The formation of humic substances in nature is one of the least understood aspects of humus chemistry and one of the most intriguing. There are three main theories to explain it: the lignin theory of Waksman (1932), the polyphenol theory, and the sugar-amine condensation theory of Maillard (1911).[7][8] Those theories are insufficient to account for observations in soil research.[9] Humic substances are formed by the microbial degradation of dead plant matter, such as lignin and charcoal.[10][11] Humic substances in the lab are very resistant to further biodegradation. The precise properties and structure of a given sample depend on the water or soil source and the specific conditions of extraction. Nevertheless, the average properties of lab produced humic substances from different sources are remarkably similar. Humic substances in soils and sediments can be divided into three main fractions: humic acids, fulvic acids, and humin. Their presence and relative abundance is inferred by lab ...
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Humic substances are high-molecular substances in the humus soil, which have a non-uniform (amorphous) macromolecular structure. The dark colored substances represent the first sufficiently stable basic product, which is formed from the bodies of dead organisms (plants and animals). Although most of the chemical composition of macromolecules cannot be determined, their basic structure is recognizable: humic substances are composed of nuclei, bridges, and reactive side groups. The core often consists of benzene, indole, pyrrole, naphthalene, pyridine, quinoline or furan. Oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, simple hydrocarbons or secondary carboxylic acid amides primarily act as bridges. Carboxyl, carbonyl, methoxy, amino and hydroxyl groups are predominant in the side groups. Humic substances can only be described statistically in terms of their chemical structure, since the substance mixture varies according to location and season ...
Dead organic matter is stabilised in the humification process to humic substances (HS). Functionally the most important group of HS is humic acids (HA), which have essential functions in soil, sediments and water. Humification involves both biological and abiotic processes, but the (bio)chemical synthesis as well as the structures of HA are unknown. Numerous theories of humification have been presented over the years. Some of these emphasise aromaticity as the structural unit of HA, while others emphasise aliphaticity.In this work, humification and the structure of HA were studied from a temporal perspective. HA samples were grouped according to age: early, intermediate and end stages of humification; and the respective samples were compost, peat and coal HA. Composting of cellulose with lignin-free bulking agent produced HA, indicating that humification and formation of HA can occur without a lignin contribution. Use of ash as a composting additive enhanced the rate of mineralisation and the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pollutant toxicity and detoxification by humic substances. T2 - Mechanisms and quantitative assessment via luminescent biomonitoring. AU - Kudryasheva, N. S.. AU - Tarasova, A. S.. PY - 2015/8/23. Y1 - 2015/8/23. N2 - The paper considers mechanisms of detoxification of pollutant solutions by water-soluble humic substances (HSs), natural detoxifying agents. The problems and perspectives of bioassay application for toxicity monitoring of complex solutions are discussed from ecological point of view. Bioluminescence assays based on marine bacteria and their enzymes are of special attention here; they were shown to be convenient tools to study the detoxifying effects on cellular and biochemical levels. The advantages of bioluminescent enzymatic assay for monitoring both integral and oxidative toxicities in complex solutions of model pollutants and HS were demonstrated. The efficiencies of detoxification of the solutions of organic oxidizers and salts of metals (including radioactive ...
Article Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic investigation of humic substance samples of different origin and typology supported by chemometric tools. In this paper 198 FTIR spectra of humic substance (HS) extracted from lake, marine sediments, s...
The presence of dissolved humic substances (HS, fulvic and humic acids) generally reduces the uptake of hydrophobic organic compounds into aquatic organisms. The extent of this effect depends both on the concentration and on the origin of the HS. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of qualitative differences between HS from different origins. The effects of seven different HS on the bioconcentration of pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans were related to the spectroscopic and chemical properties of the HS. The effect of each humic material on the bioconcentration of pyrene or BaP was quantified as a biologically determined partition coefficient K(DOC). We observed significant linear relationships between K(DOC) and the atomic H/C ratio, the specific absorptivity at 254 nm, the content of aromatic carbons (as determined by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, the copper-complexing capacity, the content of phenolic OH groups, and...
Jones, Roger I. and Shaw, Peter J. and De Haan, Henk (1993) Effects of dissolved humic substances on the speciation of iron and phosphate at different pH and ionic strength. Environmental Science and Technology, 27 (6). pp. 1052-1059. ISSN 0013-936X. Full text not available from this repository ...
INTRODUCTION. In tropical and subtropical soils greatly impacted by weather events, organic matter (OM) is an essential element of the productive capacity, particularly concerning fertility (Bayer & Mielniczuk, 1999), and is believed to account for more than 90 % of the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of soils in the tropical ecosystems (Melo et al., 1997). The maintenance or recovery of the productive capacity of these soils can be obtained with a management system that increases the OM contents, as by using composts.. The mineral nature of soil, as well as the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the humic acids (HA) and fulvic acids (FA) in compost can affect both the reactivity and stability of these humic substances (HS) in the medium. (Mikutta et al., 2006; Lima et al., 2005, 2006). Carboxylic (-COOH) and phenolic (-OH) functional groups, which are usually found in the periphery of the HS (Fassbender, 1975), are related to their reactivity, contributing to the increase in CEC ...
Arsenic (As) enrichment in groundwater has led to extensive research, particularly on the factors responsible for its release into groundwater. In the Gangetic plain, organic matter driven microbial reduction of Fe-oxyhydroxides is considered as the most plausible mechanism of As release into groundwater. However, the role of organic matter in the aqueous environment is not well known and particularly that of organometallic complex. In this study, we have characterized bulk sediment and groundwater samples, collected from Barasat, West Bengal, India, to understand the effect of organic matter in the binding and mobility of As in the subsurface environment. The results showed a moderate correlation (R(2) = 0.49, p , 0.05) between dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and As in groundwater, suggesting that DOC has a role in releasing As into groundwater. The relative fluorescent intensity (RFI) of the dissolved humic substances in groundwater showed a maximum value of 65 QSU (mean: 47 +/- 8 QSU). FT-IR ...
Fulvic acid is an important naturally-occurring organic acid found in nutrition-rich humus-the decomposed matter that forms a layer in the earths crust. It can be difficult to obtain from a healthy diet, short of eating dirt itself, and is most commonly gathered from a mineral pitch that seeps out of the rocks in the high altitudes of the Himalayan Mountains.. Fulvic acid serves as an indispensable vehicle for carrying vitamins and other nutrients to the proper places in our bodies. One single fulvic acid molecule is capable of transporting 60 or more minerals and trace elements directly into our cells.. Over the last few decades, weve learned a lot more about how humic materials found in the earths soil, including fulvic acid, can offer a host of benefits in the human body.. Fulvic Acid Benefits. 1. Improves Endurance. Due to the trace minerals, electrolytes, and other essential nutrients it contains, many individuals report improved energy levels when taking fulvic acid.. Studies have found ...
It is well established that organic pollutants such as phenols are degraded in the presence of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and sunlight in natural waters. Early work attributed the photochemical loss of phenols to the involvement of photoproduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as singlet oxygen (1O2), hydroxyl radical (*OH) or peroxy radicals (RO2*). However, evidence for the involvement of triplet excited states of aromatic ketones/aldehydes within CDOM has accumulated in the literature. To probe the mechanism of the photosensitized loss of phenols by humic substances (HS), the dependence of the initial rate of 2,4,6-trimethylphenol (TMP) loss (RTMP) on dioxygen concentration and irradiation wavelength was examined both for a variety of untreated as well as borohydride-reduced HS and C18 extracts from the Delaware Bay and Mid-Atlantic Bight. The effect of [O2] and borohydride-reduction of SRFA was also examined for a series of substituted phenols of varying one-electron ...
Fulvic acid is a nutritional supplement derived from humic substance naturally found in soil, coal, and aquatic environment. Fulvic acid benefits healthy energy levels in the cells, responsible for its revitalising effects to the mind and body.
0023]Humic based products are currently used as additives in drilling fluids. These humic based products are used in oil based and water based drilling fluids. Their principle functions are decreasing fluid loss and as a thinner for rheology control. Examples of prior art include U.S. Pat. Nos.: Lawton et al. U.S. Pat. No. 1,999,766; Rahn U.S. Pat. No. 2,650,197; Wilson and Firth U.S. Pat. No. 4,311,600. Likewise, derivatives of humic based material have been disclosed for this use in drilling fluids as exemplified by Moschopedis U.S. Pat. No. 3,700,728. In this invention, humic material is being used as a beneficial amendment (vs. additive). As an amendment, the role of the humic material is to improve drilling waste characteristics so as to allow for easier and less expensive disposal. As an amendment, humic material is added to the drill waste. The invention does allow for humic material to be added to the drilling fluid near well completion. The addition of humic material to the drilling ...
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A number of potential benefits of humic substances are well known recognized and its generation has been concerned with miscellaneous factors. In Thailand, one of Southeast Asia countries, agricultural areas can be normally found in the country parts. Variety soil practices have been done to improve soil fertilities. Those outcomes, both the properties of soil and organic substances in terms of active and inactive forms, were also raised the question. This study aims to develop the appropriate equation model with particular to some basis of soil properties and the quantity of humic acid extracted from them. To achieve this goal, thirty-four soils from existing agricultural areas in the western part of Thailand were sampled. Soil properties which closely concern with humic substances, including organic matter (OM), total carbon (TC), total nitrogen (TN), percentage of clay and cation exchange capacity (CEC), were analyzed. Humic acid were extracted by the standard of International Humic ...
Citation: Gonzalez, J.M. 2009. Clay surface catalysis of formation of humic substances: potential role of maillard reactions. Clay Mineral Society. 16:51-76. Interpretive Summary: Technical Abstract: The mechanisms of the formation of humic substances are poorly understood, especially the condensation of amino acids and reducing sugars products (Maillard reaction) in soil environments. Clay minerals behave as Lewis and Brönsted acids and catalyze several reactions and likely to catalyze the Maillard reaction in soil environments. An understanding of humic substance formation is necessary to develop management options to enhance soil organic matter formation and stabilization. Literature research was conducted to synthesize information available on the surface acidity of clay minerals and their catalytic role on the formation of humic-like substances via the Maillard reaction. The synthesis provides insight information on the Maillard reaction under soil environments and provides important ...
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You may not have heard much about fulvic acid in the mainstream media, but to put it very simply… life as we know it would not exist without it!. It is directly relevant for a healthy body because it makes nutrients in the foods we consume (such as vitamins and minerals and other herbal supplements) more readily available for use by our bodys cells.. Fulvic acid is critical for nutrient absorption because it is highly "bioavailable." In other words, it is easily absorbed into our blood when we consume it. And while being absorbed itself, it also improves the absorption of various nutrients via our digestive system.. In fact, mineral absorption without prior chelation (a type of bonding of ions and molecules to metal ions) by fulvic acid is only about 10% effective. Fulvic acid also allows minerals to regenerate and interact with one another, enhancing their availability.. Finally, because of its very low molecular weight, fulvic acid is able to pass easily through the protective membranes ...
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Humic acid is a principal component of humic substances, which are the major organic constituents of soil (humus), peat and coal. Humic acid is also a major organic constituent of many upland streams, dystrophic lakes, and ocean water.Humic acid is...
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Humic Ion-Binding Model VII aims to predict the competitive reactions of protons and metals with natural organic matter in soils and waters, based on laboratory results with isolated humic and fulvic acids (HA and FA). Model VII is simpler in its postulated multidentate metal binding sites than the previous Model VI. Three model parameters were eliminated by using a formal relationship between monodentate binding to strong- and weak-acid oxygen-containing ligands, and removing factors that provide ranges of ligand binding strengths. Thus Model VII uses a single adjustable parameter, the equilibrium constant for monodentate binding to strong-acid (carboxylate) groups (KMA), for each metallic cation. Proton-binding parameters, and mean values of log KMA were derived by fitting 248 published datasets (28 for protons, 220 for cationic metals). Default values of log KMA for FA were obtained by combining the fitted values for FA, results for HA, and the relationship for different metals between log ...
It was demonstrated more than two decades ago that microorganisms use humic substances, including fulvic acid (FA), as electron shuttles during iron (Fe) reduction in anaerobic soils and sediments. The relevance of this mechanism for the acceleration of Fe(III) reduction in arsenic-laden groundwater environments is gaining wider attention. Here we provide new evidence that dissolved FAs isolated from sediment-influenced surface water and groundwater in the Bengal Basin were capable of electron shuttling between Geobacter metallireducens and Fe(III). Moreover, all four Bangladesh sediment-derived dissolved FAs investigated in this study had higher electron accepting capacity (176 to 245 μmol/g) compared to aquatic FAs, such as Suwanee River Fulvic Acid (67 μmol/g). Our direct evidence that Bangladesh FAs are capable of intermediate electron transfer to Fe(III) supports other studies that implicate electron shuttling by sediment-derived aqueous humics to enhance Fe reduction and, in turn, As ...
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The effects of an aquatic fulvic acid on the pH-dependent adsorption of Hg(II) and Cd(II) to particulate goethite (a-FeOOH) were studied in batch systems. The ionic medium consisted of 0.01 M HClO and the total concentrations 4 of mercury and cadmium were maintained at 10y8 M with 203Hg and 109Cd as tracers. pH In the systems was varied in the range 3-10 by addition of HClO and NaOH.All commercial chemicals were of analytical grade or better. An 4 aquatic fulvic acid (20 ppm), previously isolated and characterised in detail, was used as a model for humic substances and its adsorption to goethite is included in this study. The adsorption of the fulvic acid (20 ppm) onto goethite decreased slowly from 90% at pH 3-7.5 to 10% at pH 10. In systems without fulvic acid the adsorption of mercury increased in a linear fashion from 10% at pH 3 to 70% at pH 10.In the presence of fulvic acid (20 ppm), the adsorption was almost quantitative in the intermediate pH range (pH 5-7), and exceeded 92% over the ...
Trace Mineral complex -(Humic &Fulvic acid) Humic acid comes from humates that are found in rich organic soil. Humates are fossilised plant material originating from a period which pre-dates the dinosaurs. The humic acid is extracted from compressed, ancient plant matter in the form of Leonardite, a soft brown coal. This dark powder contains dense mineral components which characterize those ancient plants. It also contains the amino acids and many of the other beneficial phytochemicals from that original plant matter. If you have ever put fertilizer on your yard, chances are it contained small amounts of humic acid. In fact, the word describing dark rich soil is humus which contains humic acid. Humic acid is absorbed by plants and helps in many ways.. Humates contain both humic and fulvic acids. Even though they are call acids, they are more like salts. Fulvic acid is derived from humic acid. It contains minerals and acts as a chelator. Humic acid is a dilator, which increases the cell wall ...
26] On the basis of redox conditions, availability of e- acceptors in the soil pore water and solid phase, composition of the microbial community and activities measured in laboratory and field experiments, Fe reduction is an important pathway for respiration in this Arctic peat soil. This has major implications for understanding the controls over CO2 and CH4 flux from this ecosystem. For one, anaerobic respiration is potentially a major pathway for CO2 loss from this ecosystem type. The in situ Fe reduction experiments showed that, given an adequate supply of Fe(III), a large portion of soil respiration can be driven by Fe reduction. The reducible Fe oxides we observed in the soil profile could allow for significant anaerobic respiration during flooded periods. On the basis of the dithionite-citrate fraction (which is specific for reducible Fe hydroxides) in the active layer (0-30 cm), 151 g Fe/m2 is available for reduction. Assuming this pool cycles annually with the rise and fall of the water ...
Bacterial DNA was isolated from two types of soil sample near the growth of wild mushroom found in Universiti Malaysia Sabah campus area and were studied by using 16S ribosomal DNA (16S rDNA) assay. Two mushroom species. the Calvalia gigantean and another unknown mushroom species were discovered. The soil samples were undergone direct DNA extraction to recover the total DNA using a modified protocol from Zhou el al., (1996). The extracted DNA was brownish in colour due to the co-extraction of humic substances. The extracted DNA was then subjected to gel electrophoresis to check for the quality of the extracted DNA while compare to the marker, Lambda HindIII. From the gel electrophoresis. the extracted DNA was in expected size which was bigger than 23kb. After the DNA extraction, the DNA was subjected to purification seen the present of humic substances which was the inhibitor for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification in the DNA samples. The DNA samples were purified by using DNA ...
Bibliogr.: 442. p.; Ismertetett mű: Š. Šipoš-I. Dèkan-A. Dèr-E.Šipoš-I. Horvat: Issledovanie kolloidno-himičeskih svojstv guminovyh kislot ...
The researchers estimated the extent to which this process supresses the formation of methane in northern peatlands. They estimated how many electrons humic substances accept under anoxic conditions and, under subsequent oxic condition, donate to oxygen. This estimation shows that methane emissions from these systems would be up to 170 per cent higher relative to the amount of methane that is currently released. "These results shows that electron transfer to and from humic substances is an important process with global implications," says Sander. In order to further investigate this process, the researchers will continue with lab studies and, in the coming summer, also conduct field measurements in a peatland in Central Sweden. ...
Endophytic diazotrophic bacteria colonize several non-leguminous plants and promote plant growth. Different mechanisms are involved in bacteria-induced plant growth promotion, including biological nit
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Volume 1 of this encyclopedia focuses on polymers consisting of aromatic constituents occurring in plants and natural environments or as fossil resources.
Volume 1 of this encyclopedia focuses on polymers consisting of aromatic constituents occurring in plants and natural environments or as fossil resources.
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