co2+, Al3+) composition were successfully synthesized by the low supersaturation method. The samples were thermally decomposed and reconstructed using water and nitrate media at different temperatures. X-ray powder diffraction analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis, thermogravimetry and BET/BJH methods were used to investigate the differences between the directly obtained layered materials and those after the reconstruction process.. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.2.15184. ...
Buy Electrolyte - Potassium Hydroxide KOH 98% purity. Why is Electrolyte important? It is what Hydrogen generators use to maintain the right voltage across the plates and to carry electrical current from plate to plate.
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Pyrite-induced hydroxyl radical formation and its effect on nucleic acids. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Substance information for UN 1814 - Potassium hydroxide, solution based on the Hazardous Materials Table (Title 49 CFR 172.101) to assist in preparing a risk assessment for loading, transporting and storing hazardous materials.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - (+)-CC-1065 as a structural probe of Mu transposase-induced bending of DNA. T2 - Overcoming limitations of hydroxyl-radical footprinting. AU - Ding, Zhi Ming. AU - Harshey, Rasika M.. AU - Hurley, Laurence. PY - 1993/9/11. Y1 - 1993/9/11. N2 - Phage Mu transposase (A-protein) is primarily responsible for transposition of the Mu genome. The protein binds to six att sites, three at each end of Mu DNA. At most att sites interaction of a protein monomer with DNA is seen to occur over three minor and two consecutive major grooves and to result in bending up to about 90°. To probe the directionality and locus of these A-protein-induced bends, we have used the antitumor antibiotic (+)-CC-1065 as a structural probe. As a consequence of binding within the minor groove, (+)-CC-1065 is able to alkylate N3 of adenine in a sequence selective manner. This selectivity is partially determined by conformational flexibility of the DNA sequence, and the covalent adduct has a bent DNA structure in ...
Acid-base-catalysed hydrolyses are very common; one example is the hydrolysis of amides or esters. Their hydrolysis occurs when the nucleophile (a nucleus-seeking agent, e.g., water or hydroxyl ion) attacks the carbon of the carbonyl group of the ester or amide. In an aqueous base, hydroxyl ions are better nucleophiles than polar molecules such as water. In acids, the carbonyl group becomes protonated, and this leads to a much easier nucleophilic attack. The products for both hydrolyses are compounds with carboxylic acid groups. Perhaps the oldest commercially practiced example of ester hydrolysis is saponification (formation of soap). It is the hydrolysis of a triglyceride (fat) with an aqueous base such as sodium hydroxide (NaOH). During the process, glycerol is formed, and the fatty acids react with the base, converting them to salts. These salts are called soaps, commonly used in households. In addition, in living systems, most biochemical reactions (including ATP hydrolysis) take place ...