In genetics, transgressive segregation is the formation of extreme phenotypes, or transgressive phenotypes, observed in segregated hybrid populations compared to phenotypes observed in the parental lines. The appearance of these trangressive (extreme) phenotypes can be either positive or negative in terms of fitness. If both parents favorable alleles come together, it will result in a hybrid having a higher fitness than the two parents. The hybrid species will show more genetic variation and variation in gene expression than their parents. As a result, the hybrid species will have some traits that are transgressive (extreme) in nature. Transgressive segregation can allow a hybrid species to populate different environments/niches in which the parent species do not reside, or compete in the existing environment with the parental species. Genetic There are many causes for transgressive segregation in hybrids. One cause can be due to recombination of additive alleles. Recombination results in new ...
Since Darwin, researchers have made tremendous progress towards understanding how ecological, genetic and evolutionary factors acting within species lead to the evolution of reproductive isolation and ultimately the origin of new species (Coyne & Orr 2004). One problem that remains largely unresolved concerns the evolution of intrinsic postzygotic isolation. Investigating early stages in the evolution of postzygotic isolation in species, where alleles underlying postzygotic isolation are still polymorphic, is one promising approach.. Previous studies of postzygotic isolation between M. guttatus and M. nasutus have found reduced seed germination and male infertility in hybrids (Vickery 1956, 1973, 1978; Fishman & Willis 2001, 2006; Martin & Willis 2007). Vickery (1956, 1973, 1978) and Sweigart et al. (2007) provided evidence that postzygotic isolation within and among populations of both species varied geographically, though biometrical line crosses were not used to determine the genetic basis. ...
THE evolutionary significance of natural hybridization has been debated for decades (Mayr 1942; Anderson 1949; Harrison 1993; Arnold 1997). At one extreme, it has been argued that natural hybridization is an evolutionary dead end due to formation of inviable and/or infertile hybrids (Mayr 1942; Barton and Hewitt 1985, 1989). At the other extreme, it has been suggested that natural hybridization may lead to new evolutionary lineages due to formation of relatively fit hybrids that expand into novel habitats (Anderson 1948; Arnold 1997; Ellstrand and Schierenbeck 2000; Bleeker 2003). A third potential evolutionary outcome is expansion of an intermixed form within the resident progenitors habitat, in which case the degree of mixing between hybridizing forms may range from formation of a hybrid swarm to genetic assimilation of one form by the other (Childs et al. 1996; Rhymer and Simberloff 1996; Perry et al. 2001). Natural hybridization and introgression have been reported in a growing number of ...
HALDANEs rule" states that, if species hybrids of one sex only are inviable or sterile, the afflicted sex is much more likely to be heterogametic (XY) than homogametic (XX). We show that most or all of the phenomena associated with HALDANEs rule can be explained by the simple hypothesis that alleles decreasing hybrid fitness are partially recessive. Under this hypothesis, the XY sex suffers more than the XX because X-linked alleles causing postzygotic isolation tend to have greater cumulative effects when hemizygous than when heterozygous, even though the XX sex carries twice as many such alleles. The dominance hypothesis can also account for the "large X effect," the disproportionate effect of the X chromosome on hybrid inviability/sterility. In addition, the dominance theory is consistent with: the long temporal lag between the evolution of heterogametic and homogametic postzygotic isolation, the frequency of exceptions to HALDANEs rule, puzzling Drosophila experiments in which "unbalanced" ...
According to Sipiczki [26], genomes from each parental species interact in the new hybrid genome. This interaction can be observed in the loss of large parts of one or both genomes as well as in the presence of chimerical chromosomes that make the hybrid genome as stable as possible to future genetic modifications. Additionally, adaptive evolution of these hybrid genomes under fermentative environmental conditions could make hybrid genome to conserve the chromosomes, or part of them, which grant a selective advantage [27]. According to the results obtained in this work as well as in our previous studies [2, 13, 19], S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrids seem to have the common trend to lose the S. kudriavevii parental chromosomes maintaining the S. cerevisiae ones. The reduction of the non-S. cerevisiae genome observed in both wine and brewing S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrids was already reported for artificial S. cerevisiae × S. uvarum hybrids genetically stabilized by successive ...
Hybrid zones are of great interest to behavioural ecologists and evolutionary biologists because these areas provide natural systems for studies of characters and processes involved in divergence, reproductive isolation and speciation (Abbott et al., 2013). Hybridization may be a more prevalent phenomenon than is generally believed. Indeed, a literature review (Mallet, 2005) estimated that at least 10% of animal species (usually species that diverged from each other relatively recently) hybridize with heterospecifics. The generation and maintenance of a hybrid zone requires mismatings and at least partially successful reproduction between individuals that differ in one or more heritable traits. Natural hybridization may occur sporadically between closely related, broadly syntopic species or be confined to particular contact zones (Jiggins & Mallet, 2000). Species that only hybridize in parts of their overlapping ranges provide an excellent opportunity to investigate possible mechanisms ...
Earlier this week, the HFEA published its public consultation on the subject. This revealed that, although many people found the idea of human-animal hybrid embryos to be repugnant, most approved of it when they better understood the reasons for it. Researchers can create hybrid embryos by the transferring nuclei from human cells into animal egg cells from which the nucleus has been removed. This technique, called nuclear transfer, is very similar to the one used to clone Dolly the sheep, the main difference being that Dolly was cloned using a cell and a nucleus from the same species. Creating hybrid embryos would bypass the shortage in human eggs, and will enable researchers to use stem cells from the embryos to develop treatments for conditions such as Alzheimers and Parkinsons. If the HFEA approves the use of hybrid embryos, researchers proposals will then be considered individually. Ian Wilmut, who led the team that cloned Dolly, is waiting for the HFEAs decision so that he can apply to ...
Reciprocal hybrids showing different phenotypes have been well documented in previous studies, and many factors accounting for different phenotypes have been extensively investigated. However, less is known about whether the profiles of small RNAs differ between reciprocal hybrids and how these small RNAs affect gene expression and phenotypes. To better understand this mechanism, the role of small RNAs on phenotypes in reciprocal hybrids was analysed. Reciprocal hybrids between Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom and S. pimpinellifolium line WVa700 were generated. Significantly different phenotypes between the reciprocal hybrids were observed, including fruit shape index, single fruit weight and plant height. Then, through the high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs, we found that the expression levels of 76 known miRNAs were highly variable between the reciprocal hybrids. Subsequently, a total of 410 target genes were predicted to correspond with these differentially expressed miRNAs. Furthermore, gene
Certain biophysical characteristics of the DNA from each of the five nondefective adenovirus 2 (Ad2)-simian virus 40 (SV40) hybrid viruses (Ad2+ND1, Ad2+ND2, Ad2+ND3, Ad2+ND4, Ad2+ND5) have been determined. The guanine plus cytosine content varied from 55 to 57% and was not significantly different from that of nonhybrid Ad2 (56%), and the hybrid DNA molecules had mean molecular lengths which were similar to that of the standard, Ad2. The Ad2 and SV40 components of each hybrid were linked by alkali-resistant, presumably covalent bonds. The percentage of SV40 DNA in each hybrid virus was determined by hybridization with SV40 complementary RNA in a calibrated system. The results indicate that each hybrid virus DNA contains a different percentage of SV40 nucleotide sequences. The estimated size of the SV40 DNA component varies from 48,000 daltons for Ad2+ND3 to 840,000 daltons for Ad2+ND4, the latter being equivalent to between one-fourth and one-third of the SV40 genome. ...
The term hybridogenesis was coined by R. J. Schultz and indicates a reproductional mode which is found in a few animal groups (e.g. the topminnow Poeciliopsis, a small fish in desert streams in Mexico and Soutwestern USA; water frogs; Bacillus, stick insects in Italy). This mode marks hybrids between two parental species (A,B) who are able to reproduce by backcrossing which one of the parent. These hybrid normally contain two chromosome sets (AB, one from each parent species) in their body cells, but in the gonads (ovar or testicles) the chromosome set of one parent is lost, so that only one set remains (A or B), with A in their gonads, hybrids can backcross with B and vice versa. ...
Detection of natural hybrids is of great significance for plant taxonomy, reproductive biology, and population genetic studies. Compared with methods depending on morphological characters, molecular markers provide reliable and much more accurate results. This protocol describes approaches employing microsatellite (SSR) markers to identify inter-specific hybrids in Mussaenda (Rubiaceae).
Hybrid speciation is an example of sympatric speciation that can occur in plants.. Interspecies hybrids are usually sterile because the chromosome pairs, which consist of one chromosome from one species and another from the second species, do not segregate regularly at meiosis. When a hybrid species evolves, sterility may be overcome by polyploidy: the chromosome numbers are doubled. Each chromosome pair at meiosis contains two chromosomes from one species, and regular segregation is restored. Polyploidization is encouraged by applying the chemical colchicine in the commercial production of new species, but it can also occur naturally at a low rate. In this case, a new hybrid species may evolve. The polyploidy hybrids are interfertile among themselves, but reproductively isolated (by the mismatch in chromosome numbers) from the parental species; they are therefore well defined new species.. Many popular species of flower such as tulips (opposite) and orchids are created through artificial ...
Free Online Library: The effect of the relative location of laser beam with arc in different hybrid welding processes/Lazerinio-lankinio suvirinimo siuliu santykinio isdestymo efektas naudojant ivairius hibridinio suvirinimo procesus.(Report) by Mechanika; Engineering and manufacturing Laser beams Properties Welding Analysis Equipment and supplies Management Technology application
View Notes - Lecture_16_Ploidy_2010-1 from BIOL 202 at UNC. Ploidy February 19th, 2010 Three specimens of Odontophrynus: O. americanus male, 4x =4 Artificial hybrid young, 3x=33 (b); O. cultripes
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In nature, some strains of the influenza virus are highly lethal while others jump easily from person to person. What public health officials fear most is a hybrid that combines the lethality of one with the transmissibility of the other, creating a deadly global pandemic.. Now a team of Chinese scientists has investigated that in their lab by creating a new hybrid virus. They combined H5N1 avian influenza, which is highly lethal but doesnt transmit easily between people, with the highly contagious H1N1 swine flu strain responsible for infecting tens of millions of people in 2009. ...
Researchers have for the first time determined that hybridization between two bird species can give rise to several novel and fully functional hybrid genomic combinations. This could potentially be because hybrid species emerged through independent hybridisation events between the same parent species on different islands.
A hybrid plant is a cross between two or more unrelated inbred plants. Hybridization has brought huge improvements, including more vigorous plants, improved disease resistance, earlier maturity, more uniform growth and increased yield.
...Hybrid plants provide much higher yield than their homozygous parents....The world population continues to grow and needs to be fed. Cereals pr...Molecular causes elusive ...Homozygous plants are a result of inbreeding depression: yield shrinks...,Corn:,Many,active,genes,-,high,yield,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Moav, R., 1958: Inheritance in Nicotiana tabacum XXIX: The relationships of residual chromosome homology to interspecific gene transfer
... may impact hybridization needs comprehensively sampling different habitats over a variety of life history levels. was questionable. In comparison, Taylor et?al. (2008) sampled many lakes in traditional western Alaska and discovered that although both types distributed mtDNA haplotypes, these were extremely distinctive at nine microsatellite loci, helping their position as valid natural types. In a single southwestern Alaskan lake (Lake Aleknagik), nevertheless, primary data recommended that about 7% from the seafood sampled acquired ambiguous hereditary identity and had been tentatively categorized as hybrids. A combined PST-2744 supplier mix of relatively low test size (60C100 in two lakeCstream watersheds) and insufficient sample site variety (2C6 sites per watershed) in the Taylor et?al. (2008) research limited their PST-2744 supplier capability to accurately gain access to the amount of ...
Mating between sympatric species is a regular occurrence in natural populations, and increasing anthropogenic re-distributions of organisms is driving ever greater frequencies of species contact and hybridization [1, 2]. Whether giving rise to new, independent hybrid lineages or to the movement of alleles between species (i.e. introgression), recent population genetics and experimental studies show that inter-specific mating can be a major force behind adaptation and speciation [3-5]. The potential for hybridization to contribute to biodiversity, however, involves the interactions of multiple processes that remain incompletely understood [6]. In particular, hybridization is limited by a complex interplay of pre- and post-mating reproductive barriers that can decrease mating compatibility between species or the fitness of hybrid individuals [2].. Especially in sympatric species, isolating mechanisms that depend on mating behaviors (i.e. compatibilities of different sexes or mating types) play a ...
PMID: 28444733 Du SNN, Khajali F, Dawson NJ, Scott GR (2017) Evolution Abstract: Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress have been suggested to be possible mechanisms underlying hybrid breakdown, as a result of mito-nuclear incompatibilities in respiratory complexes of the electron transport system. However, it remains unclear whether hybridization increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by mitochondria. We used high-resolution respirometry and fluorometry on isolated liver mitochondria to examine mitochondrial physiology and ROS emission in naturally occurring hybrids of pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) and bluegill (L. macrochirus). ROS emission was greater in hybrids than in both parent species when respiration was supported by complex I (but not complex II) substrates, and was associated with increases in lipid peroxidation. However, respiratory capacities for oxidative phosphorylation, phosphorylation efficiency, and O2 kinetics in hybrids were intermediate between ...
The pinpoint accuracy of a true-flying 2-blade head teamed up with the awesome destruction of a 4- blade. The new HYBRID from GRIM REAPER starts cutting at our legendary V-Notch chisel tip, slips ahead with 2 super strong fixed Hades blades and finishes up with a pair of World Class Mechanical razors. We cant imagine anything better! Game cant imagine anything Worse! Guaranteed to have a Bad Attitude right out of the package. Crossbow friendly Too !. For More, Go to www.grimreaperbroadheads.com or call 877-474-6732. ...
I will argue that Drosophila geneticists are not so much interested in finding "speciation genes", but rather interested in understanding the genetics of speciation. To do so requires finding mutations that allow the species boundary to be surmounted. As I have mentioned previously, good species are reproductively isolated, preventing any genetical analysis of the factors that lead to this isolation. Mutations in the "speciation genes" (especially the extremely useful Hybrid Male Rescue mutation), however, allow researchers to cross individuals from different species and study the genetics of speciation.. Geneticists like to find generalities. That is why we study model organisms; they are easy to work with in a laboratory setting and allow us to extend our discoveries regarding molecular biology, cellular function, development, physiology, etc to other related taxa (both closely related and more distant relatives). Wilkins makes a valid point that it is difficult to generalize discoveries ...
Plant species hybridize more readily than animal species, and the resulting hybrids are more often fertile hybrids and may reproduce. There still exist sterile hybrids and selective hybrid elimination where the offspring are less able to survive and are thus eliminated before they can reproduce. Sterility in a hybrid is often a result of chromosome number; if parents are of differing chromosome pair number, the offspring will have an odd number of chromosomes, leaving them unable to produce chromosomally balanced gametes. For example, if a hybrid received 10 chromosomes from one parent and 12 from another parent, the chromosomes would not be balanced for meiosis. A number of plant species, however, are the result of hybridization and polyploidy, where an organism has more than two homologous sets of chromosomes. For example, if the plant had two sets of chromosomes from both parents, giving it four sets of chromosome, it would be balanced for meiosis.. Many plant species easily cross pollinate ...
Hybridisation between recently diverged species offers an opportunity to gain insights into the process of reproductive isolation. Understanding the evolutionary consequences of hybridisation is a particular pressing issue in the context of global warming, because several taxa currently undergo temperature induced range expansions. One of the groups most heavily affected by increasing temperatures are odonates, as can be seen by large advances of the northern range margin of many species. These range expansions have many consequences, and the presumably most significant one concerns altered species interactions. For example, range expansions can cause novel range overlap between formerly allopatric species and can lead to extensive hybridisation in these new sympatric areas.. Within odonates, the genus Ischnura is extremely species rich (around 70 species), and consists of many recently diverged species that often co-occur over parts of their range. This genus has also other interesting ...
lar Systematics, Second Edition, Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass., pp. 407-514.. Edwards, K.J. 1998. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs). In A. Karp, P.G. Isaac and D.S. Ingram (eds.), Molecular Tools for Screening Biodiversity, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 171-179.. Frankel, O.H., A.D.H. Brown, and J.J. Burdon. 1995. The Conservation of Plant Biodiversity. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.. Gallez, G.P. and L.D. Gottlieb. 1982. Genetic evidence for the hybrid origin of the diploid plant Stephanomeria diegensis. Evolution 36: 1158-1167.. Gottlieb, L.D. 1981. Electrophoretic evidence and plant populations. Prog. Phytochem. 7: 1-46.. Hamrick, J.L. and M.J.W. Godt. 1989. Allozyme diversity in plant species. In A.D.H. Brown, M.T. Clegg, A.L. Kahler and B.S. Weir (eds.), Plant Population Genetics, Breeding, and Genetic Resources, Sinauer, Sunderland, Mass., pp. 43-63.. Ito, M. and M. Ono. 1990. Allozyme diversity and the evolution of Crepidiastrum (Compositae) on the ...
Scotts OG is a Hybrid strain. It has 20% sativa and 80% indica. Scotts OG has Pine, Earthy, Sweet, Pungent, Citrus tastes and it helps in anxiety, arthritis, migraines, ptsd, cancer. Scotts OG has 19.76% THC and 0.12% CBD. Scotts OG is very helpful to make you feel relaxed, happy, euphoric, creative, uplifted.
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The study of genetic exchange resulting from natural hybridization, horizontal gene transfer, and viral recombination has long been marked by controversy between researchers holding different conceptual frameworks. Those subscribing to a doctrine of species purity have traditionally been reluctant to recognise inferences suggesting anything other than a marginal role for non-allopatric divergence leading to gene transfer between different lineages.
Funding for research involving hybrid animal-human embryos dries up as alternative technique for creating stem cells finds favour
Darwins discussion of hybridization occupies all of chapter 8 of the Origin. His stated motivation is to address what many people might see as a fatal objection to his theory of species origins by means of natural selection. One of Darwins main arguments in the book is that "descent with modification" is continuous, and therefore the distinction between species and varieties (and subspecies, etc) is an arbitrary cut in a continuum of biodiversity. However, it was conventionally accepted that varieties within the same species could cross-breed freely, but any attempt to hybridize distinct species would always fail. Darwin opposes this view by citing extensive evidence showing that varying degrees of sterility are encountered in efforts to cross-breed different species of plants (and a few birds) - if the species are closely related then often there will be a small degree of fertility in the hybrid offspring. So, as two related forms diverge from one another in the course of evolution, their ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Innovative ocean-borne technology, utilizing a dual rotor system and wave ramp to capture all the power contained in a wave, is a highly efficient wave energy converter that actually lowers the cost of delivered electricity.
Its been widely noted that while there are 22 different hybrid cars currently on the American market (with the 2012 BMW ActiveHybrid 5 about to join them), nearly 50 percent of the categorys sales are captured by one car, the Toyota Prius. Why do you think that is? Read more about the 2012 BMW ActiveHybrid 5 in thei first drive from the automotive experts at Motor Trend.
Deh-Noizer grew up with a natural attitude to music. Born in the 1987, he discovered techno world when he was only 14. During these 10 years he developed a great experience as Dj/Producer and in 2010 released his first EP on Naked Lunch records, A.paul label. After him first work as producer he began climb all over charts and big names tracklist , gaining the support of many great artists and labels. He had the pleasure to release on The Advent label Kombination Research , Impact Mechanics, Torsten Kanzler Rec, Ketra .. and many more. Remixed by names like : Space Djz, Glenn Willson, Ryuji Takeuchi, he has many projects for the future who will see him starring of the best Techno scene of the moment ...
When two different species try to mate, theyll almost always fail. Some, like horses and donkeys, will get lucky and produce hybrid offspring - but those mules usually are sterile. For some worms, ho...
Preparation of 1,2,3-triazolylidene metal complexes by simple alkylation of triazolyl based parent species was demonstrated for the first time. Based on this post-modification approach, unprecedented tridentate Pd and Pt complexes bearing a 1,2,3-triazolylidene core were synthesized. Pincers and other hemilabile ligands
Negatively stained purified virions of parental virus strains and hybrid progenies. CPXV-NOHI (A), MVA-HANP (B), Rec 1 (C), Rec 2 (D), Rec 3 (E), Rec 3a (F), Re
The v-MFG test: investigating maternal, offspring and maternal-fetal genetic incompatibility effects on disease and viability (pages 333-347). Hsin-Ju Hsieh, Christina G.S. Palmer, Sinead Harney, Julia L. Newton, Paul Wordsworth, Matthew A. Brown and Janet S. Sinsheimer. Version of Record online: 10 APR 2006 , DOI: 10.1002/gepi.20148. ...
A hybrid virus is a type of computer virus that combines elements of other virus programs in a new combination that will often...
Secondly, weve always been a very car-centric society. Cars appeal to our desire for independence, power and control. A large, powerful car is a status symbol in the US. Weve inherited these attitudes from previous generations and were just beginning to question them. Are there healthier and less wasteful ways of getting to work?. There are, and many of them are very simple. The first and simplest is a carpool. If we put two average Americans in our two-ton car, all of a sudden the people are 1/12 the weight of the vehicle. With four people, the number jumps to 1/6. Weve just made our vehicle almost four times as fuel efficient, per passenger! 1,000 lbs per person is still a lot of weight to be lugging around though, so lets look at some other options.. If you are on the market for a new car, fuel-efficient models abound. The new hybrid cars by Toyota and Honda are twice as efficient as their non-hybrid brethren, and not much more expensive. Some people truly need SUVs for their business, ...
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B. Registration: We have 5 members signed up for the Hybrid class. Once greg hears back from ARRL, the dates for the meetings will be set. The Class, at least you will have access to the on-line portion, will probably start in mid April ...
Handcrafted, wooden bikes Odysseus offer comfortable and stylish cycling. Well-equipped and ready for any challenge, Odysseus brings a degree of freedom, flexibility and performance to the hybrid class.
10:00 am to 12:00 am: lecture by Mr. Rob VENTER on "Entrepreneurial values, hybridity and entrepreneurial capital: Insights from Johannesburg informal sector" and Introduction in fieldwork ...
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en] Eco-ethology as expressed in migration patterns, hybridisation level, growth rates in river conditions, and reproductive behaviour in a controlled environment were investigated in natural common bream Abramis brama × roach Rutilus rutilus and common bream × silver bream Blicca bjoerkna hybrids. From 2001 to 2003, hybrids and parental species were captured in a fish pass trap at the Lixhe dam on the Belgian Meuse River during their reproductive migration. The fish pass was checked 3 days a week and the water temperature was recorded hourly. The results showed that these hybrids were less frequent but they had migrated during the same period and in the same environmental conditions as the parental species. Scale readings showed that the growth of hybrids was intermediate between the two parent species growth. In controlled environments, the female hybrid mated with one to two males, including male hybrids, in reproductive experiments between hybrids; they also mated with male hybrid and ...
Interspecific gene flow is an important aspect in avian speciation [54]. Based on hybridization networks and D-statistics, calculated from genome-wide data, we found indications for high levels of interspecific gene flow between several goose species. D-statistics allowed us to confidently discriminate between incomplete lineage sorting and interspecific gene flow. The significant D-statistics varied from 0.07 to 0.17, which is slightly higher compared to analyses on recent radiations, such as Darwins Finches (0.004-0.092; [55]) and butterflies of the genera Heliconius (0.04; [56]) and Papilio (0.04; [57]). These values do fall within the range of studies on other hybridizing species, such as pigs (0.11-0.23; [58]), bears (0.04-0.46; [59, 60]) and Xiphophorus fish (0.03-0.56; [61]).. A significant D-statistic does not necessarily indicate introgression between the species from which the genomes are being compared. There might have been gene flow with an extinct (not sampled) population or the ...
Britain urged not to ban hybrid embryo research Reuters - Wed Apr 4, 7:03 PM ET Scientists and lawmakers urged Britain on Thursday to scrap a proposed ban on creating hybrid animal-human embryos for research into illnesses such as Parkinsons, stroke and Alzheimers. In December, the British government proposed a ban on the creation of hybrid embryos due to what it called "considerable public unease," but the Commons Science and Technology Committee said a ban was unacceptable and could harm British science. ......... ZenMaster. ...
Hybrid breakdown is a pattern of postzygotic isolation that occurs during the early stages of allopatric divergence, and it is characterized by markedly reduced fitness in F2 and later generation hybrids [1]. Hybrid breakdown has been observed in a wide array of phenotypes, including fecundity [2], sperm swimming speed [3], offspring viability [4,5], growth rate [6] and stress response [7]. The genes involved in the early stages of reproductive isolation are likely to be found in the cellular and biochemical pathways underlying these phenotypes.. Hybrid breakdown is often explained by the Dobzhansky-Muller (DM) model; evolution results in coadaptation among interacting sets of alleles within diverging isolated populations, but incompatibilities are revealed in recombinant F2 genomes of interpopulation hybrids [8,9]. Although most investigations of DM incompatibilities have focused on interactions among nuclear genes [10], epistasis between nuclear and mitochondrial genomes may be particularly ...
Inferring the origins of hybrid taxa based on morphology alone is difficult because morphologically similar hybrids can arise from hybridization between different populations of the same parental species or be produced by hybridization of different parental species. In this study, we investigated the origins of two semi-creeping taxa in Melastoma, which are morphologically similar to a natural hybrid, M. intermedium, by sequencing a chloroplast intergenic spacer, nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (nrITS) and two low-copy nuclear genes (tpi and cam) in these taxa and their putative parental species. Our sequence analysis results provide compelling evidence for the hybrid status of the two semi-creeping taxa: one originating from hybridization between M. dodecandrum and M. malabathricum, and the other between M. dodecandrum and M. normale. The origins of these hybrids are therefore clearly different from M. intermedium, and morphological similarity for the three hybrids is most likely due to
The fact is that the stature, leaf size and other vegetative characteristics of R. yakushimanum are determined by the environment, and have nothing to do with hybridity or the lack of it. As proof, the reader is referred to Figure 1. which is a photograph of a plant with small, convex leaves and compressed growth habit typical of the Exbury form and Koichiro Wada, F.C.C. However, the plant photographed happens to be Pink Parasol. It was grown in an impoverished soil, such as that on the mountain summits of Yaku Shima, with full exposure to drying sun and wind; it was never irrigated. This harsh treatment transformed the vigorous, large leaved Pink Parasol into a close-coupled Koichiro Wada with small, convex leaves. In early 1988 the plant was moved to a more favored site and its new growth is once again vigorous, with large, flat leaves. So it is apparent that gross morphology is no guide to hybridity in R. yakushimanum. The further truth is that no type specimen of R. yakushimanum ...
Phylogenetic relationships in Athyrium and Cornopteris were deduced from two chloroplast DNA fragments, rbcL and trnL 5exon-trnF, of 32 species, 2 varieties, 3 putative hybrids of Athyrium, three taxa of Cornopteris, and five outgroups. Athyrium is paraphyletic, and the Athyrium-Cornopteris complex comprises five clades. Clade I, the most basal, comprises A. niponicum, A. (=Anisocampium) sheareri, and A. (=Kuniwatsukia) cuspidatum. Clade II includes A. distentifolium and Cornopteris. All species of clades III and IV are diploids, while most species of Glade V are polyploids. The parentage of the putative hybrids and of species of hybrid origin were also suggested. The results were compared to previous major classifications based on morphology.. ...
How species arise is a fundamental and still unanswered question in biology. Under the biological species concept, species consist of populations of interbreeding individuals that are reproductively isolated from other such populations (Mayr 1942). Thus, to understand speciation, we must learn how reproductive barriers evolve between populations. Postzygotic reproductive barriers are commonly found in nature, and occur when hybrid progeny are relatively unfit in comparison to their parents and serve as inefficient bridges for gene flow between populations. Hybrids can be extrinsically unfit, in that they are maladapted to their environment (for example, hybrids exhibit an intermediate phenotype which is unfit in parental environments) or intrinsically unfit, in that they are developmentally abnormal (for example, hybrids are sterile or inviable) (Coyne and Orr 2004).. The Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller (BDM) model hypothesizes that hybrids are intrinsically unfit due to incompatible gene ...
It seems these would also be a great test system for more whole genome sequencing or at least more polymorphism comparisons to try and determine the proportion of the genome that comes from different parents and estimate timing and frequency of hybridization. It seems possible that the hybridizations are occurring multiple times in nature so are the same regions from each parental genome kept in the hybrid offspring that are selected for fitness under fermentation stress?. Gonzalez, S.S., Barrio, E., Querol, A. (2008). Molecular Characterization of New Natural Hybrids of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii in Brewing . Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 74(8), 2314-2320. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.01867-07. ...
FIG. 4. Minimum number of chromosomal rearrangements and restriction site changes to connect the different genotypes exhibited by the S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrids (Fig. 3; see also Table S••• in the supplemental material). Genotypes are represented by white and gray circles for wine and brewing hybrids, respectively. Rearrangements are indicated by arrows giving the direction of the irreversible change. Rearrangements were assumed to be caused by nonreciprocal recombination (rec) among homoeologous chromosomes (roman numbers) and whole chromosome losses (loss) of one of the parental chromosomes (kud, S. kudriavzevii). Restriction site changes can be reversible (gain/loss) and are represented by diamonds. The gene region and the restriction patterns involved are also indicated (for a description, see Tables S2 and S3 in the supplemental material). Dotted squares group genotypes of hybrids according to their mitochondrial COX2 haplotypes. ...
Genetic Diversity in Musa acuminata Colla and Musa balbisiana Colla and some of their natural hybrids using AFLP Markers.. PubMed. Ude, G.; Pillay, M.; Nwakanma, D.; Tenkouano, A.. 2002-06-01. Genetic diversity and relationships were assessed in 28 accessions of Musa acuminata (AA) Colla and Musa balbisiana (BB) Colla, and some of their natural hybrids, using the amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) technique. Fifteen AFLP +3 primer pairs produced 527 polymorphic bands among the accessions. Neighbor-joining and principal co-ordinate (PCO) analyses using Jaccards similarity coefficient produced four major clusters that closely corresponded with the genome composition of the accessions (AA, BB, AAB and ABB). The AFLP data distinguished between the wild diploid accessions and suggested new subspecies relationships in the M. acuminata complex that are different from those based on morphological data. The data suggested that there are three subspecies within the M. acuminata complex (ssp. ...
The evolution of reproductive isolating barriers that prevent gene flow between species is essential to the process of speciation. One such barrier is intrinsic postzygotic isolation, which proceeds as hybrid sterility or inviability, and is commonly attributed to Dobzhansky-Muller genic incompatibilities. Here, deleterious interlocus interactions occur between incompatible alleles of complementary genes when brought together in the genome of a hybrid. Although these hybrid incompatibilities are widespread, having been identified in mammals, fish, plants and fungi, still relatively little is known about the nature of the genes involved. In the model plant species Mimulus, a Dobzhansky-Muller incompatibility exists between two populations of the yellow monkey flower, Mimulus guttatus, in which the interaction between a single gene from a copper tolerant population, Copperopolis, and a small number of polymorphic genes from a second non-tolerant population, Cerig-y-drudion, results in hybrid ...
Read "Analysis of mtDNA and nuclear markers points to homoploid hybrid origin of the new species of Far Eastern redfins of the genus Tribolodon (Pisces, Cyprinidae), Russian Journal of Genetics" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Low available phosphorus (P) still remains a major limitation to maize (Zea mays L.) productivity in low P soils. The objectives of this study were to (i) determine the extent of genetic variation in P efficiency among selected Kenyan maize under low P soils (ii) select P efficient maize experimental hybrids. A total of 32 experimental hybrids were evaluated for variation in tolerance to low P at high P (36kgP/ha) and low P (6kgP/ha) conditions across four locations using split plot arrangement in RCBD replicated three times. Mean grain yield was significantly lower (2.49 t/ha) across the low P treatment compared to the high P treatments (4.78 t/ha). Relative yield reduction was comparable across the four locations except at Sega where it was a little higher (59.4%). A 48.9% mean yield reduction was observed at the low P treatment compared with the high P treatment across the locations. Eighteen out of the 32 experimental hybrids exhibited Agronomic Efficiency (AE) above the locational mean , ...
Determining the frequency and genetic impact of hybridization during animal speciation remains a central and unresolved issue in evolutionary biology. If reproductive isolation is incomplete when nascent species come into contact, even moderate gene flow may result in population fusion. Thus, recurrent hybridization among animal species has traditionally been viewed as rare. Alternatively, genetic factors underlying speciation may continue to accumulate between divergent populations despite on-going gene flow, eventually leading to the evolution of complete reproductive isolation. Consistent with this second model (divergence with gene flow), several recent studies have shown that closely related taxa may retain differentiation despite high levels of cryptic hybridization and introgression. If divergence with gene flow is common, then hybridization may often be an important transient phase in animal speciation. Furthermore, in such cases, phylogeny estimation in such cases will be rendered ...
Hybrids are often named by the portmanteau method, combining the names of the two parent species. For example, a zeedonk is a cross between a zebra and a donkey. Since the traits of hybrid offspring often vary depending on which species was mother and which was father, it is traditional to use the fathers species as the first half of the portmanteau. For example, a liger is a cross between a male lion and a female tiger, while a tiglon is a cross between a male tiger and a female lion ...
Selfish genetic elements and coevolved suppressors are often invoked as sources of hybrid incompatibility [9,16,48], but direct evidence for a specific role of genomic conflict in the evolution of BDM incompatibilities is rare. Cryptic CMS in plants, where mismatch between organellar and nuclear genes results in hybrid male sterility, epitomizes this gap. Despite abundant evidence that cryptic CMS is common [21,23,24] and robust theory that it should evolve selfishly [28], the links between pattern and process have been circumstantial to date [31]. Here, we present, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that mitochondrial CMS loci and associated nuclear restorers have evolved under the positive selection predicted by the conflict model. Our findings strongly point to selfish evolution/coevolution within one parental species, rather than negative epistasis limited only to hybrids, as the source of cytonuclear incompatibilites in crosses between hermaphroditic plant ...
Read "A TWO-SEX POLYGENIC MODEL FOR THE EVOLUTION OF PREMATING ISOLATION. II. COMPUTER SIMULATION OF EXPERIMENTAL SELECTION PROCEDURES, Genetics" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
D. obovata Ivans Paddle D. anglica CA HI D. beleziana - tetraploid F1 (cutting from natural hybrid NJ, Pine Barrens treated with Colchicine) ak
Research Interests:. Systematics and molecular evolution in mammals; particularly in geomyoid and cricetid rodents. Examination of hybrid zones between genetically distinct taxa; including isolating mechanisms and the dynamics of genetic introgression. Determining the origin of hybrizymes generated from 2 hybridization events. Chromosomal evolution and how changes in chromosome structure relate to models and mechanisms of speciation. Examination of the origin and evolution of rodent-borne viruses; especially in the use of rodent phylogenies and genetic structure to predict the transmission and evolution of the virus. Epidemiology and zoonoses of mammalian-borne viruses. Growth and utilization of natural history collections, especially those pertaining to mammals. Development of bioinformatics and how this field can better be interphased with natural history collections. Natural history and distributions of mammalian species. Genetic Species Concept and how it applies to mammals. How genomics and ...
The Bateson-Dobzhansky-Muller Model, also known as Dobzhansky-Muller Model, is a model of the evolution of genetic incompatibility, important in understanding the evolution of reproductive isolation during speciation and the role of natural selection in bringing it about. The theory was first described by William Bateson in 1909, then independently described by Theodosius Dobzhansky in 1934, and later elaborated in different forms by Herman Muller, H. Allen Orr and Sergey Gavrilets. The model states that genetic incompatibility is most likely evolved by alternative fixation of two or more loci instead of just one, so that when hybridization occurs, it is the first time for some of the alleles to co-occur in the same individual. For example, imagine two populations that only recently separated geographically. Both sides are starting with the same genotype AABB. One population can then evolve to aaBB, through the transition state AaBB, while the other evolves to AAbb, through the transition state ...
Hybrid Swarm Intelligence-Based Biclustering Approach for Recommendation of Web Pages: 10.4018/978-1-4666-6328-2.ch007: This chapter focuses on recommender systems based on the coherent users browsing patterns. Biclustering approach is used to discover the aggregate usage
Davis describes the much hybridized wheat of today as scarcely related to the wheat people began eating 10,000 years ago. That wild grass, called Einkorn, changed just a little through natural hybridization, over thousands of years. But in the last 50 years it has been hybridized and changed so dramatically that its genome is scarcely recognizable from that of its ancient ancestor. What began as a four foot tall grass with 14 genes now has been dwarfed, its stalks made sturdier, and its production beefed up to the point where it has over 40 genes, many of them never before encountered by humans. Todays wheat has far more gluten than its ancestors, giving rise to almost ubiquitous gluten intolerance and celiac disease. It even has proteins not found in any of its parents, including gluten structures unlike any ever seen in food before ...
In the marine environment, an increasing number of studies have documented introgression and hybridization using genetic markers. Hybridization appears to occur preferentially between sister-species, with the probability of introgression decreasing with an increase in evolutionary divergence. Exceptions to this pattern were reported for the Cape hakes (Merluccius capensis and M. paradoxus), two distantly related Merluciidae species that diverged 3-4.2 million years ago. Yet, it is expected that contemporary hybridization between such divergent species would result in reduced hybrid fitness. We analysed 1,137 hake individuals using nine microsatellite markers and control region mtDNA data to assess the validity of the described hybridization event. To distinguish between interbreeding, ancestral polymorphism and homplasy we sequenced the flanking region of the most divergent microsatellite marker. Simulation and empirical analyses showed that hybrid identification significantly varied with the ...
We are meeting this semester in the Biopharm 3rd Floor Fishbowl Mondays and Tuesdays 2-3pm. Please sign up for two dates on the schedule below. A list of topic ideas follows but you can choose anything related to speciation and hybridization. Subtopic Ideas: SPECIATION 1) What did Darwin say about speciation and hybridization? (First week) 2) When does a species become a species? How can the earliest stages of speciation be recognized? 3) How much genetic divergence should we expect within species? Are large genetic divergences within species due to polymorphisms/large population sizes, or artifacts, or are they simply due to our failure to recognize cryptic species? 4) Are there "speciation genes"? What are some examples? Are speciation genes restricted to a certain type of mutation or class of genes? HYBRIDIZATION: It has been estimated that at least 25% of plant species and 10% animal species hybridize* 1) How much gene flow occurs across species boundaries and what are the consequences for ...
We are meeting this semester in the Biopharm 3rd Floor Fishbowl Mondays and Tuesdays 2-3pm. Please sign up for two dates on the schedule below. A list of topic ideas follows but you can choose anything related to speciation and hybridization. Subtopic Ideas: SPECIATION 1) What did Darwin say about speciation and hybridization? (First week) 2) When does a species become a species? How can the earliest stages of speciation be recognized? 3) How much genetic divergence should we expect within species? Are large genetic divergences within species due to polymorphisms/large population sizes, or artifacts, or are they simply due to our failure to recognize cryptic species? 4) Are there "speciation genes"? What are some examples? Are speciation genes restricted to a certain type of mutation or class of genes? HYBRIDIZATION: It has been estimated that at least 25% of plant species and 10% animal species hybridize* 1) How much gene flow occurs across species boundaries and what are the consequences for ...
Principal Investigator:TAKATANI Tomohiro, Project Period (FY):2014-04-01 - 2017-03-31, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Aquatic life science
Erin Kelleher and Dan Barbash found that Drosophila hybrids have increased transposon activity due to the rapid evolution of proteins in the piRNA pathway. piRNAs act to repress transposons, and while piRNA transcripts are still made in the interspecific hybrids, they are not processed to their mature, functional forms. More details can be found in their PLOS Biology paper here. ...
Enchantment (F1 hybrid, Indeterminate, 72 days, resistant to verticilium and fusarium wilts 1 and 2, nematodes, and tobacco mosaic virus) is a 3" (7.5cm), oval salad tomato that grows in fat clusters spiraling around the vine. One of the most versatile tomatoes you can grow, it has great flavor, but is not so juicy that you cant make a quick sauce without having to cook off a lot of water.. Marketing system ...
The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecules storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters. ...
The Roman Catholic Bishops of England (RCBE) have told the UK parliament that inter-species embryos - those containing genetic information from both human and animals - should not be treated any differently from normal embryos, and that women should be given the chance to carry their genetic offspring to term.. There is currently a real shortage of human eggs for use in embryonic stem cell (ES cell) research. It is hoped the problem can be overcome through creating embryos by transferring human genetic material into hollowed out animal eggs. The resulting entity - a cybrid - would be over 99 per cent genetically human and less than one per cent animal. As it stands, the new draft Human Tissue and Embryos Bill will ban the creation of embryos that contain genetic material from both animals and humans, but will make an exception for certain types of research, including cybrid embryos. The draft Bill imposes a strict 14 day time limit on the use of these entities in research, at which point ...
The National Institutes of Health proposed lifting its moratorium on funding for research on part-animal, part-human embryos - which raises a huge dilemma, says bioethicist Insoo Hyun.
--An Overview of Todays Column Technology --What Makes Hybrid Particles Different? --Performance for Basic Compounds --Low-pH Stability --Improved High-pH Stability
Jake Steinbrecher passed away after he was given 1,000 times the correct dosage of Clonidine. Now, other parents are coming forward with their stories.
The other day I noticed a clump of off-white flowers thrusting itself up, like an aerial cauliflower, from somewhere at the overgrown rear of our old caravan. I got as close as I could and concluded that it must be an Olearia, a daisy bush, and one of the many New Zealand plants I had acquired over the years. It looked most like Olearia x haastii, a natural hybrid. Searching my computer I found a diary entry for the plant and discovered I had bought it from a local nursery in 1981 and planted it at the back of this self-same caravan. Presumably it has been struggling through brambles and nettles for 35 years finally to emerge into the sunshine ...
The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory researchers work will help predict how the Arctic is responding to climate change-and the global effects of those changes.. 0 Comments. ...
Feature selection is the process of selecting a subset of relevant, non-redundant features from the original ones. It is an NP-hard combinatorial optimization problem. In this paper, we propose a new...
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This species might be a good source of drought resistance because of its extensive root system able to reach very deep into the water table. L. peruvianum is an important source of virus and nematode resistance. Level of DNA polymorphism within accessions and species is highly correlated with mating system. The self incompatible (SI) species are 10 fold more variable than the SC species. Zuriaga et al (2009) has reported the most recent phylogenetic treatment of the species in the section Lycopersicon based on AFLP and nuclear sequences CT179 and CT66. They failed to distinguish S. corneliomulleri from S. peruvianum. Otherwise the species relationships is very similar to that reported by Nesbitt and Tanksley (2002). Cytogenetics of species hybrids. Hybrids between tomato and the colored fruited species classified under the subgenus Eulycopersicon behave like intraspecific tomato hybrids (Rick and Butler 1956). No evidence of chromosomal differentiation has been observed among these ...
Class meets 4/9 - 5/14. This section is a hybrid class. On campus sessions meet on the days listed. The balance of instruction occurs online as directed by the course syllabus. Class meets 4/9-4/18 with final on 5/14 in C167. Section LSA is a late start/hybrid class. On campus sessions meet on the days listed. The balance of instruction occurs online as directed by the course syllabus. Additional Fee: $13.50. ...
Author Summary Speciation, the process by which one species splits into two, involves reproductive barriers between previously interbreeding populations. The question of how speciation occurs has rightly occupied the attention of biologists since before Darwins
They are often categorized as F1, F2, F3, F4 and F6, which indicates how many generations they are removed from the original wild individual. This means that, unlike the domestic house cat (felis catus), which has had over 9000 years of close contact with humans, and has been selectively bred over centuries for adaption to such a lifestyle, hybrid cat breeds have lived only a few generations with people. These different hybrids generally look and act quite different from each other, depending on how great a percentage of their bloodline is wild ...
quote][i]Originally posted by northome[/i] [br]The only way to get a new genetic defect in your line is to outcross to something outside. Now, this is assuming that you have been line breeding the same line for generations and not seeing that defect. If that is the case, you can make a pretty safe bet that the defect doesnt exist in your line. If you are trying to improve your breed stock, it doesnt make any sense to import defects. If you outcross to two different lines that dont apparently display a certain defect, but it resides in their recessive genes separately, you can get it from both sides and end up with tons of it without being able to assign origin. I would like to do away with the misconceptions surrounding "hybrid vigor". What many of you think is hybrid vigor is absolutely not it. The key word here is vigor. Vigor means overall well being, strength, vitality, longevity, fertility, etc. If you are experiencing hybrid vigor, you should notice a dramatic decline in your vet bills ...
PLANT - FAMILY - FLOWER - GENERA - JOURNAL - ARTICOLO - PLANTS - PIANTE - BOTANIQUE - ROŚLINY - SINONIM - FAMIGLIA - BOTANY - NAUKA - SINONIMO - BOTANICA - WYCIECZKA - TRAVEL - SINÓNIMO - FRUIT - ARTICOLO - SYNONIEM - CZASOPISMO - SYNONYM - SYNONYME - SYSTEMATIC - SYSTEMATYKA - SZINONIMA - SYSTEMATYKA - RODZINA - ARTYKUŁ - ARTICLE - FLOWER - KWIATY - OWOC - SEEDS - NASIONA - CULTIVATION - USE - WATERING - PROPAGATION - PESTSM - DISEASES - FERTILIZATION - HOUSE - GARDEN - BOWL - KWITNIENIE - FLOWERBED - SOIL - POND - MARSH - SPECIES - HYBRIDS - VEGETABLE GARDEN - UPRAWA - ZASTOSOWANIE - PODLEWANIE - ROZMNAŻANIE - SZKODNIKI - CHOROBY - NAWOŻENIE - ROŚLINY DOMOWE - ROŚLINY BALKONOWE - ROŚLINY TARASOWE - OGRÓD - POJEMNIK - SUBSTRAT - PODŁOŻE - KERAMZYT - GLINA - TORF - DONICA - DONICZKA - ZIEMIA - RABATA - GLEBA - ROŚLINY WODNE - STAW - WODA - ROŚLINY BAGIENNE - OWOCE - WARZYWA - SPRZEDAŻ ROŚLIN - GATUNKI - MIESZAŃCE - CV - KULTYWARY ...
PLANT - FAMILY - FLOWER - GENERA - JOURNAL - ARTICOLO - PLANTS - PIANTE - BOTANIQUE - ROŚLINY - SINONIM - FAMIGLIA - BOTANY - NAUKA - SINONIMO - BOTANICA - WYCIECZKA - TRAVEL - SINÓNIMO - FRUIT - ARTICOLO - SYNONIEM - CZASOPISMO - SYNONYM - SYNONYME - SYSTEMATIC - SYSTEMATYKA - SZINONIMA - SYSTEMATYKA - RODZINA - ARTYKUŁ - ARTICLE - FLOWER - KWIATY - OWOC - SEEDS - NASIONA - CULTIVATION - USE - WATERING - PROPAGATION - PESTSM - DISEASES - FERTILIZATION - HOUSE - GARDEN - BOWL - KWITNIENIE - FLOWERBED - SOIL - POND - MARSH - SPECIES - HYBRIDS - VEGETABLE GARDEN - UPRAWA - ZASTOSOWANIE - PODLEWANIE - ROZMNAŻANIE - SZKODNIKI - CHOROBY - NAWOŻENIE - ROŚLINY DOMOWE - ROŚLINY BALKONOWE - ROŚLINY TARASOWE - OGRÓD - POJEMNIK - SUBSTRAT - PODŁOŻE - KERAMZYT - GLINA - TORF - DONICA - DONICZKA - ZIEMIA - RABATA - GLEBA - ROŚLINY WODNE - STAW - WODA - ROŚLINY BAGIENNE - OWOCE - WARZYWA - SPRZEDAŻ ROŚLIN - GATUNKI - MIESZAŃCE - CV - KULTYWARY ...
Abstract : Several interspecific and interganeric hybrids of Indian major carps : Catla catla, Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala and Labeo calbasu (Chaudhuri 1959, 1971 & 1973; Naseem Hamza 1971; Naseem Hamza & Alikunhi, 1971; Varghese & Sukumaran, 1971; Chondar 1977) and those of Indian major carps with exotic carps viz. common carp (Alikunhi & Chaudhuri 1959; Kowtal & Gupta 1984, Khan et al; 1986 and Gupta et al; 1986) and silver carp (Ibrahim et al; 1980) have been artificially produced through hypophysation. From natural ecosystems such as reservoir and dry bundhs, several hybrids have been recorded (Desai & Rao, 1970; Tripathi et al; 1974, Tripathi and Sharaf 1974; Natarajan et al; 1976 & Prasad 1976). Many of these hybrids were found to be intermediate in characters of the parent species. Only a few hybrids, both artificially produced and naturally occurring, have been studied in detail for their cultural qualities and adaptability to various environments. In the present communication an ...
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Hybrid poplars are being grown throughout many regions of the world for purposes including the production of fiber and energy, ornamental landscape plantings,,and soil stabilization. Disease has often been responsible for planting failures resulting in poplars being labeled the universal host to many damaging pathogens. However, many of the poplar species and their hybrids are not native to the areas where they are being planted and so they do not have resistance to the local pathogen populations they are exposed to. Currently research is aimed at detecting pathogenic variation in populations of fungi affecting poplars and in gaining knowledge of the underlying genetic mechanisms of disease resistance in poplars. Significant progress is being made in breeding for disease resistance and in developing poplar clones that are better adapted to the sites on which they are being planted. There is evidence that some phenological traits,of clones such as time of leaf flush and leaf fall may be used to select
Mule, the hybrid offspring of a male ass (jackass, or jack) and a female horse (mare). The less-frequent cross between a female ass and a male horse results in a hinny, or hinney, which is smaller than a mule. Mules were beasts of burden in Asia Minor at least 3,000 years ago and are still used
This paper presents a new hybrid propulsion system that has been developed to address environmental issues related to the automotive powertrain, based on the view that such systems will be a core automotive technology in the future. To achieve market acceptance, it is essential that hybrid systems do not compromise engine performance or driving performance. The following target performance characteristics were considered to be important in the development of this hybrid propulsion system for the Japanese market. First, driving performance should not be sacrificed for the mere reason that it is a hybrid car. Second, fuel economy should be twice that of gasoline-powered vehicles in the same class under 10-15 test mode operation, or even better. Further, performance in other areas should be comparable to conventional vehicles. The system presented here has two motors for propulsion and energy regeneration. Both are inverter type permanent magnetic synchronous motors. The traction motor is located ...
Reproductive barriers exist between the house mouse subspecies, Mus musculus musculus and M. m. domesticus, members of the Mus musculus species complex, primarily as a result of hybrid male infertilit
artificial hybrid download Farmacologia Ilustrada author. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing, 1994, 238--254. Brenda Fawcett and Graeme Hirst, reliable of the intrinsic Annual Meeting, Association for Computational Linguistics, policy 192--199, June, New York AbstractAmbiguities were to