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J.U.M. - 109L - Heated Non Methane/ Methane/ Total Hydrocarbon FID Analyzer by J.U.M. Engineering GmbH. The J.U.M 109L is a heated FID analyzer to continuously and simultaneously measure the Methane concentration, the Total Hydrocarbon concentration ...
Alkanes are also known as saturated hydrocarbons and sometimes as paraffins. Alkanes are a relatively simple group of hydrocarbons and are usually included in introductory courses in organic chemistry. School-Level Chemistry page, ages 14-16, UK GCSE or international equivalent.
1. A process for producing a composition consisting essentially of a binder component and a solvent component, said process comprising the steps of:(A) preparing the solvent component by mixing a solvent dimethyl carbonate with a co-solvent selected from the group consisting of aromatic hydrocarbon (135-146C), aromatic hydrocarbon (150-190C), aromatic hydrocarbon (182-219C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (100-150C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (100-163C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (115-149C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (138-177C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (138-185C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (145-205C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (150-205C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (150-210C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (155-190C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (170-210C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (180-210C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (182-266C), aliphatic hydrocarbon (90-110C), mineral spirit, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, 1,2-propylene glycol, 1,3-butanediol, 1,4-butanediol, 1-butoxy ethoxy 222-propanol, 1-methyl naphthalene, 1-nitro propane, ...
The Series 2400 Total Hydrocarbon Analyzer is microprocessor-controlled designed to continuously measure concentrations of hydrocarbons. The Series 2400 utilizes a Flame Ionization Detector (FID) operating on the principle that the electrical conductivity of a gas is directly proportional to the concentration of charged particles within the gas. Designed to continuously measure and monitor concentrations of Hydrocarbons in a gas stream, it can also measure CO & CO2 using a methanizer. The instrument provides long term stability and accurate performance in a multitude of gas manufacturing facilities and laboratory applications.. ...
Hydrocarbon exposure has been shown to play an important role in the development of renal dysfunction in several occupational settings. In this study, renal screening was performed in a group of paint sprayers with exposure to hydrocarbon-based paints, recruited from a car manufacturing plant where personal protective equipment was widely used. The hydrocarbon exposure scores and various markers of renal injury were compared between these subjects and a group of paint sprayers from a previous study who did not use personal protective equipment regularly. Cumulative hydrocarbon exposure scores were calculated from a validated questionnaire. Serum creatinine, urinary total protein, albumin, transferrin, retinol-binding protein, and N-acetylglucosaminidase were evaluated, Both groups experienced heavy hydrocarbon exposure but sprayers who regularly used personal protective equipment had significantly reduced exposure scores due to improved skin and respiratory protection. A significant number of ...
Results show that knock-down of desaturase genes in oenocytes is sufficient to suppress or at least largely inhibit pheromone biosynthesis. The effect is particularly clear in males, where desat1 knock-down under 1407-GAL4 led to a 96% decrease in monoenic hydrocarbons. In females, the decrease is less dramatic (78%). The biosynthesis of the saturated hydrocarbons was enhanced, as a consequence of the lack of desaturation of fatty acid precursors. Decreased levels of unsaturated hydrocarbons and increased levels of saturated ones have previously been described in P-desat1 mutant and resulting excision lines [12, 14]. However, the effects on hydrocarbons were relatively smaller, ranging from a 0 to about a 66% decrease in unsaturated hydrocarbons, depending on the lines. The fact that we never obtained an almost complete loss of hydrocarbons with desat1 mutants in former studies may be due to the pleiotropic nature of the mutation, which affects both fat body and hydrocarbons and also to the ...
Find hydrocarbon contamination remediation (hydrocarbon contamination - soil and groundwater) articles on Environmental XPRT, the worlds largest environmental industry marketplace and information resource.
Signal Instruments microprocessor-based gas analyzers for CO, CO2, NO, NOx, O2, SO2 and Total Hydrocarbon monitoring featuring a common user interface, configurable alarm levels, powerful remote control, communications features and isolated voltage and current outputs. Standard EMI shielding and CE certification for safety. Signal Instruments Co.
The rate constants of eleven hydrocarbons and fluorocarbons with CN (V"=0, 1) at 300K have been measured by using Laser Induced Fluorescence(LIF) method. For the saturated hydrocarbons, the rate constants are chagned from (5.6 +/- 0.3) x 10(-13) for CH4 to (2.3 + 0.2) x 10(-10)cm(3) molecu(-1),8(-1) for C7H16. The rate constants of the reaction of CN with alkenes and alkynes are close to the gas kinetic rate in spite of the structure of the molecules. The rate constants and mechanism of CN with the saturated hydrocarbons, H-2 and CH3OH can be explained satisfactorily by the long distance attractive potential. The reaction of CN with alkenes and alkynes can only proceed through the addition into pi bond. The influence of vibrational energy on the reaction rate was not found in the reactions of CN radical with hydrocarbon compounds ...
Synonyms for Aliphatic hydrocarbon in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Aliphatic hydrocarbon. 13 words related to aliphatic compound: acetylene, alkyne, ethyne, alicyclic compound, alkene, olefin, olefine, organic compound, alkane, alkane series.... What are synonyms for Aliphatic hydrocarbon?
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Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Renewable Fuels Plant and Oxygenate Plant Net Production of Other Hydrocarbons/Oxygenates (Thousand Barrels ...
Midwest (PADD 2) Net Receipts by Pipeline, Tanker, Barge and Rail from Other PADDs of Other Hydrocarbons/Oxygenates (Thousand Barrels per Day ...
United States Patent Ofice Int. Cl. C101 7/02 US. Cl. 44-7 16 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE This disclosure describes a method of increasing the viscosity of liquid hydrocarbons, especially hydrocarbon fuels, by the in situ formation of cross-linked polyurethane polymers in liquid hydrocarbons by reaction between a hydroxyl terminated semipolymer which is soluble in the hydrocarbon, a semipolymer having a molecular weight of 1,000 and a polyisocyanate. This application is a continuation-in-part application of copending applications Ser. Nos. 544,416 and 544,418, both filed on Apr. 22, 1966 and both now abandoned. This invention is concerned with thixotropic-gelled, inflammable hydrocarbon compositions and processes for their preparation. More particularly it is concerned with inflammable compositions comprising hydrocarbon mixtures gelled by the presence of a high molecular weight polymer. Hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, kerosene, diesel fuel and the like are widely employed as power ...
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To provide a fluoropolymer suitable for use as a base polymer for resist materials for excimer lasers having a wavelength of 250 nm or shorter. A fluoropolymer having a monomer unit formed by cyclopolymerization of a fluorinated diene compound represented by the following formula (3), CF2═CFCF2-C(CF3)(R5)-CH2CH═CH2 (3) wherein R5 is either a hydroxyl group blocked by -CHR7-O-R8 or an organic group having the hydroxyl group, and R8 is a cyclic saturated hydrocarbon such as a cycloalkyl group which may have a substituent, or an organic group having the cyclic saturated hydrocarbon.
Analysis of Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Concentration Data from Thousands of Groundwater Wells Using a Density-Based Cluster Analysis Approach
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Count Geophysics Limited is an independent geoscience consultancy, hydrocarbon-related geological and geophysical interpretation.
The chemisorption of propane and n-pentane on Raney platinum in the presence of varying amounts of pre-adsorbed water was studied at 100C by a combined gravimetric and mass spectrometric technique. It was found that the amount of saturated hydrocarbon chemisorbed is independent of the amount of pre-adsorbed water. If water is present on the surface, a portion of it is displaced upon chemisorption of hydrocarbons. At high coverages of the surface with pre-adsorbed water the amount of displaced water is constant. The ratio of displaced water molecules to chemisorbed propane molecules is about 1 with propane and 0.6 with n-pentane. If oxygen is chemisorbed on the catalyst surface before water and/or hydrocarbon is admitted, propane chemisorption is strongly enhanced. At a coverage of 1 oxygen atom for every 2 platinum surface atoms, the subsequent propane chemisorption is increased by a factor of about 2.5. Moreover, if on top of the oxygen layer water is adsorbed, the ratio of displaced water
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The composite performance of modified asphalt and composite-modified asphalt mixture (CMAM) is divided into inherent performance and improved performance. The inherent performance refers to the original performance of the virgin asphalt and asphalt mixture. The improved performance refers to the performance obtained by modifying the virgin asphalt. In the study, the modified asphalt and asphalt mixture were tested through a series of experiments. The antiaging durability of the modified asphalt is explored based on the inherent performance and improved performance at high and low temperatures. The antiaging durability of the modified asphalt mixture is explored based on the inherent performance and improved performance at the mechanical performance. Meanwhile, based on inherent and improved performances, this chapter uses three kinds of CMAM (4% SBS/3% SBR, 4% SBS/15% rubber, and 4% SBR/15% rubber) as research objects to test the change rule of mechanical properties. This chapter outlines CMAM design,
Twinkle twinkle, little star." (intro music) [4:10] Narrator: Welcome to "On a Mission," a podcast of NASAs Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Im Leslie Mullen, and this is season 2, episode 9: Hunting in the Dark for Monsters. (music) Vishnu Reddy, a professor at the University of Arizona in Tucson, is part of the planetary defense team that keeps track of near-Earth asteroids. In addition to studying what the various asteroids are like, he takes part in the planetary defense exercises that were featured in episode three. Vishnu Reddy: NASA traditionally does tabletop exercises. So these are exercises where they get key federal agencies, like FEMA and others, and they go into a conference room, and they play as if theres an asteroid headed in a certain way, and its going to impact in a certain location. How do you move people out of harms way? So theres no real asteroid, its a make-believe thing. But I said, "What about we do a real exercise? Not that were going to track an asteroid directly to ...
Space mission and science news, images and videos from NASAlj Jet Propulsion Laboratory, the leading center for robotic exploration of the solar system.
Volume 1. Preface to the Third Edition xiii. Preface to the Second Edition xv. Preface to the First Edition xvii. Introduction xix. Introduction and General Aspects 1. 1.1 Hydrocarbons and Their Classes 1. 1.2 Energy-Hydrocarbon Relationships 2. 1.3 Hydrocarbon Sources 4. Extraterrestrial Hydrocarbons 15. 1.4 Hydrocarbon Production from Natural Sources 16. 1.5 Hydrocarbon Synthesis 20. 1.6 Nonrenewable and Renewable Hydrocarbons 27. 1.7 Regenerative Hydrocarbons from CO2 Emission Capture and Recycling 29. 1.8 Hydrocarbon Functionalization Reactions 30. 1.9 Use of Hydrocarbons, Petroleum Oil 35. 1.9.1 Energy Generation, Storage, and Delivery: Heating 36. 1.9.2 Transportation Fuels 36. 1.9.3 Chemical Products, Plastics, and Pharmaceuticals 38. References 38. Hydrocarbons from Petroleum and Natural Gas 49. 2.1 Cracking 49. 2.2 Reforming 62. Hydroforming 64. Metal-Catalyzed Reforming 65. 2.3 Dehydrogenation with Olefin Production 71. Heterogeneous Catalysts 73. Homogeneous Catalysts 78. C2-C3 ...
Transition metal ions also catalyze the breakdown of lipid peroxides:. LOOH + Fe2+ → LO• + OH-Fe3+. LOOH + Fe3+ → LOO• + H+Fe2+. The stage of propagation is inhibited by the competitive termination occurring between reactive radical forms:. LOO• + L1 OO• → LOOL1 + O2. LOO• + L1OO• → LOOL1. L• + L1• → L - L1. The effect of the process is the formation of lipids with branched aliphatic chains or protein-lipid complexes. The breakdown of lipid peroxides leads to the formation of many compounds, such as saturated hydrocarbons (ethane, penthane, hexane) and unsaturated hydrocarbons, aldehydes (saturated and unsaturated, hydroxyaldehydes), and dialdehydes (e.g. malone dialdehyde - MDA). Some of these compounds can be causes of pathologies or can be metabolized to other potential endogenous toxins.. Special attention should be paid to γ-diketones, which may cause the networking of lipids and proteins. Lipids networked by MDA have been found in blood cell membranes in sickle ...
POLYMERE ARZNEIMITTELTRÄGER; VESIKELN (PHYSIKALISCHE CHEMIE); ETHYLENGLYCOL (ALIPHATISCHE GESÄTTIGTE KOHLENWASSERSTOFFE); ETHEN UND DERIVATE (ALIPHATISCHE UNGESÄTTIGTE KOHLENWASSERSTOFFE); SULFIDE + THIOETHER (ORGANISCHE CHEMIE); BLOCKPOLYMERE (KUNSTSTOFFE); COPOLYMERISATE AUS MEHREREN KOMPONENTEN (KUNSTSTOFFE); POLYMERIC DRUG CARRIERS (GALENICS); VESICLES (PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY); ETHYLENE GLYCOL (ALIPHATIC SATURATED HYDROCARBONS); ETHYLENE AND DERIVATIVES (ALIPHATIC UNSATURATED HYDROCARBONS); SULFIDES + THIOETHERS (ORGANIC CHEMISTRY); BLOCKPOLYMERS (PLASTICS); MULTICOPOLYMERS (PLASTICS ...
These MEAM parameters for elements C and H as well as the diatomic CH are appropriate for energy minimization and reactive molecular dynamics simulations of SATURATED hydrocarbons, where all carbon atoms have the sp3 hybridization (single C-C bonds).[1] At the current state, MEAM cannot handle unsaturated compounds with great accuracy. Furthermore, these C and H parameters are not appropriate for diamond and graphite systems. Modification of the MEAM potential to include unsaturated C-C bonds, i.e., double and triple bonds, as well as its parameterization for elements oxygen and nitrogen is ongoing work. For the first time, MEAM can be used to simulate hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon/metal systems, since it has a large parameter database for major metals in the periodic table of elements. Since MEAM is a reactive potential, it can also be used to simulate fracture and fatigue in hydrocarbon-based polymers, such as polyethylene and polypropylene and their composites with nanometals as well as ...
The term "total hydrocarbons" (THC) refers to a broad family of chemicals that contain carbon and hydrogen atoms. Methane (CH4), a non-reactive hydrocarbon, is the most common hydrocarbon in the earths atmosphere. Specific reactive hydrocarbons or non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) can react with oxides of nitrogen in the presence of sunlight to form ozone. Health effects may result at varying concentrations depending on the hydrocarbon. Alberta has ambient air quality objectives for specific hydrocarbons. For more information on Albertas Ambient Air Quality Objectives please go to http://environment.alberta.ca/03116.html.. Sources of hydrocarbons include vegetation, vehicle emissions, gasoline marketing and storage tanks, petroleum and chemical industries, dry cleaning, fireplaces, natural gas combustion and aircraft traffic. Hydrocarbons are also emitted by fugitive sources such as evaporation of solvents, or leaking valves, flanges, pumps and compressors at industrial facilities. Incinerator ...
Get this from a library! Microbial degradation of hydrocarbon mixtures in a marine sediment under different temperature regimes. [J W Thorpe; K E Hellenbrand; Environmental Studies Research Funds (Canada)] -- Spills of petroleum hydrocarbons are major concern because of effects on marine life & beaches. In Canada most of offshore exploration takes place in Arctic or in areas where water tem peratures are ...
Subducted sediments play a key role in the evolution of the continental crust and upper mantle. As part of the deep carbon cycle, hydrocarbons are accumulated in sediments of subduction zones and could eventually be transported with the slab below the crust, thus affecting processes in the deep Earths interior. However, the behavior of hydrocarbons during subduction is poorly understood. We experimentally investigated the chemical interaction of model hydrocarbon mixtures or natural oil with ferrous iron-bearing silicates and oxides (representing possible rock-forming materials) at pressure-temperature conditions of the Earths lower crust and upper mantle (up to 2000(+/- 100) K and 10(+/- 0.2) GPa), and characterized the run products using Raman and Mossbauer spectroscopies and X-ray diffraction. Our results demonstrate that complex hydrocarbons are stable on their own at thermobaric conditions corresponding to depths exceeding 50 km. We also found that chemical reactions between hydrocarbons ...
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Calculations were carried out to study the effectiveness of a gas curtain for mitigating contamination form hydrocarbon gases in extreme UV (EUV) lithography tools. The momentum, energy and mass transport in the curtain and surrounding regions were calculated using a 2D finite volume model of a lithography tool. Argon was used for the gas curtain. The results from the calculations quantify the relationship between the argon flow rate and the hydrocarbon partial pressure in the region of the optical elements. In general, the hydrocarbon partial pressure decreases as the mass transfer Peclet number, Pe equals Vh/D, increases, where V is the velocity of the argon, h is the thickness of the gas curtain and D is the mass diffusivity. An argon flow rate of 12.2 torr 1/s is required to reduce the hydrocarbon partial pressure from 10-7 to 10-10 torr in the specific lithography tool considered here. The EUV transmission in the tool with the gas curtain is 0.93. This is a large improvement over the 0.5 ...
To evaluate the effect of rejuvenating agent on reclaimed SBS (styrene-butadiene-styrene) modified asphalt pavement (RSMAP) material, different tests of asphalt and mixtures were conducted. Firstly, the improvement effect of rejuvenating agents on the aged modified asphalt was tested at macroscopic and microscope level. Then the properties of hot mix asphalt (HMA) with different RSMAP contents (0%, 30%, 50% and 70%) were evaluated by conducting freeze-thaw split, semi-circular bending (SCB) and dynamic modulus (DM). The results indicate that rejuvenating agent can recycle the properties of aged modified asphalt effectively. The initial phase structure of the aged modified asphalt is not changed by adding rejuvenating agents. Moreover, the SBS particles area ratio of modified asphalt blends is significantly correlated with tenacity as the proportion of rejuvenating agent increases. For mixtures, RSMAP is harmful to moisture susceptibility and low-temperature cracking resistance of recycled mixture,
The aim of this experiment is classified of the hydrocarbon and learn the test which are aromatic bromation, permanganate test, sulfuric acid test and nitration of aromatic hydrocarbon. Hydrocarbon , any organic compound composed solely of the elements hydrogen and carbon. The hydrocarbons differ both in the total number of carbon and hydrogen atoms in their molecules and in the proportion of hydrogen to carbon. The hydrocarbons can be divided into various homologous series. Each member of such a series shows a definite relationship in its structural formula to the members preceding and following it, and there is generally some regularity in changes in physical properties of successive members of a series.The alkanes are a homologous series of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons. The first and simplest member of this series is methane, CH4; the series is sometimes called the methane series. Each successive member of a homologous series of hydrocarbons has one more carbon and two more hydrogen atoms ...
Introduction: What is bitumen? Ever heard of bitumen? Maybe… But what is bitumen exactly? Bitumen is a semi-solid hydrocarbon product produced by re
I am working on a project about pollution emission, but I am not a chemist. I am seeing the units ppmC, ppmC3 and ppmC6 almost everyday, and I have trouble understanding what they stand for. The only definition I get is Parts per million hydrocarbon concentration expressed as methane (for ppmC)/propane (for ppmC3)/hexane (for ppmC6). I have no trouble with the meaning of part per million at all, what I dont understand is whether using, for example ppmC3 means only propane concentration is measured? or is it something else? Is there a method to tell apart the methane, propane and hexane contribution to the hydrocarbon concentration? Thanks ...
EPA approved lengths. 2 micron filter standard, other sizes available. Heated probe filter maintained above 250°F [121°C] Insulating jacket provided. PROBE SUPPORT BUNDLE: ¼ [.95 cm] Teflon calibration line. ½ [0.64 cm] Polyethylene backpurge line. 14 AWG triad for probe heater power. Fire retardant jacket. HEATED SAMPLE LINE:. 3/8 [0.95 cm] Teflon or 316 Stainless Steel sample tube. Recommended maximum length 250 feet [76.2 meter]. Line temperature controlled to 300°F [148°C] Low temperature alarm provided to Controller. Insulated fire retardant jacket. SAMPLE CONDITIONER:. Thermo-electric cooler. Negligible loss of SO2. Teflon diaphragm pump. Peristaltic moisture drain pump. 2 micron Teflon sample filter. Water slip alarm, sample dew point alarm. Probe and sample line vacuum alarm. CABINET VERSION:. Single bay, 19 [48.3 cm] Rack Mount. Standard NEMA 12 with fan ventilation or HVAC. Other NEMA ratings are available.. Dimensions 81H x 25W x 39D [2.0 x 0.6 x 1.0 meter] Approx. ...
NOx gas analyzer (NO / NOX) featuring heated sample path and chemiluminescence detector. Signal instruments model 4000VM gas analyzer features an advanced microprocessor user interface, configurable alarm levels, powerful remote control, communications features and isolated voltage and current outputs. Standard EMI shielding and CE certification for safety.
Looking for Metan? Find out information about Metan. CH4, colorless, odorless, gaseous saturated hydrocarbon; the simplest alkane alkane , any of a group of aliphatic hydrocarbons whose molecules contain only... Explanation of Metan
Aliphatic/Cyclic Aliphatic Hydrocarbons Aliphatic/cyclic aliphatic hydrocarbons are further classified as: Aliphatic/cyclic aliphatic hydrocarbons are further classified as: Alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, arenes, cycloalkanes, cycloalkenes Alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, arenes, cycloalkanes, cycloalkenes Relatively high exposure levels Relatively high exposure levels Primary health hazard = dermatitis Primary health hazard = dermatitis Primary physical hazard = fire & explosion Primary physical hazard = fire & explosion Examples: propane, isobutane, cyclohexane Examples: propane, isobutane, cyclohexane
Semantic Scholar extracted view of european epidemiology studies of asphalt workers a review of the cohort study and its results by Gerard M . H . Swaen
Most living organisms use pheromones for inter-individual communication. In Drosophila melanogaster flies, several pheromones perceived either by contact/at a short distance (cuticular hydrocarbons, CHs), or at a longer distance (cis-vaccenyl acetate, cVA), affect courtship and mating behaviours. However, it has not previously been possible to precisely identify all potential pheromonal compounds and simultaneously monitor their variation on a time scale. To overcome this limitation, we combined Solid Phase Micro-Extraction with gas-chromatography coupled with mass-spectrometry. This allowed us (i) to identify 59 cuticular compounds, including 17 new CHs; (ii) to precisely quantify the amount of each compound that could be detected by another fly, and (iii) to measure the variation of these substances as a function of aging and mating. Sex-specific variation appeared with age, while mating affected cuticular compounds in both sexes with three possible patterns: variation was (i) reciprocal in the two
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Cyclic unsaturated hydrocarbons have a closed ring of carbon atoms in a polygon configuration having the same number of vertices as the number of carbon atoms. If the hydrocarbons have a ring containing a single double bond between two of the carbons, the hydrocarbons are referred to as cycloalkenes or cycloolefins. The adjacent image depicts two such cycloalkenes with single double bonds, namely cyclopentene (C5H8) and cyclohexene (C6H10 ...
Insect Cuticular Hydrocarbons as Dynamic Traits in Sexual Communication. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Literature on hydrocarbon degradation in extreme hypersaline media presents studies that point to a negative effect of salinity increase on hydrocarbonoclastic activity, while several others report an opposite tendency. Based on information available
Pavers used for spreading of asphalt operate on a floating screed principle (Figure 6.2). During paving, the screed is supported by the asphalt being spread. This also provides partial compaction of the asphalt. The thickness of the asphalt layer is determined by the height of the towing arm and angle of attack of the screed. Changes to thickness are achieved by changing the height of the tow point and/or changing the angle of the screed relative to the tow arm. Changing the angle of attack of the screed produces a gradual change in asphalt thickness until a new equilibrium state is achieved.. Adjustments to the tow point and screed angle (Figure 6.3) may be made manually, or controlled automatically by sensors referenced to an adjoining paved surface, levelling (or averaging) beam attached to the paver, fixed reference line or by computer-programmed level data.. Minor changes to the finished level will also be introduced by changes in the head of the material in front of the screed, changes ...
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Purchase your copy of ASTM D2505 - 88(2015) as a PDF download or hard copy directly from the official BSI Shop. All BSI British Standards available online in electronic and print formats.
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An immature (Ro=0.39%), S-rich (Sorg/C=0.07), organic matter-rich (19.6 wt.% TOC) limestone from the Ghareb Formation (Upper Cretaceous) in Jordan was artificially matured by hydrous pyrolysis (200, 220, , 300°C; 72 h) to study the effect of progressive diagenesis and early catagenesis on the amounts and distributions of hydrocarbons, organic ... read more sulfur compounds and S-rich geomacromolecules. The use of internal standards allowed the determination of absolute amounts. With increasing thermal maturation, large amounts of alkanes and alkylthiophenes with predominantly linear carbon skeletons are generated from the kerogen. The alkylthiophene isomer distributions do not change significantly with increasing thermal maturation, indicating the applicability of alkylthiophenes as biomarkers at relatively high levels of thermal maturity. For a given carbon skeleton, the saturated hydrocarbon, alkylthiophenes and alkylbenzo[b]thiophenes are stable forms at relatively high temperatures, whereas ...
A method of treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The method may include providing a hydrocarbon recovery composition to the hydrocarbon containing formation. Hydrocarbons in the hydrocarbon containing formation may interact with the hydrocarbon recovery composition. The hydrocarbon recovery composition may include an aliphatic anionic surfactant and an aliphatic nonionic additive. In some embodiments, an aliphatic anionic surfactant may be branched. In other embodiments, an aliphatic nonionic additive may be branched.
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The deep-sea hydrocarbon discharge resulting from the BP oil well blowout in the northern Gulf of Mexico released large quantities of oil and gaseous hydrocarbons such as methane into the deep ocean. So far, estimates of hydrocarbon discharge have focused on the oil released, and have overlooked the quantity, fate and environmental impact of the gas1. Gaseous hydrocarbons turn over slowly in the deep ocean, and microbial consumption of these gases could have a long-lasting impact on oceanic oxygen levels2. Here, we combine published estimates of the volume of oil released1,3, together with provisional estimates of the oil to gas ratio of the discharged fluid4, to determine the volume of gaseous hydrocarbons discharged during the spill. We estimate that the spill injected up to 500,000 t of gaseous hydrocarbons into the deep ocean and that these gaseous emissions comprised 40% of the total hydrocarbon discharge. Analysis of water around the wellhead revealed discrete layers of dissolved ...
A hot-mix asphalt manufacturing system includes a counter-flow rotary dryer having a combustion chamber, an inlet for dry ingredients, an outlet for hot-mix asphalt, and a pollution control device. The pollution control system includes a pre-filter, a cooling device and a fiber bed filter. Combustion gases from the combustion chamber are directed onto the ingredients for the hot-mix asphalt without substantial introduction of excess air or recirculated air and contact the hot-mix asphalt at a temperature substantially equal to the temperature of the combustion gases. The pollution control system removes substantially all particulates and hydrocarbons from the emissions from the hot-mix asphalt ingredients.
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Algae are a promising source of biofuel but claims about their lipid content can be ambiguous because extraction methods vary and lipid quantitation often does not distinguish between particular lipid classes. Here we compared methods for the extraction of algal lipids and showed that 2-ethoxyethanol (2-EE) provides superior lipid recovery (,150-200 %) compared to other common extraction solvents such as chloroform:methanol or hexane. Extractions of wet and dry algal biomass showed that 2-EE was more effective at extracting lipids from wet rather than dried algal pellets. To analyze lipid content we used normal-phase HPLC with parallel quantitation by an evaporative light scattering detector and a mass spectrometer. Analysis of crude lipid extracts showed that all major lipid classes could be identified and quantified and revealed a surprisingly large amount of saturated hydrocarbons (HC). This HC fraction was isolated from extracts of bioreactor-grown algae and further analyzed by HPLC/MS, NMR, ...
Hydrocarbon extraction is a popular method of cannabis oil extraction, used to selectively extract compounds from the plant material. Most hydrocarbons are excellent extraction solvents, but they can be dangerous if they are not handled correctly. Most hydrocarbons are flammable, and can easily ignite. For this reason, there are industry-safety requirements that must be met. Valens holds multiple licenses for testing and processing cannabis and is fully certified to meet these specific requirements.
A preferred method of cooling of the bed, in addition to the cooling provided by the cooled the recycle gas, is to feed a volatile liquid to the bed to provide an evaporative cooling effect. The volatile liquid employed in this case can be, for example, a volatile inert liquid, for example, a saturated hydrocarbon having about 3 to about 8, preferably 4 to 6, carbon atoms. In the case that the monomer or comonomer itself is a volatile liquid, or can be condensed to provide such a liquid, this can be suitably be fed to the bed to provide an evaporative cooling effect. Examples of olefin monomers which can be employed in this manner are olefins containing about three to about eight, preferably three to six carbon atoms. The volatile liquid evaporates in the hot fluidized bed to form gas which mixes with the fluidizing gas. If the volatile liquid is a monomer or comonomer, it will undergo some polymerization in the bed. The evaporated liquid then emerges from the reactor as part of the hot recycle ...
AMINE UND QUATERNÄRE AMMONIUMVERBINDUNGEN (ALIPHATISCHE GESÄTTIGTE KOHLENWASSERSTOFFE); ORGANISCHE SYNTHESE (CHEMIE); REAKTIONSMECHANISMEN + REAKTIVITÄT (CHEMISCHE KINETIK); AMINES AND QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS (ALIPHATIC SATURATED HYDROCARBONS); ORGANIC SYNTHESIS (CHEMISTRY); REACTION MECHANISMS + REACTIVITY (CHEMICAL KINETICS ...
Define alcohol. alcohol synonyms, alcohol pronunciation, alcohol translation, English dictionary definition of alcohol. n. 1. Any of a series of hydroxyl compounds, the simplest of which are derived from saturated hydrocarbons, have the general formula CnH2n+1OH, and include...
Looking for alkide? Find out information about alkide. An organic group that results from removal of a hydrogen atom from an acyclic, saturated hydrocarbon; may be represented in a chemical formula by R‒ Explanation of alkide
ABSTRACT Carbon dioxide is an attractive C1 synthon in chemical synthesis due to its abundance, obtainability, non-toxicity, and inherent renewability. However, it has been undervalued and underutilized for the synthetic installation of carboxyl functionality because of its unreactive nature, owing to its inherent thermodynamic stability and kinetic inertness. Traditionally the carboxyl group is accessed by organic chemists through redox manipulation and protection/deprotection reactions or through the use of strong nucleophiles that have limited functional group tolerance. By fixing carbon dioxide with unsaturated organic molecules through C-C bond formation, rapid and redox-economic synthesis of carboxylic acids and their derivatives can be realized. Nevertheless, these transformations remain rare, are poorly understood, and generally limited to more energetic alkyne substrates. The Popp Research Group uses methodological and mechanistic approaches to expand the versatility and usefulness of ...
C9-C14 aliphatic, ,2% aromatic hydrocarbons is minimally toxic via ingestion where the LD50 is ,5000 mg/kg, via dermal exposure where the LD50 is ,5000mg/kg, and by inhalation where the LC50 , 5000 mg/m3. These findings do not warrant classification of C9-C14 aliphatic, ,2% aromatic hydrocarbons under the new Regulation (EC) 1272/2008 on classification, labeling and packaging of substances and mixtures (CLP) do not warrant classification under the Directive 67/548/EEC for dangerous substances and Directive 1999/45/EC for preparations (DSD/DPD). C9-C14 aliphatic, ,2% aromatic hydrocarbons are classified under EU CLP guidelines as a Category 1 aspiration hazard based on its physical and chemical properties (hydrocarbon fluid, viscosity ≤ 20.5 mm2/s) and as an R65 aspiration hazard under the EU DSD/DPD. ...
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Nowadays, utilisation of Nano-materials as one of the most recent methods of bitumen modification has attracted attention of many researchers. However, not enough research has been pursued on their mixing with bitumen, because of their dimensions and specific properties. In this study, the carbon Nano-tubes were mixed with bitumen using different mixers and some images were recorded employing a scanning electron microscope. Then, different statistical analyses were carried out on the experiment of penetration degree performed on several samples. The recorded images of mixed samples and the statistical analyses show that the ultrasonic mixer has mixed the carbon Nano-tubes more homogeneously with bitumen compared to other mixers.
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Oil and fuel sweeps are ideal for all hydrocarbon spills on water. Made in Australia and colour-coded white, oil and fuel sweeps repel water and only absorb oils, fuels and other hydrocarbons.
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Substance is a hydrocarbon UVCB. Standard tests for this endpoint are intended for single substances and are not appropriate for this complex substance. However, this endpoint has been calculated for representative hydrocarbon structures using default algorithms in the EUSES model as input to the hydrocarbon block method incorporated into the PETRORISK model. The predicted BCFs for hydrocarbons are generally overly conservative since biotransformation is not quantitatively taken into account. Therefore, indirect exposure and resulting risk estimates predicted by PETRORISK are likely to be overestimated. ...
The potential exists to displace a portion of the petroleum diesel demand with butanol and positively impact engine-out particulate matter. As a preliminary investigation, 20% and 40% by volume blends of butanol with ultra low sulfur diesel fuel were operated in a 1999 Mercedes Benz C220 turbo diesel vehicle (Euro III compliant). Cold and hot start urban as well as highway drive cycle tests were performed for the two blends of butanol and compared to diesel fuel. In addition, 35 MPH and 55 MPH steady-state tests were conducted under varying road loads for the two fuel blends. Exhaust gas emissions, fuel consumption, and intake and exhaust temperatures were acquired for each test condition. Filter smoke numbers were also acquired during the steady-state tests. The results showed that for the urban drive cycle, both total hydrocarbon (THC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions increased as larger quantities of butanol were added to the diesel fuel ...
i am thinking about starting to learning a bit about hydrocarbon gases to save money. can any one tell me what the difference between r290a and lpg is . can any one tell me why u cant just use pure lpg in a fridge all u would need is a pt chart for it. does lpg have more moister in it because from what i can work out it seems to work fine we tried it in a domestic fridge and ran fine for 4 years
Characterizing the full range of damage and plastic behaviour of asphalt mixtures under varying strain-rates and stress states is a complex and challenging task. One reason for this is partly due to the strain rate and temperature dependent nature of the material as well as the variation in the properties of the constituent materials that make up the composite asphalt mixture. Existing stress-based models for asphalt concrete materials are developed based on mechanics principles, but these models are, however, limited in their application for actual pavement analysis and design since rate dependency parameters are needed in the constitutive model to account for the influence of the strain rate on the stress-based yield and evolution criteria. Till date, we are yet to arrive at simple and comprehensive constitutive models that can be used to model the behaviour of asphalt mixture over a wide range of strain-rate which is experienced in the actual pavement sections. The aim of this thesis is to ...
An apparatus for controlling the angular velocity and slope angle of a hot mix asphalt drum as a function of the temperature gradient across the drum outlet. Uneven gas outlet temperature indicates that the veil of RAP (Recycled Asphalt Pavement) in the drum is insufficient. The veil is increased by increasing drum speed. The complete recycled asphalt pavement hot mix asphalt plant uses uneven gas outlet temperatures to change drum operating parameters.
1. Classification of optical analytical methods, overview of methods of molecular spectroscopy, analytical and structural aspects of optical methods, radiation - matter interactions. Photometry and units. 2. Molecular absorption spectroscopy in UV and Vis spectral ranges: nature and character of UV and Vis spectra, molecular orbitals, symbols of molecular terms, multiplicity, electronic states of molecules. 3. Types of electronic transitions and their expressions in spectra, chromophores, auxochromes, shape and structure of absorption bands, vibronic transitions. 4. Electronic spectra of important classes of compounds: aliphatic unsaturated hydrocarbons, derivatives of aliphatic hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons, their heteroanalogues and substitute derivatives, organic dyes, inorganic ions and complexes of metal cations,, charge-transfer complexes. 5. Extrinsic and intrinsic effects influencing electronic spectra: steric effects, tautomeric equilibria, pH, solvents. Empiric calculations of ...
Disclosed are hydrocarbon recovery drill string apparatus, subterranean hydrocarbon recovery drilling methods, and subterranean hydrocarbon recovery methods. In one embodiment, a hydrocarbon recovery drill string apparatus includes an elongated assembly within which a rotatable drill rod is received. The assembly comprises a longitudinal axis, a drill rod entrance end, and a drill rod exit end. The assembly comprises a tailcuttings diverter pipe proximate the drill rod exit end, with the tailcuttings diverter pipe defining an initial fluid flow path of the tailcuttings from the longitudinal axis which is acute from the longitudinal axis. Other apparatus and method aspects are contemplated.
The City of Tacoma and Icon Materials received the 2014 Special/Innovative Use of Asphalt Pavements Award from the Washington Asphalt Paving Association for the porous asphalt installed at Cheney Stadium. This is the first porous asphalt project to receive an award by this association. This project scored high on innovative because in addition to using porous asphalt, it also utilized an asphalt treated permeable base to improve construction and provide additional strength. Tacomans can view this project in the west half of the Cheney stadium parking lot ...
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Finally our attention turned to the work of Lucas Seaward - and people, I dont have enough words to express what I think of Lucas, his work, and his dream. You see, Lucas is a wonderfully talented artist, one who has worked in the traditional forms like graphite sketching. But now, Lucas uses a different media - bitumen. I first met Lucas at the Oil Sands Trade Show and fell quite completely in love with his work. Bitumen is not a traditional substance for art - it is difficult to work with, and it presents significant challenges. It is a media with a history, with an association to the oil sands and our region. And there lies the true beauty of what Lucas is doing, people. He is using a modified bitumen to paint incredible wildlife images, animals that pay homage to the history of this region, and he has a vision. He would like to paint an entire collection of these pieces and then take them on a travelling art show all over Canada. The goal? To showcase not just his art but to spread the word ...
Persistence Assessment The substance is readily biodegradable and therefore based on initial persistence screening is not expected to meet the Persistent (P) or very Persistent (vP) criteria. Bioaccumulation Assessment An evaluation of representative hydrocarbon structures indicate some structures meet the Bioaccumulative (B) or very Bioaccumulative (vB) criteria (Lampi et al., 2010). Toxicity Assessment No representative structures were identified as PB or vPvB, therefore a toxicity assessment is not needed. Summary and overall Conclusions on PBT or vPvB Properties No representative hydrocarbon structures were found to meet the PBT / vPvB criteria. See detailed report in Section 13: An Evaluation of the Persistence, Bioaccumulation and Toxicity of Petroleum Hydrocarbons (Lampi et al., 2010) ...
This invention provides a method and system for fabricating a biomarker sensor array by dispensing one or more entities using a precisely positioned, electrically biased nanoprobe immersed in a buffered fluid over a transparent substrate. Fine patterning of the substrate can be achieved by positioning and selectively biasing the probe in a particular region, changing the pH in a sharp, localized volume of fluid less than 100 nm in diameter, resulting in a selective processing of that region. One example of the implementation of this technique is related to Dip-Pen Nanolithography (DPN), where an Atomic Force Microscope probe can be used as a pen to write protein and DNA Aptamer inks on a transparent substrate functionalized with silane-based self-assembled monolayers. But it would be recognized that the invention has a much broader range of applicability. For example, the invention can be applied to formation of patterns using biological materials, chemical materials, metals, polymers, ...
What on Earth caught up with these rock-n-roll moonlighters to learn more about the machine and video.. What on Earth: What was your role in the creation of the machine, and what was the inspiration behind your piece?. Eldar: My main role was to help design and construct the descent stage (2:06 to 2:28 in the video). The inspiration for the rover was a small Japanese Rube Goldberg machine that had a tiny mock-up of a mouse rover, about the size of a Hot Wheels car. It struck me that since I am representing JPL, we should have a Mars Rover in our machine.. Chris: I helped finish up the sequence of interactions and the filming. I have a couple things that I was involved with, but cannot take complete ownership of any. But during the filming, I redesigned the beginning dominos (0:06-0:18 sec.) and helped set them up between the numerous takes (60+).. Mike: I worked on the tire ramp, mostly focusing on wiring the relay circuits for the lamps that were triggered by the tire. Youve got to wonder when ...
Backed by landowners, developer Larry Dale tonight will ask the city to improve intersections along Evansdale and Pine Tree roads so he can pave them. Dale will give commissioners two petitions
Image of Celanis test cell with a VERY similar looking fuzzy black coating on his wires. This goes along with the new release of information by Celani that some people are finding that adding hydrocarbons like Acetone to their cell enhances the energy output of the wire. ...
Ambient hydrocarbon levels. Petroleum-derived hydrocarbons were detected only in cages subjected to aerosolization with diesel (10 mg/L) or diesel and cypermethrin (6 mg/L) at the moment the animals were placed in the cage (2 hours after aerosolization). Measurements made after 3 days of exposure showed hydrocarbon concentrations below the instruments limits of detection. DISCUSSION. This study was designed to determine whether the procedure used to eradicate the dengue mosquito-aerosolization with a solution of 2% cypermethrin diluted in diesel-is able to induce functional and histological alterations in the lungs of mice in order to support the hypothesis of human indoor intoxication by this solution, as exhibited in Manaus in March 2001. We tried to reproduce the closest situation experienced by these patients by performing an aerosolization in acrylic cages for rodents and keeping them sealed for 2 hours, like the lag time recommended for reoccupation of houses after cypermethrin ...
Pervious Paving Systems (PPS) are part of a sustainable approach to drainage in which excess surface water is encouraged to infiltrate through their structure, during which potentially toxic elements, such as metals and hydrocarbons are treated by biodegradation and physical entrapment and storage. However, it is not known where in the PPS structure these contaminants accumulate, which has implications for environmental health, particularly during maintenance, as well as consequences for the recycling of material from the PPS at the end-of-life. A 1 m3 porous asphalt (PA) PPS test rig was monitored for 38 months after monthly additions of road sediment (RS) (367.5 g in total) and unused oil (430 mL in total), characteristic of urban loadings, were applied. Using a rainfall simulator, a typical UK rainfall rate of 15 mm/h was used to investigate its efficiency in dealing with contamination. Water quality of the effluent discharged from the rig was found to be suitable for discharge to most environments.
A water based asphalt protective coating for built-up asphalt roofing. Manufactured from refined asphalts, reinforcing fibers and colloidal clays.. ...
Author: Spanu, L. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2011; Title: Stability of hydrocarbons at deep Earth pressures and temperatures