Introduction. Belief in miracles versus science?. In the February 2001 issue of the scientific journal Nature, the Human Genome Project (HGP) announced that the sequencing of human DNA was essentially complete.1 The announcement hails the 21st century as the bio-age. One would expect our world, especially from a human perspective, to be a very different place by the end of the century. It might be a planet on which most of the 5000 or so diseases afflicting humankind are under control, where our predisposition to contract certain diseases has largely been overcome, where genetic technology has upgraded our genetic endowment to produce what amounts to a race of super humans.. It is surely one of the most exciting and creative developments and one with far-reaching consequences for religions. For centuries, sickness and health were the exclusive preserve of religion. Healing was pre-eminently a domain for the performance of miracles. Presently, there is a very real possibility that ...
Human Genome Project Results - Human Genome Project results have told us that we have far fewer genes than expected. What other Human Genome Project results have surprised us?
Sequencing the human genome depended on many technological improvements in the production and analysis of sequence data. Key innovations were developed both within and outside the Human Genome Project. Laboratory innovations included four-colour fluorescence-based sequence detection, improved fluorescent dyes, dye-labelled terminators, polymerases specifically designed for sequencing, cycle sequencing and capillary gel electrophoresis. These studies contributed to substantial improvements in the automation, quality and throughput of collecting raw DNA sequence. Human Genome Project, Nature ...
Human Genome Project The worldwide effort, originally named the Human Genome Initiative but later known as the Human Genome Project or HGP, began in 1987 and was celebrated as complete in 2001. When begun, HGP was dubbed big science comparable to placing human beings on the moon.
1) The Human Genome Project idea originated in the mid 1980s and was discussed in the scientific community and media through the latter part of that decade. In the United States the combined effort of the Department of Energy and the National Institute of Health were involved in the project planning. (The National Center For Genetic Research) The Human Genome Project has several goals including identifying the genes of a human assessing the genes and comparing human DNA to that of bacteria, yeasts, the fruit fly, mice, and the Arabidopis thaliana, a small genome plant that grows rapidly. A major purpose is to determine how evolution proceeds from lower organisms to humans, and discover why the smaller genomes of animals have less junk or unneeded DNA. Geneticists use two types of maps to characterize the genes they discover-a genetic linkage map and a physical map. A genetic map registers the distance between the fragments of DNA we know according to the frequency with which they are inherited. ...
In a DER SPIEGEL interview, genetic scientist Craig Venter discusses the 10 years he spent sequencing the human genome, why we have learned so little from it a decade on and the potential for mass production of artificial life forms that could be used to produce fuels and other resources.. SPIEGEL: Mr. Venter, when the elite among gene researchers undertook the decoding of the human genome, you were their greatest enemy. They called you "Frankenstein," "blood sucker," "Darth Venter" and even "asshole." Why do you attract so much hostility?. Venter: Well, nobody likes to be beaten -- by superior intelligence, planning and technology. That gets people upset.. SPIEGEL: Every area of science is competitive. But it doesnt lead to that kind of hostility in all areas.. Venter: The human genome project was completely different, it was supposed to be the biggest thing in the history of biological sciences. Billions in government funding for a single project -- we had never seen anything like that before ...
Anderson, Bruce L. (1980), Let Us Make Man (Plainfield, NJ: Logos International).. Augros, Robert and George Stanciu (1987), The New Biology (Boston, MA: New Science Library).. Avers, C.J. (1989), Process and Pattern in Evolution (Oxford, England: Oxford University Press).. Behe, Michael J. (1998), "Intelligent Design Theory as a Tool for Analyzing Biochemical Systems," Mere Creation, ed. William A. Dembski (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press).. Breu, Giovanna (2000), "The Code of Life" [Interview with geneticist David Cox, Codirector of the Human Genome Mapping Center at Stanford University], People, 54[7]:129-131, August 14.. Brown, Kathryn (2000), "The Human Genome Business Today," Scientific American, 283[1]:50-55, July.. Cavalli-Sforza, Luigi (2000), Genes, Peoples, and Languages (New York: North Point Press).. Collins, Francis (1997), "The Human Genome Project," Genetic Ethics: Do the Ends Justify the Genes?, ed. John F. Kilner, Rebecca D. Pentz, and Frank E. Young (Grand Rapids, MI: ...
Since the human genome draft sequence was in public for the first time in 2000, genomic analyses have been intensively extended to the population level. The following three international projects are good examples for large-scale studies of human genome variations: 1) HapMap Data (1,417 individuals) (http://hapmap.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/downloads/genotypes/2010-08_phaseII+III/forward/), 2) HGDP (Human Genome Diversity Project) Data (940 individuals) (http://www.hagsc.org/hgdp/files.html), 3) 1000 genomes Data (2,504 individuals) http://ftp.1000genomes.ebi.ac.uk/vol1/ftp/release/20130502/ If we can integrate all three data into a single volume of data, we should be able to conduct a more detailed analysis of human genome variations for a total number of 4,861 individuals (= 1,417+940+2,504 individuals). In fact, we successfully integrated these three data sets by use of information on the reference human genome sequence, and we conducted the big data analysis. In particular, we constructed a ...
The Human Genome Project (HGP) is a coordinated worldwide effort to precisely map the human genome and the genomes of selected model organisms. The first explicit proposal for this project dates from 1985 although its foundations (both conceptual and technological) can be traced back many years in genetics, molecular biology, and biotechnology The HGP has matured rapidly and is producing results of great significance. ...
The Human Genome Project- Miriam Bartlett Word count- 1853 .The Human Genome Project began in October, 1990 and was a long-term multi-billion dollar project which helped international scientists determine the sequence of chemical base pairs which make ...
The goals of the human genome project are to identify the causes of diseases and eventually to cure them. Of course, these are laudable goals. Although these results have been slow in coming, the intentions of the project are beyond reproach. In the future, our knowledge of the human genome will help to improve the treatment of diseases. ...
Help your students learn why the Human Genome Project is revolutionary. The goal of the project (already achieved in rough form in 2001) is to decipher all of the genes in the human species, that is, to make public the detailed blueprints for making a human being.

This program takes you inside an automated gene sequencing laboratory where your students will learn how human genes are isolated, fragmented and how their DNA base sequences are determined. Controversial ethical issues are also addressed.
Many scientists have joined forces on the Human Genome Project. Their goal is to figure out the order of all DNA letters (bases) in our genome.
The Human Genome Project has catalyzed the emergence of a new approach to biology termed systems biology. Systems biology analyzes all the interrelationships of the elements in a biological system, rather than studying them one at a time, as has been the modus operandi in biology for the past 30 years. This systems approach has also emerged in the context of the view biology
A roller-coaster how we got to where we are today tour by the US governments Director of Research, starting with a look back to the point eleven years ago when the momentous results of the Human Genome Project were made public for the first time. ...
This report examines the scientific merits and value of research on human genetic or genomic variation and the organizational, policy, and ethical issues that such research poses in a more-general context than the proposed HGDP (Human Genome Diversity Project). Chapter 2 discusses the scientific basis and usefulness of a worldwide systematic survey of human genetic variation. Chapters 3 and 4 address technical and logistical problems posed by such a project with respect to sampling design, obtaining and maintaining sufficient genetic material, access to research materials and information, and data handling. Chapter 5 examines ethical, legal, and social issues. Chapter 6 treats the organization of the project and research priorities.
What more powerful form of study of mankind could there be than to read our own instruction book?" - Dr. Francis Collins, Director of the National Institutes of Health on the completion of the Human Genome Project.. The instruction book that Dr. Collins was commenting on is our human genome. We are our genome. Each of us is unique because of our genome - because of our DNA. The Human Genome Project, which culminated in 2001, aimed to "map" human DNA, gathering a cornucopia of information about the very basic thing that makes each of us unique. But the completion of the human genome was just the beginning.. The Human Genome Project provided information about ~20,500 genes that are coded by the human genome. It also gave scientists the ability to identify disease causing mutations, but not the capacity to develop cures. A recent article, published in the Journal Nature, describes a database containing a comprehensive list of all the proteins that are coded by the human genome called the Human ...
Nearly forty years ago, a dedicated cadre of scientists observed that human response to xenobiotics is variable, and they initiated lines of research that now form the foundations of pharmacogenetics. During the last 10 years, in response to the Human Genome Project, pharmacogenetics has undergone a revolution. It has now expanded into the broader discipline of pharmacogenomics. Pharmacogenomics encompasses the study of functional variability not only in drug transport and metabolism but also in every aspect of human genetics that affects drug disposition and response. This meetings agenda clearly reflects the impact the Human Genome Project is having on efforts to characterize variability in human response to xenobiotics.. During the past 10 years, the Human Genome Project has generated a second revolution, one of a technical nature. Its product is the wide variety of technological innovations that support pharmacogenomic research. Pharmacogenetics at its outset primarily focused on ...
A $10 million grant will allow researchers at the University of Washington and the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center to conduct an unprecedented study of genetic variation and how it may affect the function of human genes - and, ultimately, our susceptibility or resistance to disease. The grant, awarded over four years, is from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), one of the National Institutes of Health. It is one of 11 new Programs for Genomic Applications, which the NHLBI is funding to apply and expand upon the data generated by the Human Genome Project. The goal is to gain new insights into common human diseases such as high blood pressure, heart disease, stroke, asthma and chronic lung diseases like emphysema. The Human Genome Project has so far identified the roughly 3 billion nucleotides, or building blocks, of DNA present in each cell of the human body. These nucleotides carry the instructions for human life and function. The human genome sequence is just the ...
DNA sequencing technologies continue to make progress in increased throughput and quality, and decreased cost. As we transition from whole exome capture sequencing to whole genome sequencing (WGS), our ability to convert machine-generated variant calls, including single nucleotide variant (SNV) and insertion-deletion variants (indels), into human-interpretable knowledge has lagged far behind the ability to obtain enormous amounts of variants. To help narrow this gap, here we present WGSA (WGS annotator), a functional annotation pipeline for human genome sequencing studies, which is runnable out of the box on the Amazon Compute Cloud and is freely downloadable at (https://sites.google.com/site/jpopgen/wgsa/).. Functional annotation is a key step in WGS analysis. In one way, annotation helps the analyst filter to a subset of elements of particular interest (eg, cell type specific enhancers), in another way annotation helps the investigators to increase the power of identifying phenotype-associated ...
Craig Venter is a cell biologist who has become well known through some impressive and controversial scientific achievements. Applying himself to formal study of science after a short tour of duty in the Vietnam War, he achieved recognition and success through his progressive work in enzyme and genetics sequencing. But Venter really hit the headlines in 1998, when he was hired by Celera Genomics to provide a rival sequencing effort to the public-funded Human Genome Project. At that time, the Human Genome Project was three years into a 10-year plan, with a planned cost of $5 billion dollars. Venter boldly claimed that he could complete the genome in a fraction of that time, and a fraction of that cost. At a time when no one could quite decide what would be permissible for patents, Celera Genomics also proposed to commercialise parts of the human genome, a move which attracted fierce criticism. Eventually, the White House stepped in to order the two projects to make a joint announcement of the ...
Feb. 2013. ,http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/project/about.shtml,. Huge! Worldwide affected more than just medicine Have been.... duh. duh. duh. MAPPED! Review! How do animals reproduce? How do Plants reproduce? How do archaebacteria reproduce? How do eubacteria reproduce? How do Fungi reproduce? How do protists reproduce? Sexually Both Asexually Asexually Both Both occurs only ...
In the year 2000 the draft human genome sequence was announced by Tony Blair and Bill Clinton. It was said to be complete in 2003, in time for the 50th anniversary of the discovery of the structure of DNA. Well actually it wasnt quite finished. Actually its still not finished. Besides the tweaking that still…
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TY - BOOK ID - 19067 TI - Grand Celebration: 10th Anniversary of the Human Genome Project AU - PY - 2016 SN - 9783038421269 9783038421726 DB - DOAB KW - gene structure, expression and regulation, molecular basis of human genetic disease, genetics and genomics of model organisms for human diseases, human genetics, cancer genetics, functional genomics, stem cells in human genetics, pharmacogenomics and gene therapy, genetic and genomic technologies, genomic medicine, gene therapy and personal genomics UR - https://www.doabooks.org/doab?func=search&query=rid:19067 AB - In 1990, scientists began working together on one of the largest biological research projects ever proposed. The project proposed to sequence the three billion nucleotides in the human genome. The Human Genome Project took 13 years and was completed in April 2003, at a cost of approximately three billion dollars. It was a major scientific achievement that forever changed the understanding of our own nature. The sequencing of the ...
HGP at the start. The HGP began officially in October 1990, but its origins go back earlier. In the mid-1980s, three scientists independently came up with the idea of sequencing the entire human genome: Robert Sinsheimer, then chancellor of University of California at Santa Cruz, as a way to spend $30 million donated to his institution to build a telescope when that project fell through; Salk Institute researcher Rene Dulbecco as a way to understand the genetic origins of cancer and other diseases; and the Department of Energys (DOEs) Charles DeLisi as a way to detect radiation-induced mutations, an interest of that agency since the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Such a project had become technically feasible due to advances made during the previous decade or two: in the early 1970s, recombinant DNA technologies (use of restriction enzymes to splice DNA, reverse transcriptase to make DNA from RNA, viral vectors to carry bits of DNA into cells, bacterial cloning to multiply ...
useful applications as energy production, environmental cleanup, toxic waste reduction, and the creation of entirely new industrial processes or ways in which we manufacture things. Eventually, new biotechnologies will be developed that will create bacteria that can digest waste material of all sorts, produce energy the way plants do, and improve the way industry makes products from food to clothing. Understanding the genetic sequence of bacteria can also show how harmful bacteria work against the body and perhaps how to combat them as well. Risk assessment. Biologists know already that certain individuals are more susceptible to certain toxic or poisonous agents than others. They know that the cause for these susceptibilities is found in their genetic makeup or in their genes. Understanding the human genome will lead to science being able to identify, ahead of time, those who are at risk in certain environments, and conversely, those who have a stronger, built-in resistance. Such ...
In 1976, the genome of the RNA virus Bacteriophage MS2 was the first complete genome to be determined, by Walter Fiers and his team at the University of Ghent (Ghent, Belgium).[13] The idea for the shotgun technique came from the use of an algorithm that combined sequence information from many small fragments of DNA to reconstruct a genome. This technique was pioneered by Frederick Sanger to sequence the genome of the Phage Φ-X174, a virus (bacteriophage) that primarily infects bacteria that was the first fully sequenced genome (DNA-sequence) in 1977.[14] The technique was called shotgun sequencing because the genome was broken into millions of pieces as if it had been blasted with a shotgun. In order to scale up the method, both the sequencing and genome assembly had to be automated, as they were in the 1980s.. Those techniques were shown applicable to sequencing of the first free-living bacterial genome (1.8 million base pairs) of Haemophilus influenzae in 1995 [15] and the first animal ...
Artist: Cale Sampson Album: Cale Sampson Song: The Human Genome Project Typed by: [email protected] [Verse 1] Our physical traits are influenced by genetics That make us vulnerable to disease like diabetics Or multiple sclerosis, Alzheimers and cancer Apparently this project will provide these answers A molecular blueprint of homosapiens That will remodel the world with its information I wonder how this data will be interpreted And who really has control over dispersing it In case you havent known, its the human genome Twenty-three chromosomes capable of being cloned Thirty thousand genes encoded by DNA Sequenced along three billion bases atomically Government departments of energy and health Helped research expand by providing their wealth To form a worldwide scientific collaboration Against secrets of life and all mystification [Chorus] Its essential the public becomes aware Revolutionary changes will occur everywhere Time to choose what is or not ethical The Human Genome Projects got ...
1. CollinsFS. 1999 Shattuck lecture-medical and societal consequences of the Human Genome Project. N Engl J Med 341 28 37. 2. van OmmenGJ. BakkerE. den DunnenJT. 1999 The human genome project and the future of diagnostics, treatment, and prevention. Lancet 354 Suppl 1 SI5 10. 3. DonnellyP. 2008 Progress and challenges in genome-wide association studies in humans. Nature 456 728 31. 4. HindorffLA. SethupathyP. JunkinsHA. RamosEM. MehtaJP. 2009 Potential etiologic and functional implications of genome-wide association loci for human diseases and traits. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106 9362 7. 5. ManolioTA. BrooksLD. CollinsFS. 2008 A HapMap harvest of insights into the genetics of common disease. J Clin Invest 118 1590 605. 6. ManolioTA. CollinsFS. CoxNJ. GoldsteinDB. HindorffLA. 2009 Finding the missing heritability of complex diseases. Nature 461 747 53. 7. GulcherJ. StefanssonK. 2010 Genetic risk information for common diseases may indeed be already useful for prevention and early detection. Eur J ...
Im sorry, but Collins ID opinions are an embarrassment. Its plain old god of the maybe-thats-a-gap junk. Could leprechauns have made tiny DNA changes in past generations of humans? I cant disprove it.. Trivially, second paragraph meant to say whole transcriptome shotgun sequencing rather than genome. Any reader that cared probably caught that though.. Wells "scientists who were paid off" is about as crappy as anything I have ever read. We use that genome daily. Found an odd chunk or protein or mRNA, or found an amplified bit of DNA in someones tumor? You can figure out exactly where it came from, today. 20 years ago we had to go out there and clone the region, perhaps spending months to figure such a thing out. Interested in the promotor region for some cistron in humans - compare the region with what it looks like in rat, mouse, dog, chicken, fish, yeast. Holy schmoly can we get work done now. Take care in not over-selling RNA-seq. People arent saying what its problems are, only ...
The genome of an infant who lived in Alaska thousands of years ago represents a previously unknown group of humans called Ancient Beringians, who share a common lineage with other Native Americans. 0 Comments. ...
The Human Genome Project has spawned a Renaissance of research faced with the daunting expectation of personalized medicine for individuals with sickle cell disease in the Genome Era. This book offers a comprehensive and timeless account of emerging concepts in clinical and basic science research, and community concerns of health disparity to educate professionals, students and the general public about meeting this challenging expectation. Contributions from physicians, research scientists, scientific administrators and community workers make Renaissance of Sickle Cell Disease Research in the Genome Era unique among the catalogue of books on this genetic disorder. Part 1 offers detailed review of the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute’s leadership role in funding sickle cell research, as well as developing progressive research initiatives and the predicted impact of the Human Genome Project. Part 2 gives an account of several clinical research perspectives based on the Cooperative ...
Daily News Thousands of Mutations Accumulate in the Human Brain Over a Lifetime Single-cell genome analyses reveal the amount of mutations a human brain cell will collect from its fetal beginnings until death.. ...
Applied Evolution. Medical Applications. Medical applications of evolution are possibly the most exciting aspect of modern evolutionary research. From determining the molecular basis of disease through developing treatments and cures, researchers rely on the basic principles of evolutionary theory. Meanwhile, the research itself provides new insight into evolutionary processes.. Human Genome Project. The Human Genome Project is possible and useful because of evolution. All organisms share the basic molecular heredity system of DNA and RNA. Laboratory methods and tools, such as sequencing, provide information from any cell type from bacteria to mammals. The resulting information can be used to study human physiology, health and disease. Although the majority of medical research will be conducted in other organisms such as dogs and primates, this research will apply to humans because we share many physiological pathways due to our evolutionary relationships. Downloadable curriculum materials on ...
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Although great strides have been made in gene therapy in a relatively short time, its potential usefulness has been limited by lack of scientific data concerning the multitude of functions that genes control in the human body. For instance, it is now known that the vast majority of genetic material does not store information for the creation of proteins, but rather is involved in the control and regulation of gene expression, and is, thus, much more difficult to interpret. Even so, each individual cell in the body carries thousands of genes coding for proteins, with some estimates as high as 150,000 genes. For gene therapy to advance to its full potential, scientists must discover the biological role of each of these individual genes and where the base pairs that make them up are located on DNA ...
Acupuncture has been shown to be an effective treatment for endometriosis. Acupuncture works by balancing the flow of energy (Ki or Qi) throughout the body.
|p|Following the conclusion of the Human Genome Project, and the 2nd Human Genome project, it was just a matter of time and funding before human cloning not only became possible, but a profitable |br| |/p|
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I discussed this study in detail a couple of years ago, and I know from that that Dr. Katz is being a bit disingenuous. His claim back then was that we can "reshuffle" the genetic deck in our favor. Of course, nothing in this study demonstrates that any deck has been reshuffled, genetic or otherwise, or that this diet gives anyones genes a "makeover." Again, Dr. Katz appeared (and still appears) not to understand the difference between a gene and gene expression. He was also arguing at the time against a straw man in that I bet hed be hard-pressed to find a physician who actually says that lifestyle and genetic influences on health are "independent." Theyre clearly not, although they can certainly be competing, as in a person with a genetic predisposition to atherosclerosis who exercises. In this case, as I put it before, that persons healthy lifestyle is indeed to some extent competing with or fighting against his bodys natural tendency to develop that disease.. The problem with Dr. Katzs ...
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On February 12, 2001, the human genome project released its first formal report. It was a great day for biology, and a wonderful birthday present for Darwin. However, it was also a humbling confrontation with complexity and prompted Steven Jay Gould to write in the New York Times: [The Human Genome project revealed that] Home…
In 1994, a Swiss biologist named Pascal Gagneux began a Ph.D. program in zoology. His research plan was to stalk populations of wild chimpanzees in Cote dIvoire and Mali. Specifically,...
Contents Executive Summary... ES 1 Chapter I: Introduction... 1 Chapter II: Economic Impacts of the Human Genome Project... 5 Chapter III: Functional Impacts of the Human Genome Project...17 Chapter IV:
Were very pleased to welcome the 1000 Genomes Project data to Amazon S3. The original human genome project was a huge undertaking. It aimed to identify every letter of our genetic code, 3 billion DNA bases in total, to help guide our understanding of human biology. The project ran for over a decade, cost billions of dollars and became the corner stone of modern genomics. The techniques and tools developed for the human genome were also put into practice in sequencing other species, from the mouse to the gorilla, from the hedgehog to the platypus. By comparing the genetic code between species, researchers can identify biologically interesting genetic regions for all species, including us.. A few years ago there was a quantum leap in the technology for sequencing DNA, which drastically reduced the time and cost of identifying genetic code. This offered the promise of being able to compare full genomes from individuals, rather than entire species, leading to a much more detailed genetic map of ...
An endeavor organized by George Church of Harvard University to sequence the genomes of 100,000 volunteers while recording their personal history. First launched in 2007, the goal of the Personal Genome Project (PGP) is to determine relationships between a persons genetic makeup (genomics), their environment and their physical traits (phenomics). Involved in DNA sequencing since the 1980s, Churchs Polonator multiplexing machine sequences genes faster than traditional methods. For more information, visit www.personalgenomes.org. See Human Genome Project ...
Founded in Beijing with a mission to support the development of science and technology, build strong research teams, and promote the development of scientific partnership in genomics, BGIs headquarters were later relocated to Shenzhen as the first citizen-managed, non-profit research institution in China. BGI engages in large-scale, high-accuracy projects, such as sequencing 1% of the human genome for the International Human Genome Project.. The first day of the workshop began with IGB members meeting with BGI leadership to understand their vision concerning sequencing technologies, and the impact of their pending acquisition of Complete Genomics, a company dedicated to large-scale whole human genome sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. They received a tour of the facilities including the Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing system, which along with the other sequencers onsite are capable of producing 6 terabytes of data per day.. Lectures that day from BGI members included the application of ...
Maize (Zea mays L.) is a globally important crop for human food, animal feed, and as an industrial feedstock with wide genetic diversity, and is also model species with a wealth of genetic and genomic tools available. In order to utilize the available diversity for crop improvement, traits of importance must be annotated with a common vocabulary across maize cultivars, landraces and ancestor species such as Teosinte. The Maize Diversity project (http://www.panzea.org/) is working to evaluate and link important traits to candidate genes in diverse public germplasm sources, by utilizing QTL analyses, GWAS studies and other next-generation genotyping approaches. In a collaborative effort between MaizeGDB (http://www.maizegdb.org/) and the Plant Trait Ontology (TO; http://crop-dev.cgrb.oregonstate.edu/amigo/TO), Maize Diversity Project traits (among others) are being annotated with TO terms, and linked to sub-sets of phenotypic scores, a new data type at MaizeDGB. Through MaizeGDB, experimental data ...