In organic chemistry, hydrolysis can be considered as the reverse or opposite of condensation, a reaction in which two molecular fragments are joined for each water molecule produced. As hydrolysis may be a reversible reaction, condensation and hydrolysis can take place at the same time, with the position of equilibrium determining the amount of each product. In inorganic chemistry, the word is often applied to solutions of salts and the reactions by which they are converted to new ionic species or to precipitates (oxides, hydroxides, or salts). The addition of a molecule of water to a chemical compound, without forming any other products is usually known as hydration, rather than hydrolysis. In biochemistry, hydrolysis is considered the reverse or opposite of dehydration synthesis. In hydrolysis, a water molecule (H2O), is added, whereas in dehydration synthesis, a molecule of water is removed. In electrochemistry, hydrolysis can also refer to the electrolysis of water. In hydrolysis, a voltage ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Conversion of bark-rich biomass mixture into fermentable sugar by two-stage dilute acid-catalyzed hydrolysis. AU - Kim, Kyoung Heon. AU - Tucker, Melvin. AU - Nguyen, Quang. PY - 2005/7/1. Y1 - 2005/7/1. N2 - Despite high availability and low cost, bark has not actively been considered as a biomass feedstock for producing bio-based products due to its high content of extractives and lignin. In this study, to investigate the feasibility of utilizing bark-rich sawmill residues for producing value-added materials, the mixed Hemlock hog fuel/pin chips (85:15 by dry weight) from a local sawmill were converted into fermentable sugar by two-stage dilute sulfuric acid-catalyzed hydrolysis. Combining the sugar yields from the first-stage (190°C for 150 s with 1.1% acid) and second-stage (210°C for 115 s with 2.5% acid) hydrolyses, which aimed to maximize the recovery of mannose/galactose and glucose, respectively, 13.6 g of glucose (46% theoretical maximum), 10.5 g of mannose and ...
Dilute-acid lignocellulosic hydrolyzate was successfully fermented to ethanol by encapsulated Saccharomyces cerevisiae at dilution rates up to 0.5 h-1. The hydrolyzate was so toxic that freely suspended yeast cells could ferment it continuously just up to dilution rate 0.1 h-1, where the cells lost 75% of their viability measured by colony forming unit (CFU). However, encapsulation increased their capacity for in situ detoxification of the hydrolyzate and protected the cells against the inhibitors present in the hydrolyzate. While the cells were encapsulated, they could successfully ferment the hydrolyzate at tested dilution rates 0.1-0.5 h-1, and keep more than 75% cell viability in the worst conditions. They produced ethanol with yield 0.44 ± 0.01 g/g and specific productivity 0.14-0.17 g/(g h) at all dilution rates. Glycerol was the main by-product of the cultivations, which yielded 0.039-0.052 g/g. HMF present in the hydrolyzate was converted 48-71% by the encapsulated yeast, while furfural ...
Dilute-acid lignocellulosic hydrolyzate was successfully fermented to ethanol by encapsulated Saccharomyces cerevisiae at dilution rates up to 0.5 h-1. The hydrolyzate was so toxic that freely suspended yeast cells could ferment it continuously just up to dilution rate 0.1 h-1, where the cells lost 75% of their viability measured by colony forming unit (CFU). However, encapsulation increased their capacity for in situ detoxification of the hydrolyzate and protected the cells against the inhibitors present in the hydrolyzate. While the cells were encapsulated, they could successfully ferment the hydrolyzate at tested dilution rates 0.1-0.5 h-1, and keep more than 75% cell viability in the worst conditions. They produced ethanol with yield 0.44 ± 0.01 g/g and specific productivity 0.14-0.17 g/(g h) at all dilution rates. Glycerol was the main by-product of the cultivations, which yielded 0.039-0.052 g/g. HMF present in the hydrolyzate was converted 48-71% by the encapsulated yeast, while furfural was
A. C. Hengge, T. Humphry*, M. Forconi, and N. H. Williams "Altered Hydrolysis Mechanisms for a Metal-Complexed Phosphate Monoester and Diester." International Isotope Effects Conference, Uppsala. Sweden, June 22-27, 2003.. ...
[236 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Protein Hydrolysis Enzymes Market by Sources (Microorganisms, Animals, Plants), Applications (Detergent Industry, Pharmaceuticals, Food Industry and Others), & Geography (North America, Europe, Asia-Pacific & ROW) - Global Trends & Forecasts to 2019 report by MarketsandMarkets. The enzymes which are very specific to protein hydrolysis are...
There are three general methods to hydrolyze protein into its composition, amino acids. Those methods are acid hydrolysis, alkaline hydrolysis, and enzymatic hydrolysis. Strong acid is ordinarily the method of choice, and constant boiling hydrochloric acid, 6 M, is most frequently used. The reaction is usually carried out in evacuated sealed tubes or under N2 (Nitrogen) at110 Celcius degree for 18 to 96 hours. Under these conditions, peptide bonds are quantitatively hydrolyzed (although relatively long periods are required for the complete hydrolysis of bonds to valine, leucine, and isoleucine ...
Enzymatic hydrolysis of proteins is used to improve nutritional and functional properties of many foods. The desired degree of hydrolysis (DH) depends on food application. Effective hydrolysis requires optimal hydrolysis conditions for both the enzyme and the substrate protein. This study aimed to hydrolyze the oat globulins (OG) effectively under different conditions. Our first goal was to maximise the OG solubility and then to hydrolyze OG under optimised conditions. The solubility of isolated OG in Na-phosphate solutions containing 0 1 M NaCl was determined. Globulins were subjected to single-enzyme hydrolysis with either subtilisin, thermolysin or pepsin. In addition, OG were degraded in two-stage hydrolysis first with pepsin and then either with subtilisin or thermolysin. The hydrolysates were analysed by SDS-PAGE and DH was quantified with the OPA method. The solubility of OG increased when NaCl was added at pH 5 10. Under more acidic conditions the solubility, however, decreased with ...
Most drugs and metabolites, both licit and illicit, are conjugated prior to excretion in urine or feces. Hydrolysis using beta-glucuronidase converts the glucuronide metabolites back to their free, or non-conjugated form, improving detection and increasing sensitivity for clinical of forensic assays. Evaluation of four beta-glucuronidase enzymes from abalone, red abalone, and two recombinant enzymes were evaluated to determine the most efficient hydrolysis of glucuronide metabolites and maximum recovery of non-conjugated compounds.. Hydrolysis experiments were performed using the new EVOLUTE® HYDRO solid phase extraction plate.The plate contains the Hydro frit technology system, which efficiently holds up aqueous sample and hydrolysis enzyme during incubation. This replaces the need for off-line hydrolysis, traditionally performed in a separate vial or well, and streamlines sample preparation by permitting hydrolysis on the SPE extraction plate.. This webinar presents results of the hydrolysis ...
Protein hydrolysis enzymes market will grow at 5% to reach $2,767 million by 2019, thanks to rising applications and global demand, especially the emerging
or. A‾ + H2O ---, HA + OH‾. In this case the anion reacts with water to give basic solution. This is called acidic hydrolysis.. Salt hydrolysis may be defined as the reaction of the cation or the anion of the salt with water to produce acidic or basic solution.. Depending upon the relative strength of the acid and the base produced, the resulting solution is acidic, basic or neutral.. (1) Salts of strong acid and strong base. NaCl, NaNO3, Na2SO4, KCl, KNO3 , K2SO4. NaCl + H2O ---, NaOH + HCl. Na+ + Cl‾ + H2O ---, Na+ + OH‾ + H+ + Cl‾. H2O ---,OH‾ + H+. It involves only ionization of water and no hydrolysis.So the solution is neutral. ...
BioAssay record AID 23384 submitted by ChEMBL: Hydrolytic stability at 37 degrees Celsius in 50 mM phosphate buffer (2 % v/v MeCN as solubilising vehicle) at pH 7.4.
article{2d942e55-021e-4f27-8f05-baeea4cf247e, abstract = {ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Two-step dilute acid hydrolysis of softwood, either as a stand-alone process or as pretreatment before enzymatic hydrolysis, is considered to result in higher sugar yields than one-step acid hydrolysis. However, this requires removal of the liquid between the two steps. In an industrial process, filtration and washing of the material between the two steps is difficult, as it should be performed at high pressure to reduce energy demand. Moreover, the application of pressure leads to more compact solids, which may affect subsequent processing steps. This study was carried out to investigate the influence of pressing the biomass, in combination with the effects of not washing the material, on the sugar yield obtained from two-step dilute acid hydrolysis, with and without subsequent enzymatic digestion of the solids. RESULTS: Washing the material between the two acid hydrolysis steps, followed by enzymatic digestion, ...
phdthesis{667f98f0-e724-48e5-b10e-aa1e10440fcc, abstract = {Ethanol produced from cellulose is a promising future alternative fuel. The production process has three main steps: (i) pretreatment of raw material to increase degradability; (ii) enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to produce glucose; (iii) fermentation of glucose into bioethanol. This thesis contains studies with the aim to improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose from steam pretreated spruce. Improvements have been made by additions of surface active additives such as non-ionic surfactants or poly(ethylene glycol) polymers (PEG). It was found that that these surface active additives increased the enzymatic hydrolysis by reduction of non-productive adsorption of cellulases on the lignin part of the substrate. As a result the enzyme consumption could be significantly lowered with retained cellulose conversion. With addition of PEG a higher hydrolysis temperature (50 C) could be used; reduced deactivation of enzymes is due to PEG ...
The kit assay will only measure free, non-covalently linked monosaccharides. Oligosaccharides or polysaccharides can be measured after hydrolysis to monosaccharides. Generally acid hydrolysis can be achieved by boiling the oligo/polysaccharide in 1.3 M HCl for 1 h. It is recommended that scientific literature is consulted for information on hydrolysis conditions for the particular oligo/polysaccharide that is being measured.. ...
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Characteristics of hydrolysis of the complex Na2SnF6, which is used as the starting material, in hydrothermal solutions have been studied at 200-602??C and 1 kbar. Experimental results show that intense hydrolysis of Na2SnF6 occurs at high temperatures and that with the rise of temperature the hydrolysis will become more intense. Under the present experimental conditions the most possible existing form of Sn in the hydrothermal solutions is SnF3(OH) or Na2SnF3(OH). In addition, the hydrolysis constants for Na2SnF6 have also been calculated at 200-602??C, and the relationship between Na2SnF6 hydrolysis and temperature is discussed. ?? 1987 Science Press....
Heteropolyacids (H3PW12O40, H4SiW12O40) and salts of metal cations (Mn+) and PW12O403− (M3/nPW12O40) act as effective homogeneous catalysts for selective hydrolysis of cellobiose and cellulose to glucose and total reducing sugars (TRS), respectively, in an aqueous phase. For Brønsted acid catalysts,
Hydrolysis : weight of evidence approach The fluoroboric anion is stable in concentrated solutions, and hydrolyses slowly in aqueous solution to hydroxyfluoroborates. Wamser described the hydrolysis reaction of fluoroboric acid (HBF4 + H2O ↔ HBF3OH + HF) and determined the equilibrium constants for the hydrolysis at 25°C. The hydrolysis of aqueous fluoroboric acid solutions (at equilibrium) was measured over the concentration range 0.001M to 5.41M, the % hydrolysis at equilibrium ranged from 77.7% to 5.47% respectively and the equilibrium constant between 2.75E-3 to 17.6E-3 respectively. At 0.01M HBF4 the hydrolysis was about 35% and the equilibrium constant 1.98E-3 (Wamser, 1948). The equilibrium quotient Q in 1 molal NaCl at 25°C shows the strong affinitiy of boron for fluoride (Papcun, 2000). B(OH)3 + 4 F− + 3 H+ ↔ BF4− + 3 H2O logQ = 19.0 ± 0.1 (Mesmer, Palen, & Baes Jr., 1973) The hydrolysis of BF4− occurs stepwise to BF3OH− , BF2(OH)2− , and BF(OH)3− and ultimately ...
FtsZ filament dynamics at steady state: subunit exchange with and without nucleotide hydrolysis.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
Chapter 13 - ATP Hydrolysis as a source of energy The molecular details of ATP hydrolysis - ΔG when ATP is split into ADP and P - Motors move along a ΔG gradient - Motors move faster with higher [ATP] - Structure of ATP and the hydrolysis reaction - At least 8 distinct states are involved in motor stepping - Case study: the complete ATP hydrolysis cycle of Myosin II ...
In a wide range of biological activities, from cell locomotion to membrane transport, Nature deploys numerous sophisticated molecular machines which have become highly optimized for performance and controllability. Rational design and engineering of similarly complex biosystems is a very exciting field with a potential to dramatically alter futures medicine or industrial biochemistry. However, to overcome major challenges in design of artificial enzymes, the precise understanding of control mechanism on key reaction steps by larger molecular scale structure and dynamics is required. FoF1 ATP synthase is interesting as a model system: a delicate molecular machine synthesizing or hydrolyzing ATP utilizing a rotary motor. (1-2) ATP synthase is a member of the RecA-like helicase family, and it is particularly interesting how the structural and residual differences of the same family determine the ATP hydrolysis mechanism and its effect on the overall function of these enzymes. Rad51, RadA and RecA ...
In a wide range of biological activities, from cell locomotion to membrane transport, Nature deploys numerous sophisticated molecular machines which have become highly optimized for performance and controllability. Rational design and engineering of similarly complex biosystems is a very exciting field with a potential to dramatically alter futures medicine or industrial biochemistry. However, to overcome major challenges in design of artificial enzymes, the precise understanding of control mechanism on key reaction steps by larger molecular scale structure and dynamics is required. FoF1 ATP synthase is interesting as a model system: a delicate molecular machine synthesizing or hydrolyzing ATP utilizing a rotary motor. (1-2) ATP synthase is a member of the RecA-like helicase family, and it is particularly interesting how the structural and residual differences of the same family determine the ATP hydrolysis mechanism and its effect on the overall function of these enzymes. Rad51, RadA and RecA ...
BioAssay record AID 309555 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of partially purified Sprague-Dawley rat FAAH assessed as substrate hydrolysis.
Why do hydrolysis reaction rates typically increase at higher pH? From a database of frequently asked questions from the Reaction rates section of General Chemistry Online.
Hydrolysis, in chemistry and physiology, a double decomposition reaction with water as one of the reactants. Thus, if a compound is represented by the formula AB in which A and B are atoms or groups and water is represented by the formula HOH, the hydrolysis reaction may be represented by the
Notes: Sample opacity or turbidity presents no problem since the sensor system is electrochemical rather than spectrophotometric. Endogenous glucose, if present, should be determined as a sample blank, i.e. extract diluted pro-rata in water instead of ß-galactosidase. Incomplete hydrolysis may take place for lactose concentrations greater than 10 %W/V. For greater accuracy at these levels repeat hydrolysis using a 5µl sample and scale results as detailed in kit instructions.. ...
The reaction time of the Plantrose supercritical hydrolysis process is measured in seconds. On the other hand, older acid based processes take minutes to hours for each step of their reaction. In turn, enzymatic hydrolysis technologies require approximately 5 days. This means tanks filled with biomass will sit for about 5 days, during which efforts must be made to ensure that nothing that likes to eat sugar (contaminants) gets into those tanks. Its not a trivial process. At the end of the day what these older methods accomplish much more slowly, we do in a matter of seconds. Our reaction is that fast!. These fast reactions dramatically reduce the size and complexity of reactor design. This reduced complexity allows the Renmatix process to be more easily designed and economically scaled for commercial processing than historical technologies. When bringing a new technology to market, there is always talk of scaling-up processes. Doing that for commercial iterations of the Plantrose platform is ...
The hydrolyses of the isomeric 2,3-OO-benzylidene-norbornane-exo-2,exo-3-diols occur at similar rates to their interconversion: interconversion of the corresponding p-methoxybenzylidene compounds is much faster than their hydrolysis and interconversion of the p-nitrobenzylidene compounds is slower than their hydrolysis; the hydrolyses may proceed through a bimolecular attack of water on the conjugate acid. ...
Mechanical energy from oxygen metabolism by mammalian tissues has been studied since 1837. The production of heat by mechanical work was studied by Fick in about 1860. Prior to Ficks work, energetics were revised by Joules experiments which founded the First Law of Thermodynamics. Fenn in 1923/24 found that frog muscle contractions generated extra heat proportional to the amount of work done in shortening the muscle. This was fully consistent with the Joule, Helmholtz concept used for the First Law of Thermodynamics. The link between the energetics of water and ATP hydrolysis in molecular motors is recommended for reconsideration.
COS Hydrolysis Catalyst for sale, new 98% Purity COS Hydrolysis Catalyst Component Part Al2O3 And Special Additives of Hubei Hatel Purification Technology Co., Ltd from China.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one. The hydrolysis of water is the separation of water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen atoms using electricity
Though both hydrolysis as well as hydration involve chemical reaction of given compound with water, the phenomenon of hydrolysis is totally different from that of hydration!
Brett If you just want to destroy the RNA - adjust to 0.1N with KOH, put at 65o for 15, neutralise with 0.1N HCl + Tris and it will be gone. John ...
Ask a Mortician on YouTube creates an enlightening and education video about liquefying bodies, a process known as alkaline hydrolysis
A specific acid-catalyzed reaction in water is accelerated by the binding of a proton to a functional group of the substrate. A familiar example is the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of a peptide. The amide functional group is hardly reactive toward water, which makes it well suited to serve as the basic structural unit in proteins. Its stability is due to delocalization of the nonbonding electron pair, as illustrated in structures 1-1 and 1-2, shown in resonance notation. The charge separated.... ...
4-Chloro-L-kynurenine (3-(4-chloroanthraniloyl)-L-alanine, L-4-ClKyn), an amino acid known as a prospective antidepressant, was recently for the first time found in nature in the lipopeptide antibiotic taromycin. Here, we report another instance of its identification in a natural product: 4-chloro-L-kynurenine was isolated from acidic hydrolysis of a new complex peptide antibiotic INA-5812. L-4-Cl ...
see article for more examples. Abstract. Diethyl N-Boc-iminomalonate, prepared on multi-gram scale, served as a stable and highly reactive electrophilic glycine equivalent which reacted with organomagnesium compounds affording substituted aryl N-Boc-aminomalonates. Subsequent hydrolysis produced arylglycines.. ...
Enzymes can solubilize gluten, making it a possible replacement for whey proteins in, for example, calf milk replacers and sports drinks," says Trine. "By carefully selecting the correct proteases, it is possible to reduce the bitter taste often associated with protein hydrolysis. Novozymes strong protease portfolio combined with competent, local technical support is vital to help our partners excel in value-added protein ingredients ...
Researchers led by professor Ananikov highlighted that Ni-NHC complexes do undergo a hydrolysis with a breakage of metal-ligand bond.
Article Cambi thermal hydrolysis - getting the bugs out of digestion and dewatering. Summary This paper reviews the research some of the work done over the last twenty years on the thermal pre-treatment of sludge and particularly activated sludge. I...
Synthesis and hydrolysis of AL776, the lead K1-K2 prototype targetingEGFR and c-Src.The synthesis of AL776 was carried out in our laboratory according to theste
Maximum efficiency of cation hydrolysis will be shown by? a) \(\sf Al^{+3}\) b) \(\sf Tl^{+3}\) c) \(\sf Tl^{+1}\) d) \(\sf Ga^{+3}\)The answer i...
Interaction of H+ ions and OH" ions of ${{H}_{2}}$0 with anions and cations of the salt respectively to give an acidic or a basic solutoin is called hydrolysis. For example: [image] Hydration, on other hand, means additi…
Essays: Varying rates of hydrolysis of the different isomers of Carbon, Hydrogen and Bromobutane. . Chemistry coursework Aim: To investigate and discover the va
Hydrolyzed is the past tense of the word hydrolysis, therefore a hydrolyzed object is one that has undergone hydrolysis. Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction in which bonds are broken in a molecule due...
Glucodry® Dried Glucose Syrup is obtained by the spray-drying of concentrated carbohydrate syrups derived from the partial hydrolysis of starch. This pr...
DONG Energy and Inbicon has a long history of collaboration with enzyme suppliers. The three largest international enzyme producers, Novozymes, DuPont Genencor and DSM, are all qualified to supply enzymes for the Inbicon technology to avoid risk of supplier dependency for our partners and customers ...
i have had enough,and got no hair left,i need to find the structural formula for ill try my best to explain CH2=CH-CH-OH WITH A CH3 UNDER THE SECOND CH.+CH3-CH-C WITH A CH3 UNDER THE FIRST CH ,A DOUBLE BOND FROM THE C TO O AND A SINGLE ...
a chemical reaction in which water reacts with a compound to produce other compounds; involves the splitting of a bond and the addition of the hydrogen cation and the hydroxide anion from the water. ...
S: (n) saponification (a chemical reaction in which an ester is heated with an alkali (especially the alkaline hydrolysis of a fat or oil to make soap)) ...
Hydrolysis of proteins with broad specificity for peptide bonds. Cleaves -Leu-Leu-,-Val-Tyr- bond in a synthetic substrate. Does not act on esters of Tyr or ...
2. Ans. is other than B & E. IN the presence of GTP & all the process has -deltaG & the original AA to Prot reaction has been combined with the GTP hydrolysis as its individual deltaG is positive. MOre than that for deltaG to be positive u cant have -deltaH along with +deltaS. Im seeing for more info ...
A protease is a class of enzyme that breaks peptide bonds by hydrolysis and thus often functions to degrade protein. However, these enzymes have diverse...
I want to know what type of kind of reaction would this be and is there a chemical reaction equation for this because I know for a fact its not hydrolysis ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Techno-economic and life cycle analysis of different types of hydrolysis process for the production of p-Xylene. AU - Athaley, Abhay. AU - Annam, Praneeth. AU - Saha, Basudeb. AU - Ierapetritou, Marianthi. PY - 2019/2/2. Y1 - 2019/2/2. N2 - The need for producing renewable chemicals and fuels from lignocellulosic biomass has increased due to economic and environment reasons. However, most of the chemicals studied to date are produced using sugars, which is readily available from biomass as their starting raw materials rather than lignocellulose, which increase the minimum selling price of produced chemicals. In this work a novel one-step saccharification (combining pretreatment and hydrolysis) process of biomass using molten salt hydrates (MSHs), an inorganic salt solution, to produce sugars and further integration of the upstream process to produce p-Xylene is investigated. We compared our one-step process with reported commercial relevant dilute acid (DA) and concentrated acid ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of acid hydrolysis on regenerated kenaf core membrane produced using aqueous alkaline-urea systems. AU - Padzil, Farah Nadia Mohammad. AU - Zakaria, Sarani. AU - Chia, Chin Hua. AU - Syed Jaafar, Sharifah Nabihah. AU - Kaco, Hatika. AU - Gan, Sinyee. AU - Ng, Peivun. PY - 2015/6/25. Y1 - 2015/6/25. N2 - Bleached kenaf core pulps (BKC) were hydrolyzed in H2SO4 (0.5 M) at different time (0 min to 90 min) at room temperature. After the hydrolysis process, the viscosity average molecular weight (MLatin small letter Eng) for BKC sample has reduced from 14.5 × 104 to 2.55 × 104. The hydrolyzed BKC was then dissolved in NaOH:urea:water and in LiOH:urea:water mixed solvent at the ratio of 7:12:81 and 4.6:15:80.4, respectively. The increased in hydrolysis time has decreased MLatin small letter Eng of cellulose leading to easy dissolution process. Higher porosity and transparency with lower crystallinity index (CrI) of regenerated membrane produced can be achieved as the MLatin ...
JONES, J and TAYLOR, SE (1980) USE OF ISOTOPIC HYDROGEN-EXCHANGE IN THE STUDY OF THE ACID-CATALYZED HYDROLYSIS OF PURINE NUCLEOSIDES ...
COMPARISON OF WHEY PROTEIN HYDROLYSIS USING COMMERCIAL ENZYMES ROSA L.O.L.1,2;SANTANA, M.C. 2; SILVA, R.S2.; CRUZ, L.M. 2; SOARES, T.L.D.. 2; AZEVEDO, T.L.2; SANTOS, A.A.2; STEPHAN, M.P. 2; BRÍGIDA, A.I.S. 2; MELLINGER-SILVA, C. 2; CABRAL, L.M.C. 2 1Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Química, Avenida Athos da Silveira Ramos, 149 Bloco A - 5°…
I ever tried this kind of hydrolysis about 3 days ago. its an acid catalyzed starch hydrolysis. Just imagine that, 10 mL starch solution, added with 3 mL HCl 3M and heated about 70-80 ºC.....it still need about more than 36 minutes to do a nearly complete hydrolysis...(because I use an iodine test to detect the hydrolysis, while achroodextrine, maltose and glucose share the same result of that test, so I cant say thats a complete hydrolysis of starch ...
The mechanism of the enzymatic degradation of poly([R]-3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) was investigated by using well-defined model substrates, including both linear and cyclic [R]-3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) and [R]-3-hydroxyvalerate (3HV) oligomers, with two different PHB depolymerases. The linear and cyclic oligomers containing from 2 to 10 repeating units were hydrolyzed in solutions of the depolymerase isolated from Aspergillus fumigatus and Alcaligenes faecalis, and the rates of hydrolysis and types of products formed were characterized. Both of the depolymerases catalyzed the hydrolysis of the cyclic oligomers (macrolides) which contained more than three 3HB and 3HV repeating units. The degradation reactions of the linear and cyclic 3HB oligomers with the A. fumigatus depolymerase gave similar ratios of monomer-to-dimer products, but PHB itself formed mostly monomer on hydrolysis, indicating that the enzymatic hydrolysis reactions occurred by different mechanisms for these different types of ...
Carbohydrates are classified into three major categories depending upon their behaviour towards hydrolysis:. 1. MONOSACCHARIDES. These are simple carbohydrates which cannot be hydrolysed to simpler carbohydrates. About 20 monosaccharides are known to occur in nature. Glucose and fructose are common examples.. 2. OLIGOSACCHARIDES. These are the carbohydrates which on hydrolysis give two to ten units of monosaccharides. Accordingly, they may be further divided into di, tri or tetrasaccharides depending upon the actual number of monosaccharide units formed by the hydrolysis of a particular oligosaccharide.. Disaccharides give two units of monosaccharides on hydrolysis. The two monosaccharide units obtained on hydrolysis of a disaccharide may be same or different. Common examples are sucrose and maltose. Both have molecular formula C12H22O11.. Sucrose on hydrolysis gives one molecule of glucose and one molecule of fructose whereas maltose on hydrolysis gives two molecules of glucose ...
A new intramolecular mechanism is proposed for the hydrolysis of phorate. 31P NMR was used to study the formation of P-containing products of phorate hydrolysis in situ. When hydrolysis was followed by 31P NMR, a dominant P-containing product was found and was identified to be diethyl dithiophosphate using methylation and GC-MS. Combining the data from phorate hydrolysis at three different temperatures, thermodynamic parameters were calculated. The contributions of various possible pathways to phorate hydrolysis are discussed ...
Preferential solvation of di-2-pyridylketonebenzoyl hydrazone was investigated in aqueous-ethanol binary mixtures . The kinetics and mechanism of the hydrolysis of a series of substituted furfurylidenefuroyl hydrazones (X-FFH) in 25% (v/v) ethanol-buffer mixtures have been studied by ultraviolet visible spectrophotometry at different temperatures in the range 22-500C. The hydrolysis reactions were found to follow first-order kinetics. The effect of pH, molecular structure and temperature on the rate of hydrolysis have been discussed. A mechanism for the hydrolysis is postulated in which the attack of water on the protonated substrate is subject to general acid-base catalysis using HCl-sodium acetate buffer solution. The hydrolysis of 5-Chlorothiophenylidene salicoyl hydrazone (CTSH) was found to obey specific acid catalysis using HCl-KCl buffer solutions. The observed rate constants and the catalytic rate constants with respect to H+, HC2O4- and H2C2O4 were calculated. Activation energy and ...
Grafting various groups onto cellulose is found to substantially increase acid hydrolysis of the β-(1,4)-glycosidic linkages. Molecular modeling is used to explain how various substituents such as esters and ethers cause this phenomenon. A substituent helps stabilize hydrolyzed cellulose by serving as an anchor to the end of the cleaved cellulose to which it is bonded, making it less mobile, and allowing it to have stronger interactions than those in pure hydrolyzed cellulose. Hydrolysis increases with increasing size of the substituent. Molecules sorbed but not grafted to cellulose do not increase hydrolysis. Hydrolysis mainly occurs at glucoses bonded to the substituent, and supporting experiments show that hydrolysis approaches equilibrium when no substituent remains on the cellulose fiber.
Transesterification of triglycerides (oils and fats) catalyzed by bases is a common method for production of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) - a renewable fuel (biodiesel) and basic oleochemical. Hydrolysis of esters - saponification - represents the main side reaction. Saponification leads to catalyst deactivation and impedes products purification. In this work, kinetics of the competing triglyceride hydrolysis and methanolysis (i.e. transesterification) is investigated. Furthermore, an alternative organic catalyst - tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) - is compared with potassium hydroxide and sodium methoxide. TMAH is less active but the methanolysis is more selective towards FAME formation and hydrolysis proceeds at a slower rate in comparison to the inorganic catalysts. FAME are less susceptible to hydrolysis than glycerides. A simple mathematical model assuming irreversibility of all reactions is capable to describe the measured data well (40-60°C, TMAH concentration 0.5-1.5wTMAH/woil, ...
A series of phenyl-D-thioglucopyranosides were prepared and characterized in order to determine the absolute specificity of the .B-thioglucosidase and B-glucosidese enzyme systems toward the th1oglucosidic bond. The specificity of B-glucosidase of almond emulsin toward oxygen linkage seems to be absolute, since no hydrolysis was observed by this enzyme system toward the phenyl-D-thioglucopyranosides. The P-th1oglucosidase system was found to hydrolyze only two of the thioglucopyranosides. It was apparent that only where the electron-attracting substituents in the phenyl group were strong enough to greatly weaken the strength of the sulfur linkage, as in the case of the nitro group, would there be any hydrolysis. The lack of hydrolysis prevented application of the Hammett equation in testing the quantitative electronic effects of the substitutents on the rate of bond hydrolysis.
The Escherichia coli guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins Ffh and FtsY have been proposed to catalyze the cotranslational targeting of proteins to the bacterial plasma membrane. A mutation was introduced into the GTP-binding domain of FtsY that altered its nucleotide specificity from GTP to xanthosine triphosphate (XTP). The mutant FtsY protein stimulated GTP hydrolysis by a ribonucleoprotein consisting of Ffh and 4.5S RNA in a reaction that required XTP, and it hydrolyzed XTP in a reaction that required both the Ffh-4.5S ribonucleoprotein and GTP. Thus, nucleotide triphosphate hydrolysis by Ffh and FtsY is likely to occur in reciprocally coupled reactions in which the two interacting guanosine triphosphatases act as regulatory proteins for each other. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - DnaA binding locus datA promotes DnaA-ATP hydrolysis to enable cell cycle-coordinated replication initiation. AU - Kasho, Kazutoshi. AU - Katayama, Tsutomu. PY - 2013/1/15. Y1 - 2013/1/15. N2 - The initiation of chromosomal DNA replication is rigidly regulated to ensure that it occurs in a cell cycle-coordinated manner. To ensure this in Escherichia coli, multiple systems regulate the activity of the replication initiator ATP-DnaA. The level of ATP-DnaA increases before initiation after which it drops via DnaA-ATP hydrolysis, yielding initiation-inactive ADP-DnaA. DnaA-ATP hydrolysis is crucial to regulation of initiation and mainly occurs by a replication-coupled feedback mechanism named RIDA (regulatory inactivation of DnaA). Here, we report a second DnaA-ATP hydrolysis system that occurs at the chromosomal site datA. This locus has been annotated as a reservoir for DnaA that binds many DnaA molecules in a manner dependent upon the nucleoid-associated factor IHF (integration ...
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The molecular mechanisms conferring high resistance of planar tertiary amide bonds to hydrolysis by most enzymes have remained elusive. To provide a chemical explanation to this unresolved puzzle, UB3LYP calculations were performed on an active site model of Xaa-Pro peptidases. The calculated reaction mechanism demonstrates that biocatalysts capable of tertiary amide bond hydrolysis capitalize on anti nucleophilic attack and protonation of the amide nitrogen, in contrast to the traditional syn displayed by amidases and proteases acting on secondary amide bonds.. ...
The residue definitions of acidic herbicides according to regulation (EC) No. 396/2005 include the esters, salts and conjugates of the respective herbicide. The conjugates can contribute significantly to the total amount of the respective herbicides determined in routine samples. An alkaline hydrolysis step is applied to quantify residues of the conjugates in routine samples. Up to now, the hydrolysis has not been included in proficiency tests. P1804-MRT is designed to meet the analysis of acidic herbicides in accordance with the residue definition and thus including the hydrolysis. The test material consists of a homogenate (100 g) of vegetables or fruits (to be defined), which is spiked with a selection of free acids, esters and conjugates of acidic herbicides. Expected time schedule. ...
This is a report focusing on further development of a synthetic catalyst for hydrolysis of the phosphate ester bonds in RNA. The main goal was to construct a catalyst based on a cyclodextrin ligand suitable for carrying a lanthanide metal with the induced capability to hydrolyse the stable phosphate ester bonds in RNA. This was achieved through a six-step synthesis resulting in a lanthanide-salen-cyclodextrin complex. For simplicity in the product analysis of the reaction, adenosine diribonucleotide (ApA) was used as a model substrate for RNA. The hydrolysis was performed at 20°C and ph7 to mimic physiological conditions in the human body. The results showed indications that it was possible to hydrolysis RNA by this kind of complex.. ...
2National Food Institute, Technical University of Denmark, Mørkhøj Bygade 19, DK-2860 Søborg, Denmark. Abstract. Some lipid hydrolysis products such as medium-chained NEFA (MC-NEFA), sphingosine and monoacylglycerols (MAG) possess antibacterial activity, while others, including oleic acid, are essential for the optimal growth of Lactobacillus species. Thus, changes in the concentrations of NEFA and MAG in the distal ileum and colon can potentially selectively modulate the composition of the gut microbiota, especially in early life when lipid absorption efficacy is reduced. As medium-chained fatty acids are enriched in mothers milk, such effects may be highly relevant during gut colonisation. In the present study, we examined the effect of selected NEFA, MAG and sphingosine on the composition of faecal microbial communities derived from infants aged 2-5 months during a 24 h anaerobic in vitro fermentation. We tested lipid mixtures in the concentration range of 0-200 mM, either based on ...
✅ Answered - [Sucrose] [maltose] [Lactose] [both b and c] are the options of mcq question A disaccharide that gives two molecules of glucose on hydrolysis is realted topics , Cell Structure and Cell Organelle topics with 0 Attempts, 0 % Average Score, 1 Topic Tagged and 0 People Bookmarked this question which was asked on Feb 23, 2019 18:36
TY - JOUR. T1 - Large Rate Enhancement for the Hydrolysis of a Four-membered Ring Phosphonamidate. AU - Laws, Andrew P.. AU - Stone, Julian R.. AU - Page, Michael I.. PY - 1994/5/21. Y1 - 1994/5/21. N2 - Unlike β-lactams a four-membered cyclic 1,2-azaphosphetidine shows enhanced hydrolytic reactivity compared with an acyclic analogue; the cyclic phosphonamidate 3 undergoes hydroxide-ion catalysed hydrolysis in water with endocyclic P-N fission; a corresponding acyclic derivative hydrolyses with P-O fission in basic solution, the rate difference between the cyclic and acyclic structures for P-N fission is greater than 5×108.. AB - Unlike β-lactams a four-membered cyclic 1,2-azaphosphetidine shows enhanced hydrolytic reactivity compared with an acyclic analogue; the cyclic phosphonamidate 3 undergoes hydroxide-ion catalysed hydrolysis in water with endocyclic P-N fission; a corresponding acyclic derivative hydrolyses with P-O fission in basic solution, the rate difference between the cyclic and ...
One-pot catalytic hydrolysis/hydrogenation of cellobiose into hexitols over Ru/Al-MCM-48 A. Romero, J.A. Díaz, A. Nieto-Márquez, N. Essayem, E. Alonso, C. Pinel Microporous and Mesoporous Materials Volume 271, 15 November 2018, Pages 186-195 Access to full-text (free available before July 25, 2018): https://authors.elsevier.com/c/1XArD4xQ95owkV Abstract The simultaneous catalytic hydrolysis and hydrogenation of cellobiose, as a model constituent […]. Read More. ...
There are no in vivo data on the toxicokinetics of trichloro(3-chloropropyl)silane. The following summary has therefore been prepared based on validated predictions of the physicochemical properties of the substance itself and its hydrolysis products. Trichloro(3 -chloropropyl)silane is a moisture-sensitive, volatile liquid that hydrolyses rapidly in contact with water (half-life ,1 minute at pH 7), generating HCl and 3-chloropropylsilanetriol. Human exposure can occur via the inhalation or dermal routes. Relevant inhalation exposure would be to the hydrolysis products (hydrolysis would occur rapidly when inhaled, even if a mixture of parent and hydrolysis products were present in air). The substance would also hydrolyse rapidly in contact with moist skin. The resulting HCl hydrolysis product would be severely irritating or corrosive. Absorption Oral: Significant oral exposure is not expected for this corrosive substance. Dermal: The molecular weights of the parent and hydrolysis products do not ...
Figure 1: (B)CF extrusion line at Centexbel. The hydrolytic stability of the yarns was evaluated by conditioning the yarns in a climate room at 80°C and a relative humidity of 80% during 7 days. The same set-up was used to determine the hydrolytic stability of PLA yarns. The evolution in tensile strength (figure 2) shows that there is no hydrolysis in the polymer matrix. The tensile strength is maintained. Results of the PLA yarns show that in these test conditions, the strength of non-stabilised PLA based yarns is strongly diminished from day 1 onwards, and that the strength has completely disappeared after 3 days. PTT yarns are thus more stable than PLA yarns versus diminished strength by influences from the environment. ...
Papermaking fibers, particularly waste fibers from recycling operations can be a valuable resource for biofuels (ethanol), and sustainable products such as bioplastics or biochemicals. The amount of lignin in such fibers is much lower than native wood or other plant based lignocellulosic resources eliminating the need for complex and expensive pretreatment processes. Moreover, the removal of hornified cellulosic fines from recycled pulps can accelerate water removal from the pulps on the papermachines and in the dryer sections, leading to significant productivity increases. Inter-fiber bonding in the paper sheet is improved due to a lower â waste finesâ content, reducing the use of strength agents like starch and improving sheet quality.. The present work develops a physico-chemical model for the kinetics of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic pulp fines from recycled linerboard mills. Batch kinetics representing hydrolysis in a fixed agitated volume of the fines suspension is considered. ...
It is technically not feasible to perform aquatic toxicity studies due to rapid degradation of the study. In a hydrolysis study, 1,4-H6XDI was shown to rapidly disappear when dissolved in an aqueous solution. The speed at which this happens appears to be dependent on the pH, as at pH 4 the test item could only be detected at very low concentrations within the first 30 minutes, but was completely absent at later time points, while at pH 7 and pH 9 a gradual decrease was measured. At pH 7, the concentration of 1,4-H6XDI decreased to 25% of the start concentration after 3 hours, and became undetectable after 20 hours (no measurements in between), at pH 9 the concentration decreased below 10% after approximately 2.5 hours. These results indicate rapid hydrolysis. Since 1,4-H6XDI could not be detected, it is concluded that 1,4-H6XDI reacts with itself and/or hydrolysis/degradation products in all aquatic media, forming a complex mixture of numerous, high molecular weight products. This property ...
A series of poly(vinylphenol-co-methyl methacrylate) (PVPh-co-PMMA) block and random copolymers were prepared through anionic and free radical polymerizations, respectively, of 4-tert-butoxystyrene and methyl methacrylate and subsequent selective hydrolysis of the 4-tert-butoxystyrene protective groups. Analysis of infrared spectra suggests that the random copolymer possesses a higher fraction of hydrogen-bonded carbonyl groups and a larger interassociation equilibrium constant relative to those of a block copolymer containing similar vinylphenol content because of the different sequence distribution that may arise from the so-called intramolecular screening effect. In contrast, the glass transition temperature of the block copolymer, which has the lower polydispersity index, is higher than that of the random copolymer at the same composition.
1. The activated amide (4-nitroanilide), N-(4-nitrophenyl) N-butyl-1,4-phenylenediacetamide (III) was synthesized. 2. A polyclonal antibody preparation (PCA 270-29) was elicited in a multigeneration cross-bred sheep (no. 270) and isolated 29 weeks into the immunization schedule by procedures described previously for PCA 270-22 [Gallacher, Jackson, Searcey, Badman, Goel, Topham, Mellor & Brocklehurst (1991) Biochem J. 271, 871-881]. These involved the use of an amide conjugate bonded through the carboxy group of 4-nitrophenyl 4′-carboxymethylphenyl phosphate and an amino group of keyhole-limpet haemocyanin as the immunogen. 3. PCA 270-29 was shown to catalyse the hydrolysis of both the carbonate ester substrate 4-nitrophenyl 4′-(3-aza-2-oxoheptyl)phenyl carbonate (I) and the amide substrate (III). Both catalyses obeyed the Michaelis-Menten equation with the following values of the parameters at 25 degrees C: for the hydrolysis of (I) at pH 8.0, Km = 3.96 +/- 0.28 microM and k(cat.) = 0.135 ...
Preparation of the [Cr(H,sub,2,/sub,O),sub,2,/sub,CN (en) NO],sup,+,/sup, ion in solution by acid hydrolysis of [CrH,sub,2,/sub,O(CN),sub,2,/sub, (en) NO] including its ion exchange separation is described. The polarographic properties of [Cr(H,sub,2,/sub,O),sub,2,/sub,CN (en) NO],sup,+,/sup, as well as the kinetics of its acid hydrolysis were studied. Reactions of this complex with Hg(II) and Ag(I) were investigated and binuclear and trinuclear adducts were found to form. Linkage isomerization of the bridging cyanide in such adducts is deduced from their electrochemical properties. The spontaneous isomerization of the unstable isomer with the Cr-NC bond to the stable isomer with the Cr-CN bond was followed after its liberation by a competitive complexation of Hg(II) with excess iodide. The kinetics of decomposition of the adducts with Hg(II) was measured to examine the influence of H,sup,+,/sup, and Hg(II) concentrations. ...
It is largely unknown how the typical homomeric ring geometry of ATPases associated with various cellular activities enables them to perform mechanical work. Small-angle solution X-ray scattering, crystallography, and electron microscopy (EM) reconstructions revealed that partial ATP occupancy caused the heptameric closed ring of the bacterial enhancer-binding protein (bEBP) NtrC1 to rearrange into a hexameric split ring of striking asymmetry. The highly conserved and functionally crucial GAFTGA loops responsible for interacting with σ54-RNA polymerase formed a spiral staircase. We propose that splitting of the ensemble directs ATP hydrolysis within the oligomer, and the rings asymmetry guides interaction between ATPase and the complex of σ54 and promoter DNA. Similarity between the structure of the transcriptional activator NtrC1 and those of distantly related helicases Rho and E1 reveals a general mechanism in homomeric ATPases whereby complex allostery within the ring geometry forms ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hydrolysis catalyzed with a resin containing histidine groups. AU - Hung, Wei Hsiu. AU - Hu, Cho Chun. AU - Liu, Chuen Ying. PY - 1996/1/1. Y1 - 1996/1/1. N2 - A histidine-containing polymer was synthesized in which the amino group of the histidine was attached chemically via an azide coupling method to the carboxylic acid of Amberlite IRC-50. The resultant polymer was applied as a catalyst for hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate (PNPA). PNPA in aqueous solution was hydrolyzed at 25°C with a phosphate buffer (pH 7.8). The observed kinetics obeyed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The reaction rates at various temperature were measured. The activation parameters, preexponential factor (A) and activation energy (Ea), were 6.64 × 10-4 min-1 and 37.5 kJ mol-1 respectively. At a pH of the medium greater than 7.8, the reaction rate remained almost constant (kobs = 0.024 min-1) and seemed to be controlled by the rate of diffusion of PNPA from the bulk solution into the catalytically active ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Preparation of tRNAs Terminating in 2′- and 3′-Deoxyadenosine. AU - Alford, Bernadette L.. AU - Craig Chinault, A.. AU - Jolly, Setsuko O.. AU - Hecht, Sidney M.. PY - 1979/1/1. Y1 - 1979/1/1. N2 - The chapter describes the preparation of isomeric tRNAs terminating in 2- and 3-deoxyadenosine. The modification procedure is illustrated both for unfractionated Escherichia coli tRNA and for E. coli tRNA Trp. The principle states that by limited digestion of tRNAs with purified venom exonuclease, it is possible to effect partial removal of the cytidine and adenosine moieties from the 3 terminus without significant hydrolysis of nucleotides from the adjacent double-stranded portion of the accepter stem. While hydrolysis does not proceed uniformly over the entire population of treated tRNAs, especially where unfractionated material is utilized, the average extent of hydrolysis can be monitored conveniently. Reconstitution to afford tRNA-C-COH is subsequently achieved by ...
Due to the rapid hydrolysis of the substance, the chemical safely assessment is based on the silanol hydrolysis product 3-chloropropyl(methyl)silanediol. Testing for toxicity to terrestrial organisms is not considered necessary because: In accordance with Column 2 of REACH Annex IX, there is no need to further investigate the effects of this substance in a long or short-term terrestrial toxicity to invertebrates or higher plants study because, as indicated in guidance R.7.11.6 (ECHA 2016), the quantitative chemical safety assessment (conducted according to Annex I of REACH) indicates that the Risk Characterisation Ratio is below 1, and therefore the risk is already adequately controlled and further testing is not justifiable. The silanol hydrolysis product is not readily biodegradable but has low potential for bioaccumulation and low bioavailability (based on log Kow ,3 (0.8); partitioning to the terrestrial compartment is expected to be minimal. No toxicity was observed in aquatic tests ...
3. Proteins ae very complex organic molecules containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen and less commonly sulphur, phosphorus, iodine and iron. 4. The term Protein was coined by Berzelium and Mulder. 5. Fischer and Hof meister discovered that on complete hydrolysis all protein molecules break down into simpler amino acids. 6. Basic unit or smallest structural units of proteins are called amino acids. Amino acids are linked together in long chain to form protein. 7. The anhydrobonds of proteins are called peptide bonds. A peptide bond is formed between carboxyl group of one amino acid and amino group of adjacent. 8. Proteins in our body may be circulated in the form of amino acids. The excess of amino acids cannot be stored in the body. 9. Although about 300 amino acids occur in nature, only 20 of these enter into the composition of proteins. 10. Amino acids that cannot be synthesized in the body are called essential. 11. Essential amino acids are those which are taken from food, not ...
The objective of this study was production of bioethanol from Barley spent grain by using two-stage diluted acid hydrolysis. The production process was carried out in four main stage such as pretreatment, hydrolysis (first ...
A process for the removal of HCN from gaseous streams is described, the process being characterized by reaction of the HCN in the gaseous stream with an ammonium polysulfide solution and formation of ammonium thiocyanate in solution, precipitation and removal of sulfur from the ammonium thiocyanate-containing solution, and hydrolysis of the ammonium thiocyanate. Provision is made for recycle of hydrolysis products.
The rates of formation and of hydrolysis of bis p-dimethylaminobenzalazine have been studied under various conditions. The effects of dielectric constant, ionic strength, acid concentration, and temperature on the rate of hydrolysis have been investigated. The acid dissociation constants for p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde in two distinct ethanol-water systems have been determined. The acid dissociation constants for the hydrazone and the azine of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde have been obtained. The value of the constant for the assumed aldehyde- hydrazine- hydrazone equilibrium has been calculated. ...
TY - CONF. T1 - Effect of pretreatment severity on the inhibitory nature of lignin in the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose. AU - Kellock, Miriam. AU - Zhang, Heng. AU - Marjamaa, Kaisa. AU - Tamminen, Tarja. AU - Felby, Claus. AU - Kruus, Kristiina. PY - 2016. Y1 - 2016. M3 - Conference article. T2 - CIADICYP Conference. Y2 - 4 September 2016 through 9 September 2016. ER - ...
Thus the molecular description of autophagy is a relatively recent phenomenon (Klionsky and Emr, 2000). But the morphology came early. Autophagy is the destructive process in which a double membrane envelops cytoplasm and organelles before targeting them to lysosomes for destruction. It was first spotted in differentiating kidney cells as they redirected their metabolic energies (Clark, 1957).. A robust model was established by Ashford and Porter (1962), who spotted autophagy when glucagon was perfused into rat livers. Glucagon is made in response to low blood sugar levels, so autophagy may be the cells way of scaling back operations in hard times. In the words of Ashford and Porter (1962), the hydrolysis may be "providing the protoplast with breakdown products for use in a reoriented physiology," with the membrane "shield[ing] the rest of the cell from the general spread of the degradative process.". The word autophagy crept into the literature in the 1960s (Deter et al., 1967) as it became ...
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Author: Wittinghofer, Alfred; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2002-04-01; Title: Diverse mechanims for GTP hydrolysis by GTP-binding proteins
Author: Wittinghofer, Alfred; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2002-04-01; Title: Diverse mechanims for GTP hydrolysis by GTP-binding proteins
The department is proud of its unique laboratory facilities in the WaterLab. The WaterLab is a research and education lab providing an unique infrastructure for experimental research. We support numerous and very different kinds of permanent practical set-ups and research experiments, of course bounded by the safety regulations. The WaterLab hosts permanent experimental set-ups for education: a gas-transfer cascade, filtration columns, bubble aeration column, the online nanofiltration, specific ultrafiltration resistance, sand columns for soil hydrology tests and a reverse osmose filtration setup. These facilities are also use by "Stichting opleiding actuele water zuiveringstechnieken bij drinkwater bereiding". The WaterLab facilitates MSc and PhD students with the experiments of wastewater treatment in a ML-I certified laboratory. Here we study the recovery of energy, biochemicals and water from the sewer or industrial effluent, with special focus on the hydrolysis processes, granular biomass ...
Serine proteases of the chymotrypsin family play important roles in the regulation and function of numerous biological processes including digestion, blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, development, fertilization, apoptosis and immunity. For many of these proteases, activity unfolds when a zymogen is activated by limited proteolysis and the associated conformational changes result in the formation of a proper active site and oxyanion hole, both of which are required for efficient hydrolysis of peptide bonds. The transition from zymogen to active enzyme, E, thus provides critical temporal and spatial regulatory mechanism of protease function. Catalytic activity of serine proteases belonging to Vitamin K-dependent clotting factors is significantly affected by Na+ through an allosteric mechanism. Over the past 30 years, structural and biochemical studies revealed that Na+ enhances the enzymatic properties of these proteases from a low activity, E, to a high activity: E:Na+) conformation. However,
Gruhn, K.; Schubert, R., 1975: Effect of varying combinations of time and pressure in acid hydrolysis of poultry excreta on the amino acid yield after separation by column chromatography