Contact transmissibility of barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV) was examined in field plots using seed-infected plants of wild oats (Avena fatua), Herta barley (Hordeum distichum), and Conquest barley (H. vulgare) as virus sources and healthy plants of the same species as test material. The virus was transmitted by contract from wild oats to both Herta and Conquest barley but in reciprocal tests was transmitted only from Conquest barley to wild oats. The frequencies of contact transmission of BSMV in these tests were lower than the frequencies of contact transmission of the virus from infected to healthy plants of either Herta or Conquest barley. There was no evidence of contact transmission of BSMV from infected to healthy wild oats. Results obtained in this study support the notion that wild oats are involved in the epidemiology of BSMV in barley. ...
Physiological leaf spot (PLS) is a disorder of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), which has become more pronounced in recent years. The initial symptoms are small chlorotic/brown spots on the upper four leaves, which may develop into necrotic lesions with an irregular shape. As PLS occurs on leaves that are directly exposed to sunlight, it is thought that high light stress could be a trigger for the condition. This study concentrates on two cultivars, Cooper and Crusader, which display differential sensitivity to PLS. Biochemical measurements and enzyme assays revealed substantial difference in levels of ascorbate, type III peroxidases, and superoxide dismutase between the chosen cultivars during the 2003 growing season. A global gene expression study, using these field samples, was performed by microarray analysis. This supported the biochemical findings and highlighted additional sets of genes differentially expressed between the cultivars. Transcripts of particular interest, which appeared, ...
The fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei develops on the barley leaf via distinct, morphologically well-defined stages. After landing on a host plant, the conidia rapidly germinate to form a primary germ tube. Subsequently, an appressorial germ tube emerges from the conidium and differentiates an appressorium from which penetration of the host cell wall is attempted. We have used serial analysis of gene expression to provide a measurement of messenger RNA contents in ungerminated conidia, during conidial germination, and during appressorium formation. The resulting data provide a resource for the characterization of changes in transcript accumulation during early development of B. graminis.. ...
Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists and Montana Microbial Products (MMP) of Butte, Mont., have developed a barley protein concentrate that could be fed to trout and other commercially produced fish.. Physiologist Rick Barrows at the ARS Small Grains and Potato Germplasm Research Unit in Aberdeen, Idaho, teamed with MMP to apply for a patent on a new enzymatic method that concentrates barley protein and produces raw material for another valuable commodity--ethanol. This process provides a high-protein ingredient that may replace other, more expensive protein sources like fishmeal and soy protein concentrate in commercial fish feed.. Currently there is no commercial production of barley protein concentrate, but MMP is producing small quantities for fish-feeding studies with trout, salmon and other species. MMP projects that the concentrate will sell for $700 to $1,200 per ton. Since fishmeal costs about $1,200 per ton, the projected costs of barley protein concentrate compare ...
Read "The transcriptome analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) using the Affymetrix Barley1 GeneChip, Russian Journal of Genetics" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Fulltext - Variability, Heritability and Genetic Advance for Some Yield and Yield Related Traits in Ethiopian Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Landraces and Crosses
Pereladova T. P., Tordansky A. B. Intra- and Intervarietal Polymorphism of Chromosomes in Eight Barley Varieties, Tsitol Genet., 1989, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 19-27 ...
Barley is the second after wheat most important for Kazakhstan cereal crop with total annual grain yield of more than 2 mln tons [1]. SR caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. Tritici, Pgt, is one of the most powerful factors affecting barley production in Kazakhstan. Sometimes annual yield losses exceed 50 % [2]. Currently, six genes are known to confer barley resistance to Pgt in the US, including well characterized Rpg1 [3, 4], rpg4 [5], and Rpg5 [6, 7], and less studied Rpg2, Rpg3, and rpg6 [8]. Most of these genetic studies were performed in relation to North American Pgt pathogen races MCCF and QCCJ by using conventional bi-parental genetic mapping approach. In addition, in response to serious threat of the new and highly infectious race of Pgt (TTKSK) in Africa and Near East, also known as Ug99, Steffenson with coauthors were able to identify qualitative Pgt-TTKSK locus on the long arm of chromosome 5H [9]. Also, Moscou with coauthors [10] showed that high-throughput genotyping in studies of ...
Leaf rust resistance, derived from the barley cultivar Cebada Capa, has been effective in the southeastern United States since 1950, when it was first used in the Virginia barley breeding program. In 1990, races of Puccinia hordei virulent to barleys that possess the resistance gene Rph7 were identified for the first time in North America. This research assessed the potential impact of Rph7-virulent races of leaf rust on grain yield and quality in winter barley. Natural epidemics of leaf rust occurred in cultivar trials at Painter and Warsaw, Virginia, in 1991 and 1992. Mean leaf rust severities for barley lines observed over three environments ranged from 10% for the moderately resistant line VA 90-42-45 to 76% for the susceptible cultivar Barsoy. Significant negative correlations between grain yield and leaf rust severity were obtained for three of the four environments. Based on regression analysis over barley genotypes, an average grain yield loss of 0.42% (31.3 kg/ha) for each 1% increment ...
The Mla locus in barley (Hordeum vulgare) conditions isolate-specific immunity to the powdery mildew fungus (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei) and encodes intracellular coiled-coil (CC) domain, nucleotide-binding (NB) site, and leucine-rich repeat (LRR)- containing receptor proteins. Over the last decades, genetic studies in breeding material have identified a large number of functional resistance genes at the Mla locus. To study the structural and functional diversity of this locus at the molecular level, we isolated 23 candidate MLA cDNAs from barley accessions that were previously shown by genetic studies to harbor different Mla resistance specificities. Resistance activity was detected for 13 candidate MLA cDNAs in a transient gene expression assay. Sequence alignment of the deduced MLA proteins improved secondary structure predictions, revealing four additional previously overlooked LRRs. Analysis of nucleotide diversity of the candidate and validated MLA cDNAs revealed 34 sites of positive ...
Spring barley ( Hordeum vulgarecv. Triumph) was grown hydroponically over a 6-week period. Two treatments were incorporated either into the hydroponic solution or sprayed onto the plants at rates of...
In this study we report the development of primers to amplify polymorphic chloroplast simple sequence repeats in the genus Hordeum, which includes cultivated barley (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare) and its wild progenitor H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum. Polymorphic products were amplified in a wide range of Hordeum spp. and intraspecific variation was detected in both cultivated and wild barley. A decrease in cytoplasmic diversity was observed between sspp. spontaneum and vulgare as well as between ssp. vulgare landraces and cultivars, which is characteristic of domestication processes in many crop species. We also observed possible evidence for reticulate evolution of H. brachyantherum polyploids, with apparent multiple cytoplasmic introgressions during successive polyploidization events. ...
Fertilization programs Malting barley, Malting barley is used for the production of barley malt required in the alcoholic fermentation of beer and whisky. For brewing purposes only malting varieties can be cultivated, which are assessed
Although second generation sequencing (2GS) technologies allow re-sequencing of previously gold-standard-sequenced genomes, whole genome shotgun sequencing and de novo assembly of large and complex eukaryotic genomes is still difficult. Availability of a genome-wide physical map is therefore still a prerequisite for whole genome sequencing for genomes like barley. To start such an endeavor, large insert genomic libraries, i.e. Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) libraries, which are unbiased and representing deep haploid genome coverage, need to be ready in place. Result: Five new BAC libraries were constructed for barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar Morex. These libraries were constructed in different cloning sites (HindIII, EcoRI, MboI and BstXI ) of the respective vectors. In order to enhance unbiased genome representation and to minimize the number of gaps between BAC contigs, which are often due to uneven distribution of restriction sites, a mechanically sheared library was also ...
This paper describes a series of winter wheat - winter barley disomic addition lines developed from hybrids between winter wheat line Triticum aestivum L. Martonvásári 9 kr1 and the German 2-rowed winter barley cultivar Hordeum vulgare L. Igri. The barley chromosomes in a wheat background were identified from the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) patterns obtained with various combinations of repetitive DNA probes: GAA-HvT01 and pTa71-HvT01. The disomic addition lines 2H, 3H, and 4H and the 1HS isochromosome were identified on the basis of a 2-colour FISH with the DNA probe pairs GAA-pAs1, GAA-HvT01, and pTa71-HvT01. Genomic in situ hybridization was used to confirm the presence of the barley chromosomes in the wheat genome. The identification of the barley chromosomes in the addition lines was further confirmed with simple-sequence repeat markers. The addition lines were also characterized morphologically. ...
We used Sequenom® MassARRAY® and iPLEX™ Gold genotyping assay to develop a multiplexed variety identification assay for the Australian barley industry. Correct identification and traceability of barley varieties is a prominent issue for quality assurance throughout the entire barley production supply chain in Australia and worldwide. Malting characteristics are variety dependent thus sourcing approved varieties which are uncontaminated with other malting or feed varieties is vital to product consistency. Fast, robust variety identification requires a stable marker that is not influenced by environment, and a platform which is capable of high throughput genotyping. In order to facilitate rapid, high throughput identification of barley varieties, we have developed a multiplexed SNP genotyping assay capable of determining the identity of each of 60 Australian barley varieties with precision and speed. Sequenom® MassARRAY® and iPLEX™ Gold genotyping was precise and a unique SNP barcode of up to 20
Potassium ion and Na+ influx and efflux rates into and from excised barley roots are compared with the maximum capacity of accumulation. Potassium ion and Na+ influx and efflux involve a cation exchange that is independent of simultaneous exchange of the accompanying anion. These exchange fluxes depend on the concentration and cation composition of the solutions from which they originate. Selective differences between K+ and Na+ fluxes are sufficient to account for a cationic distribution within the roots that differs markedly from that of the external solution and that persists for extended time periods. The accumulation maximum is a cation exchange equilibrium with the cation influx and efflux rates approaching equality. The equilibrium level is independent of the individual cation fluxes and the external solution concentration. It is a finite quantity which appears to be determined by the internal anion concentration including accumulated as well as endogenous anions.. ...
Read "Cellular analysis of UV-B-induced barley root subapical swelling, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Brüggemann, W. and Moog, P. R. (1989), NADH-dependent Fe3+EDTA and oxygen reduction by plasma membrane vesicles from barley roots. Physiologia Plantarum, 75: 245-254. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3054.1989.tb06176.x ...
In this study, proteomic and metabolomic changes in leaves and roots of two barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes, with contrasting drought tolerance, subjected to water deficit were investigated. Our two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF and MALDI-TOF/TOF) analyses revealed 121 drought-responsive proteins in leaves and 182 in roots of both genotypes. Many of the identified drought-responsive proteins were associated with processes that are typically severely affected during water deficit, including photosynthesis and carbon metabolism. However, the highest number of identified leaf and root proteins represented general defense mechanisms. In addition, changes in the accumulation of proteins that represent processes formerly unassociated with drought response, e.g. phenylpropanoid metabolism, were also identified. Our tandem gas chromatography - time of flight mass spectrometry (GC/MS TOF) analyses revealed
The aim of this study was to estimate the accuracy and convergence of newly developed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genomic resources, primarily genome zipper (GZ) and population sequencing (POPSEQ), at the genome-wide level and to assess their usefulness in applied barley breeding by analyzing seven known loci. Comparison of barley GZ and POPSEQ maps to a newly developed consensus genetic map constructed with data from 13 individual linkage maps yielded an accuracy of 97.8% (GZ) and 99.3% (POPSEQ), respectively, regarding the chromosome assignment. The percentage of agreement in marker position indicates that on average only 3.7% GZ and 0.7% POPSEQ positions are not in accordance with their centimorgan coordinates in the consensus map. The fine-scale comparison involved seven genetic regions on chromosomes 1H, 2H, 4H, 6H, and 7H, harboring major genes and quantitative trait loci (QTL) for disease resistance. In total, 179 GZ loci were analyzed and 64 polymorphic markers were developed. Entirely, ...
Rice is more sensitive to salinity, particularly at its early vegetative and later productive stages. Wild plants growing in harsh environments such as wild barley from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau adapt to the adverse environment with allelic variations at the loci responsible for stressful environment, which could be used for rice genetic improvement. In this study, we overexpressed HsCBL8 encoding a calcium-sensor calcineurin B-like (CBL) protein in rice. The gene was isolated from XZ166, a wild-barley (Hordeum spontanum) line originated from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. We found that XZ166 responded to high NaCl concentration (200 mM) with more HsCBL8 transcripts than CM72, a cultivated barley line known for salinity tolerance. XZ166 is significantly different from CM72 with nucleotide sequences at HsCBL8. The overexpression of HsCBL8 in rice resulted in significant improvement of water protection in vivo and plasma membrane, more proline accumulation, and a reduction of overall Na+ uptake but little change in K
Seed set limits use of certain barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes in H. bulbosum L. doubled-haploid production. This study was conducted to determine the genetic basis of low seed set in the spring barley cultivar Apex crossed with H. bulbosum. Two hundred F₂ plants, all having Apex as one parent and either Havila, Krystal or Roland as the other parent, were crossed with one clone of H. bulbosu ...
Seed set limits use of certain barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes in H. bulbosum L. doubled-haploid production. This study was conducted to determine the genetic basis of low seed set in the spring barley cultivar Apex crossed with H. bulbosum. Two hundred F₂ plants, all having Apex as one parent and either Havila, Krystal or Roland as the other parent, were crossed with one clone of H. bulbosu ...
Barley is the worlds fourth most cultivated cereal and is an important crop model for genetic studies. One layer of genomic information that remains poorly explored in barley is presence/absence variation (PAV), which has been suggested to contribute to phenotypic variation of agronomic importance in various crops. An mRNA sequencing approach was used to study genomic PAV and transcriptomic variation in 23 spring barley inbreds. 1502 new genes identified here were physically absent from the Morex reference sequence, and 11,523 previously unannotated genes were not expressed in Morex. The procedure applied to detect expression PAV revealed that more than 50% of all genes of our data set are not expressed in all inbreds. Interestingly, expression PAV were not in strong linkage disequilibrium with neighboring sequence variants (SV), and therefore provided an additional layer of genetic information. Optimal combinations of expression PAV, SV, and gene abundance data could enhance the prediction accuracy of
Barley limit dextrinase [Hordeum vulgare limit dextrinase (HvLD)] catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-1,6 glucosidic linkages in limit dextrins. This activity plays a role in starch degradation during germination and presumably in starch biosynthesis during grain filling. The crystal structures of HvLD in complex with the competitive inhibitors α-cyclodextrin (CD) and β-CD are solved and refined to 2.5 Å and 2.1 Å, respectively, and are the first structures of a limit dextrinase. HvLD belongs to glycoside hydrolase 13 family and is composed of four domains: an immunoglobulin-like N-terminal eight-stranded β-sandwich domain, a six-stranded β-sandwich domain belonging to the carbohydrate binding module 48 family, a catalytic (β/α)8-like barrel domain that lacks α-helix 5, and a C-terminal eight-stranded β-sandwich domain of unknown function. The CDs are bound at the active site occupying carbohydrate binding subsites + 1 and + 2. A glycerol and three water molecules mimic a glucose residue at ...
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Changes in calmodulin (CaM) mRNA and protein were investigated in aleurone layers of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Himalaya) incubated in the presence and absence of calcium, gibberellic acid (GA3), and abscisic acid (ABA). CaM mRNA levels increased rapidly and transiently following incubation of aleurone layers in H2O, CaCl2, or GA3. The increase in CaM mRNA was prevented by ABA. This increase in CaM mRNA was brought about by physical stimulation during removal of the starchy endosperm from the aleurone layer. CaM protein levels did not increase in response to physical stimulation. Only incubation in GA3 plus CaCl2 brought about a rapid increase in CaM protein levels in the aleurone cell. ABA reduced the level of CaM protein below that found at the beginning of the incubation period. The rise in CaM protein preceded increases in the synthesis and secretion of [alpha]-amylase. Immunocytochemistry with monoclonal antibodies to carrot and mung bean CaM was used to localize CaM in aleurone ...
UV-B irradiation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) roots (1 W/m2, 15 min) or leaves (3 W/m2, 3.3 h) and also one-day-long root incubation in the Knop solution supplemented with 1-4 μM ABA, 1 mM salicylic acid, 16 μM ionomycin, or 0.1 mM colchicine induced growth retardation and subapical root swelling. All factors, except for colchicine, initiated growth of root hairs on the surface of swellings and suppressed their initiation and growth in more basal root region. During the first hour after unilateral root UV-B irradiation, their growth sharply retarded and hydraulic conductivity of membranes in the rhizodermis of growth zone rose 1.5-fold. In 2.5 h, root tips bent toward the source of irradiation. In 4.5 h, the ratio of longitudinal to transverse root extensibility in the root growth zone reduced twofold. In 8 h, root diameter in the subapical zone increased and root hairs appeared in this zone and attained 300 μm in length. In a day after irradiation, on unirradiated root side, meristematic cells
Effects of waterlogging on photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme activities of six barley genotypes with different waterlogging tolerance
This paper is focused on behaviour of starch in wheat-barley composite flours modified by 5.0% or 10.0% chia and teff, determined by amylograph and RVA apparatuses, and on baking test results. Regarding the temperature at gelatinization beginning and viscosity maximum, curves appearance depended on both type of non-traditional crop and amount added. In wheat-barley flour premix, barley flour increased amylograph viscosity (790 units in wheat-barley mixture vs. 680 units for control). Combined addition of chia and teff lowered viscosity about approximately 35%. RVA test distinctly differentiated the flour composites. Barley flour and chia wholemeal significantly reduced the specific volume of composite bread, while both teff wholemeal types partially compensated that volume diminishing (approx. -37%, -25% and -12%, respectively). A combination of white teff and dark chia wholemeal showed higher baking potential, since the specific bread volumes were comparable to wheat-barley control (230 15 ...
NAC proteins constitute a family of plant-specific transcription factors that are involved in many plant cellular processes including responses to abiotic…
Three hundred and thirty-six weanling pigs were utilized in two, 3 X 2 factorial design experiments to determine the effects of whey level (0, 10 or 20%) and particle size (1/8 or 3/16-in screen size) in barley diets on starter-pig performance. Grinding barley through a 1/8-in screen decreased the mean particle size of the diet compared to diets made up of barley ground through a 3/16-in screen. Average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) increased linearly (P,.01) as whey level increased. Pigs fed diets containing 1/8-in ground barley were more efficient (P,.02) than those fed diets containing 3/16-in ground barley. However, pigs fed a 20% dried whey-milo-soybean meal control diet grew faster (P,.05) than those fed any of the barley starter diets. In these experiments, the relative feeding value of 20% dried whey-barley starter diet was 94-97% that of the 20% dried whey-milo diet. Also, these results indicate that increasing levels of dried whey improves ADG and ADFI of pigs ...
The public EST (expressed sequence tag) databases represent an enormous but heterogeneous repository of sequences, including many from a broad selection of
Barley World is Oregon State Universitys Barley Breeding Program and one of the Regional Grains Projects partners on developing naked or hull-less barley. We sat down for a Q & A with Patrick, Brigid and Andrew, whose work we showcased in September at GrowNYCs Variety Showcase and Naked Barley Tasting. Q: ​What makes barely unique or different from other "small grains"? Patrick Hayes:​ Barley is unique in being so versatile: it is the base of beer, and that foundation lets one build on other attributes - including nutrition (human and animal), and flavor attributes. Barley is a much simpler organism - genetically speaking than wheat (14 vs. 42 chromosomes). That is an advantage when it comes to figuring out what genes drive what traits. Q: ​What are some of the main objectives for OSU and the other partners on the naked barley grant? Brigid Meints: ​The main objectives of the grant are as follows: 1. Evaluate multi-use naked barley varieties and breeding lines in diverse, ...
Discussion. Well established is the fact that crops growing on sludge-receiving agricultural lands face numerous problems such as heavy metal toxicity, N deficiency, K deficiency, acidification, and the like. In the current investigation, we found K deficiency (Figure 1) in barley grown on soil with a long history of sewage sludge application. Total K content of plant and soil mentioned in our results coincided with that reported by Miah (1997), in which the author clearly suggested that under these K concentrations of sludge-receiving agricultural land, the occurrence K deficiency would not be unusual. This confirmed the occurrence of K deficiency in the sludge-receiving H plot as shown in Figure 1 with apparent K deficiency symptoms, namely, white necrotic lesions and brown necrotic patches. In relevance to Ca, Cl, S, P, Si, Mg and K distribution as revealed with EDS, high concentrations of these elements in K deficient barley leaf (Table 2) compared to control would seem to lie in the ...
We report a series of microarray-based leaf and crown transcriptome comparisons involving three barley cultivars (cvs. Luxor, Igri and Atlas 68) which express differing degrees of frost tolerance. The transcripts were obtained following the exposure of seedlings to low (above and below zero) temperatures, aiming to identify those genes and signalling/metabolic pathways which are associated with frost tolerance. Both the leaves and the crowns responded to low temperature by the up-regulation of a suite of abscisic acid (ABA)-responsive genes, most of which have already been recognized as components of the plant low temperature response. The inter-cultivar comparison indicated that genes involved in maintaining the leafs capacity to synthesize protein and to retain chloroplast activity were important for the expression of frost tolerance. In the crown, the repression of genes associated with nucleosome assembly and transposon regulation were the most relevant transcriptional changes associated ...
Physiological leaf spot (PLS) is a disorder of spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), which has become more pronounced in recent years. The initial symptoms are small chlorotic/brown spots on the upper four leaves, which may develop into necrotic lesions with an irregular shape. As PLS occurs on leaves that are directly exposed to sunlight, it is thought that high light stress could be a trigger for the condition. This study concentrates on two cultivars, Cooper and Crusader, which display differential sensitivity to PLS. Biochemical measurements and enzyme assays revealed substantial difference in levels of ascorbate, type III peroxidases, and superoxide dismutase between the chosen cultivars during the 2003 growing season. A global gene expression study, using these field samples, was performed by microarray analysis. This supported the biochemical findings and highlighted additional sets of genes differentially expressed between the cultivars. Transcripts of particular interest, which appeared, ...
Barley plants having reduced lipoxygenase-1 enzyme activity are provided, for example, barley plants expressing mutant LOX-1 protein. The barley plants of the invention are useful in the production of plant products such as malt and brewed beverages, particularly beer, having increased stability and reduced T2N potential.
We now import Australian barley Ukraine barley French barley barley and Canada barley and create profits and value for customers! Our company s enterprise value is Odessa Commercial Port Type Barley Variety Barley Malt Cultivation Type Common .
A tonoplast protein of 31 kDa apparent molecular mass (TpP 31) was isolated from two-dimensional gels. Amino acid sequences were determined from LysC endoproteinase-peptide fragments. Using degenerate oligonucleotides, a corresponding cDNA clone of 1034 bp was isolated from a barley leaf cDNA library. It encodes for subunit E of the vacuolar H+-ATPase, the first one identi fled in plants so far. The open reading frame extends over 681 bp, encoding a gene product of 227 amino acids and a calculated molecular weight of 26 228 g mol(-1). Northern and Western blot analysis indicates constitutive expression of subunit E in all plant organs with only small effects of salt stress. Localization of TpP 31 at the tonoplast was confirmed in fractions of purified vacuolar membrane obtained by free-flow electrophoresis. Immunoprecipitation of newly synthesized S-35-labelled membrane proteins with anti-TpP 31 gave two additional bands with apparent molecular masses of about 53 and 62 kDa. Gel filtration after ...
Hordeum vulgare CAB-3 protein: from barley; chlorophyl a-b-binding protein of the light-harvesting complex II; amino acid sequence given in first source
The low protein barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar `Karl is deficient in hordeins, the major storage protein fraction, but has normal levels of other endosperm protein fractions. We compared hordein gene expression in Karl with that in `Traill, a related cultivar that contains normal amounts of hordein. In plants grown in controlled environmental conditions, hordein accumulation in Karl was 55% of that in Traill. The amount of hordein synthesized at all developmental stages tested was lower in Karl, as shown by pulse labeling of excised spikes with [3H]leucine. To determine whether levels of hordein mRNAs were related to amounts of hordein synthesis, total RNA preparations from endosperms at three or four developmental stages were hybridized to cDNA probes corresponding to B and C hordein genes. Both B and C hordein mRNA levels were significantly lower in Karl than in Traill at intermediate developmental stages. It was concluded that the low-hordein character of Karl was regulated by the ...
Wheat is an allopolyploid which has two or more sets of related chromosomes as the result of doubling chromosomes following sexual hybridization between closely related species. Hexaploid (bread) wheat contains A, B and D genomes and tetraploid (pasta) wheat contains A and B genomes. Despite their genome complexity, wheat behave as iploids during meiosis (each chromosome only pairs with its identical, homologue, and not with related or homoelogous chromosomes). Chromosome pairing is controlled in wheat by the Ph1 locus, which suppresses homoeologous chromosome pairing. Therefore the hybridization be tween polyploid wheat and related species caused inter-specific hybrids without chromosome pairing between wheat and related species. However, in the absence of the Ph1 locus (ph1 mutant) the chance of pairing between related chromosomes is increased. In this work, we exploit the ph1 mutant to development new wheat germplas m carrying introgressions from Hordeum chilense, a wild barley with high ...
Dietary Supplement. Premium herbal. Chlorophyll source. Health & longevity through the healing power of nature - thats what it means to Trust the Leaf. Barley Grass Bulk Powder is 100% whole barley grass (hordeum vulgare) grown in the winter and early spring on the Midwestern plains. Slowly matured and tempered by the weather, natural Barley Grass has a greater nutritional value and lower sugar content than wheat grass or Barley Grass sprouted indoors in a warm environment. When harvested as a young grass (before the ovule moves up and the grain develops), Barley Grass has a nutritional profile more similar to a green leafy vegetable than a grain. Immediately after harvest, Natures Way Barley Grass is dried with dehumidified air rather than heat to remove the moisture. This process retains twice as much chlorophyll as conventionally-dried products. Our Barley Grass is carefully grown, tested and produced to certified quality standards. This product is free of gluten and lactose. It contains no ...
Hordeum vulgare pG31 protein: shows substantial amino acid sequence homology to bacterial glucose dehydrogenase and ribitol dehydrogenase; amino acid sequence given in first source
Preface. 1. Barley History: Relationship of Humans and Barley Through the Ages.. Introduction.. Domestication and Use of Barley for Food.. Summary.. 2. Barley: Taxonomy, Morphology, and Anatomy.. Introduction.. Taxonomy.. Morphology and Anatomy.. Summary.. 3. Barley Biotechnology: Breeding and Transgenics.. Introduction.. Improving the Barley Crop.. Barley Transgenics.. Summary.. 4. Barley: Genetics and Nutrient Composition.. Introduction.. Genetics and Nutrient Composition.. Genetics and Physical Characteristics.. Summary.. 5. Barley Processing: Methods and Product Composition.. Introduction.. Whole-Grain Processing.. Secondary Processing.. Separation Techniques.. Special and Miscellaneous Processes.. Summary.. 6. Evaluation of Food Product Quality.. Introduction.. Objective Evaluation.. Sensory Evaluation.. Summary.. 7. Barley Food Product Research and Development.. Introduction.. Health Claims for Barley.. Barley as a Functional Food.. Β-Glucan: The Challenge of Barley as Food.. Yeast Breads ...
Latin name: Hordeum vulgare Chinese name: mai ya Other names: pearl barley, Scotch barley What is Barley Grass? Barley grass is the leaves and leaf juice of the barley plant.
Reduces cholesterol - A study published in the Journal of Chiropractic Medicine in 2008 found that subjects who were fed barley grass products as part of a 21-day nutritional program showed noticeably lower levels of total and LDL cholesterol. This research was reinforced by a later 2010 study published in the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, where researchers found that consuming whole barley grain foods and barley grass juice reduced LDL cholesterol. LDL cholesterol is the "bad" cholesterol that accumulates in the walls of our blood vessels, and can contribute to heart disease if left unchecked. Therefore, eating more LDL cholesterol-lowering foods like barley grass will directly boost our cardiovascular health.. Rich in chlorophyll - Like wheatgrass, another supergreen to which barley grass is often compared, barley grass is one of the worlds finest sources of chlorophyll. Chlorophyll is a potent blood cleanser and builder, and helps to increase our hemoglobin levels to that our red ...