Abstract Schistosomes obtained by perfusion from host animals as early as 2 hours after in vivo treatment with hycanthone and transferred into untreated recipient hamsters died in the recipient host. In contrast, unexposed schistosomes transferred into recipient hamsters treated from 7 days to 36 hours previously showed a normal survival. In vitro treatment of schistosomes with hycanthone concentrations comparable to those used in in vivo studies, followed by transfer of the parasites into normal hamsters, resulted in death of the worms. The time of lethal hycanthone exposure in vitro could be as short as 15 minutes. Hycanthone-resistant schistosomes or immature worms were not affected under similar in vitro conditions. Our data suggest that the schistosomicidal effect of hycanthone is not caused by a host-derived metabolite.
Introduction. The Rate of Oxygen Consumption of Germinating and Non-Germinating Seeds 2009-03-06 Oxygen consumption in Germinating and Non-germinating Pea Seeds Purpose: To find out and compare the cellular respiration rate at different temperature by using germinating and non-germinating pea seeds. Hypothesis: If the germinating peas are in the cold or the room temperature water, then the rate of cellular respiration will be higher than the rate for the beads or the non-germinating peas. The colder the temperature of the water is, the slower the process of cellular respiration in the peas is. Variables: Controlled: Peas Independent: Temperature, time Dependent: Rate of oxygen consumption Materials: * * Thermometer * Pencil and paper * A water bath * Beads * Germinating Peas * Non-germinating Peas * Beads * Beaker * Ice * Food colouring * Paper towels * Potassium hydroxide, KOH pellets * one-hole test-tube stoppers * Tape * Millimetre rulers * Non-absorbent cottons * Laboratory scoop * 2 Test ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The isolation of abscisic (ABA) deficient mutants by selection of induced revertants in non-germinating gibberellin sensitive lines of Arabidopsis. AU - Koornneef, M.. AU - Jorna, M.L.. AU - Brinkhorst-van der Swan, D.L.C.. AU - Karssen, C.M.. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. M3 - Article. VL - 17. SP - 99. EP - 102. JO - Arabidopsis Information Service. JF - Arabidopsis Information Service. SN - 0066-5657. ER - ...
Peer Review Approval NA) Citation: EK Weisburger, Bioassay Program for Carcinogenic Hazards of Cancer Chemotherapeutic Agents. Cancer 40:1935-1949 (1977 ...
Peer Review Approval NA) Citation: EK Weisburger, Bioassay Program for Carcinogenic Hazards of Cancer Chemotherapeutic Agents. Cancer 40:1935-1949 (1977 ...
To our knowledge, maspin is the only serpin that sensitizes apoptosis, whereas all of the other serpins thus far implicated in apoptosis regulation appear to be antiapoptotic (17 , 32 , 33) . Thus, the existing literature offers little insight into the possible molecular mode of maspin action. The goal of the present study was to identify the specific target molecule(s), the modification of which by maspin sensitizes prostate and breast tumor cells toward potential cancer chemotherapeutic agents. By using multiple maspin-transfected cell lines in vitro, we obtained cellular, molecular, and biochemical evidence that supports a key role for Bax in maspin-mediated apoptosis sensitization. Although we may not have exhausted our search because of the ever-growing number of apoptosis regulators, our data seem sufficient to support our new hypothesis that the specific up-regulation of Bax, without changing Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, and Bak expression in maspin-transfected cells, may tip the balance of pro- versus ...
This paper explores the application of video-based methods for the analysis of com- petitive swimming performance. A systematic search of the existing literature was conducted using the following keywords: swim*, performance ...
Lucanthone is orally available thioxanthone-based DNA intercalator and inhibitor of the DNA repair enzyme apurinic-apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (APEX1 or APE1), with anti-schistosomal and potential antineoplastic activity. Lucanthone intercalates DNA and interferes with the activity of topoisomerases I and II during replication and transcription, thereby inhibiting the synthesis of macromolecules. In addition, this agent specifically inhibits the endonuclease activity of APE1, without affecting its redox activity, resulting in unrepaired DNA strand breaks which may induce apoptosis. Therefore, lucanthone may sensitize tumor cells to radiation and chemotherapy. Furthermore, lucanthone inhibits autophagy through the disruption of lysosomal function. The multifunctional nuclease APE1 is a key component for DNA repair; its expression is often correlated with tumor cell resistance to radio- and chemotherapy. Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent.
Results. Both pemetrexed and lucanthone inhibited tumor growth relative to the vehicles during the 28 days of treatment. For each treatment, fold of increases of the tumor volume were 42, 28, 34 and 19 for vehicles, pemetrexed, lucanthone, and the combination of pemetrexed and lucanthone, respectively. Comparing to the vehicle-treated group, these represented 19%, 33%, and 55% of growth inhibition for groups treated with pemetrexed, lucanthone, and the combination of pemetrexed and lucanthone, respectively. During the 28-day period, the body weight changes excluding the tumor weights were -2.9%, -0.9%, -6.1% and -1.7% for vehicles, pemetrexed, lucanthone, and the combination of pemetrexed and lucanthone, respectively. These body weight data indicated that the treatments were well tolerated with minimum or no general toxicity ...
6-Thioguanine-resistant mutants were induced in V79 Chinese hamster cells with 2-aminopurine, ICR-170 and hycanthone. Samples of mutants of different origin were treated with EMS or 1CR-170 and plated in HAT medium for selection of revertants. In the result, a significant fraction of HAT-resistant clones was not 6-thioguanine-sensitive as would have been expected from a genuine reversion to wild type.
AWV #14C: In this experiment, you will Measure gas production. Study the effect of temperature on cell respiration. Determine whether germinating peas and non-germinating peas respire. Compare the rates of cell respiration in germinating and non-germinating peas.
Another interesting question is to what extent might the N methylation contribute to the bioavilability (the ADMET profile) in amide of small molecules rather than peptides ? For example, Tubulin-binding taxanes such as paclitaxel and docetaxel are important cancer chemotherapeutic agents. However, these drugs suffer from limitations such as poor aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability, emerging drug resistance, and the lack of blood-brain barrier permeability ...
DESCRIPTION WARNING TAXOL® (paclitaxel) Injection should be administered under the supervision of a physician experienced in the use of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Appropriate management of complications is possibl...
Background In recent years it has become evident that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, in particular aspirin represent a potential class of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. Despite the wealth of...
Measuring Respiration of Germinating and Non-germinating Peas By: Krunal Patel Introduction Living cells require transfusions of energy from outside sources to perform their many tasks - for example, assembling polymers, pumping substances across membranes, moving, and reproducing (Campbell, and Reece 162). Heterotrophs obtains its energy for its cells by eating plants that makes it own food (Autotrophs); some animals feed on other organisms that eat plants. The most beneficial catabolic pathway in an organism is cellular respiration, in which oxygen […]. ...
Hartmann, J.T. Lipp, H.-P. Toxicity of platinum compounds. Expert Opin. Pharmacother; 2003. Jin Kim, Gi-Su Oh, Ai Hua Shen, Su Bin Lee, Khadka D, Pandit A, Hong-Seob So. Cisplatin induced kidney disfunction and perspectives on improving treatment strategies. The Korean Society of Electrolyte Metabolism. Electrolyte Blood Press. 2004; 12: 55-65. Brillet G, Deray G, Jacquiaud C et al. Long-term renal effect of cisplatin in man. Am J Nephrol. 1994; 14: 81-84. Arany I, Safirstein RL. Cisplatin nephrotoxicity. Semin Nephrol. 2003; 23: 460-464. Siddik, Zahid H.Mechanisms of action of cancer chemotherapeutic agents : dna-interactive alkylating agents and antitumour platinum-based drugs. Snedecor, G., Cochran, W., 1974. Ten Thousand Randomly Assorted Digits, in: Statistical Methods; 2002. Kawai Y, Nakao T, Kunimura N, et al. relationship of intracellular calcium and oxygen radicals to cisplatin-related renal cell injury. J Pharmacol Sci. 2006; 100: 65-72. Pabla N, Jiang M, Wei Q et al. Effects of ...
Maria Tomasz was Distinguished Progressor Emerita of Chemistry and Biochemistry at Hunter College, City University of New York. She received her undergraduate education in chemistry at Lorand Eotvos University, Hungary and her PhD in organic chemistry at Columbia University. She joined the faculty at Hunter College in 1966, where she... read morethen spent the rest of her professional career. Her research focused on the molecular basis of the activity of cancer chemotherapeutic agents that target DNA covalently, and she published over 100 papers in this area. Her honors include a MERIT Award by the National Cancer Institute, a Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Invitational Fellowship, and she is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science of the American Academy for the Advancement of Science. She sadly passed away in November 2016.. ...
Gleostine® (lomustine) should be administered under the supervision of a qualified physician experienced in the use of cancer chemotherapeutic agents.. Bone marrow suppression, notably thrombocytopenia and leukopenia, which may contribute to bleeding and overwhelming infections in an already compromised patient, is the most common and severe of the toxic effects of Gleostine® (see WARNINGS and ADVERSE REACTIONS).. Since the major toxicity is delayed bone marrow suppression, blood counts should be monitored weekly for at least 6 weeks after a dose (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). At the recommended dosage, courses of Gleostine® should not be given more frequently than every 6 weeks.. The bone marrow toxicity of Gleostine® is cumulative and therefore dosage adjustment must be considered on the basis of nadir blood counts from prior dose (see dosage adjustment table under DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). more ,, ...
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Advanced cancer in the setting of liver dysfunction poses a dilemma for physicians, as many cancer chemotherapeutic agents undergo hepatic metabolism. Most cytotoxic drugs have a narrow therapeutic index, and the administration of chemotherapy to patients with liver impairment results in complicated safety issues. We present a concise review of cancer chemotherapy dosing in the setting of liver dysfunction. Although caution in treating all patients with hepatic failure is essential, the use of certain agents provokes greater concern than others. Continuous-infusion fluorouracil, capecitabine (Xeloda), mechlorethamine (Mustargen), cyclophosphamide, topotecan (Hycamtin), and oxaliplatin (Eloxatin) appear to be relatively well tolerated. On the contrary, taxanes, vinca alkaloids, irinotecan (Camptosar), and anthracyclines may cause unacceptable toxicity if administered to patients with poor hepatic function. For many anticancer agents, the paucity of data prohibits formal dosing recommendations, and most
Over the past years natural products and/or their derivatives have continued to provide cancer chemotherapeutics. Glycosides derivatives of emodin are known to possess anticancer activities. An in silico study was carried out to evaluate emodin derivatives as inhibitors of Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase 2, Cyclooxygenase 2 and Topoisomerase 1 enzymes, predict their pharmacokinetics and explore their bonding modes. Molecular docking study suggested that D2, D5, D6 and D9 to be potent inhibitors of NAT2, while D8 was suggested to be a potent inhibitor of TOP1. Derivatives D2, D5, D6 and D9 bind to the same pocket with different binding conformation. Pharmacokinetic study suggested that selected emodin derivatives can be potential cancer chemotherapeutic agent. Physicochemical parameters such density, balaban index, surface tension, logP and molar reflectance correlated to compounds activity. These finding provides a potential strategy towards developing NAT2 and TOP1 inhibitors.
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Water quality - Determination of the genotoxicity of water and waste water - Salmonella/microsome fluctuation test (Ames fluctuation test)
The present study was designed to determine the effects of artemisinin (ARS) and its derivatives on human ovarian cancer cells, to evaluate their potential as novel chemotherapeutic agents used alone or in combination with a conventional cancer chemotherapeutic agent, and to investigate their underlying mechanisms of action. Human ovarian cancer cells (A2780 and OVCAR-3), and immortalized non-tumourigenic human ovarian surface epithelial cells (IOSE144), were exposed to four ARS compounds for cytotoxicity testing. The in vitro and in vivo antitumour effects and possible underlying mechanisms of action of dihydroartemisinin (DHA), the most effective compound, were further determined in ovarian cancer cells. ...These effects were also observed in in vivo ovarian A2780 and OVCAR-3 xenograft tumour models. In conclusion, ARS derivatives, particularly DHA, exhibit significant anticancer activity against ovarian cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, with minimal toxicity to non-tumourigenic human OSE ...
Li Yw, Fakhara A, Shadan A, et al. Cancer Res August 1, 2005 65; 6934. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-4604 Cancer chemotherapeutic strategies commonly require multiple agents. However, use of multiple agents contributes to added toxicity resulting in poor treatment outcome. Thus, combination chemotherapy must be optimized to increase tumor response and at the same time lower its […]. read more ...
Dose-limiting toxicity of many cancer chemotherapeutic agents is peripheral neuropathy. Our data suggest that peripheral neuropathy may be reduced with the addition of glutamine in patients receiving high-dose paclitaxel as the first part of a tandem high-dose chemotherapy regimen. Glutamine appeared to reduce both the incidence and severity of symptoms previously observed with this dose. In addition, some of the signs of peripheral neuropathy were also reduced (vibration sense at the toes, interference with ADLs, gait, sensory deficits to pinprick) in patients who received glutamine compared with those who did not. Because a large proportion (38%) of the patients entered this trial with abnormal reflexes, it is not surprising that this parameter did not show any difference between the two groups. We opted to use the glutamine source cited in the original report because it is unknown whether all glutamine preparations are equivalent. The product that we used did not contain antioxidants because ...
A total of 27 dyes and related chemicals were tested for mutagenicity in both the Salmonella typhimurium plate-incorporation and FMN-modified assays as well as the mouse lymphoma TK+/- assay. Half of the compounds tested were monoazo dyes (14); the remainder consisted of disazo (3), aminotriphenylmethane derivatives (4), and other miscellaneous (6) color compounds. The results obtained in this study are compared with data from dyes of the same batch tested in other laboratories in the Salmonella plate-incorporation assay and in both in vitro and in vivo/in vitro UDS assays. Agreement of results from the various assays that could be compared (excluding results that were equivocal or indeterminate) ranged from 80 to 91%. Sufficient data were available to provide an overall index of in vitro activity for 15 chemicals; of these, 14 compounds could be compared to and agreed with reports of their carcinogenic potential in the literature.
The 90 kDa heat shock proteins are proving to be extraordinary cancer chemotherapeutic targets as evidenced by the fact that more than 20 clinical trials are cu...
Abstract The susceptibility of Liberian and Puerto Rican strains of Schistosoma mansoni to antischistosomal drugs was compared. The Liberian strain was more sensitive than the Puerto Rican strain to lucanthone · HCl, SQ 18,506, and stibophen. Parameters tested 90 days after treatment were hatching of eggs, parasitological cures, and extent of worm reductions.
The exit from dormancy and the start of growth should be preceded or at least accompanied by the uptake of nutrients. In this work we studied changes in the transport of several nutrients into Trichoderma atroviride conidia. Germination started with a short period of isodiametric growth (conidial swelling), followed by polarized growth (germ tube formation) after about 8 h at 26 °C. The onset of isodiametric growth required the presence of external both phosphate and nitrate. At the same time, an increased uptake of precursors of macromolecules and phospholipids (14C- or 3H-labelled valine, uracil, N-acetylglucosamine and choline) occurred. A low uptake of these precursors was observed also in non-germinating conidia. Concomitantly, this uptake developed an increased sensitivity to the uncoupler 3,3′,4′,5-tetrachlorosalicylanilide. Expression and activity of H+-ATPase started after completing isodiametric growth, suggesting that the proton-motive force (PMF) generated by H+-ATPase may be an
The prospect of exploiting mathematical and computational models to gain insight into the influence of scheduling on cancer chemotherapeutic effectiveness is increasingly being considered. However, the question of whether such models are robust to the inclusion of additional tumour biology is relatively unexplored. In this paper, we consider a common strategy for improving protocol scheduling that has foundations in mathematical modelling, namely the concept of dose densification, whereby rest phases between drug administrations are reduced. To maintain a manageable scope in our studies, we focus on a single cell cycle phase-specific agent with uncomplicated pharmacokinetics, as motivated by 5-Fluorouracil-based adjuvant treatments of liver micrometastases. In particular, we explore predictions of the effectiveness of dose densification and other escalations of the protocol scheduling when the influence of toxicity constraints, cell cycle phase specificity and the evolution of drug resistance ...
Filho RP, de Souza Menezes CM, Pinto PL, Paula GA, Brandt CA, da Silveira MA: Design, synthesis, and in vivo evaluation of oxamniquine methacrylate and acrylamide prodrugs. Bioorg Med Chem. 2007 Feb 1;15(3):1229-36. Epub 2006 Nov 16. PMID 17134907 ...
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