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Saturated hydrocarbons include only one series of compounds called alkanes, but _____________ hydrocarbons contain compounds like alkenes, a...
J.U.M. - 109L - Heated Non Methane/ Methane/ Total Hydrocarbon FID Analyzer by J.U.M. Engineering GmbH. The J.U.M 109L is a heated FID analyzer to continuously and simultaneously measure the Methane concentration, the Total Hydrocarbon concentration ...
Alkanes are also known as saturated hydrocarbons and sometimes as paraffins. Alkanes are a relatively simple group of hydrocarbons and are usually included in introductory courses in organic chemistry. School-Level Chemistry page, ages 14-16, UK GCSE or international equivalent.
Section 20.1 Saturated Hydrocarbons Carbon Chemistry Carbon is an element that 1. Can bond strongly to itself (C-C) 2. Can form long chains or rings (C-C-C-C-C-C…) 3. Can bond to other nonmetals: H, N, O, S, and halogens. 4. Has extraordinary number of carbon compounds existing in nature. Biomolecule - molecule that functions in maintaining and reproducing life Organic compounds - vast majority of carbon compounds Exceptions: oxides of carbon and carbonates are inorganic compounds.
Saturated hydrocarbons from 60 selected samples of a 2,300-foot Green River Formation oil-shale core (Piceance Creek Basin, Colorado) Were analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography techniques. Emphasis was placed upon the distribution of normal alkanes and 15 key-branched and cyclic alkanes. The latter compounds consisted of the c15, c16, c18, c19, and c20 chain isoprenoids, the 5-a and 5-b c27, c28
1. A process for producing a composition consisting essentially of a binder component and a solvent component, said process comprising the steps of:(A) preparing the solvent component by mixing a solvent dimethyl carbonate with a co-solvent selected from the group consisting of aromatic hydrocarbon (135-146C), aromatic hydrocarbon (150-190C), aromatic hydrocarbon (182-219C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (100-150C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (100-163C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (115-149C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (138-177C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (138-185C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (145-205C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (150-205C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (150-210C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (155-190C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (170-210C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (180-210C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (182-266C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (90-110C), mineral spirit, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, 1,2-propylene glycol, 1,3-butanediol, 1,4-butanediol, 1-butoxy ethoxy 222-propanol, 1-methyl naphthalene, 1-nitro propane, ...
Textbook solution for Chemistry In Focus 7th Edition Tro Chapter 6 Problem 12E. We have step-by-step solutions for your textbooks written by Bartleby experts!
The Series 2400 Total Hydrocarbon Analyzer is microprocessor-controlled designed to continuously measure concentrations of hydrocarbons. The Series 2400 utilizes a Flame Ionization Detector (FID) operating on the principle that the electrical conductivity of a gas is directly proportional to the concentration of charged particles within the gas. Designed to continuously measure and monitor concentrations of Hydrocarbons in a gas stream, it can also measure CO & CO2 using a methanizer. The instrument provides long term stability and accurate performance in a multitude of gas manufacturing facilities and laboratory applications.. ...
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Hydrocarbon halide, or hydrocarbon for short, refers to the product produced during the process of hydrogen atoms replaced by by halogen (fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine) in the hydrocarbon molecules. According to the different hydrocarbon groups, it could be divided into categories like aliphatic halogenated hydrocarbons (including saturated and unsaturated halogenated hydrocarbons), aromatic halogenated hydrocarbons. According to the amount of halogen atoms contained in the molecule, it could be divided into categories like halogenated hydrocarbons, dihalogenated hydrocarbons and polyhalogenated hydrocarbons. Most of the halogenated hydrocarbons are liquid. The proportion of Iodinated hydrocarbons, brominated hydrocarbons and polyhalogenated hydrocarbons are all higher than 1. They are insoluble in water and could be dissolved in any proportion with hydrocarbons, they also could dissolve many other organics. The proportion of Hydrocarbon halide would decreases with the increase of the ...
Hydrocarbon exposure has been shown to play an important role in the development of renal dysfunction in several occupational settings. In this study, renal screening was performed in a group of paint sprayers with exposure to hydrocarbon-based paints, recruited from a car manufacturing plant where personal protective equipment was widely used. The hydrocarbon exposure scores and various markers of renal injury were compared between these subjects and a group of paint sprayers from a previous study who did not use personal protective equipment regularly. Cumulative hydrocarbon exposure scores were calculated from a validated questionnaire. Serum creatinine, urinary total protein, albumin, transferrin, retinol-binding protein, and N-acetylglucosaminidase were evaluated, Both groups experienced heavy hydrocarbon exposure but sprayers who regularly used personal protective equipment had significantly reduced exposure scores due to improved skin and respiratory protection. A significant number of ...
Results show that knock-down of desaturase genes in oenocytes is sufficient to suppress or at least largely inhibit pheromone biosynthesis. The effect is particularly clear in males, where desat1 knock-down under 1407-GAL4 led to a 96% decrease in monoenic hydrocarbons. In females, the decrease is less dramatic (78%). The biosynthesis of the saturated hydrocarbons was enhanced, as a consequence of the lack of desaturation of fatty acid precursors. Decreased levels of unsaturated hydrocarbons and increased levels of saturated ones have previously been described in P-desat1 mutant and resulting excision lines [12, 14]. However, the effects on hydrocarbons were relatively smaller, ranging from a 0 to about a 66% decrease in unsaturated hydrocarbons, depending on the lines. The fact that we never obtained an almost complete loss of hydrocarbons with desat1 mutants in former studies may be due to the pleiotropic nature of the mutation, which affects both fat body and hydrocarbons and also to the ...
Find hydrocarbon contamination remediation (hydrocarbon contamination - soil and groundwater) articles on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource.
Signal Instruments microprocessor-based gas analyzers for CO, CO2, NO, NOx, O2, SO2 and Total Hydrocarbon monitoring featuring a common user interface, configurable alarm levels, powerful remote control, communications features and isolated voltage and current outputs. Standard EMI shielding and CE certification for safety. Signal Instruments Co.
The rate constants of eleven hydrocarbons and fluorocarbons with CN (V=0, 1) at 300K have been measured by using Laser Induced Fluorescence(LIF) method. For the saturated hydrocarbons, the rate constants are chagned from (5.6 +/- 0.3) x 10(-13) for CH4 to (2.3 + 0.2) x 10(-10)cm(3) molecu(-1),8(-1) for C7H16. The rate constants of the reaction of CN with alkenes and alkynes are close to the gas kinetic rate in spite of the structure of the molecules. The rate constants and mechanism of CN with the saturated hydrocarbons, H-2 and CH3OH can be explained satisfactorily by the long distance attractive potential. The reaction of CN with alkenes and alkynes can only proceed through the addition into pi bond. The influence of vibrational energy on the reaction rate was not found in the reactions of CN radical with hydrocarbon compounds ...
Synonyms for Aliphatic hydrocarbon in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Aliphatic hydrocarbon. 13 words related to aliphatic compound: acetylene, alkyne, ethyne, alicyclic compound, alkene, olefin, olefine, organic compound, alkane, alkane series.... What are synonyms for Aliphatic hydrocarbon?
A hydrocarbon (HC) is a substance that is made of carbon and hydrogen in the gaseous, liquid, or solid phase. The molecular structure of hydrocarbon compounds varies from the simplest to the very heavy and very complex. The first structures are methane, ethane, propane (used for fuel), butane (used in lighters), pentane, hexane, heptane, and octane. Fossil fuels, thought by liberals to cause global warming, are comprised of HCs. Hydrocarbons can be divided into saturated, unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons. Saturated hydrocarbons contain only single bonds. They are called alkanes. Unsaturated hydrocarbons contain double bounds (alkenes) or triple bounds (alkynes). HCs are highly flammable, and are the primary components of natural gas and petroleum (fuel). HCs are also useful to manufacturing plastics, solvents, rubbers, and a variety of chemicals used in industrial production. ...
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Many hydrocarbons are found in plants, animals, and their fossils; other hydrocarbons have been prepared in the laboratory. 15.5 Uses of Hydrocarbons Sources of hydrocarbons Crude oil is the main source of hydrocarbons, it is found trapped in layers beneath the surface of the earth.Crude oil is a complex mixture of hydrocarbons â alkanes, cycloalkanes and aromatic compounds.. Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Point: Hydrocarbons like oil and gas have done nothing but cause chaos! Since cracking converts larger hydrocarbons into smaller hydrocarbons, â ¦ Ppt details fractional distillation and the uses for each fraction. They are found in many places, including crude oil and natural gas. It also shows the trends in the fractions. the use of hydrocarbons (alkanes) depends on the number of carbon atoms number of carbon atoms form use 1-4 (g) heating and cooking fuel 5 â ¦ Without them, it would not be easy for us to ...
Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Renewable Fuels Plant and Oxygenate Plant Net Production of Other Hydrocarbons/Oxygenates (Thousand Barrels ...
East Coast (PADD 1) Net Receipts by Pipeline, Tanker, Barge and Rail from Other PADDs of Other Hydrocarbons/Oxygenates (Thousand Barrels ...
The potential for biotransformation of weathered hydrocarbon residues in soils collected from two commercial oil refinery sites (Soil A and B) was studied in microcosm experiments. Soil A has previously been subjected to on-site bioremediation and it was believed that no further degradation was possible while soil B has not been subjected to any treatment. A number of amendment strategies including bioaugmentation with hydrocarbon degrader, biostimulation with nutrients and soil grinding, were applied to the microcosms as putative biodegradation improvement strategies. The hydrocarbon concentrations in each amendment group were monitored throughout 112 days incubation. Microcosms treated with biostimulation (BS) and biostimulation/bioaugmentation (BS + BA) showed the most significant reductions in the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon fractions. However, soil grinding was shown to reduce the effectiveness of a nutrient treatment on the extent of biotransformation by up to 25% and 20% for the ...
This chapter examines hydrocarbons present in the environment and derived from natural and anthropogenic sources. Since the industrial revolution, the abundance of hydrocarbons derived from anthropogenic sources (petroleum hydrocarbons) has increased significantly in aquatic systems. Natural oil seeps and erosion of bitumen deposits can also contribute to hydrocarbon abundance and composition in systems. These petroleum hydrocarbons can be distinguished from biological hydrocarbons by their absence of odd-carbon chain lengths commonly found in biological hydrocarbons and the greater structural diversity found in petroleum hydrocarbons. The chapter focuses on naturally produced hydrocarbons. It provides examples of how aliphatic and isoprenoid hydrocarbons have been successfully used to distinguish between algal, bacterial, and terrigenous vascular plant sources of carbon in aquatic systems. It discusses how pristine and phytane are formed from phytol under oxic vs. anoxic conditions, respectively. It
United States Patent Ofice Int. Cl. C101 7/02 US. Cl. 44-7 16 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE This disclosure describes a method of increasing the viscosity of liquid hydrocarbons, especially hydrocarbon fuels, by the in situ formation of cross-linked polyurethane polymers in liquid hydrocarbons by reaction between a hydroxyl terminated semipolymer which is soluble in the hydrocarbon, a semipolymer having a molecular weight of 1,000 and a polyisocyanate. This application is a continuation-in-part application of copending applications Ser. Nos. 544,416 and 544,418, both filed on Apr. 22, 1966 and both now abandoned. This invention is concerned with thixotropic-gelled, inflammable hydrocarbon compositions and processes for their preparation. More particularly it is concerned with inflammable compositions comprising hydrocarbon mixtures gelled by the presence of a high molecular weight polymer. Hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel and the like are widely employed as power ...
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To provide a fluoropolymer suitable for use as a base polymer for resist materials for excimer lasers having a wavelength of 250 nm or shorter. A fluoropolymer having a monomer unit formed by cyclopolymerization of a fluorinated diene compound represented by the following formula (3), CF2═CFCF2-C(CF3)(R5)-CH2CH═CH2 (3) wherein R5 is either a hydroxyl group blocked by -CHR7-O-R8 or an organic group having the hydroxyl group, and R8 is a cyclic saturated hydrocarbon such as a cycloalkyl group which may have a substituent, or an organic group having the cyclic saturated hydrocarbon.
Copeland, A., Corrigan, M., Buchanan, S., Zhou, F., Bennert, T., Mohammad, L. N. & Al-Qadi, I., Jan 1 2016, Asphalt Paving Technology 2016 - Journal of the Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists, AAPT 2016. McDaniel, R. S., West, R., Rowe, G., Roque, R., Kim, Y. R., Corrigan, M., Bonaquist, R., Copeland, A., Daniel, J., Baumgardner, G. & Prowell, B. (eds.). Association of Asphalt Paving Technologist, p. 877-884 8 p. (Asphalt Paving Technology: Association of Asphalt Paving Technologists-Proceedings of the Technical Sessions; vol. 85).. Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceeding › Conference contribution ...
Analysis of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Concentration Data from Thousands of Groundwater Wells Using a Density-Based Cluster Analysis Approach
There is a large class of important chemical compounds whose molecules are made up entirely of carbon and hydrogen atoms. These compounds, as a group, are called hydrocarbons.. Hydrocarbons are the critical energy storage molecules within all major types of fossil fuels (including coal, oil, and natural gas) and biofuels. They also form the feedstock for the production processes of many types of plastics.. Burning hydrocarbons in the presence of oxygen (O2) produces carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O). If there is too much carbon or too little oxygen present when hydrocarbons are burned, carbon monoxide (CO) may also be emitted. Sometimes unburned hydrocarbons are released into the air during incomplete combustion. Burning fossil fuels, including gasoline in automobile engines, releases some hydrocarbons into the air. In a typical urban environment, the atmospheric concentration of hydrocarbons is around 3 ppm (parts per million). Some hydrocarbons, along with other types of Volatile Organic ...
Hydrocarbons are toxic To Pets. Hydrocarbons are liquids that are commonly found in your garage. Examples are, engine oil, gasoline, diesel fuels, wood stains.
Volatile and Semi Volatile Hydrocarbons analyzer: airmoVOC C6-C16 A GC/FID instrument for Volatile and Semi Volatile Hydrocarbons measurement in ambient air The airmoVOC C6C16 is used to monitor VOCs up to the semi volatile hydrocarbons in industrial site, tropical forest and on site under decontamination. With detection limit as low as 1 ppt for Benzene or Naphthalene the system can measure gaseous PAHs in ambient air in continue up to Fluorene and linear alcanes up to N-Hexadecane when coupled to Mass Spectrometer. The fully automatic and in filed system allow to detect such compounds thanks to internal sampling line and ultra-high sensitivity. Specific Vistachrom Software is used to pilot the instrument as well as the peripherals (e.g. gas generators) which can be provided with the instrument.
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The chemisorption of propane and n-pentane on Raney platinum in the presence of varying amounts of pre-adsorbed water was studied at 100C by a combined gravimetric and mass spectrometric technique. It was found that the amount of saturated hydrocarbon chemisorbed is independent of the amount of pre-adsorbed water. If water is present on the surface, a portion of it is displaced upon chemisorption of hydrocarbons. At high coverages of the surface with pre-adsorbed water the amount of displaced water is constant. The ratio of displaced water molecules to chemisorbed propane molecules is about 1 with propane and 0.6 with n-pentane. If oxygen is chemisorbed on the catalyst surface before water and/or hydrocarbon is admitted, propane chemisorption is strongly enhanced. At a coverage of 1 oxygen atom for every 2 platinum surface atoms, the subsequent propane chemisorption is increased by a factor of about 2.5. Moreover, if on top of the oxygen layer water is adsorbed, the ratio of displaced water
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Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Active multienzyme assemblies for long-chain olefinic hydrocarbon biosynthesis. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Over a half-million workers are exposed to fumes from asphalt, a petroleum product used extensively in road paving, roofing, siding, and concrete work1. Health effects from exposure to asphalt fumes include headache, skin rash, sensitization, fatigue, reduced appetite, throat and eye irritation, cough, and skin cancer.. ...
The composite performance of modified asphalt and composite-modified asphalt mixture (CMAM) is divided into inherent performance and improved performance. The inherent performance refers to the original performance of the virgin asphalt and asphalt mixture. The improved performance refers to the performance obtained by modifying the virgin asphalt. In the study, the modified asphalt and asphalt mixture were tested through a series of experiments. The antiaging durability of the modified asphalt is explored based on the inherent performance and improved performance at high and low temperatures. The antiaging durability of the modified asphalt mixture is explored based on the inherent performance and improved performance at the mechanical performance. Meanwhile, based on inherent and improved performances, this chapter uses three kinds of CMAM (4% SBS/3% SBR, 4% SBS/15% rubber, and 4% SBR/15% rubber) as research objects to test the change rule of mechanical properties. This chapter outlines CMAM design,
i) Decarboxylation The process by which a molecule of CO2 is removed from an organic compound is called decarboxylation. } For example: Ethane CH3-CH3 • Unsaturated Hydrocarbon • Aromatic Hydrocarbon Benzene and its derivatives are called aromatic compounds. Chapter 2 Structure Of Atom. NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 13 Hydrocarbons includes all the important topics with detailed explanation that aims to help students to understand the concepts better. CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Worksheet - Hydrocarbons - Practice worksheets for CBSE students. Download CBSE Revision Notes for CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Hydrocarbons in PDF format. ... NCERT Solutions class-11 Chemistry Organic Chemistry Some Basic Principles Part-1; .center { } CBSE Ncert Notes for Class 11 Chemistry Hydrocarbons. myCBSEguide App. Equilibria in Physical Processes. .fnt { Chemistry Notes Class 11 Chapter 13 Hydrocarbons Vnd5rr7qrglx by idoc.pub. They have benzene ring C 6 H 6 (alternate 3 double bond with no benzene ...
The responses of microbial communities to hydrocarbon exposures are complex and variable, driven to a large extent by the nature of hydrocarbon infusion, local environmental conditions, and factors that regulate microbial physiology (e.g., substrate and nutrient availability). Although present at low abundance in the ocean, hydrocarbon-degrading seed populations are widely distributed, and they respond rapidly to hydrocarbon inputs at natural and anthropogenic sources. Microbiomes from environments impacted by hydrocarbon discharge may appear similar at a higher taxonomic rank (e.g., genus level) but diverge at increasing phylogenetic resolution (e.g., sub-OTU [operational taxonomic unit] levels). Such subtle changes are detectable by computational methods such as oligotyping or by genome reconstruction from metagenomic sequence data. The ability to reconstruct these genomes, and to characterize their transcriptional activities in different environmental contexts through metatranscriptomic mapping, is
Browse detailed TOC, Tables, Figures, Charts and Companies mentioned in Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvents Market research report @ http://www.absolutereports.com/global-aliphatic-hydrocarbon-solvents-market-research-report-2016-10446419. Table of Content Includes:. 1.Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvents Market Competition by Manufacturers. 2.Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvents Production, Revenue (Value), Price Trend by Type. 3.Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvents Manufacturing Cost Analysis. 4.Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvents Market Effect Factors Analysis. Further in the report, the Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvents market is examined for price, cost and gross. These three points are analysed for types, companies and regions. In continuation with this data sale price is for various types, applications and region is also included. The Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvents Industry for major regions is given. Additionally, type wise and application wise figures are also given.. Market Segment by Regions, this report splits ...
Using Bromine Water to Test for an Alkene (unsaturated hydrocarbons) - lesson plan ideas from Spiral. Tagged under: chemistry,hydrocarbon,GCSE,Alkene (Chemical Classification),science,YouTube Editor,alkene,c3,c2,c1,Bromine (Chemical Element),Bromine Water,Unsaturated Hydrocarbon (Chemical Classification),unsaturated,alkali,bromine
Petroleum hydrocarbons (oil) are common environmental contaminants. For risk assessment purposes, their concentrations in environmental matrixes, such as biota and soils/sediments are frequently determined by solvent extraction and subsequent analysis with gas chromatography (GC) equipped with flame ionization detection (FID) or mass spectrometry (MS). Because the total GC detector response ... read more is labeled as total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentration and matrix compounds (lipids, organic matter) will contribute to this response, proper extract clean-up is crucial. Still, the choice for a specific clean-up material during open column chromatography often seems arbitrary, since no comparative study on clean-up agents for TPH analysis is available. Here, such a study is described and it is demonstrated that none of the commonly used agents fulfills the requirements of complete matrix compound removal and TPH recovery. A novel column filled with (top-down) 1g of 33% (w/w) 1 M ...
Insect cuticular hydrocarbons are known to have a protection and a pheromonal role. Quantitative changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of Diptera occur over time and were used in a preliminary attempt to age-grade of mosquitoes. Halofenozide (RH-0345) is an insect growth regulator belonging to the class of non-steroidal ecdysone agonists. In a previous study, halofenozide was found to be effective against larvae of Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) and exerted its toxicity primarily by the induction of a precocious lethal molting (Boudjelida et al., 2005). In this study, newly molted 4th instar larvae of C. pipiens were exposed to halofenozide (23% EC) for 24 h at LC50 (12.58 µg/l) and LC90 (28.58µg/l) concentrations under standard laboratory conditions according to WHO recommendations. Then, to better understand the mode of action of halofenozide, the profiles of the cuticular hydrocarbons in treated and control larvae were evaluated using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass
Saturated hydrocarbons (SH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been quantified in a sediment core obtained from Central Park Lake, New York City. Radionuclides Pb-210 and Cs-137 were used to assign approximate dates to each individual section in the core. The dating profile based on Pb-210 matches very well with the time constraints provided by Cs-137. Radionuclide-derived depositional dates are consistent with temporal information from the petroleum-indicator ratio U/R [the ratio of unresolved complex mixture (UCM)to saturated hydrocarbons in the aliphatic fraction] and the history of fuel use in the NYC area. Ratios of 1,7-dimethylphenanthrane (DMP) to 1,7-DMP plus 2,6-DMP [1,7/(1,7 + 2,6)-DMP], retene to retene plus chrysene [Ret/(Ret + Chy)], and fluoranthene to fluoranthene plus pyrene [Fl/(Fl + Py)] provide additional source discrimination throughout the core. Results show that the ratio U/R is sensitive to petroleum inputs and Ret/(Ret + Chy) is responsive to contributions ...
The Global C9 Petroleum Hydrocarbon Resin Market report gives a detailed overview of the key market drivers, restraints, and trends and analyzes the way they will affect markets development over the forecast period 2020-2027.. This Global C9 Petroleum Hydrocarbon Resin Market 2020 report also gives comprehensive insight of, in-depth overview of the competitive landscape of the C9 Petroleum Hydrocarbon Resin Market, Industry Size, Share, Market Productions, Pricing, and Global Revenues Import-Export Figures & SWOT Analysis, PEST analysis, PORTER analysis and Forecast till 2027. Click here to get the short-term and long-term impact of COVID-19 on this Market:@ https://www.researchkraft.com/request-sample/1086599. The worldwide C9 Petroleum Hydrocarbon Resin market has been separated into a few essential sections, for example, item types, applications, areas, and end-clients. Moreover, it investigates locales including North America, Europe, South America, the Middle East, Asia, and the remainder ...
Each of these hydrocarbons must follow the 4-hydrogen rule which states that all carbon atoms must have the maximum number of hydrogen atoms as it can hold (the limit is four). Note, an extra bond removes 2 hydrogen atoms and only saturated hydrocarbons can attain the full four. This is because of the unique positions of the carbons four electrons. Liquid geologically-extracted hydrocarbons are referred to as petroleum (literally rock oil) or mineral oil, while gaseous geologic hydrocarbons are referred to as natural gas. All are significant sources of fuel and raw materials as a feedstock for the production of organic chemicals and are commonly found in the subsurface using the tools of petroleum geology. Hydrocarbons are of prime economic importance because they encompass the constituents of the major fossil fuels (coal,petroleum, natural gas, etc.) and biofuels, as well as plastics, waxes, solvents and oils. In urban pollution, these components--along with NOx and sunlight--all contribute ...
Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvents and Thinners Market Insights 2018, is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the global Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvents and Thinners industry with a focus on the Global market. The report provides key statistics on the market status of the Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvents and Thinners manufacturers and is a valuable source of guidance and direction for companies and individuals interested in the industry. Overall, the report provides an in-depth insight of 2018-2025 global Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvents and Thinners market covering all important parameters. Request Sample…. Read More ...
Boiling Point Gas oils do not have a single numerical value for boiling point, but rather a boiling or distillation range that reflects the individual components in the hydrocarbon mixture. Distillation rangesfor a variety of gas oils have been reported for a number of blended gas oil products production streams . Typical distillation ranges for blended fuels are 160 to 390 C for an automotive gas oil(diesel fuel), 160 to 400 C for a heating oil, and 170 to 420 C for a distillate marine fuel Typical low endand high end distillation temperatures for gas oil production streams were 172 and 344 C for ahydrodesulfurised middle distillate (65.6% -79.4% saturated hydrocarbons), 185 and 391 C for a straight-runmiddle distillate (78.8 saturated hydrocarbons), and 185 and 372 C for a light catalytic cracked distillate (60.8% -79.8% aromatic hydrocarbons). No substantial differences in boiling range were apparent for gas oilswith high concentrations of either aromatic or saturated hydrocarbonsVapor ...
A Ciboria sp. strain (Phylum Ascomycota) was isolated from hydrocarbon-polluted soil of an abandoned oil refinery in Italy. The strain was able to utilize diesel oil as a sole carbon source for growth. Laboratory-scale experiments were designed to evaluate the use of this fungal strain for treatment of the polluted soil. The concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the soil was 8,538 mg/kg. Mesocosms containing the contaminated soil were inoculated with the fungal strain at 1 or 7%, on a fresh weight base ratio. After 90 days of incubation, the depletion of TPH contamination was of 78% with the 1% inoculant, and 99% with the 7% inoculant. 16S rDNA and ITS metabarcoding of the bacterial and fungal communities was performed in order to evaluate the potential synergism between fungi and bacteria in the bioremediation process. The functional metagenomic prediction indicated Arthrobacter, Dietzia, Brachybacerium, Brevibacterium, Gordonia, Leucobacter, Lysobacter, and Agrobacterium spp. ...
Abstract Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil is often measured to determine if soils have been impacted by crude oil. PT. Chevron Pacific Indonesia (CPI) operates several oil fields in Sumatra and samples soil for TPH content for remediation-
We analyzed the reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in the colony-forming green microalga Botryococcus braunii in response to several stress inducers such as NaCl, NaHCO3, salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate, and acetic acid. A staining assay using the fluorescent dye CellROX Green was used. CellROX Green is a fluorogenic probe used for measuring oxidative stress in live cells. The dye is weakly fluorescent inside cells in a reduced state but exhibits bright green photostable fluorescence upon oxidation by ROS and subsequent binding to DNA. The large amount of liquid hydrocarbons produced and excreted by B. braunii, creates a highly hydrophobic extracellular environment that makes difficult to study short times defense responses on this microalga. The procedure developed here allowed us to detect ROS in this microalga even within a short period of time (in minutes) after treatment of cells with different stress inducers.
Social insects, such as honey bees, use molecular, physiological and behavioral responses to combat pathogens and parasites. The honey bee genome contains all of the canonical insect immune response pathways, and several studies have demonstrated that pathogens can activate expression of immune effectors. Honey bees also use behavioral responses, termed social immunity, to collectively defend their hives from pathogens and parasites. These responses include hygienic behavior (where workers remove diseased brood) and allo-grooming (where workers remove ectoparasites from nestmates). We have previously demonstrated that immunostimulation causes changes in the cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of workers, which results in altered worker-worker social interactions. Thus, cuticular hydrocarbons may enable workers to identify sick nestmates, and adjust their behavior in response. Here, we test the specificity of behavioral, chemical and genomic responses to immunostimulation by challenging workers with a panel
TY - CHAP. T1 - Intracluster anionic polymerization induced by electron transfer from alkali metal atom to unsaturated hydrocarbon molecules. AU - Tsunoyama, Hironori. AU - Ohshimo, Keijiro. AU - Furuya, Ari. AU - Nakagawara, Wakana. AU - Misaizu, Fuminori. AU - Ohno, Koichi. PY - 2005/1/1. Y1 - 2005/1/1. N2 - Size dependent stability and intracluster reactions have been investigated by photoionization mass spectrometry for alkali metal atom M (M=Na, K, and Cs)-methyl propiolate (HC=CCOOCH3; MP) clusters. The cluster ions with n=3 were predominantly observed in the M+(MP)n series. This intensity anomaly can be explained by a stable benzene derivative formation in intracluster anionic polymerization reaction induced by electron transfer from the metal. From the measurement of photoionization efficiency curves for Cs(MP)n, two different ionization threshold energies were obtained for Cs(MP)3. These two thresholds are concluded to correspond with the ionization energies of solvation type isomer and ...
Characterization of Hydrocarbon-Utilizing Bacteria Associated with Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) Plant Grown in a Niger Delta Soil, Ashikodi AO, Abu
c. E. PARISH 3,304,338 TWO-STAGE HYDROGENATION OF AROMATIC-HYDROCARBONS I Feb. 14, 1967 Filed May 5, 1964 United States Patent O 3,304 338 TWO-STAGE HYDROGEATION F AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS Clyde E. Parish, Houston, Tex., assigner to Signal Oil and Gas Company, Los Angeles, Calif. Filed May 5, 1964, Ser. No. 366,220 11 Claims. (Cl. 260-667) This is a continuation-in-part of my -prior co-pending United States patent application Serial No. 135,516, iiled September 1, 1961, now abandoned, entitled Hydrogenaation Process. The present invention generally relates to a process for hydrogenatinig aromatic hydrocarbons and more particularly relates to an improved process for converting monocyclic aromatics into the corresponding cycloaliphatic hydrocarbons. Hydrogenation of aromatics in hydrocarbon streams frequently has been carried out to provide saturated hydrocarbons. For example, hydrogenation has been employed to convert benzene into cycloheX-ane, toluene into methyl cyclohexane and the aromatics in ...
These days, colorbond roofing has introduced a revolution on the earth of roofing business. Just a few years again, metallic roofing was a finances pleasant choice, and so they have been generally used on industrial buildings and sheds. Nevertheless, issues modified after the introduction of colorbond roofing. The excellent news is that colorbond roofing is on the market in numerous colours. Lets know the way to set up colorbond roofing.Selecting Colorbond RoofingAfter the launch of the product, it continued to get higher. Quickly it included a whole lot of varieties. These days, youll find that this roofing materials can meet all of your wants:1. The product is on the market in tons of profile shapes for various kinds of houses.2. It consists of insulated roofing to forestall warmth from escaping. Furthermore, it dampens noise.. three. The good factor is that heat-reflective roofing may help you retain your premises cool.four. In case of patios the place both sides of the roof is uncovered, ...
An attempt was made to assess the microbial degradation degree of an oil-type pollutant in an alluvial sediment on the basis of n-alkane abundance changes in saturated hydrocarbon fractions within a ten-month period. For that purpose, oil-contaminated alluvial ground waters were investigated, taken from three drill-holes (three depths), three times each (winter 97/98, spring 98 and autumn 98) in the area of an oil refinery, in the immediate vicinity of the Danube (Yugoslavia). The results have unambiguously confirmed that depth-dependent, but obviously existing, biodegradation processes of oil-type pollutants occur in a very short time period ...
wherein Rb4, Rb5 and Rb6 each independently represent a C1-C36 aliphatic hydrocarbon group which can have one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of a hydroxyl group, a C1-C12 alkoxy group and a C6-C18 aromatic hydrocarbon group, a C3-C36 saturated cyclic hydrocarbon group which can have one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of a halogen atom, a C2-C4 acyl group and a glycidyloxy group, or a C6-C18 aromatic hydrocarbon group which can have one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of a halogen atom, a hydroxyl group, a C1-C36 aliphatic hydrocarbon group, a C3-C36 saturated cyclic hydrocarbon group or a C1-C12 alkoxy group,Rb7 and Rb8 are independently in each occurrence a hydroxyl group, a C1-C12 aliphatic hydrocarbon group or a C1-C12 alkoxy group, m2 and n2 independently represents an integer of 0 to 5,Rb9 and Rb10 each independently represent a C1-C36 aliphatic hydrocarbon group or a C3-C36 saturated cyclic hydrocarbon group, or Rb9 ...
Hydrocarbon contamination in soils may be toxic to plants and soil microorganisms and act as a source of groundwater contamination. The objective of this study was to evaluate the fate of diesel in soils with or without added nutrients. The soils examined either had or had not a previous history of hydrocarbon contamination. Particular aspects examined were soil respiration, changes in microbial population, breakdown of diesel hydrocarbons, and phytotoxicity to the germination of perennial ryegrass. Soil respiration was measured as evolved CO2. Bacterial population was determined as colony forming units in dilution plates and fungal activity was measured as hyphal length. The fate of individual hydrocarbons was determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after extraction with dichloromethane. When diesel was added to soil with no previous history of hydrocarbon contamination at rates up to 50 mg/g, the respiration response showed a lag phase of 6 days and maximum respiration occurred at ...
Asphaltenes are molecular substances that are found in crude oil, along with resins, aromatic hydrocarbons, and saturates (i.e. saturated hydrocarbons such as alkanes). The word asphaltene was coined by Boussingault in 1837 when he noticed that the distillation residue of some bitumens had asphalt-like properties. Asphaltenes in the form of asphalt or bitumen products from oil refineries are used as paving materials on roads, shingles for roofs, and waterproof coatings on building foundations. Asphaltenes consist primarily of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur, as well as trace amounts of vanadium and nickel. The C:H ratio is approximately 1:1.2, depending on the asphaltene source. Asphaltenes are defined operationally as the n-heptane (C 7H 16)-insoluble, toluene (C 6H 5CH 3)-soluble component of a carbonaceous material such as crude oil, bitumen, or coal. Asphaltenes have been shown to have a distribution of molecular masses in the range of 400 u to 1500 u, but the average and ...
A team of researchers at the Institute of Technological Sciences at Wuhan University has demonstrated a prototype design of a propulsion thruster that utilizes air plasma induced by microwave ionization. Such a jet engine simply uses only air and electricity to produce high temperature and pressurized plasma for jet propulsion....
The above are the structural formulas of two compounds which have the same molecular formula. Which of following statements is correct?. a) The bond angle \(\alpha\) is the same as the bond angle \(\beta\).. b) Compound (A) is a saturated hydrocarbon and compound (B) is an unsaturated hydrocarbon.. c) The bond length between the carbon atoms is identical for all bonds. d) None of the above. ...
SBI Company guaranty the quality of SBI Oxidized asphalt 90/10 with the arrangement of the international inspector to check quality and quantity of the Oxidized asphalt 90/10 during the loading to the vessel and controlling the production by QC by batch test report before shipping. SBI Company guarantees the quality to meet with ASTM.. Uses of oxidized asphalt 90/10. Oxidized asphalt 90/10 uses in the chemical, fuel, lacquers, varnishes, paint paper-pulp-board, textile processing, road construction, pavement, civil works, roofing, construction industries; sealing and insulating buildings, adhesive, crack seal and repairmen, construction materials additive, dust-binding, insulating and impregnating agent, make rubber and plastic products. The asphalt 90/10 products are for paving. also used in asphalt-based paints for corrosion protection of metals, in lining public works structures, adhesives in electrical laminates, base for synthetic turf; typical uses for asphalt 90/10 used also for ...
Graphene oxide (GO) has a unique layered structure with excellent gas and liquid blocking properties. It is widely used in many areas, such as gas sensors, carbon-based electronics, impermeable membranes, and polymeric composite materials. In order to evaluate whether GO (1% and 3% by weight of asphalt) can improve the aging resistance performance of the asphalt, 80/100 penetration grade asphalt (90 A) and styrene-butadiene-styrene modified asphalt (SBS MA) were used to prepare the GO modified asphalt by the melt blending method. The surface morphology of the GO was analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The UV aging test was conducted to simulate the aging during the service period. After UV aging test, the physical performances of GO-modified asphalts were tested, and the IC=O and IS=O increments were tested by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to evaluate the aging resistance performance of the GO modified asphalt. In addition, the rheological properties of GO modified asphalts
The genetics of sexual isolation, behavioral differences between species that prevent mating, is understood poorly. Pheromonal differences between species can influence sexual isolation in many animals and in some cases a single locus can cause large functional changes in pheromonal mating signals. Drosophila cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) can function as pheromones and consequently affect mate recognition. In a previous study of the two major CHCs in females that affect mating discrimination between Drosophila simulans and D. sechellia, quantitative trait loci (QTL) were identified on the X and third chromosome, and a few candidate genes were potentially implicated. Here we specifically test candidate genes for CHC biosynthesis and determine the genetic architecture of four additional CHCs that differ in abundance between D. simulans and D. sechellia females. The same QTL, and new ones, were found for additional CHCs. By examining all these CHCs and exploring their covariance, we were able to ascribe
TPH and TRH can be used to quantify the hydrocarbons in surface, ground or waste waters contaminated by petroleum products. Petroleum products are produced from crude oil. As these products are a complex mixture of organic compounds, individual compounds are not determined and results are expressed in bands C6-C9, C10-14, C15-C28 and C29-C36.. Click here to read the fact sheet on TPH & TRH analysis.. PAH also known as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons, occur in oil, coal, and tar deposits, and are produced as by-products of petroleum processing or combustion. As a pollutant, they are of concern because some PAHs have been identified as carcinogenic.. Click here to read the fact sheet on PAH analysis.. BTEX are volatile organic compounds commonly found in products made from petroleum. These compounds may be present in surface or ground waters as a result of contamination possibly from petrol or other petroleum products.. Analysis by AWQC;. ...
If n=2, C2H2X2+2⇒ C2H6 (Ethane). They are also known as paraffin. Example- Propane.. •Unsaturated hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbons, which the carbon atoms are bonded to each other with two (=C=C=), or three (-C≡C-) covalent bond and have the tendency to gain more hydrogen atoms are known as unsaturated hydrocarbons. They are two types:. ...
Author(s): Hunt, JR; Holden, PA; Firestone, MK | Abstract: Volatile organic chemicals present at Superfund sites preferentially partition into the soil gas and may be available for microbial degradation. A simple mass transfer model for biodegradation for volatile substrates has been developed for the aerobic decomposition of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The mass transfer analysis calculates diffusive fluxes from soil gas through water and membrane films and into the cell. This model predicts an extreme sensitivity of potential biodegradation rates to the air-water partition coefficients of the compounds. Aromatic hydrocarbons are removed rapidly while the aliphatic hydrocarbons are much slower by orders of magnitude. Furthermore, oxygen transfer is likely to limit aromatic hydrocarbon degradation rates. The model presents results that cast doubt on the practicality of using methane or propane for the co-metabolic destruction of trichloroethylene in a gas phase bioreactor. Toluene as a primary
11 th Class Physics Notes PDF Download. Almost 90% content on this App is for FREE and will always be. are all hydrocarbons or their mixture. Join Our Telegram Channel... Users. August 03, 2020. Hydrocarbon Class 11 Formulas & Notes Hydrocarbons are composed of Carbon and hydrogen. Reply Delete. Gravity Circle 21,269 views Hydrocarbons Class 11 Notes Chemistry Chapter 13 • Hydrocarbon A compound of carbon and hydrogen is known as hydrocarbon. Physics Wallah Is India Favourite Youtube Channel Owned By Alakh Pandey Sir. ... All CBSE Notes for Class 11 Chemistry Maths Notes Physics Notes Biology Notes. For students who wish to do well in their class 11 exams must go through the CBSE Important Questions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 13 Hydrocarbons. These notes are prepared keeping in mind the level of preparation needed by the students to prepare for Class 11 exams. One of our academic counsellors will contact you within 1 working day. Unit 14 - Environmental Chemistry. About Us. The founder, ...
The analyzer is based on a flame ionization detector (FID) with FlowGuard electronic control that delivers a small portion of the sample gas to the detector flame. During the combustion process, organic or hydrocarbon-based gases in the sample are ionized then they are detected by the instrument and reported as a concentration ...
Acute Fish Toxicity: Water accommodated fractions of hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%) did not cause acute toxicity to fish with rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss at a nominal loading of 1000 mg/l. These data are used as read-across data to hydrocarbons, C14-C18, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2 -30%). Chronic Fish Toxicity: Hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%)did not cause toxicity to fish ina 21-day toxicity study with Brachydanio rerio following standard test guidelines at a nominal loading of 5000 mg/l.These results indicate that hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%)is not expected to be chronically toxic to fish.These data are used as read-across data to hydrocarbons, C14-C18, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%). Acute Invertebrate Toxicity: Water accommodated fractions of hydrocarbons, C16-C20, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics, aromatics (2-30%) did not ...
Methanogenic metabolism of organic matter is a key process in both natural and engineered systems. Methanogenic hydrocarbon degradation is an important biogeochemical process in the deep subsurface, and subsurface hydrocarbon contamination is frequently remediated by methanogenic processes. Despite the importance of methanogenic processes in hydrocarbon-impacted systems, we currently have an incomplete understanding of the hydrocarbon activation and degradation pathways used by the syntrophic bacteria, the roles of the non-hydrocarbon degrading syntrophs, which are often present in high abundance, and the ways in which syntrophic bacteria and methanogenic archaea establish and maintain relationships that allow them to coordinate their metabolism. By studying methanogenic hydrocarbon degrading enrichment cultures, we remove many complicating features of natural systems and can gain a basic understanding of the primary factors governing hydrocarbon metabolism under methanogenic conditions. In this ...
A study of charged-current muon neutrino scattering on hydrocarbon in which the final state includes a muon, at least one proton, and no pions is presented. Although this signature has the topology of neutrino quasielastic scattering from neutrons, the event sample contains contributions from quasielastic and inelastic processes where pions are absorbed in the nucleus. The analysis accepts events with muon production angles up to 70° and proton kinetic energies greater than 110 MeV. The cross section, when based completely on hadronic kinematics, is well described by a relativistic Fermi gas nuclear model including the neutrino event generator modeling for inelastic processes and particle transportation through the nucleus. This is in contrast to the quasielastic cross section based on muon kinematics, which is best described by an extended model that incorporates multinucleon correlations. As a result, this measurement guides the formulation of a complete description of neutrino-nucleus ...
An apparatus and process of loading rolls of roofing material onto a stationary pallet, wherein the process performs a series of operations, in accordance with the present invention. Each operation includes the steps of: (a) loading rolls of roofing material onto an upwardly inclined conveyor; (b) depositing the rolls of roofing material onto a downwardly inclined-table; (c) dropping the rolls of roofing material onto a sloped, rotating table until the desired number of rolls of roofing material are accumulated; (d) rotating the table and then tilting the plate until it is nearly upright into a vertical position; (e) traversing the rotating table over the pallet conveyor; and (f) unloading the roll of roofing material from the rotating table onto the pallet.
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United States Patent Filed Feb. 23, 1961, Ser. No. 90,941 (Ci. 2il-208) This invention relates to a process for the catalytic desulfurization of hydrocarbon oils containing cyclic and/or acyclic sulfur compounds. It is known to desulfurize hydrocarbon oils by contaoting these oils with a catalyst in the presence of hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The drawback of this hydrosulfurization is that it requires hydrogen. It is also known to catalytically desulfurize hydrocarbon oils containing cyclic and acyclic sulfur compounds without using free hydrogen. Thus, US. Patent 2,151,721 describes a two-stage process for the desulfurizing of hydrocarbon fractions in which non-heteroeyclic sulfur compounds, for example aliphatic and aromatic mercaptans, are decomposed in the first stage by means of a catalyst of the clay type such as bauxite and fullers earth or of the metal oxide type, whereas in the second stage the heterooyclic sulfur compounds, for example thiophenes, are decomposed ...
C15 paraffin into multi-branched isomers and mono-branched isomers which satisfied the jet fuel specification. Based on this finding, by integration of feedstock selection, oxygen removing mechanism control and selective hydro-isomerization, a very high weight yield (60%) of algal lipid to jet fuel can be obtained. The obtained jet fuel satisfied the specification of ASTM 7566 standard. Such high jet fuel yield can obviously improve the economics of jet fuel production technology ...
Bodo creek is located in Gokana Local Government Area of Rivers state and is characterised by brackish water which is heavily contaminated with crude oil. Water samples c..
Thermal Conductivity of Liquid Halogenated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons. Part 3. Halogenated Higher Hydrocarbons (C3 to C16). 94023, books
Petroleum Hydrocarbon Resins are aliphatic (C5), aromatic (C9), DCPD (dicyclopentadiene), or mixtures C5-C9. Majorily used as hydrocarbon tackifier resins.
This article developed a hybrid statistical approach for the modeling of a complex petroleum feedstock by optimizing a molecular representation based on structural attributes to a set of analytical characterizations.. A general petroleum hydrocarbon conversion was qualitatively described as a set of homologous series. Generally, the structures in those series could be determined by user, literature and automated reaction network generation etc. Consequentially, the quantitative information of a petroleum feedstock (mole fraction or mass fraction) can be obtained via employing an optimization loop. The molecular compositions of a feedstock were described as a set of structural attribute probability density functions (PDF) first. Through constraining the parameters of those PDFs, an optimization loop was then applied based on the juxtapositions of the mapping between molecules and multiple attributes; the objective function was given in terms of available analytical information. A structure ...
The properties of diesel fuels were investigated in terms of particulate emissions to clarify the specification of such a diesel fuel for minimizing particulate emissions. Diesel fuels were analyzed using thin layer chromatography (TLC), and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These analysis revealed the entire composition of hydrocarbons in diesel fuels according to molecular formula. The entire composition of hydrocarbons in diesel fuels could be expressd on a three-dimensional graph: the X-axis as carbon number, the Y-axis as H/C ratio and the Z-axis as the amount of hydrocarbons of identical molecular formula. By using the graph, the properties reported so far were investigated. Also, simplified images of the fuel sprayed into a cylinder and its flame were derived from the observational results previously reported. Based on the investigation and the simplified images, it was presumed that the amount and composition of the heavy fraction of diesel fuels are closely related to the ...
Process for removing oxygen-containing organic compounds from mixtures of hydrocarbon compounds, in which a liquid phase (|b|1|/b|) containing hydrocarbons and oxygenates is charged to a first column
The California Low-Emission Vehicle (LEV) standards mandate a reduction in non-methane organic gases (NMOG). With the aim of analyzing NMOG emissions, a comparison was made of the hydrocarbon species found in the exhaust gas when different types of catalyst systems and fuel specifications were used. NMOG emissions are usually measured by removing methane from the total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions and adding aldehyde and ketone emissions. The NMOG level found in this way is thus influenced by the rate of methane in THC emissions. Another important factor in the LEV standards is specific reactivity (SR), indicating the formation potential of ozone, which is one cause of photochemical smog. Specific reactivity is expressed by the amount of ozone generated per unit weight of NMOG emissions, and is affected by the respective proportion of hydrocarbon species in the total NMOG emissions.Focusing on these points, an examination was made of three catalyst systems: a three-way-catalyst (TWC), an ...