Breath hydrogen excretion over a period of three hours was measured to evaluate carbohydrate malassimilation in healthy cats treated orally with antibiotics. Both an absorbable carbohydrate (xylose) and a non-absorbable carbohydrate (lactulose) were administered during the tests to evaluate the changes in the intestinal mucosa and the population of bacteria within the intestinal lumen. Overall, the effects of oxytetracycline and metronidazole on breath hydrogen excretion were not significantly different. However, the treatment effect with an antibiotic did significantly change breath hydrogen excretion after xylose administration (P<0.05) within groups. Similarly, with each antibiotic, breath hydrogen excretion was affected significantly (P<0.001) by the time after the administration of the carbohydrate. Treatment with each antibiotic also interacted significantly with this time effect (P<0.05) within groups. After lactulose administration, there was a trend within groups for the ...
This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of hydrogen-rich saline on pancreatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in rats. Eighty heterotopic pancreas transplantations (HPT) were performed in syngenic rats. The receptors were randomized blindly into the following three groups: the HPT group and two groups that underwent transplantation and administration of hydrogen-rich saline (HS, ,0.6 mM, 6 mL/kg) or normal saline (NS, 6 mL/kg) via the tail vein at the beginning of reperfusion (HPT + HS group, HPT + NS group). Samples from the pancreas and blood were taken at 12 hours after reperfusion. The protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline against I/R injury were evaluated by determining the changes in histopathology and measuring serological parameters, oxidative stress-associated molecules, and proinflammatory cytokines. Administration of hydrogen-rich saline produced notable protection against pancreatic I/R injury in rats. Histopathological improvements and recovery of impaired ...
[Experimental studies of effects of hydrogen-rich saline in rats with severe acute pancreatitis].: Hydrogen-rich saline can decrease the levels of inflammatory
Previous studies have showed that the hydrogen gas evolved from Hup - legume nodules promotes plant growth and increases the hydrogen uptake rate of soils adjacent to Hup - nodules. This may be resulted from hydrogen-induced variation of rhizobacterial community structure. Twenty isolates of hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria belonging to genera of Variovorax, Burkhorderia and Flavobacterium showed positive effect on root elongation. This study showed that isolates belonging to Variovorax and Flavobacterium had ACC deaminase activity and isolates belonging to Burkhorderia had the ability to excrete rhizobitoxine or its structural analogue such as AVG, which meant that they have the ability to promote plant growth by lowering of plant ethylene levels. TRFLP studies showed that hydrogen metabolism resulted in obvious variation of bacterial community structure in hydrogen treated soils compared to the controls. TRF peaks whose intensity increased obviously in profiles from hydrogen-treated soils were ...
Hydrogen water contains hydrogen molecules that can act as a powerful antioxidant. It is on-trend. You may have seen celebs like Ryan Reynolds, Zac Efron, and Blake Lively drinking hydrogen water. Why is this the drink the latest craze in the trend of specialty waters? What is Hydrogen Water? This type of water is quite different from regular water. It is generally purified water that is infused with excess molecular Hydrogen, which is tasteless and odorless gas. 7 Health Benefits of Hydrogen Water : 1. Hydrogen Water Boosts Skin Health The skin serves not just is attractive outside but is also responsible for the protection of the body from various infectious organisms. Bathing with these type of water for 3 months noticeably reduced skin wrinkles in 6-7 people. Scientific study suggests that regular use of these water can reduce the damage on skin cells, as well as promoting the production of type I collagen in the dermis. The regular use of these type of water can also help improve or treat ...
What is hydrogen-rich water?What is hydrogen-rich water? Hydrogen-rich water is water that dissolves hydrogen. Generally, hydrogen can be dissolved in the water slightly. In the conditions of atmosphe...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Oral intake of hydrogen-rich water inhibits intimal hyperplasia in arterialized vein grafts in rats. AU - Sun, Qiang. AU - Kawamura, Tomohiro. AU - Masutani, Kosuke. AU - Peng, Ximei. AU - Sun, Qing. AU - Stolz, Donna B.. AU - Pribis, John P.. AU - Billiar, Timothy R.. AU - Sun, Xuejun. AU - Bermudez, Christian A.. AU - Toyoda, Yoshiya. AU - Nakao, Atsunori. PY - 2012/4/1. Y1 - 2012/4/1. N2 - Aims: Arterialized vein grafts often fail due to intimal hyperplasia. Hydrogen potently protects organs and cells from many insults via its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. We investigated the efficacy of oral administration of hydrogen-rich water (HW) for prevention of intimal hyperplasia. Methods and results: The inferior vena cava was excised, stored in cold Ringer solution for 2 h, and placed as an interposition graft in the abdominal aorta of syngeneic Lewis rats. HW was generated by immersing a magnesium stick in tap water (Mg 2H2O → Mg (OH)2 H2). Beginning on the day of ...
Hydrogen-rich saline is able to attenuate the renal I/R injury, which is possibly by reduction of oxidative stress and inflammation.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhalation of high concentration hydrogen gas improves short-term outcomes in a rat model of asphyxia induced-cardiac arrest. AU - Huang, Lei. AU - Applegate, Richard Lee. AU - Applegate, Patricia. AU - Boling, Warren. AU - Zhang, John. PY - 2018/7/1. Y1 - 2018/7/1. N2 - Cardiogenic global brain hypoxia-ischemia is a devastating medical problem that is associated with unfavorable neurologic outcomes. Low dose hydrogen gas (up to 2.9%) has been shown to be neuroprotective in a variety of brain diseases. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of water by electrolysis-derived high concentration hydrogen gas (60%) in a rat model of asphyxia induced-cardiac arrest and global brain hypoxia-ischemia. High concentration hydrogen gas was either administered starting 1 hour prior to cardiac arrest for 1 hour and starting 1 hour post-resuscitation for 1 hour (pre- & post-treatment) or starting 1 hour post-resuscitation for 2 hours (post-treatment). In animals subjected ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhalation of hydrogen gas suppresses hepatic injury caused by ischemia/reperfusion through reducing oxidative stress. AU - Fukuda, Keiichi. AU - Asoh, Sadamitsu. AU - Ishikawa, Masahiro. AU - Yamamoto, Yasuhiro. AU - Ohsawa, Ikuroh. AU - Ohta, Shigeo. PY - 2007/9/28. Y1 - 2007/9/28. N2 - We have recently showed that molecular hydrogen has great potential for selectively reducing cytotoxic reactive oxygen species, such as hydroxyl radicals, and that inhalation of hydrogen gas decreases cerebral infarction volume by reducing oxidative stress [I. Ohsawa, M. Ishikawa, K. Takahashi, M. Watanabe, K. Nishimaki, K. Yamagata, K.-I. Katsura, Y. Katayama, S. Asoh, S. Ohta, Hydrogen acts as a therapeutic antioxidant by selectively reducing cytotoxic oxygen radicals, Nat. Med., 13 (2007) 688-694]. Here we show that the inhalation of hydrogen gas is applicable for hepatic injury caused by ischemia/reperfusion, using mice. The portal triad to the left lobe and the left middle lobe of the liver ...
hydrogen water Manufacturers Directory ☆ 3 million global importers and exporters ☆ hydrogen water suppliers, manufacturers, wholesalers, hydrogen water sellers, traders, exporters and distributors from China and around the world at EC21.com
Rich hydrogen products are dazzling, each said good, consumers are difficult to adapt. Effective and safe hydrogen-rich products must: 1, the concentration of 1200ppb or more, 2, no chemical by-products, such as SPE membrane electrolysis hydrogen. 3, must be made of molecular hydrogen, hydrogen and oxygen separation technology. 4. Instantaneous hydrogen production and continuous hydrogen production are the most reliable. 5. Heating function is critical.. According to the drinking hydrogen water standard issued by the International Hydrogen Standards Committee (IHSA), the hydrogen content of the hydrogen-rich water machine must be above 1200 pp, which is 1.2 ppm or more. Any hydrogen-rich water machine smaller than this data is ineffective for the human body. Some merchants may say that his machine has a hydrogen content of only 300 ppb, but he can absorb more hydrogen by drinking more than 3 liters of water a day. Medical research has shown that drinking water below 1200 ppb is not beneficial to ...
To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the benefits of drinking hydrogen water in patients receiving radiation therapy for malignant tumors. This finding may provide the foundation for a clinically applicable, effective, and safe strategy for the delivery of hydrogen gas to mitigate radiation-induced cellular injury. Patients experience GI symptoms and decreased QOL during radiotherapy. These symptoms usually occur as a result of the body repairing damage to healthy cells, are particularly common towards the end of a course of radiation treatment, and can last for some time. The symptoms and their impact on QOL can be worsened by having to travel to the hospital each day. Drinking hydrogen-rich water improved the QOL of the patients receiving radiotherapy and did not require additional hospital visits. Although overall survival of patients with malignant tumors should remain oncologists primary concern, survival should also be interpreted in light of symptom palliation and ...
Crude glycerol (CG) is the main by-product (waste) of biodiesel production (by transesterification of lipids) and by weight it could be as high as 10% (w/w) of the final product. Considering global interest for biodiesel production, there is a need for sustainable management of the waste. In this context, bio-hydrogen production by utilization of CG could be an interesting option. Moreover, hydrogen is considered as the cleanest renewable alternative of fossil fuels. However, CG contains a few impurities, such as methanol, NaCl and soap and their individual and interactive effect on hydrogen production should be investigated. Thus, present study deals with the investigation of the effect of methanol, NaCl and soap on hydrogen production and substrate (glycerol) utilization. Based on the investigation carried out using response surface methodology, it was observed that soap is the most significant factor (p value=0.0104,0.05) to inhibit hydrogen production. Similarly, methanol was also found to ...
Molecular hydrogen (water) in the treatment of acute and chronic neurological conditions(Alzheimers, Parkinsons,etc): mechanisms of protection and routes of administration. ...
Thermodynamic and kinetic study of hydrogen oxidation at Ni/YSZ anode in SOFCs based on species territory adsorption modelThermodynamic and kinetic study of hydrogen oxidation at Ni/YSZ anode in SOFCs based on species territory adsorption model ...
Molecular hydrogen (H2) improves body composition, metabolic profiles and mitochondrial function in overweight women, yet no studies so far evaluated the effectiveness of H2 for improving exercise capacity in this population.. PURPOSE: To examine the effects of 28-days supplementation with 1 L per day of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) on exercise capacity and quality of life in overweight mid-age women.. METHODS: Twelve women (age 53.8 ± 13.0 years, BMI 28.8 ± 3.3 kg/m2, VO2max 22.3 ± 3.7 ml/kg/min) participated in this randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over, repeated-measure interventional study. All participants were allocated in a double-blind design to receive two randomly assigned trials: first group received 1 L per day of HRW (supplying ~ 9 ppm of H2), while the second group received placebo (tap water). Participants were evaluated at baseline, and following 28 days of intervention. The primary endpoint was the change in cardiorespiratory endurance (VO2max) assessed at baseline and at ...
JONES, J and TAYLOR, SE (1980) USE OF ISOTOPIC HYDROGEN-EXCHANGE IN THE STUDY OF THE ACID-CATALYZED HYDROLYSIS OF PURINE NUCLEOSIDES ...
(PhysOrg.com) -- Researchers at the Stanford Institute for Materials and Energy Science, a joint institute of SLAC and Stanford University, have produced a hydrogen-rich alloy that could provide insight into the properties of metallic hydrogen, according to a study published in the August 17 issue of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The work is a step toward materials with revolutionary implications for energy science, enabling lossless power transmission, next-generation particle accelerators and even magnetic levitation.
A method of operating a H2-O2 fuel cell fueled by hydrogen-rich fuel stream containing CO. The CO content is reduced to acceptable levels by injecting oxygen into the fuel gas stream. The amount of oxygen injected is controlled in relation to the CO content of the fuel gas, by a control strategy that involves (a) determining the CO content of the fuel stream at a first injection rate, (b) increasing the O2 injection rate, (c) determining the CO content of the stream at the higher injection rate, (d) further increasing the O2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is lower than the first measured CO content or reducing the O2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is greater than the first measured CO content, and (e) repeating steps a-d as needed to optimize CO consumption and minimize H2 consumption.
Hydrogen Water and Allergies - Health - Learn all about allergies and if drinking hydrogen water can help treat your allergic symptoms!
Types of hydrogen inhalation machines available. How hydrogen inhalation works in human body - all you need to know about inhalation.
High-resolution core-level spectroscopy (HRCLS) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been used to investigate the adsorption and dissociation of hydrogen on a PdO(101) film grown on Pd(111). Energy-dependent measurements of the O 1s and Pd 3d(5/2) binding energies enable identification of surface components that correspond to undercoordinated Pd and O atoms. HRCLS data obtained at 110 K, after hydrogen exposure at the same temperature, reveal hydrogen adsorption and formation of Pd-H and O-H groups. Adsorption at room temperature results instead in complete reduction of the oxide. The experimental results are supported by the DFT calculations of core-level shifts and barriers for water formation.
iv] Sergej M. Ostojic & Marko D. Stojanovic Hydrogen-Rich Water Affected Blood Alkalinity in Physically Active Men Research in Sports Medicine Vol. 22 , Iss. 1,2014 [v] Da Ponte A, Giovanelli N, Nigris D, Lazzer S. Effects of hydrogen-rich water on prolonged intermittent exercise. J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2017 Apr 26. DOI: 10.23736/S0022-4707.17.06883-9 [vi] P.Dridab T.Trivica C.CasalscS.Trivicd M.Stojanovicab S.M.Ostojicab Is molecular hydrogen beneficial to enhance post-exercise recovery in female athletes? Science & Sports Volume 31, Issue 4, September 2016, Pages 207-213 [vii] Ostojic, Sergej, M.; Korovljev, Darinka; Stajer, Valdemar; Javorac, Dejan 28-Days Hydrogen-Rich Water Supplementation Affects Exercise Capacity in Mid-Age Overweight Women: 2942 Board #225 June 1 330 PM - 500 PM Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2018 - Volume 50 - Issue 5S - p 728-729 doi: 10.1249/01.mss.0000538402.25953.d2 [viii] Takuji Kawamura 1 ; Yuko Gando ; Masaki Takahashi ; Reira Hara ; Katsuhiko ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Hydrogen production from cellulose catalytic gasification on CeO2/Fe2O3 catalyst. AU - Zou, Jun. AU - Oladipo, Japhet. AU - Fu, Shilong. AU - Al-Rahbi, Amal. AU - Yang, Haiping. AU - Wu, Chunfei. AU - Cai, Ning. AU - Williams, Paul. AU - Chen, Hanping. PY - 2018/9/1. Y1 - 2018/9/1. N2 - Catalytic steam gasification of biomass can produce clean and renewable hydrogen. In this study, Ce/Fe bimetallic catalysts were used to promote hydrogen production from cellulose steam catalytic reforming at 500-900 °C. The effect of different Ce/Fe ratios on the catalytic performance of hydrogen production was studied. The distribution of products, gas composition, carbon deposition and the stability of the catalyst were analyzed with variant approaches. The results show that the catalytic performance of the CeO2/Fe2O3 catalyst in relation to hydrogen production was much better than pure CeO2 or Fe2O3. When the ratio of Ce:Fe was 3:7, the maximum yield of the H2 was 28.58 mmol at 800 °C. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hydrogen production from ethanol using low energy pulse discharge at ambient temperature. AU - Sekine, Y.. AU - Matsukata, M.. AU - Kikuchi, E.. AU - Kado, S.. AU - Haga, F.. PY - 2004/9/1. Y1 - 2004/9/1. N2 - Fuel cell is attracting attention, especially polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. However, hydrogen production and transportation processes have many problems with the present technology so innovative technological methods to produce hydrogen are needed. Low energy pulse discharge was used for this goal. The energy efficiency was improved because the liquid phase reactor did not require a heater which is needed to vaporize the mixture of water and ethanol. Any pump supplying the liquid into the reactor was not required. So the liquid phase reactor made the process scale reduced, and also made the device size compact without spoiling its function. This process would be very useful for room temperature hydrogen formation system.. AB - Fuel cell is attracting attention, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Benchmark Results for Hydrogen Atom Transfer between Carbon Centers and Validation of Electronic Structure Methods for Bond Energies and Barrier Heights. AU - Dybala-Defratyka, Agnieszka. AU - Paneth, Piotr. AU - Pu, Jingzhi. AU - Truhlar, Donald G.. PY - 2004/4/1. Y1 - 2004/4/1. N2 - First we report benchmark high-level calculations for the barrier heights of five degenerate and nearly degenerate rearrangements (CH 3· + CH 4 or C 2H 6, C 2H 5· + CH 4 or C 2H 6, and n-C 3H 7· + n-C 3H 8) involving hydrogen transfer between hydrocarbon fragments. Then the performance of 11 existing and 5 new semiempirical methods based on the neglect of diatomic differential overlap (NDDO) and the intermediate neglect of differential overlap (INDO) is evaluated by comparing their predictions to those of the more accurate levels. All methods are additionally tested against a representative test suite of reactive barrier heights and a representative test suite of bond energies. Two new NDDO ...
Uncontrolled production of oxygen and nitrogen radicals results in oxidative and nitrosative stresses that impair cellular functions and have been regarded as causative common denominators of many pathological processes. In this review, we report on the beneficial effects of molecular hydrogen in scavenging radicals in an artificial system of •OH formation. As a proof of principle, we also demonstrate that in rat hearts in vivo, administration of molecular hydrogen led to a significant increase in superoxide dismutase as well as pAKT, a cell survival signaling molecule. Irradiation of the rats caused a significant increase in lipid peroxidation, which was mitigated by pre-treatment of the animals with molecular hydrogen. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 is regarded as an important regulator of oxyradical homeostasis, as well as it supports the functional integrity of cells, particularly under conditions of oxidative stress. We suggest that the beneficial effects of molecular ...
Antioxidant. Hydrogen-rich water is also referred to as alkaline, antioxidant water, which helps to lower the risk of oxidation causing damage to the bodys cells. Also, this potent antioxidant has the ability to repair the already damaged cells that are attacked by free radicals. This healthy type of water is produced using an alkaline filter and tests show it has the highest concentration of antioxidants.. Preventing oxidation related damage to the body can benefit in many ways because it can lead to serious health issues such as dementia or other neurological conditions, certain cancers, and early aging. Also, the person with a high volume of oxidative damage is less likely to function properly and can experience issues related to mental clarity and low energy levels.. Inflammation. A regular drinker of hydrogen-rich water has the ability to minimize issues related to inflammation. It is not only able to relieve the existing symptoms of inflammatory disease, but can also lower the risk of ...
Properties:OtherPlace of Origin:Guangdong, China (Mainland)Brand Name:sz or oemModel Number:sz-ws001Input voltage:100-220v---1.0A 50/60HzOutput votage:12v-2.0ARated power:24Wwater capacity:200-500mlSize:23.5*15*7cmWeig...
Hydrogen Power, Inc. (OTCBB: HYDP) has licensed and developed a patented technology for producing hydrogen gas in a process called Hydrogen NowTM. Hydrogen Now involves a chemical reaction between water, aluminum, and an environmentally friendly catalyst to cleanly and efficiently produce hydrogen on-site and on-demand. Their high energy density AlumiFuelTM powder, consisting of aluminum and catalyst can be easily transported and stored. On December 26 the company announced that its common stock has begun trading on the Over the Counter Bulletin Board. The company claims: the Hydrogen Now technology produces hydrogen on-site and on-demand requiring no energy consumption for the creation of hydrogen. The aluminum
Hydrogen Power, Inc. (OTCBB: HYDP) has licensed and developed a patented technology for producing hydrogen gas in a process called Hydrogen NowTM. Hydrogen Now involves a chemical reaction between water, aluminum, and an environmentally friendly catalyst to cleanly and efficiently produce hydrogen on-site and on-demand. Their high energy density AlumiFuelTM powder, consisting of aluminum and catalyst can be easily transported and stored. On December 26 the company announced that its common stock has begun trading on the Over the Counter Bulletin Board. The company claims: the Hydrogen Now technology produces hydrogen on-site and on-demand requiring no energy consumption for the creation of hydrogen. The aluminum
Oxidative stress is one of the main causes of AMD. Hydrogen has anti-oxidative stress and apoptotic effects on retinal injury. However, the effect of hydrogen on AMD is not clear. In this study, fundus radiography, OCT, and FFA demonstrated that HRW reduced the deposition of drusen-like structures in RPE layer, prevented retina from thinning and leakage of ocular fundus vasculature induced by NaIO3. ERG analysis confirmed that HRW effectively reversed the decrease of a-wave and b-wave amplitude in NaIO3-mice. Mechanistically, HRW greatly reduced the oxidative stress reaction through decreased MDA levels, increased SOD production, and decreased ROS content. The OGG1 expression was downregulated which is a marker of oxidative stress. Involvement of oxidative stress was confirmed using oxidative stress inhibitor ALCAR. Moreover, oxidative stress reaction was associated with expression of Sirt1 level and HRW significantly inhibited the downregulation of Sirt1 expression. This result was further confirmed
Buildup of unreacted hydrogen gas in sealed electrochemical cells has been prevented by inserting a hydrogen absorbing device into the cell before sealing. This hydrogen absorbing device is preferably a discrete shaped body, e.g., cylindrical or ring shaped, encased in an electrolyte impermeable, but hydrogen gas permeable membrane and includes a material which will react chemically with hydrogen gas, a catalyst for the hydrogen consuming reaction, and a compatible binder which maintains the reactant and catalyst in the form of a discrete shaped body which is porous to hydrogen gas.
Hydrogen oxidation and nitrogen fixation in rhizobia, with special attention focused on strain ORS 571.: In this survey we describe the influence of hydrogen ox
evolved tremendously throughout the years.. Hydrogen is extremely unique, it is the smallest molecule in the universe. This gives it a higher cellularbio-availability above any other supplements, drug or nutriceutical.. Molecular Hydrogen can rapidly diffuse deep into all the human body cells and mitochondria, easily pass through the blood brain barrier. Currently about 150 different disease models have been studied, in which molecular hydrogen appears to exert a beneficial effect.. How does Molecular Hydrogen work?. Human, animal and cell studies shows that this hydrogen exerts beneficial effects via four primary methods.. 1. It can recognize toxic hydroxyl radicals in the body. 2. It instantaneously converts toxic hydroxyl radicals in your body to water.. 3. It maintains the homeostatic levels of our bodys own antioxidants.. 4. It also has a beneficial effect on cell signaling, cell metabolism, and gene expression, which gives it anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity and anti-aging effects. ...
We report the incorporation of a simple enzyme-inspired proton channel onto a hydrogen oxidation catalyst. This modification facilitates proton transfer and lowers the overpotential for oxidation of H2 by 300 mV when using water as a base.
Iron-iron hydrogenases are highly active hydrogen-producing enzymes. Hydrogenases mediate molecular processes of broad biological and medical significance: the...
Plastic and Aesthetic Research covers technical and clinical studies related to plastic and aesthetic surgery, such as plastic and aesthetic materials, plastic surgery, oral and maxillofacial surgery, orthopedic surgery, ophthalmoplasty, dentistry etc.
Biosure offers ON DEMAND ozonated water at up to 12ppm, hydrogen-rich water for drinking, and hydrogen gas breathing ALL IN ONE UNIT! Use ozone water to sterilize and deodorize around the house. Drink hydrogen water to prevent aging, recover from workouts and hangovers. Breath in the hydrogen gas for daily health care.
Theres cucumber water, lemon water, tonic water, and theres heavy water. What is hydrogen water? Doesnt water already have hydrogen in it? Well, yes. But any guesses what this could be?
We provide hydrogen water. Achieve stabilized hydrogen in water that has been impossible in the prior art in the state of the art. Pets are the drinking water that enables hydrogen storage for one year in the bottle. (Offer to sell products / parts : Japan)
How much do you know about your vascular health? Youve probably heard big, scary words like atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis bantered around, but do you
Hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry is widely recognized for its ability to probe the structure and dynamics of proteins. The application of this technique is becoming widespread due to its versatility for providing structural information about challenging biological macromolecules such as antibodies, flexible proteins and glycoproteins. Although the technique has been around for 25 years, this is the first definitive book devoted entirely to the topic.. Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry of Proteins: Fundamentals, Methods and Applications brings into one comprehensive volume the theory, instrumentation and applications of Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry (HX-MS) - a technique relevant to bioanalytical chemistry, protein science and pharmaceuticals. The book provides a solid foundation in the basics of the technique and data interpretation to inform readers of current research in the method, and provides illustrative examples of its use in bio- and pharmaceutical chemistry and ...
Biohydrogen technology has drawn much attention due to its many advantages. However, it is still necessary to screen much more strains with stronger hydrogen-producing capacity for future commercialization processes. In this paper, a biohydrogen-producing strain Enterobacter aerogenes EB-06 was isolated, identified, and named. It could convert glycerol to biohydrogen by microorganism fermentation. The effects of oxygen content, initial pH, initial glycerol concentration, and initial nitrogen source content on biohydrogen production process were investigated. The results have shown that biohydrogen generation was more favorable under anaerobic conditions. The optimum specific biohydrogen production rate (QH2) was obtained as 41.47 mmol H2/g DCW h at 40 g/L initial glycerol concentration. The optimum volume H2 yield (CH2) was 83.76 mmol H2/L at initial pH 7.0. It was found that nitrogen source content (0-4 g/L) could promote biohydrogen production and cell growth. The biohydrogen production of
Inhalation of molecular hydrogen gas may be impractical for continuous H2 consumption in daily life. In contrast, solubilized H2 (hydrogen-infused water) is a portable, easily administered, and safe means to ingest H2.. H2 can be dissolved in water up to 0.8 mM (1.6 mg/L) under atmospheric pressure at room temperature without changing pH.. H2 water can be made by several methods: infusing H2 gas into water under pressure, electrolyzing water to producing H2, and reacting magnesium metal or its hydride with water.. Notably, H2 penetrates glass or plastic walls of vessels in a short time, yet aluminum containers retain hydrogen gas for a long time.. Water ionizers produce hydrogen gas via electrolysis. This method produces hydrogen concentrations from less than 0.05 ppm to more than 2.5 ppm. Typically 0.1 to 0.7 ppm hydrogen is produced, yet most companies manufacturing water ionizers neither know the concentration produced nor understand the significance of hydrogen for health.. In this regard, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Barrier heights for hydrogen atom transfer reactions. Evaluation of ab initio molecular orbital methods for the degenerate exchange HO• + H2O → H2O + •OH. AU - Nanayakkara, Asiri A.. AU - Balint-Kurti, Gabriel G.. AU - Williams, Ian H.. PY - 1992/4/1. Y1 - 1992/4/1. N2 - Several different ab initio molecular electronic structure techniques are used to calculate the barrier height for the reaction HO• + H2O → H2O + •OH, which is a prototype for hydrogen abstraction processes involving open-shell radicals and the breaking and formation of strong covalent bonds. The objective of the study is to determine what practical methods are currently available for performing such calculations and to assess their reliability. Methods studied include self-consistent field (ROHF and UHF), multiconfiguration self-consistent field (MCSCF), Møller-Plesset perturbation calculations (up to full fourth order), configuration interaction (CISD), and quadratic configuration interaction ...
We measured breath H2 excretion in 122 neonates from birth to 1 month of age. The patients weighed less than 2000 g at birth and thus were at risk for developing necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Hydrogen excretion was normalized for the quality of the expired air by dividing by the carbon dioxide pr …
In this paper we present the results of the investigations of nanostructured C-Pd films for hydrogen sensing applications. These C-Pd films were prepared by physical vapor deposition and then annealed in an argon flow at the temperature of 500°C. The structure and morphology of the prepared C-Pd films were investigated using transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. We studied the infiuence of hydrogen on the electrical properties and crystal structure of C-Pd films. It was shown that film resistance changes depended on hydrogen concentration. At lower hydrogen concentration (up to 2 vol.%), the films response increased proportionally to [H2], while above 2 vol.% H2, it was almost constant. This is connected with the formation of a solid solution of hydrogen in palladium at lower H2 concentration and the creation of palladium hydride at higher H2 concentration. X-ray diffraction was used to confirm the formation of Pd-H solid solution and palladium hydride ...
Hydrogen exchange mass spectrometry is widely recognized for its ability to probe the structure and dynamics of proteins. The application of this technique is becoming widespread due to its versatility for providing structural information about challenging biological macromolecules such as antibodies, flexible proteins and glycoproteins. Although the technique has been around for 25 years, this is the first definitive book devoted entirely to the topic. Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry of Proteins: Fundamentals, Methods and Applications brings into one comprehensive volume the theory, instrumentation and applications of Hydrogen Exchange Mass Spectrometry (HX-MS) - a technique relevant to bioanalytical chemistry, protein science and pharmaceuticals. The book provides a solid foundation in the basics of the technique and data interpretation to inform readers of current research in the method, and provides illustrative examples of its use in bio- and pharmaceutical chemistry and biophysics. ...
Electrolysis of H20 and Hydrogen on demand generation Topics. (1/96) , ,, [1] Overunity electrolysis - 31 times more effective gas production than with DC. [2] Japanese Company Has A Car That Runs On Water.. [3] Peter Davey Heater. [4] Optimising HHO Dry Cell output at the same input power. [5] Cheap and Efficient hydrogen oxygen separation HHO cell design. [6] Electrolysis separation cell for pure Hydrogen production with high pressure. [7] Formular to calculate energy per liter of HHO gas. [8] HHO + air mix storage, the optimal green energy storage solution. [9] Final Draft - Linnard Griffin Hydrogen Reactor Experiment Report. Navigation. [0] Up one level. [#] Next page. Go to full version ...
Dr. Ohta gave a keynote lecture and introduced a number of hydrogens potent efficacies on a broad spectrum of diseases in animal and human models, as well as the emerging molecular bases of hydrogens effects. He emphasized the following points: (i) In the three and a half years since the first hydrogen paper was published in Nature Medicine, more than 70 original papers have been published in leading biological/medical journals. Based on cumulative knowledge, beneficial biological effects of hydrogen have been established with no doubt. (ii) There are several ways to intake or consume hydrogen, including inhaling hydrogen gas, drinking water dissolved with hydrogen (hydrogen water), taking a hydrogen bath, injecting hydrogen saline, dropping hydrogen saline into the eye, and increasing production of intestinal hydrogen by bacteria. (iii) Hydrogen shows not only anti-oxidative stress effects, but also has various anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects. (iv) The primary molecular target of ...
摘要. Sustainable hydrogen production is an essential prerequisite of a future hydrogen economy. Water electrolysis driven by renewable resource-derived electricity and direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion based on photochemical and photoelectrochemical water splitting are promising pathways for sustainable hydrogen production. All these techniques require, among many things, highly active noble metal-free hydrogen evolution catalysts to make the water splitting process more energy-efficient and economical. In this review, we highlight the recent research efforts toward the synthesis of noble metal-free electrocatalysts, especially at the nanoscale, and their catalytic properties for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). We review several important kinds of heterogeneous non-precious metal electrocatalysts, including metal sulfides, metal selenides, metal carbides, metal nitrides, metal phosphides, and heteroatom-doped nanocarbons. In the discussion, emphasis is given to the synthetic methods ...
A compact solid source of hydrogen gas, where the gas is generated by contacting water with micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in the presence of a catalyst, such as cobalt or ruthenium. The micro-disperse particles can have a substantially uniform diameter of 1-10 microns, and preferably about 3-5 microns. Ruthenium or cobalt catalytic nanoparticles can be incorporated in the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride, which allows a rapid and complete reaction to occur without the problems associated with caking and scaling of the surface by the reactant product sodium metaborate. A closed loop water management system can be used to recycle wastewater from a PEM fuel cell to supply water for reacting with the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in a compact hydrogen gas generator. Capillary forces can wick water from a water reservoir into a packed bed of micro-disperse fuel particles, eliminating the need for using an active pump. ...
The transformation of atomic hydrogen to molecular hydrogen through three-body reactions is a crucial stage in the collapse of primordial, metal-free halos, where the first generation of stars (Population III stars) in the universe is formed. However, in the published literature, the rate coefficient for this reaction is uncertain by nearly an order of magnitude. We report on the results of both adaptive mesh refinement and smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of the collapse of metal-free halos as a function of the value of this rate coefficient. For each simulation method, we have simulated a single halo three times, using three different values of the rate coefficient. We find that while variation between halo realizations may be greater than that caused by the three-body rate coefficient being used, both the accretion physics onto Population III protostars as well as the long-term stability of the disk and any potential fragmentation may depend strongly on this rate ...
Hydrogen is one of the most promising next-generation fuels. It has the highest energy content per unit weight of any known fuel and in comparison to the other known natural gases it is environmentally safe - in fact, its combustion results only in water vapour and energy. This book provides an overview of worldwide research in the use of hydrogen in energy development, its most innovative methods of production and the various steps necessary for the optimization of this product. Topics covered include structured catalysts for process intensification in hydrogen production by reforming processes; bimetallic supported catalysts for hydrocarbons and alcohols reforming reactions; catalysts for hydrogen production from renewable raw materials, by-products and waste; Ni and Cu-based catalysts for methanol and ethanol reforming; transition metal catalysts for hydrogen production by low temperature steam reforming of methane; supercritical water gasification of biomass to produce hydrogen; biofuel starting
The UK-based hydrogen generator company ITM Power has got its wide-ranging Hydrogen On Site Trial (HOST) program under way, with a well attended launch event yesterday at its inaugural partner, Stansted Airport.
The heme-based oxygen sensor histidine kinase AfGcHK is part of a two-component signal transduction system in bacteria. O2 binding to the Fe(II) heme complex of its N-terminal globin domain strongly stimulates autophosphorylation at His-183 in its C-terminal kinase domain. The 6-coordinate heme Fe(III)-OH- and -CN- complexes of AfGcHK are also active, but the 5-coordinate heme Fe(II) complex and the heme-free apo-form are inactive. Here, we determined the crystal structures of the isolated dimeric globin domains of the active Fe(III)-CN- and inactive 5-coordinate Fe(II) forms, revealing striking structural differences on the heme-proximal side of the globin domain ...
The major challenge for the protein chemist is to explain how proteins implement their limited repertoire of structural and biophysical properties to produce th...
Protein research has become important in biomedicine, biotechnology, pharmaceutical research and drug design, driven by advances in understanding the human
Hydrogen production by membrane water splitting technologies is a sustainable method to synthesize hydrogen and provides an alternative to hydrogen production instead of conventional process of synthesizing hydrogen from steam methane reforming. A hybrid polymer electrolyte membrane electrolyzer operational at working temperature of above 80-200°C is advantageous for faster electrochemical kinetics, higher current exchange density, and more resistance to fuel impurities. Phosphoric acid (PA) doping onto polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane shows significant improvement in proton conductivities, permeability, and thermal stability. PBI-based electrolyzer is relatively new to the hydrogen production technologies as compared to Nafion-based electrolyzer. However, the high cost of purchasing Nafion membrane and inability to execute electrolysis operational above 90°C has sparked new interest on PBI-based membrane, which is known for its good thermal stability.
During this time, mobile generators were transported to the site and some power was restored. However, more water was boiling off and being vented than was being added to the reactor, thus decreasing the cooling ability of the remaining cooling systems. At some stage during this venting process, the water level may have dropped below the top of the fuel rods. Regardless, the temperature of some of the fuel rod cladding exceeded 1200 °C, initiating a reaction between the Zircaloy and water. This oxidizing reaction produces hydrogen gas, which mixes with the gas-steam mixture being vented. This is a known and anticipated process, but the amount of hydrogen gas produced was unknown because the operators didnt know the exact temperature of the fuel rods or the water level. Since hydrogen gas is extremely combustible, when enough hydrogen gas is mixed with air, it reacts with oxygen. If there is enough hydrogen gas, it will react rapidly, producing an explosion. At some point during the venting ...
TY - GEN. T1 - Adsorption of hydrogen on V(100) and a progress report on the construction of a time-of-flight unit. AU - Eibl, Christian. AU - Mauritsch, W. AU - Winkler, Adolf. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. M3 - Conference contribution. SP - 36. EP - 36. BT - 1st JRP workshop. PB - .. ER - ...
China Methanol Cracking Plant for Hydrogen Generation, Find details about China H2 Generator, Hydrogen Generator from Methanol Cracking Plant for Hydrogen Generation - Suzhou Since Gas System Co., Ltd.
SEQUEIRA, César A. C. e SANTOS, Diogo M. F.. Hydrogen production. C.Tecn. Mat. [online]. 2010, vol.22, n.3-4, pp.76-86. ISSN 0870-8312.. Possible means of producing hydrogen are discussed. Emphasis is given on the electrolytic hydrogen production from water electrolysis, at large scale, via the use of renewable electricity (solar, wind, tidal, etc.). Its storage, transport and possible end-uses are also considered.. Palavras-chave : Hydrogen production; Electrolyser; Electrolytic hydrogen; Renewable electricity; Fuel cells. ...
The researchers compared the results of prior single-particle electron microscopy analysis of the β2AR-Gs complex to the structure predicted by their model and found good agreement. They also used continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (CW-EPR) and peptide amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry data to calculate changes in the solvent accessibility of key residues in the free versus receptor-bound Gα subunit. The results of these calculations agreed well with predictions based on the model. To further test the models validity, they selected an amino acid in the GTPase domain and another in the helical domain of Gi. They expressed a Gi protein bearing mutations in both of these amino acids to cysteine and then attached a sulfur-accessible nitroxide probe to each cysteine. The altered protein allowed them to use DEER to assess the changes in the distance between the GTPase and helical domains upon interaction of Gα with the activated receptor. The results, ...
see article for more reactions. Abstract. Cobalt bis(acetylacetonate) mediates hydrogen atom transfer to a broad range of functionalized alkenes. In situ oxidation of the resulting alkylradical intermediates, followed by hydrolysis, provides expedient access to ketones and esters. This method is compatible with a number of functional groups and provides a mild and practical alternative to the Tamao-Fleming oxidation of vinylsilanes and the Arndt-Eistert homologation.. ...
R. The PEC oxidation of methanol is energetically downhill, producing CO2 and protons. The protons are reduced to hydrogen on the cathode. Experimental PEC measurements were also performed for several polyalcoholic compounds, glycerol, erythritol, and xylitol, on α-Fe2O3 as the photocatalyst and showed high incident-photon-to-current-efficiencies (IPCE) that were much greater than those of water splitting. Interestingly, high IPCEs were observed for hydrogen production from polyalcohols in the absence of any applied bias, which was not thought to be possible on hematite. These results support the potential application of PEC for hydrogen production by using widely available hematite for the PEC oxidation of selected components of organic wastewater present in large quantities from anthropogenic and industrial sources. ...
Frontier Economics was commissioned by BEIS to develop business models to support low carbon hydrogen production.. Our research focusses on incentivising near term investments to deliver largescale low carbon hydrogen production for supply to industry. It covers both green hydrogen (from renewables) and blue hydrogen (from methane reformation).. Based on a literature review, stakeholder consultation and case studies from other sectors, we developed a longlist of business models that could potentially be used. Our assessment of these business models concluded that both contractual payments to producers (e.g. contracts for difference) or regulatory returns models could be designed to deliver low carbon hydrogen production in the 2020s.. We also found that including a split structure in the models (with separate compensation for fixed and variable costs) may be an effective way of managing demand risk for investors, while reducing the risk of excessive costs for taxpayers and consumers.. For more ...
Researchers at Penn State University have coaxed common bacteria to produce hydrogen in a new, efficient way. Using starter material that could theoretically be sourced from a salad bar, the team has charmed bacteria from wastewater into generating abundant, clean hydrogen from cellulose or vinegar with a little zap of electricity. In a table-top reactor, no less.. Other systems produce hydrogen on a larger scale, reports the National Science Foundation, but few if any match the new system for energy efficiency. Even with the small jolt of electricity, the hydrogen provides more energy as fuel than the electricity needed to drive the reactor. The overall efficiency of the vinegar-fueled system is better than 80 percent, far better than the efficiency generating the leading alternative, ethanol. By perfecting the environment for the bacteria to do what they already do in nature, the new approach can be three to ten times more efficient than standard electrolysis.. Good news. And further proof ...
According to the Molecular Hydrogen Institute…. Although the research is early, the 1000+ scientific articles suggest that H2 has therapeutic potential in over 170 different human and animal disease models, and essentially every organ of the human body.. Molecular hydrogen (H2) or diatomic hydrogen is a tasteless, odorless, flammable gas.. H2 reduces oxidative stress and improves redox homeostasis partly mediated via Nrf2 pathway, which regulates levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, etc.. H2, like other gaseous-signaling molecules (e.g., NO*, CO, H2 S), modulates signal transduction, protein phosphorylation and gene expression, which provides its anti-inflammatory, anti-allergy, and anti-apoptotic protective effects.. ...
THE behaviour of molecular hydrogen at high pressures has implications for the interiors of the giant planets, which consist mainly of hydrogen. In particular, the question of whether solid hydrogen becomes metallic under these conditions has been much debated1-9, in part because the structure that molecular hydrogen adopts at high pressure is not known. Here we report the results of first-principles molecular dynamics simulations of solid hydrogen at pressures up to 270 GPa. We find that at 77 K, hydrogen exists as a stable, orientationally disordered phase up to 60 GPa, consistent with experimental results1,10. As the presssure is raised, a gradual transformation to an ordered orthorhombic structure begins at 160 GPa, and by 260 GPa the solid becomes semi-conducting, with an indirect band gap of 1.4eV. The calculated vibrational density of states of this phase is consistent with infrared and Raman spectra measured up to 160 GPa (ref. 11). Although limitations on the simulation time and size may result
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Read this full essay on Effect of Catalese on Hydrogen Peroxide - Science Lab. Effect of Catalase on Hydrogen Peroxide INTRODUCTION: Hydrogen Peroxide (H...
Hydrogen Water Ceramic Balls are formulated with all natural minerals to naturally enhance and revitalize your water. Balls should increase the pH and reduce the ORP to create alkaline anti-oxidant water for more effective hydration. The main ingredi
Alex Tarnava, CEO and founder of Drink HRW, embarked on a mission to create the most advanced and positive benefit yielding hydrogen water technology possible
Get an answer for You collect 6.36 moles of hydrogen gas from your lab experiment involving the decomposition of water by electrolysis. The pressure inside your rigid collection vessel is at 1.00 atm. Another lab group adds their collected gas to yours, giving it an additional 1.28 moles. What is the new pressure inside the container? and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
JSC ForteInvest subsidiary JSC Orsknefteorgsintez has let a contract to Amec Foster Wheeler PLC for engineering and material supply of a steam reformer heater for hydrogen production for its 6 million-tonne/year refinery at Orsk, Russia.. Amec Foster Wheeler will complete its scope of work on the heater, which will be based on its proprietary Terrace Wall reformer design, by Mar. 31, 2017, the service company.. A value of the contract was not disclosed.. This latest award follows a June 2014 contract award to former Foster Wheeler AG to deliver a separate Terrace Wall steam reformer heater for hydrogen production at the Orsk refinery by second-quarter 2015 (OGJ Online, June 24, 2014).. The new heater and proposed hydrogen production plant comes as part of Forteinvests modernization and development program to bring the Orsk refinery into compliance with a July 2011 quadripartite agreement on modernization of Russias oil processing industry between oil companies; the Federal Antimonopoly Service ...
The aim of this study was to examine volatile fatty acid (VFA) production from a proteinaceous substrate, bovine serum albumin (BSA) for a pH range of 5 - 9, and to further assess its impact on hydrogen production in a co-fermentation process using starch and BSA at different ratios. The established optimum conditions for VFA production from BSA were an initial pH of 8, incubation time of 3 days and an operating temperature of 37 ℃. Using these fermentation conditions, the stoichiometric reactions that describe the anaerobic degradation of BSA were investigated. A methodology that describes organic acid production from BSA by using a single stoichiometric reaction was developed. With the amino acid content of BSA and by selecting the dominant amino acid fermentation reaction pathways, it was feasible to determine the stoichiometric coefficients of the dominant VFA in the single reaction step. Hydrogen production from the co-fermentation of starch and BSA in batch system was studied for five different
3 One More Step (Application) - Hydrogen-based Steelmaking Technology. The second part was released on 8 February 2021. In this part, POSCO looks at steel products for hydrogen transport applied according to the different states of hydrogen and the key material in hydrogen production and application technology - the stainless steel separator.. To read the story in full, go to newsroom.posco.com. ...
Hydrogen gas has long been proposed as a promising energy carrier for future energy applications, but generating the gas from water has proved inefficient. In an article in the journal Energy and Environmental Science, scientists at Uppsala University now present an alternative, interdisciplinary method based on principles from nature.
Transafe Logistics specializes in the transportation of Oxygen, Nitrogen, Argon, Carbon Dioxide, Helium, and Hydrogen gases. Weve spent more than a decade transporting hazardous goods around the region and became reliable partners to Oil & Gas industry, Industrial Gas Sector, and Petrochemical Industry.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Catheter survival and comparison of catheter exchange methods in children on hemodialysis. AU - Onder, Ali Mirza. AU - Chandar, Jayanthi. AU - Saint-Vil, Marie. AU - Lopez-Mitnik, Gabriela. AU - Abitbol, Carolyn L.. AU - Zilleruelo, Gaston. PY - 2007/9/1. Y1 - 2007/9/1. N2 - This retrospective study was done to compare the infection-free and overall survival of first and subsequent tunneled cuffed hemodialysis catheters in children. Subsequent catheters were exchanged by two different methods (a) removal and replacement (R&R), or (b) wire-guided exchange (WGE) using the same tunnel and vessel. The study involved 59 children (27 male, 32 female; mean age 13.9±4.6 years) undergoing maintenance hemodialysis in a pediatric unit over a period of 60 months. From a total of 175 catheters (57 first catheters, 81 WGE, 37 R&R) and 38,888 catheter days, 74/175 (42%) catheters were exchanged because of catheter-related bacteremia (CRB) and 43/175 (25%) for malfunction or cuff extrusion. ...
https://urgentassignments.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/logo-2-300x75.png 0 0 admin https://urgentassignments.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/07/logo-2-300x75.png admin2020-07-29 06:42:382020-07-29 06:42:380.4 of hydrogen gas was obtained when calcium reacted with hydrochloric acid. calculate the mass of calcium used ...
In 2019, a total of 83 new hydrogen gas stations began operation around the globe, according to the 12th annual evaluation report from H2stations.org.
Hydrogen is the simplest chemical element found on Earth and the most abundant one in the Universe. At standard temperature and pressure, hydrogen exists as a diatomic gas, H2. Because it is lighter than air, hydrogen gas rises in the atmosphere and does not occur in appreciable quantities on Earth. However, quite contrary, it is… Read More». ...
Biological formation and consumption of molecular hydrogen (H2) are catalyzed by hydrogenases, of which three phylogenetically unrelated types are known: [NiFe]-hydrogenases, [FeFe]-hydrogenases, and [Fe]-hydrogenase. We present a crystal structure of [Fe]-hydrogenase at 1.75 angstrom resolution, showing a mononuclear iron coordinated by the sulfur of cysteine 176, two carbon monoxide (CO) molecules, and the sp2-hybridized nitrogen of a 2-pyridinol compound with back-bonding properties similar to those of cyanide. The three-dimensional arrangement of the ligands is similar to that of thiolate, CO, and cyanide ligated to the low-spin iron in binuclear [NiFe]- and [FeFe]-hydrogenases, although the enzymes have evolved independently and the CO and cyanide ligands are not found in any other metalloenzyme. The related iron ligation pattern of hydrogenases exemplifies convergent evolution and presumably plays an essential role in H2 activation. This finding may stimulate the ongoing synthesis of ...
This project aims to develop a new class of pillared nanoporous materials for hydrogen production by visible light driven water splitting. The key concept is the transition metal Mn doping of a lamellar titanate, followed by its delamination/re-assembly process to adsorb co-catalysts in colloidal suspension. The band-gap engineering of the layered compound and the incorporation of visible light active dopants will be systemically studied. The relationship between synthetic conditions, material structures and compositions, and photocatalytic hydrogen production performance will be established. The outcomes will lead to possible breakthrough technologies in cleaner and more economical energy conversion and photocatalysis ...
Using the unique capabilities of ESAs Herschel space observatory, astronomers have accurately weighed a stars disc, finding it still has enough mass to spawn 50 Jupiter-sized planets, several million years after most other stars have already given birth.. Proto-planetary discs contain all the raw ingredients for building planets. They are composed mainly of cold molecular hydrogen gas, which is highly transparent and essentially invisible.. Usually, it is much easier to measure the emission from contaminants such as the small fraction of dust mixed in the gas, or other gas constituents, to make estimates of the total disc mass.. In the past, this technique has caused significant uncertainties in the estimations of molecular hydrogen mass, but thanks to the far-infrared wavelength capabilities and sensitivity of Herschel, astronomers have used a new, more accurate method, using a close relative of molecular hydrogen called hydrogen deuteride, or heavy molecular hydrogen.. Since the ratio ...