The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether, in people with dry eye syndrome, over the counter artificial tears and the prescription eye drop, dexamethasone, change or effect the eyes response to a low humidity environment.. It is known that irritation from dry eye can be improved by over the counter artificial tears because they wet and lubricate the eyes. The prescription eye drop, dexamethasone, can also improve eye irritation by decreasing the inflammation that develops in dry eye. Thus, the investigators hypothesize that the use of these conventional dry eye treatments will improve the eyes response to a low humidity environment. ...
The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether, in people with dry eye syndrome, over the counter artificial tears and the prescription eye drop, dexamethasone, change or effect the eyes response to a low humidity environment.. It is known that irritation from dry eye can be improved by over the counter artificial tears because they wet and lubricate the eyes. The prescription eye drop, dexamethasone, can also improve eye irritation by decreasing the inflammation that develops in dry eye. Thus, the investigators hypothesize that the use of these conventional dry eye treatments will improve the eyes response to a low humidity environment. ...
We are all able to tell whether an atmosphere is hot or cold the moment we enter it, but perceiving whether air has a low humidity is not as obvious to us. Our senses are not so refined as to "feel" the moisture content of the air we breathe into our lungs or which touches our skin.. However, the direct and indirect effects of dry air on our health are significant. Prolonged exposure to a low humidity can result in health problems for many organs (brain, kidneys, circulation, skin and eyes) and reduced resistance against chronic and acute airborne pollution, respiratory infections and allergies.. Maintaining the optimum humidity in a workplace improves employee health, which in turn reduces absenteeism and enhances productivity.. The Chartered Institute for Personnel, in its Absence Management report 2015, stated that minor illness, such as colds and flu, remain the most common cause of short-term illness. Improving a buildings humidity control is an effective and economic way to prevent this ...
Mixed halide Perovskite solar cells are commonly produced by depositing PbCl2 and CH3NH3I from a common solvent followed by thermal annealing, which in an up-scaled manufacturing process is likely to take place under ambient conditions. However, it has been reported that, similar to the effects of thermal annealing, ambient humidity also affects the crystallisation behaviour and subsequent growth of the Perovskite films. This implies that both of these factors must be accounted for in solar cell production. In this work, we report for the first time the correlation between the annealing time, relative humidity and device performance for inverted, mixed halide CH3NH3PbI(3-x)Clx Perovskite solar cells with active area ≈1 cm2. We find a trade-off between ambient humidity and the required annealing time to produce efficient solar cells, with low humidities needing longer annealing times and vice-versa. At around 20% RH, device performance depends relatively weakly on annealing time, but at higher ...
Formaldehyde emissions from fiberglass and polyester filters used in building heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems were measured in bench-scale tests using 10 and 17 cm2 coupons over 24 to 720 h periods. Experiments were performed at room temperature and four different relative humidity settings (20, 50, 65, and 80% RH). Two different air flow velocities across the filters were explored: 0.013 and 0.5 m/s. Fiberglass filters emitted between 20 and 1000 times more formaldehyde than polyester filters under similar RH and airflow conditions. Emissions increased markedly with increasing humidity, up to 10 mg/h-m2 at 80% RH. Formaldehyde emissions from fiberglass filters coated with tackifiers (impaction oils) were lower than those from uncoated fiberglass media, suggesting that hydrolysis of other polymeric constituents of the filter matrix, such as adhesives or binders was likely the main formaldehyde source. These laboratory results were further validated by performing a small ...
Pritha Ghosh, Randall Q. Snurr Northwestern University, Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering Activated carbons impregnated with metal salts are the current standard for adsorption and capture of toxic industrial chemicals (TICs). Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) are an attractive alternative due to their chemically tunable nature and relative ease of synthesis. MOFs have been reported to outperform activated carbons in capturing TICs, especially MOFs containing open metal sites (Britt et al., PNAS 2008, 105, 11623). However, in the presence of ambient humidity, water molecules coordinate to the open metal sites, leading to a drastic decrease in the MOFs capacity to capture TICs (Grant Glover et al., Chem. Eng. Sci. 2011, 66, 163). Since TICs may need to be captured under humid conditions (such as in a gas mask), it is important to assess adsorption of TICs in MOFs with water vapor present. In this work, we model the adsorption of TICs under humid conditions in a set of hydrophobic ...
Nowadays PEMFC with hydrogen fuel has developed to commercialize to replace the conventional machine. Several limitations in PEMFC commercialization are its low efficiency, viability of hydrogen fuel supply and problem of controlling fuel and water as reaction products. Effective effort to increase efficiency and water management include elevating temperature of PEMFC operation near water boiling point to increase energy produced, prevent water flooding, enhanced cooling efficiency and also the possibility to use hydrogen and air under lower humidity in order to make simples PEMFC design. But at elevated temperature and low relative humidity, Nafion membrane that during the time still used as electrolyte will shrink and at high humidity and high temperature above 80oC membrane will swell and irreversibility decay occur. Membrane shrinking and swelling will reduce PEMFC performance. The objective of this study is to investigate the usage of Nafion-SiO2-PWA nanocomposite membrane NS10W, NS15W and ...
Using the guinea pig as a model host, we show that aerosol spread of influenza virus is dependent upon both ambient relative humidity and temperature. Twenty experiments performed at relative humidities from 20% to 80% and 5°C, 20°C, or 30°C indicated that both cold and dry conditions favor transmission. The relationship between transmission via aerosols and relative humidity at 20°C is similar to that previously reported for the stability of influenza viruses (except at high relative humidity, 80%), implying that the effects of humidity act largely at the level of the virus particle. For infected guinea pigs housed at 5°C, the duration of peak shedding was approximately 40 h longer than that of animals housed at 20°C; this increased shedding likely accounts for the enhanced transmission seen at 5°C. To investigate the mechanism permitting prolonged viral growth, expression levels in the upper respiratory tract of several innate immune mediators were determined. Innate responses proved to ...
Poor humidity levels can lead to many problems. Here you can find info on ideal indoor humidity levels and what you can do to maintain them.
Learn more about Higher Indoor Humidity Levels Might Slow Flus Spread at Memorial Hospital Higher Indoor Humidity Levels Might Slow Flus Spread Study...
The main route of transmission of SARS CoV infection is presumed to be respiratory droplets. However the virus is also detectable in other body fluids and excreta. The stability of the virus at different temperatures and relative humidity on smooth surfaces were studied. The dried virus on smooth surfaces retained its viability for over 5 days at temperatures of 22-25°C and relative humidity of 40-50%, that is, typical air-conditioned environments. However, virus viability was rapidly lost (3 log10) at higher temperatures and higher relative humidity (e.g., 38°C, and relative humidity of 95%). The better stability of SARS coronavirus at low temperature and low humidity environment may facilitate its transmission in community in subtropical area (such as Hong Kong) during the spring and in air-conditioned environments. It may also explain why some Asian countries in tropical area (such as Malaysia, Indonesia or Thailand) with high temperature and high relative humidity environment did not have ...
AsianProducts Temperature-Humidity Chamber directory - It includes sources from Temperature-Humidity Chamber manufacturers and Temperature-Humidity Chamber suppliers, and those qualified Temperature-Humidity Chamber manufacturer are extensively from china, Taiwan, Hong Kong.
Indoor Air Quality is an increasing concern in the world today. The mere presence of people in a building or residence can significantly alter indoor air quality. Relative humidity over the range of normal indoor temperatures (66 - 80 degrees Farenheit) has been linked both directly and indirectly to various health and structural problems. The purpose of this project was to discover whether residential dwellings might benefit from an indoor humidification system. The project consisted of the deployment of three separate sensor networks consisting of 12 tmote sky modules manufactured by the Moteiv corporation, each equipped with a temperature and humidity sensor manufactured by Sensirion. Each tmote sky module continuously transmitted the raw data readings to a base station to be processed. The lifetime of each network was approximately four days of continuous data transmission. The results verified the hypothesis that relative humidity levels have a significant affect on the indoor environment and
Thirsty blowflies whose tarsi come into contact with water will respond with proboscis extension. When flies were exposed to high or low relative humidities (RH) prior to testing, the tarsal taste thresholds to sucrose in flies that were unresponsive to water alone increased or decreased, respectively. Evidently, thirst can also be subthreshold and recognizable only as a change in threshold to aqueous sucrose.. Thresholds to sucrose and fructose, which were in the millimolar range in 3-day-old adult flies held at 55-70% RH prior to testing, fell significantly after the flies had been held at low humidity (13-20% RH) for several hours. There was no low-humidity-dependent drop in threshold with galactose or xylose, sugars to which flies normally have thresholds in the 102mmoll−1 range.. Flies held at low relative humidity exhibited increased tarsal thresholds to sucrose when they were injected with water or were allowed to drink water adlibitum. When multiple injections of water were given, ...
With the humidity dropping and the winds blowing, there could be trouble ahead for firefighters working to tame the Wine Country fires. The North Bay fires have been fueled partly by dry air, and forecasters at the National Weather Service said that could get worse Saturday night and Sunday morning. Relative humidity levels are projected to plunge into the single digits in higher elevations of Sonoma and Napa counties. Humidity levels at lower elevations are expected to stay in the teens to 20 percent.
Image: Michal Marcol / FreeDigitalPhotos.net). Teddington, UK -?? A two day training course on humidity measurement and calibration, covering measurement techniques, terms and definitions;,calculations, traceability and calibration and hands-on laboratory sessions.. The course will open with an introductory session on humidity terms and definitions followed by talks that will cover the necessary background to the subject with full course notes provided. A tour of the NPL Humidity laboratory, plus hands-on sessions, will give a practical introduction to humidity measurement and calibration techniques.. This will be reinforced with talks on uncertainties, traceability and accreditation.. To view the programme, click here for the current/most recent course flyer.. All participants will receive a certificate of attendance.. This course is suitable for technicians and technical managers closely concerned with humidity measurement and calibration.. The course will be given by members of the NPL ...
Improved water insensitive bonded perlite structural materials are produced by combining expanded perlite with an aqueous solution of an alkali metal silicate and thereafter molding the mixture into a desired shape and curing the molded mixture under closely controlled temperature and humidity conditions. The aqueous solution of alkali metal silicate will be either a sodium silicate solution or a potassium silicate solution. The temperature and humidity conditions for curing the molded perlite and alkali metal silicate mixture are from about 180.degree. F. to about 225.degree. F. and from about 30% to about 60% relative humidity. By carrying out the curing process under the closely controlled temperature and relative humidity conditions, a water insoluble crystalline reaction product is formed between the alkali metal silicate and the reactive expanded perlite.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Friction and wear of monolithic and glass-fiber reinforced PA66 in humid conditions. AU - Kim, J. W.. AU - Jang, Ho. AU - Woo Kim, Jin. PY - 2014/1/15. Y1 - 2014/1/15. N2 - Effect of water absorption on friction and wear of polyamides, namely monolithic polyamide 66 (PA66) and PA66 composite with 30. wt% of short glass fibers, was investigated using a block-on-ring-type tribotester. Monolithic PA66 showed high wear rates after water absorption because of softening by the absorbed water molecules and increased interfacial adhesion on the steel counter surface. Degraded wear characteristics of monolithic PA66 by chain scission of the amide functional group by water molecules were substantially improved by short glass-fiber reinforcement. The improved friction and wear characteristics were attributed to contact plateaus produced during sliding, which were held by condensed glass fibers, suggesting possible applications of PA66 in a humid environment by reinforcing it with short ...
While cryogen spray cooling (CSC) can protect skin epidermis from non-specific thermal damage, spray droplets in-flight and the cryogen/frost layer that forms on the skin surface may pose a potential problem for laser light attenuation due to absorption and/or scattering. Employing a hand piece expressly designed for concurrent light and cryogen delivery on skin phantoms, we studied the effect of relative humidity on light transmittance during and after spray cooling. Cryogen spurts were aimed at a microscope glass slide and a deformable agar phantom preheated at 32°C. According to our results, relative humidity plays a very important role in the light transmission during CSC. Light absorption and/or scattering by the spray droplets in-flight and cryogen/frost layer formation at the surface induced light attenuation values of up to 45%. The higher the relative humidity is, the lower the light transmission ...
STUDY OF THE INFLUENCING NATURE OF METEOROLOGICAL FACTORS AIR TEMPERATURE AND RELATIVE HUMIDITY ON THE EXHALATION PROCESS OF 222RN/220RN GASES AT MAT FAULT
To determine the effect of humidity on the levels of the mouse allergen Mus m 1, an experimental animal room was constructed to control environmental variables. The sex, strain, age, and number of mice was constant in the room, so that the average daily production of Mus m 1 would not vary greatly. Six different levels of relative humidity from 15% to 65% were maintained for a minimum of a week each. Daily collections of airborne particulates were eluted from filters and Mus m 1 content measured by immunological assay. Increasing relative humidity caused a decrease in Mus m 1 levels from a high of 3 ng/m3 at 15% humidity to a low of 0.5 ng/m3 at 65% humidity. Thus, reduction of airborne allergen levels can be achieved by careful attention to humidity control, especially during the winter heating season when humidity levels may be low. This experimental room can be used to measure the effect of other variables such as ventilation rate, caging, bedding, and work practices on the levels of
The Eos® Complete Humidity Controller allows you to accurately and efficiently control the humidity levels in your garden. Set your desired humidity level and the controller will activate and deactivate humidifying and dehumidifying equipment appropriately. This controller also features low temperature protection in the event that achieving the desired humidity level results in an undesirable temperature. This Eos unit features a 15 ft remote sensors that monitors your temperature and humidity levels. The easy to use analog style interface makes programming the controller a simple task. Day and night settings allow for accurate environmental control ...
What is the correct humidity level for hatching Call duck eggs? I am a little confused.[IMG] Im going to be putting eggs in the incubator pretty soon....
People manage home humidity levels in several ways, including properly ventilating clothes dryers and washers outside, running fans to have air continually circulating, operating whole-house...
Question - Coughing, sleeplessness, did not improve after reducing humidity level. Do you know what it could be?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Persistant cough, Ask an ENT Specialist
China Temperature And Humidity Measurement manufacturers - Select 2017 high quality Temperature And Humidity Measurement products in best price from certified Chinese High Temperature Gauge manufacturers, Water Temperature Gauge suppliers, wholesalers and factory on Made-in-China.com
The humidifier is the part that will maintain the humidity level in your humidor. Most of the humidors comes with so called "green foam" humidification systems. While its the most commun humidification system, it works only one way by increasing humidity level but will not lower humidity if necessary. We recommend to update to the latest technologies like the crystals, gel or beads that work both ways and really help maintain 70% humidity in your humidor ...
Adsorption plays a key role in the volatile organic compound (VOC) photocatalytic oxidation performance and kinetic behavior. It can lead to VOC mixture sequential treatment or even photocatalyst deactivation. The aim of this work is to determine qualitative and quantitative data regarding VOC adsorption on P25 TiO2. Acetaldehyde and acetic acid adsorption on TiO2 have been studied under both dry and humid conditions. Three experimental methods have been used: breakthrough curves, room temperature desorptions and temperature-programmed desorptions. First, acetaldehyde and acetic acid adsorptions are studied individually. Dry and humid experiments provide complementary pieces of information to identify the adsorption modes, in accordance with literature. The Langmuir model parameters (adsorption constant (K), reversible and irreversible maximum adsorbed amounts (q(m,rev) and q(m,irr)), and adsorption enthalpy Delta H) are determined for each VOC. Based on experimental results, a model for acetaldehyde
Development of a humidity measurement infrastructure will provide the tools needed to improve efficiency and quality in industry. Humidity is one of the most important properties affecting everyday processes from indoor ventilation to the storage of food products and pharmaceuticals. As a result, the ability to accurately measure humidity is vital to increasing efficiency, competiveness and providing quality assurance across a huge variety of European industries. This project has developed new measurement methods and shares best practice with emerging NMIs by providing an infrastructure for reliable, traceable humidity measurements across Europe. A particular focus has been placed on capabilities to meet the needs of each countrys key industries to allow them to gain a competitive edge. Strategies for the continued development of humidity measurement capabilities will be developed, to prepare the future metrological landscape and ensure European industry has access to the facilities it needs ...
Question - Trouble breathing in hot and humid conditions. Have pulmonary fibrosis. What is going on? . Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Pulmonary fibrosis, Ask an ENT Specialist
Xikar Crystal Humidifiers are reliable and effective alternatives to traditional humidification devices. Each Crystal Humidifier is prefilled upon arrival. Simply unwrap the humidifier and place in your humidor. A slow and steady 70% humidity level is dispersed. Clear polycarbonate cases house gel crystals which can saturate 450 times their weight with propylene glycol solution. A magnetic attachment firmly affixes the humidifier to the inner lid of your humidor. The Crystal 50 is designed to maintain as many as 50 cigars in a volume of 500 cubic inches at 70% humidity, while the Crystal 100 will handle up to 100 cigars in a volume of 850 cubic inches at 70% humidity. Recharge the humidifier with propylene glycol solution. Durations between refills may vary depending on temperature and quantity of cigars. Relieve your humidification worries with Xikar today!
This paper presents the main findings of the effect of indoor humidity on occupants thermal comfort in the humid tropics of Malaysia. An extensive field investigation was carried out in Kota Kinabalu city and the surrounding areas, located in East Malaysia. A total of 890 individuals were asked to complete a questionnaire. Measured indoor climates were also recorded. The survey was designed as cross sectional data collection. The present investigation found that the occupants were thermally comfortable at wide relative humidity range. The mean relative humidity corresponding to the optimum comfort temperature was close to 73%. Regression models failed to predict accurately the effect of relative humidity on occupants thermal perceptions. In addition, a quadratic regression model was developed for the prediction of the mean indoor relative humidity based on indoor temperature. The suggested regression model can be used for an approximate prediction of indoor relative humidity when required.
Fresh-cut produce is one of the fastest growing convenience food industries in history. Fresh-cut fruits and vegetables offer a number of advantages over whole produce, including cost control, waste reduction, variety selection, consistent quality and safety, and less in-store labor (Luo 2007). However, the fresh-cut industry and the evolving processes used to sustain freshness face considerable challenges.. The main problem that makes fresh-cut fruit a highly perishable product is the microbial growth caused by the accumulation of leaked juice rich in nutrients in the bottom of containers (Brecht 2006). Operations such as peeling, cutting, or slicing greatly increase tissue damage of fresh-cut fruits, causing the release of intracellular liquids, and consequently increase microbial growth, which is the principal deteriorative and safety problem involved in the fresh-cut industry (Brecht 2006). Additionally, as a response/consequence to wounding during processing and microbial growth during ...
article{f96f2b44-2869-4388-8329-6cce4733adf2, abstract = {One of the intensively explored domains of the current bionanotechnology is the focus for search of nano-materials intended to develop high throughput electronic devices. Among the questioned physical materials deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has given promising background to be explored as potential nanowire material for aspiring nano-devices. The distinguished characteristics of electron hopping between DNA bases intrigues investigators to provide insights of the structrual properties of the DNA under varying relative humidity condition. Present manuscript attempts to provide insights for conductance of double stranded λ-DNA and its short stretch of intrinsic sequences in correspondence to structural distortion as a result of different relative humidity (RH) conditions.}, author = {Ajore, Ram and Kaur, Inderpreet and Kaur, Harsimran and Bharadwaj, Lalit M}, issn = {2324-8777}, language = {eng}, month = {12}, number = {7}, publisher = ...
Aims: To present the more utilized types of humidifiers in mechanical ventilation circuits, mainly in pediatric patients, and to analyze their advantages and disadvantages. Source of data: Review of the scientific literature through a PubMed/Medline search, emphasizing the words humidification, mechanical ventilation, children, heated humidifiers and heat and moisture exchangers. Also included were book chapters about the subject. Summary of the findings: During mechanical ventilation, humidification and warming of inspired gases are required to prevent the effects of cool and dry gases on the tracheobronquial epithelium. The most used devices are heated humidifiers and heat and moisture exchangers. Conclusions: There are no consensus about the better device to humidification and warming of gases, mainly in pediatrics, but we observed the trend to use the heat and moisture exchangers, because of simplicity and low expense. New research is needed to optimize the heat and moisture exchangers, ...
Method. Nebulized influenza was coughed into the examination room and Bioaerosol samplers collected size-fractionated aerosols (,1 µM, 1-4 µM, and ,4 µM aerodynamic diameters) adjacent to the breathing manikins mouth and also at other locations within the room. At constant temperature, the RH was varied from 7-73% and infectivity was assessed by the viral plaque assay.. Results. Total virus collected for 60 minutes retained 70.6-77.3% infectivity at relative humidity ≤23% but only 14.6-22.2% at relative humidity ≥43%. Analysis of the individual aerosol fractions showed a similar loss in infectivity among the fractions. Time interval analysis showed that most of the loss in infectivity within each aerosol fraction occurred 0-15 minutes after coughing. Thereafter, losses in infectivity continued up to 5 hours after coughing, however, the rate of decline at 45% relative humidity was not statistically different than that at 20% regardless of the aerosol fraction analyzed.. Conclusion. At low ...
From this study, "In every experiment, the temperature was held constant at 25˚C, and the starting relative humidity (RH) was set to 0% RH. The RH was programmed to step in 10% increments ending at 90% RH. The RH was incremented to the next level only when the mass change was less than 0.005%/min. NaPCA [sodium PCA] was a more effective humectant at high relative humidities (above 60% RH); while glycerin performed better at humidities below 40% RH. Washing the skin with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) reduced the skins ability to absorb water more so than washing with Tween 80, a milder surfactant. Vaseline petroleum jelly enhanced the water-retention properties of untreated skin." From page 39, "Glycerin outperforms NaPCA at humidities below 40%." Page 40, "Clearly, Table 3 shows that the skin samples treated with Vaseline experienced a lower rate of water loss." Page 40, "Of the moisturizers that were examined in this study, glycerin was one of the most efficient at absorbing water at low ...
Hey, so Im getting my tank set up for a beardie that I plan on getting pretty quick, and I have two digital thermometers on either end of my tank that measure humidity levels and temperatures. The temp of it is 35⁰C but the humidity levels under it sits normally between 20-25% while humid levels at the other end of my tank normally sit at about 45%. I was wondering if thats alright or if you know something that would help. Ive considered misting the one side a little, but I dont want to increase the humidity levels at the other end since theyre already pretty ...
The structure and transport properties of a four different films based on two different generations of microfibrillated cellulose (MFC), alone or in combination with glycerol as plasticizer, were investigated through FE-SEM analysis and sorption or permeation experiments. FE-SEM revealed the existence of complex structures in the different samples. A porous, closely packed fiber network, more homogeneous in the samples containing glycerol, was characteristic of the surface of MFC films; while film cross-sections presented a dense layered structure with no evidence of porosity. Water vapor sorption experiments confirmed the hydrophilic character of these cellulosic materials and showed a dual effect of glycerol which reduced the water uptake at low water activity while enhancing it at high relative humidity. The water diffusion in dry samples was remarkably slow for a porous material, confirming the existence of complex structures below the film surface. In contrast, the diffusion coefficient was ...
We have noticed in the past month a very high humidity level in our home. I took a reading yesterday and it was 79% rh in the house. We have done nothing different in the past month that would cause this that I can think of. We tightened up the house with new windows and siding two years ago, other than that nothing new. We have an old stone foundation and the basement has always been damp. The weather has been mild reciently so we have had the windows closed and kept the furnace off. I
In our continued quest to save you as much cash as humanly possible, today we help you sleep better and breathe better with a bargain. It could also potentially help you fight the flu. Ultrasonic mist humidifiers maintain the air humidity level in your home or office at 40 percent to purify air, improve the respiratory system and keep your skin healthy. Recent studies have shown that keeping indoor air at a relative humidity level of 40 percent reduces the survival of flu viruses on surfaces and in the air ...
Mercury compounds in the atmosphere may be present in the gas phase, the aqueous phase (rain, cloud and fog droplets and deliquesced aerosol particles), and in the solid phase, either irreversibly or reversibly bound to atmospheric aerosol particles. The diagram below (the frontispiece to the MAMCS / MOE special issue of Atmospheric Environment , vol. 35 issue 17, 2001), shows the possible chemical and physical changes which Mercury may undergo.. Gas-Particle Partitioning. Non-hygroscopic particles (and hygroscopic particles under low humidity conditions) provide a surface which elemental mercury and RGM may adsorb on to, and this will effect mercury deposition. There are many different types of aerosol particle and each will have different adsorption characteristics for elemental mercury and RGM. The low frequency of precipitation events during the Mediterranean summer prompted the evaluation of Hg adsorption and subsequent deposition as a possibly important pathway for Hg input into the ...
The depletion of the petroleum resources and a number of environmental concerns led to considerable research efforts in the field of biodegradable materials over the last few decades. Of the diverse range of biopolymers, wheat gluten (WG) stands out as an alternative to synthetic plastics in packaging applications due to its attractive combination of flexibility and strength, high gas barrier properties under low humidity conditions and renewability. The availability of raw materials has also been largely increased with an increase in the production of WG as a low-cost surplus material due to increasing demand for ethanol as fuel. In this study, WG was processed into films, sheets and composites using some of the most widely used techniques including solution casting, compression molding, extrusion and injection molding, accompanying process optimizations and characterization of their functional properties. This thesis consists mainly of six parts based on the purpose of the study. The first ...
Abstract. There is mounting evidence that the aerosol transmission route plays a significant role in the spread of influenza in temperate regions and that the efficiency of this route depends on humidity.. Nevertheless, the precise mechanisms by which humidity might influence transmissibility via the aerosol route have not been elucidated.. We hypothesize that airborne concentrations of infectious influenza A viruses (IAVs) vary with humidity through its influence on virus inactivation rate and respiratory droplet size.. To gain insight into the mechanisms by which humidity might influence aerosol transmission, we modeled the size distribution and dynamics of IAVs emitted from a cough in typical residential and public settings over a relative humidity (RH) range of 10-90%.. The model incorporates the size transformation of virus-containing droplets due to evaporation and then removal by gravitational settling, ventilation, and virus inactivation. The predicted concentration of infectious IAVs in ...
Abstract. There is mounting evidence that the aerosol transmission route plays a significant role in the spread of influenza in temperate regions and that the efficiency of this route depends on humidity.. Nevertheless, the precise mechanisms by which humidity might influence transmissibility via the aerosol route have not been elucidated.. We hypothesize that airborne concentrations of infectious influenza A viruses (IAVs) vary with humidity through its influence on virus inactivation rate and respiratory droplet size.. To gain insight into the mechanisms by which humidity might influence aerosol transmission, we modeled the size distribution and dynamics of IAVs emitted from a cough in typical residential and public settings over a relative humidity (RH) range of 10-90%.. The model incorporates the size transformation of virus-containing droplets due to evaporation and then removal by gravitational settling, ventilation, and virus inactivation. The predicted concentration of infectious IAVs in ...
A method and apparatus for the humidification of gas streams, such as reactant gas streams for fuel cells, wherein the specific water evaporation rate, gas delivery temperature, and degree of gas humidity may be adjusted and maintained at predetermined levels. An ultrasonic device providing a water mist is used in the evaporation process. The amount of water vapor being introduced into the gas stream can be varied up to the saturation point of the reactant gas stream. As the water vapor leaves the evaporation chamber, it mixes with the gas stream in a gas humidification chamber or riser. The humidified reactant gas stream is then maintained at a set point temperature that is at least above the dew point temperature of the humidified reactant gas.
POWERLINEBLOG.COM. A paper by four Chinese professors concludes that high temperature and high relative humidity significantly reduce the transmission of the Wuhan coronavirus. This conclusion is based on a study of all 100 Chinese cities with more than 40 cases of the virus. The professors found that a one degree Celsius increase in temperature and a one percent increase in relative humidity lower "R" by 0.0383 and 0.0224, respectively. "R" is the effective reproductive number of the virus. As I understand it, if that number drops below 1.0, it means the virus is dying off faster than it is reproducing. The authors note that their findings are "consistent with the fact that the high temperature and high humidity significantly reduce the transmission of influenza." They conclude that "the arrival of summer and rainy season in the northern hemisphere can effectively reduce the transmission of the COVID-19.". READ MORE AT THE POWERLINE BLOG ...
According to the index, which ranks Santa Ana-driven wildfire threats as extreme, high, moderate, marginal or no rating, the threat in Riverside County will be moderate today and high tomorrow. The threat index predicts marginal fire danger Wednesday jumping back up to moderate Thursday and Friday and then marginal again Saturday.. A moderate threat like the one today means that "upon ignition, fires will grow rapidly and will be difficult to control," according to the index. The high threat forecast for tomorrow means "upon ignition, fires will grow very rapidly, will burn intensely, and will be very difficult to control.". The strongest and most widespread winds are expected for late tonight into Tuesday and again for late Wednesday night into Thursday. In most areas, winds are expected to be 20 to 30 mph with gusts to 55 mph, though stronger sustained winds are possible in higher elevations and wind-prone areas. Isolated gusts up to 70 to 80 mph are possible on Tuesday and Thursday.. The NWS ...
4LYM: Crystal structure of low humidity tetragonal lysozyme at 2.1-A resolution. Variability in hydration shell and its structural consequences.
Environmental controls are necessary to facilitate the preservation of organic materials and are especially important to monitor in rare and special collections. Key environmental factors to watch include temperature, relative humidity, pests, pollutants, and light exposure. In general, the lower the temperature is, the better it is for the collection. However, since books and other materials are often housed in areas with people, a compromise must be struck to accommodate human comfort. A reasonable temperature to accomplish both goals is 65-68˚F however, if possible, film and photography collections should be kept in a segregated area at 55˚F.[12] Books and other materials take up and give off moisture making them sensitive to relative humidity. Very high humidity encourages mold growth and insect infestations. Low humidity causes materials to lose their flexibility. Fluctuations in relative humidity are more damaging than a constant humidity in the middle or low range. Generally, the ...