As mentioned, Hominidae was originally the name given to the family of humans and their (extinct) close relatives, with the other great apes (that is, the orangutans, gorillas, and chimpanzees) all being placed in a separate family, the Pongidae. However, that definition eventually made Pongidae paraphyletic because at least one great ape species (the chimpanzees) proved to be more closely related to humans than to other great apes. Most taxonomists today encourage monophyletic groups-this would require, in this case, the use of Pongidae to be restricted to just one closely related grouping. Thus, many biologists now assign Pongo (as the subfamily Ponginae) to the family Hominidae. The taxonomy shown here follows the monophyletic groupings according to the modern understanding of human and great ape relationships. Humans and close relatives including the tribes Hominini and Gorillini form the subfamily Homininae (see classification graphic below). (A few researchers go so far as to refer the ...
As mentioned, Hominidae was originally the name given to the family of humans and their (extinct) close relatives, with the other great apes (that is, the orangutans, gorillas, and chimpanzees) all being placed in a separate family, the Pongidae. However, that definition eventually made Pongidae paraphyletic because at least one great ape species (the chimpanzees) proved to be more closely related to humans than to other great apes. Most taxonomists today encourage monophyletic groups-this would require, in this case, the use of Pongidae to be restricted to just one closely related grouping. Thus, many biologists now assign Pongo (as the subfamily Ponginae) to the family Hominidae. The taxonomy shown here follows the monophyletic groupings according to the modern understanding of human and great ape relationships. Humans and close relatives including the tribes Hominini and Gorillini form the subfamily Homininae (see classification graphic below). (A few researchers go so far as to refer the ...
As mentioned, Hominidae was originally the name given to the family of humans and their (extinct) close relatives, with the other great apes (that is, the orangutans, gorillas, and chimpanzees) all being placed in a separate family, the Pongidae. However, that definition eventually made Pongidae paraphyletic because at least one great ape species (the chimpanzees) proved to be more closely related to humans than to other great apes. Most taxonomists today encourage monophyletic groups-this would require, in this case, the use of Pongidae to be restricted to just one closely related grouping. Thus, many biologists now assign Pongo (as the subfamily Ponginae) to the family Hominidae. The taxonomy shown here follows the monophyletic groupings according to the modern understanding of human and great ape relationships. Humans and close relatives including the tribes Hominini and Gorillini form the subfamily Homininae (see classification graphic below). (A few researchers go so far as to refer the ...
As mentioned, Hominidae was originally the name given to the family of humans and their (extinct) close relatives, with the other great apes (that is, the orangutans, gorillas, and chimpanzees) all being placed in a separate family, the Pongidae. However, that definition eventually made Pongidae paraphyletic because at least one great ape species (the chimpanzees) proved to be more closely related to humans than to other great apes. Most taxonomists today encourage monophyletic groups-this would require, in this case, the use of Pongidae to be restricted to just one closely related grouping. Thus, many biologists now assign Pongo (as the subfamily Ponginae) to the family Hominidae. The taxonomy shown here follows the monophyletic groupings according to the modern understanding of human and great ape relationships. Humans and close relatives including the tribes Hominini and Gorillini form the subfamily Homininae (see classification graphic below). (A few researchers go so far as to refer the ...
GREAT apes in captivity are subject to contraceptive regimes to control fertility in an environment that only approximates their habitat in the wild. The clinical caseload of one author (Masters N, personal communication) suggested that captive female great apes (Hominidae) experience a high incidence of pathological lesions of the reproductive tract and that some exhibit stereotypic or other behaviours indicative of stress. Understanding the effects of contraception and/or the physical environment on captive great apes is critical if the authors are to maximise reproductive management.. Various reproductive tract pathological lesions have been reported in non-human primates (NHPs). Congenital abnormalities occur with a similar incidence to the human being, affecting 0.3 to 0.9 per cent of births (Peterson and others 1997). In addition, endometriosis and adenomyosis produce pathological lesions and clinical signs similar to those experienced by women, including reduced fertility and pain ...
The classification of the great apes has been revised several times in the last few decades. Originally, the group was restricted to humans and their extinct relatives, with the other great apes being placed in a separate family, the Pongidae. This definition is still used by many anthropologists and by lay persons. However, that definition makes Pongidae paraphyletic because at least one great ape species appears to be more closely related to humans than other great apes. Most taxonomists nowadays encourage monophyletic groups so this would require the use of Pongidae to be restricted to one of the great ape groups only. Thus many biologists consider Hominidae to include Pongidae as the subfamily Ponginae, or restrict the latter to the orangutans and their extinct relatives like Gigantopithecus. The taxonomy shown here follows the monophyletic groupings according to the two theories of human and great ape relationships.. Especially close human relatives form a subfamily, the Homininae. Some ...
Define Homo erectus soloensis. Homo erectus soloensis synonyms, Homo erectus soloensis pronunciation, Homo erectus soloensis translation, English dictionary definition of Homo erectus soloensis. Noun 1. Homo soloensis - extinct primitive hominid of late Pleistocene; Java; formerly Javanthropus genus Homo - type genus of the family Hominidae human,...
Introduction. One of the earliest derived features of the hominin clade is canine tooth size reduction, with a decrease in sexual dimorphism in canine crown height, and the loss of maxillary canine tooth honing against the lower third premolar that occurs in most primate species. Canine tooth crown reduction was originally thought to have first appeared in Australopithecus,1 but now is known to have characterised even earlier taxa - Sahelanthropus,2 Orrorin,3 Ardipithecus kadabba4,5,6 and Ardipithecus ramidus.7,8,9,10 However, the morphology of the Australopithecus canine-premolar complex is derived morphologically relative to these earlier hominins. Furthermore, canine tooth form appears to have changed throughout the early evolution of Australopithecus.9,11,12 The pattern and timing of canine evolution is significant for understanding early hominin evolution because alterations in canine tooth size and dimorphism constitute evidence of social and/or dietary adaptations.13,14. The earliest ...
Louis Leakey and East Africa.. Olduvai Gorge.. Sahelanthropus: The Oldest Hominin?. Mio-Pliocene Enigmas: Orrorin and Ardipithecus.. Australopithecus anamensis.. Australopithecus afarensis.. Lucys Locomotion: The View from Stony Brook.. Lucys Locomotion: The Rebuttal.. Lucys Locomotion: Persistent Questions.. Australopithecus bahrelghazali?. Australopithecus platyops?. Australopithecus garhi.. Australopithecus aethiopicus.. Australopithecus boisei.. Fitting in South Africa: The Problem(s) of Sterkfontein.. Fitting in South Africa: Some robustus Questions.. The Phylogeny of Australopithecus.. What Did Australopithecus Eat?. Australopithecus and the Ecosystem.. Two Species or Two Sexes?. Hunting, Gathering, and Dimorphism.. Dinichism: A Possible Synthesis.. Explaining Hominin Origins.. Primitive Homo-Or Advanced Australopithecus?. Dating and Geological Context of the Habilines from Olduvai, Omo, and Koobi Fora.. Habiline Skulls.. Habiline Teeth.. Habiline Postcranial Remains.. Advanced ...
Homo sapiens idaltu Homo sapiens sapiens †Homo neanderthalensis? †Homo rhodesiensis? Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man) is the binomial nomenclature (also known as the scientific name) for the human species. Homo is the human genus, which also includes Neanderthals and many other extinct species of hominid; H. sapiens is the only surviving species of the genus Homo. Modern humans are the subspecies Homo sapiens sapiens, which differentiates them from what has been argued to be their direct ancestor, Homo sapiens idaltu. The ingenuity and adaptability of Homo sapiens has led to its becoming, arguably, the most influential species on the planet; it is for this reason that it is currently deemed of least concern on the IUCN.[1] The binomial name Homo sapiens was coined by Carl Linnaeus (1758).[2] The Latin noun homō (genitive hominis) means man, human being. Subspecies of H. sapiens include Homo sapiens idaltu and the only extant subspecies, Homo sapiens sapiens. Some sources show Neanderthals ...
The basal position within the Hominidae of the two thick-enamelled hominoids studied in this paper is supported by the retention of several primitive, kenyapithecine-like traits (anterior position of the zygomatic root, strong mandibular torus and extreme reduction of the maxillary sinus) in this taxa (Moyà-Solà et al. 2009b). According to this hypothesis, kenyapithecin afropithecids (Kenyapithecus and Griphopithecus) would be recognized as hominids sister taxa. This phylogenetic hypothesis had been previously suggested by other researchers (Pickford 1986; Harrison 1992; Harrison & Rook 1997; McCrossin & Benefit 1997; Begun 2001, 2005, 2007; Güleç & Begun 2003), and some authors had even included Kenyapithecus and Griphopithecus as a distinct subfamily (Kenyapithecinae) within the Hominidae (Ward & Duren 2002; Cameron 2004). That would imply two separate dispersal events from Africa into Eurasia (one for hylobatids and the other for the ancestors of hominids), and a third dispersal event ...
As homo-sapiens, we are undeniably members of the big taxonomic group known as the hominidae family. If you are capable of reading this, behaving socially, feeling, thinking, and of having a personality and characteristics that determine your own, personal and unchangeable individuality, then you must recognize yourself as a human being. The big hominidae family, also known as the
Ang mga primado ay humiwalay mula sa ibang mga mamalya noong mga 85 milyong taong nakakalipas.[2][3][4] Ang pinakamaagang mga fossil ng mga primado ay mula 55 milyong taong nakakalipas. Ang mga maagang primado ay lumitaw sa Eurasya. Ang angkan ng primado na pinaglitawan ng mga ape na Aprikano at mga tao kabilang ang Dryopithecus ay lumipat patimog mula sa Europa o Kanluraning Asya tungo sa Aprika. Ang mga populasyong tropikal ng mga primadong natuklasan sa mga fossil bed ng panahong Eocene at Oligocene sa depresyong Faiyum ng timog kanlurang Ehipto ay nagsanga sa ibat ibang kasalukuyang nabubuhay na species na lemur ng Madagascar, mga loris ng Timog Silangang Asya, mga galago ng Aprika, at mga anthropoid: platyrrhine (mga Bagong Daigdig na unggoy), at mga catarrhine na kinabibilangan ng mga Lumang Daigdig na unggoy at mga dakilang bakulaw(great apes) na kinabibilangan ng mga tao.[5] Noong mga 40 milyong taong nakakalipas, ang impraorden na Simiiformes ay nagsanga tungo sa mga pangkat na ...
The Hominidae /hɒˈmɪnᵻdiː/ Hominid, whose pledge are well-known as great apes or Hominids, are a taxonomical family Hominid of tarsioidea that incorporate vii extant Hominid taxonomic category in four genera Hominid: Pongo Hominid, the Bornean Hominid and Sumatran orangutan Hominid; Gorilla Hominid, the eastern Hominid and western gorilla Hominid; Pan Hominid, the common chimpanzee Hominid and the bonobo Hominid; and Homo Hominid, the human Hominid. Several vision in elucidative the large acme have spawn the use of the referent Hominid to widen concluded time. Its first connotation critique alone to group Homo and heritor nearest relatives. That limiting connotation has now old person for the most part false by the referent hominin, which be all pledge of the humanness biological group after the acrobatic stunt from the pan paniscus Pan. (See below, for a workman elaboration of correlated and real sympathetic terms, at Terminology Hominid.) The current, 21st century, connotation of ...
The Taung type specimen for Australopithecus africanus includes a natural endocast that reproduces external morphology of a large portion of the right cerebral hemisphere, and a separate fragment of the fossilized face that articulates with the endocast. The natural endocast lacks the right temporal pole and rostral part of the frontal lobes, which were embedded in the back of the facial fragment. Although these structures have previously been reconstructed manually using the external morphology of the facial fragment as a guide, we used advanced 3D-CT technology to prepare virtual reconstructions of the frontal lobes and right temporal pole. We then joined these parts of Taungs virtual endocast to a virtual image of the natural endocast, and reconstructed the remaining missing areas using mirror imaging. The resulting virtual endocast of Taung was compared with 3D geometrical models of chimpanzee and bonobo endocasts reconstructed from CT scans of dry skulls representing individuals at the same dental
The species of Australopithecus africanus was named in a February 1925, issue of Nature by Raymond Dart. R. Dart was one of the pioneers of paleoanthropology
View Notes - anthrocontinued from ANTH 101 at Boise State. Chapter 10 : Early Homo Early Homo: Homo habilis Homo erectus Archaic Homo: Homo antecesor Homo heidlbergensis Homo neandertalensis Homo
A fact admitted even by evolutionists Australopithecus sediba is not an ancestor of man watch video, Adnan Oktars comments and opinions about A fact admitted even by evolutionists Australopithecus sediba is not an ancestor of man , watch related articles, videos, interviews and documentries for A fact admitted even by evolutionists Australopithecus sediba is not an ancestor of man , share on facebook, share on twitter
We report on the paleopathological analysis of the partial skeleton of the late Pliocene hominin species Australopithecus africanus Stw 431 from Sterkfontein, South Africa. A previous study noted the presence of lesions on vertebral bodies diagnosed as spondylosis deformans due to trauma. Instead, we suggest that these lesions are pathological changes due to the initial phases of an infectious disease, brucellosis. The macroscopic, microscopic and radiological appearance of the lytic lesions of the lumbar vertebrae is consistent with brucellosis. The hypothesis of brucellosis (most often associated with the consumption of animal proteins) in a 2.4 to 2.8 million year old hominid has a host of important implications for human evolution. The consumption of meat has been regarded an important factor in supporting, directing or altering human evolution. Perhaps the earliest (up to 2.5 million years ago) paleontological evidence for meat eating consists of cut marks on animal remains and stone tools that
Human remains, some as recent as 15 thousand years, from Liang Bua (LB) on the Indonesian island of Flores have been attributed to a new species, Homo floresiensis. The definition includes a mosaic of features, some like modern humans (hence derived: genus Homo), some like modern apes and australopithecines (hence primitive: not species sapiens), and some unique (hence new species: floresiensis). Conversely, because only modern humans (H. sapiens) are known in this region in the last 40 thousand years, these individuals have also been suggested to be genetic human dwarfs. Such dwarfs resemble small humans and do not show the mosaic combination of the most complete individuals, LB1 and LB6, so this idea has been largely dismissed. We have previously shown that some features of the cranium of hypothyroid cretins are like those of LB1. Here we examine cretin postcrania to see if they show anatomical mosaics like H. floresiensis. We find that hypothyroid cretins share at least 10 postcranial features with
Ideas shaping the concept of human evolution have largely played out through images. Characters with large brow ridges and sloping foreheads-including Homo neanderthalensis and Homo erectus-have consistently been depicted as the earliest forms of evolving humans. Now, new fossil evidence is turning the whole paradigm upside down.. A skull fossil found in Mongolia in 2006 was linked to evolutionary icons like H. neanderthalensis and H. erectus because of its alleged archaic features. A recent study now dates it at about 34,000 years, which puts it in the same age range (evolutionarily speaking) as very recent humans.1 This study also extracted mitochondrial DNA from the skull and placed it within the range of modern Eurasian humans. Considering that secular scientists have dated other human skulls with anatomically modern features at over 300,000 years,2 these new findings of recent humans with archaic features highlight the abject futility of the human evolution story.. ...
Significantly, Anoiapithecus also exhibits the basic facial hominid synapomorphies (8), indicating that this taxon is a stem member of the great ape and human clade: high face, high zygomatic root, pyriform nasal aperture widest at the base, deep palate, and nasals that project slightly anteriorly beneath the level of the lower orbital rims (observed from the nasomaxillary sutures). The same modern facial pattern is also shared by Pierolapithecus (5), despite the striking differences in facial profile as compared to Anoiapithecus.. The retention of highly specialized, derived kenyapithecine features in a stem hominid such as Anoiapithecus has important implications for understanding the origin of the Hominidae. The presence in Eurasia of kenyapithecin hominoids (Kenyapithecus and Griphopithecus) of putative African origin by ≈16.5 Ma (18) or 15-14 Ma (19, 20) has led some authors to hypothesize that later Middle and Late Miocene Eurasian hominids evolved from these taxa (2, 7, 8, 10, 16, ...
In addition to structural characteristics related to requirements of bipedality, some of the most obvious differences between human and ape skeletons are proportional differences, involving not only the relative lengths of the long bones and trunk but also bone girth and joint surface size directly reflecting the different requirements of weight transfer through human and ape skeletons.15 It is somewhat surprising that Brown et al.10 did not consider these proportions in their discussion on LB1s mode of locomotion. As several of the indices characterizing LB1s lower limb fall within the australopithecine and chimpanzee range of variation (Table 1), might it not follow that LB1s locomotor mode shared features with those predicted for australopithecines, or even those displayed by chimpanzees? What is the relative importance of these and other morphological features in predicting a species mode of locomotion? A comparison of the biomechanical characteristics of bipedality and quadrupedalism ...
Homo habilis (also known as handy man) is one of the early ancestors of modern man who used primitive stone tools.[1] Their remains have been found in the Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania.[1] They are believed to be about 2 million years old. The flat face and large molars of the Homo habilis resemble the Australopithecus lineage. The brain size of the Homo habilis is about 700 cc (larger than the Australopithecus). An apelike (long arms and a small body) body structure was characteristic of the Homo habilis. They are believed to have been about 1.3 metres tall, and weigh about 37 kilograms.[2] There is still a lot of argument between scientists about the species.[1] They can not all agree on the characteristics, or whether it is even a separate species at all.. ...
Remains of one of the most recently discovered early human species, Homo floresiensis (nicknamed Hobbit), have so far only been found on the Island of Flores, Indonesia. The fossils of H. floresiensis date to between about 100,000 and 60,000 years ago, and stone tools made by this species date to between about 190,000 and 50,000 years old. H. floresiensis individuals stood approximately 3 feet 6 inches tall, had tiny brains, large teeth for their small size, shrugged-forward shoulders, no chins, receding foreheads, and relatively large feet due to their short legs. Despite their small body and brain size, H. floresiensis made and used stone tools, hunted small elephants and large rodents, coped with predators such as giant Komodo dragons, and may have used fire. The diminutive stature and small brain of H. floresiensis may have resulted from island dwarfism-an evolutionary process that results from long-term isolation on a small island with limited food resources and a lack of predators. Pygmy ...
The cranial morphology of the earliest known hominins in the genus Australopithecus remains unclear. The oldest species in this genus (Australopithecus anamensis, specimens of which have been dated to 4.2-3.9 million years ago) is known primarily from jaws and teeth, whereas younger species (dated to 3.5-2.0 million years ago) are typically represented by multiple skulls. Here we describe a nearly complete hominin cranium from Woranso-Mille (Ethiopia) that we date to 3.8 million years ago. We assign this cranium to A. anamensis on the basis of the taxonomically and phylogenetically informative morphology of the canine, maxilla and temporal bone. This specimen thus provides the first glimpse of the entire craniofacial morphology of the earliest known members of the genus Australopithecus. We further demonstrate that A. anamensis and Australopithecus afarensis differ more than previously recognized and that these two species overlapped for at least 100,000 years-contradicting the widely accepted
The microscopic anatomy of dental enamel has been employed in numerous studies of fossil hominin teeth. This research has focused on the use of microstructure, primarily perikymata and, when available, their internal manifestations, in the construction of phylogenetic relationships as well as in the reconstruction of hominin patterns of growth and development. The literature on perikymata numbers and packing as reported over the last 20 years, shows a huge range of variation within modern humans. The variation is so large in fact that virtually every fossil hominin species can be encompassed within the range except for some but not most of the robust australopithecines. The sample of Mousterian level hominins from the site of Qafzeh, in northern Israel represents some of the earliest recognized members of Homo sapiens sapiens. Included in this sample are a number of immature individuals (N = 5) whose permanent incisor crowns have observable perikymata. The number of perikymata on complete and unworn
Lantian County in Shaanxi Province in China, where the ancient Homo erectus fossils were found ( thetourofChina.com).. According to the researchers, the new dating of Lantian Man suggests that Homo erectus moved eastwards in warm period that occurred just after 1.75 million years ago. They may also have followed southern routes from Africa into Asia, as evidenced by the presence of fossils in Indonesia that are only slightly younger (c. 1.5 - 1.6 million years). The revised age extends its age by about half a million years and makes the Gongwangling site a crucial benchmark in establishing the framework of the origin, migration and dispersal of early man in the Old World, said Robin Dennell of University of Exeter in United Kingdom, It also provides reasonable evidence for re-evaluating the status of other early and controversial human fossils in China and Java. In addition, this new research rewrites the history of the Lantian hominin and provides additional knowledge of human evolution for ...
Five papers based on Australopithecus sediba have been published in Science on Sept. 9, 2011. They include an analysis of the most complete hand ever described in an early hominin, the most complete undistorted pelvis ever discovered, the highest resolution and most accurate scan of an early human ancestors brain ever made, new pieces of the foot and ankle skeleton, and one of the most accurate dates ever achieved for an early hominin site in Africa ...
Data for Australopithecus, however, do not support the hypothesis of an apelike IMMR in hominids by the late Pliocene. Based on 12 adult crania (Table S5), the neonatal brain mass estimate is 170 g, and the NBM is estimated to be approximately 1.7 kg by using an ape model of brain development (Table 2). This ape model is likely to be correct for Australopithecus given the evidence that a more human-like pattern of prenatal brain growth may not have been achieved until H. erectus (9, 27) or even later (28). Furthermore, the large neonatal brain in humans is supported in part by increased levels of infant body fat, thought to be related to a high quality diet not adopted by hominids until the genus Homo (29). Compared directly with the FHD of presumed female specimens from Ethiopia (Australopithecus afarensis) and South Africa (Australopithecus africanus; Table S4), Australopithecus infants are proportionately large compared with chimpanzee values (Fig. 1A). In fact, only 0.8% of the resampled ...
Dr. Leslea Hlusko, a professor at UC Berkeley, is a member of a key research project in human evolution. The team has found some of the earliest hominid fossils and, with them, has put forth a bold hypothesis that Ardipithecus ramidus and Australopithecus anamensis are not just two branches on the bushy tree of human relatives, but are instead a single lineage, with Ard. ramidus evolving directly into Au. anamensis. The flipside of Lesleas research, however, lands her about as far as one can get from prospecting for four million year old hominid fossils in Ethiopia. Her alter ego spends its energy taking thousands of incredibly detailed measurements of teeth belonging to a colony of baboons at a hi-tech biomedical research facility in San Antonio, Texas ...
What I hypothesize (and this may change) is that at 45-40K a population different from anatomically modern humans advanced into Europe and Africa from the east. This population was very cerebral: it spoke our languages, had kinship systems and other means of classification, and told lots of myths around their campfires. They relied on soft technologies (bones, snares, etc.) to procure food and build shelters. They replaced Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans but also adopted a lot from their lithic inventory thus creating an illusion of lithic continuity. The origin of these true Homo sapiens sapiens was in America based on the data coming from modern populations (genetics, linguistics, kinship systems and mythological data). (In the end Homo sapiens sapiens is probably an offshoot of Asian Homo erectus that sneaked across the Bering Strait around 100K and speciated there. (An ideal place to speciate, gentlemen, isnt?) At about 50K it migrated back into the Old World as us. For ...
What I hypothesize (and this may change) is that at 45-40K a population different from anatomically modern humans advanced into Europe and Africa from the east. This population was very cerebral: it spoke our languages, had kinship systems and other means of classification, and told lots of myths around their campfires. They relied on soft technologies (bones, snares, etc.) to procure food and build shelters. They replaced Neanderthals and anatomically modern humans but also adopted a lot from their lithic inventory thus creating an illusion of lithic continuity. The origin of these true Homo sapiens sapiens was in America based on the data coming from modern populations (genetics, linguistics, kinship systems and mythological data). (In the end Homo sapiens sapiens is probably an offshoot of Asian Homo erectus that sneaked across the Bering Strait around 100K and speciated there. (An ideal place to speciate, gentlemen, isnt?) At about 50K it migrated back into the Old World as us. For ...
Llwyth o fewn isdeulur Homininae yw Hominini. Mae gan y llwyth hwn dri is-lwyth: Hominina, ai genws Homo; Australopithecina, syn cynnwys sawl genera darfodedig; a Panina (neu Tsimpansî), ai un genws, sef y Pan.[1][2] Gelwir aelodau cytras bodau dynol (yr Hominini), gan gynnwys Homo ar rhywogaethau australopithecines hynny a ffurfiwyd ar ôl hollti oddi wrth y tsimpansî yn hominins; cf. Hominidae; termau hominids a hominins). Cangen dynol ywr is-lwyth Hominina; hynny yw, maen cynnwys y genws Homon unig. Cynnigiodd anthropolegwyr y term tacson Hominini ar sail y dylair rhywogaeth lleiaf tebygol gael ei wahanu oddi wrth y ddau arall. Y tsimpansî cyffredin a bonobor genws Pan yw perthnasau agosaf bodau dynol, o ran esblygiad. Maen nhwn rhannu yr un hynafiad a bodau dynol, hynafiad a drigai ar y Ddaear 4-7 miliwn o flynyddoedd yn ôl (CP).[3] Mae ymchwil a wnaed yn 1973 gan Mary-Claire King yn dangos fod 99% or DNA yn gyffredin rhwng y tsimpansî a bod dynol.[4] Addaswyd y ffigwr ...
Ive chosen whales: I could have chosen penguins, or turtles, or horses, or, of course, humans. Yes, a missing link has been found between humans and apes. In fact, several have. There is Sahelanthropus, an ape which lived around the time that humans and chimpanzees diverged. Then there are the Ardipithecus and Australopithecus ape-men. Then comes the arbitrary line where we start calling them humans: The genus Homo includes, among others, Homo habilis, Homo erectus, Homo ergaster, Homo heidelbergensis, Homo neandertalis and Homo sapiens, all of which have several fossil examples.. Its actually not very helpful to talk in terms of transitional forms. All species are transitional. Humans will probably look very different, if we exist, in a million years time, but we dont feel like a transitional form between Homo erectus and future humans. Instead its worth talking about transitional characteristics between older species and more recent ones. Tiktaalik, which appears to be an early ...
1300 words Unfortunately, soft tissue does not fossilize (which is a problem for facial reconstructions of hominins; Stephan and Henneberg, 2001; I will cover the recent reconstructions of Neanderthals and Nariokotome boy soon). So saying that Neanderthals had X percent of Y fiber type is only conjecture. However, to make inferences on who was stronger,…
Hominoid Evolution and Climatic Change in Europe, Edited by Louis de Bonis, George D. Koufos, Peter Andrews, 9780521660754, Cambridge University Press
The boundaries between genera are historically subjective. However, with the advent of phylogenetics (the study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms as gauged by genetic analysis; also called phylogenetic systematics), it is increasingly common for all taxonomic ranks (at least) below the class level, to be restricted to demonstrably monophyletic groupings, as has been the aim since the advent of evolutionary theory. A group is monophyletic (Greek: of one race) if it consists of an inferred common ancestor and all its descendants. For example, all organisms in the genus Homo are inferred to have come from the same ancestral form in the family Hominidae, and no other descendants are known. Thus the genus Homo is monophyletic. (A taxonomic group that contains organisms but not their common ancestor is called polyphyletic, and a group that contains some but not all descendants of the most recent common ancestor is called paraphyletic.). Groves (2004) notes that it is not ...
ID HS3_PE1795 STANDARD; PRT; 543 AA. AC HS3_PE1795; Q5D0E6; Q7Z5S7; Q86WY1; Q8N105; Q8NA89; Q9NVU8; DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 1, Created) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 2, Last sequence update) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 3, Last annotation update) DE RecName: Full=DALR anticodon-binding domain-containing protein 3; DE (HS3.PE1795). GN Name=DALRD3; OS HOMO SAPIENS. OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Eumetazoa; Bilateria; Coelomata; Deuterostomia; OC Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Gnathostomata; Teleostomi; Euteleostomi; OC Sarcopterygii; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Mammalia; Theria; Eutheria; OC Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Simiiformes; Catarrhini; OC Hominoidea; Hominidae; Homininae; Homo. OX NCBI_TaxID=9606; RN [0] RP -.; RG -.; RL -.; CC -!- SEQ. DATA ORIGIN: Translated from the HOGENOM CDS HS3.PE1795. CC Homo sapiens chromosome 3 GRCh37 sequence 1..197962430 annotated by CC Ensembl CC -!- ANNOTATIONS ORIGIN:DALD3_HUMAN CC -!- ALTERNATIVE PRODUCTS: CC Event=Alternative splicing; Named isoforms=4; CC Name=1; CC ...
ID HS2_PE3288 STANDARD; PRT; 2116 AA. AC HS2_PE3288; Q6PIF6; Q14786; Q8TEE1; DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 1, Created) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 2, Last sequence update) DT 00-JAN-0000 (Rel. 3, Last annotation update) DE RecName: Full=Myosin-VIIb; (HS2.PE3288). GN Name=MYO7B; OS HOMO SAPIENS. OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Eumetazoa; Bilateria; Coelomata; Deuterostomia; OC Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Gnathostomata; Teleostomi; Euteleostomi; OC Sarcopterygii; Tetrapoda; Amniota; Mammalia; Theria; Eutheria; OC Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; Simiiformes; Catarrhini; OC Hominoidea; Hominidae; Homininae; Homo. OX NCBI_TaxID=9606; RN [0] RP -.; RG -.; RL -.; CC -!- SEQ. DATA ORIGIN: Translated from the HOGENOM CDS HS2.PE3288. CC Homo sapiens chromosome 2 GRCh37 sequence 1..243189373 annotated by CC Ensembl CC -!- ANNOTATIONS ORIGIN:MYO7B_HUMAN CC -!- FUNCTION: Myosins are actin-based motor molecules with ATPase CC activity. Their highly divergent tails are presumed to bind to CC membranous compartments, which ...
Ti Aprika ket naikeddeng babaen dagiti kaaduan a paleoantropologo nga isu ti kaduogan a natagtagitao a teritorio iti Daga, a ti sebbangan ti tao ket nagtaud manipud iti daytoy a kontinente.[8][9] Idi las-ud ti tengnga ti maika-20 a siglo, Dagiti antropologo ket nakaduktalda kadagiti adu a posil ken ebidensia ti panagtaeng ti tao a mabalin a nasapsapa ngem 7 a riwriw a tawtawen ti napalabas. Dagiti tidda ti posil dagiti nadumaduma a sebbangan iti nasapa a kasla bakes a tattao ket naipagarup a nagbalin iti moderno a tao, kas ti Australopithecus afarensis (radiometriko a napetsaan iti agarup a 3.9-3.0 riwriw a tawtawen SK),[10] Ti Paranthropus boisei (c. 2.3-1.4 riwriw a tawtawen SK)[11] ken ti Homo ergaster (c. 1.9 riwriw-600,000 a tawtawen SK) ket naduktalanen.[2]. Kalpasan ti ebulosion ti homo sapiens sapiens idi agarup a 150,000 to 100,000 a tawtawen ti napalabas idiay Aprika, ti kontinente ket kangrunaan a natagtagitao babaen dagiti grupo ti agananup-agburburas.[12][13][14] Dagitoy nga immuna ...
2004 Falk, D. Prelinguistic evolution in early hominins: Whence motherese? (target article with commentaries) Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27:491-534.. 2000 Falk, D., Redmond, J. C., Jr., Guyer, J., Conroy, G. C., Recheis, W., Weber, G. W. and H. Seidler. Early hominid brain evolution: A new look at old endocasts, J. Hum. Evol. 38:695-717.. 2000 Conroy, G. C., Falk, D., Guyer, J., Weber, G. W., Seidler, H. and W. Recheis. Endocranial capacity in Sts 71 (Australopithecus africanus) by three-dimensional computed tomography. Anat. Rec. 258:391-396.. 1999 White, D. and D. Falk. A quantitative and qualitative reanalysis of the endocranial evidence from the juvenile Australopithecus boisei specimen L338y-6 from Omo, Ethiopia. Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol. 110:399-406.. 1999 Falk, D., Froese, N., Sade, D. and B. Dudek. Sex differences in brain/body relationships of rhesus monkeys and humans, J. Hum. Evol. 36:233-238.. 1998 Falk, D. and T. Gage. Radiators are cool. J. Hum. Evol. 35:307-312.. 1997 Falk, D. ...
Greetings fossil lovers, hunters, and/or experts. I read the newbie advisories and understand what they spell out. I am a member of other hobby groups, and therefore understand the frustrations presented by dealing with drive-by posters. That said, I may qualify as such a poster, as I am not a fossil hunter. I am, however, a person who is interested in different things, most of them antiquities of various types. Machines for the telling of time, aka watches, are but one of them. I am quite ignorant when it comes to fossils, archeology, anthropology, etc. But I am known to possess good instincts for finding interesting specimens. I believe this may be no exception. If it isnt, well, I wont take it too hard. I found this specimen near the coast in Southern California. It was in an area that was frequented by a local indigenous people known as the Chumash. There is a lot of shell remnants around the bluffs and up to where the Pacific Coast Highway runs between Los Angeles and Ventura. It was ...
Australopithecines are generally all species in the related Australopithecus and Paranthropus genera, and it typically includes Kenyanthropus,[2] Ardipithecus,[2] and Praeanthropus.[3] All these related species are now sometimes collectively classified as a subtribe of the Hominini tribe called Australopithecina.[4][5] They are the extinct, close relatives of humans and, with the extant genus Homo, comprise the human clade. Members of the human clade, i.e. the Hominini after the split from the chimpanzees, are now called homonina[6] (see Hominidae; terms hominids and hominins).. The terms australopithecine, et al., come from a former classification as members of a distinct subfamily, the Australopithecinae.[7] Members of Australopithecus are sometimes referred to as the gracile australopithecines, while Paranthropus are called the robust australopithecines.[8][9]. The australopithecines occurred in the Plio-Pleistocene era and were bipedal, and they were dentally similar to humans, but with ...
O astudior esgyrn, credir fod H. antecessor a H. heidelbergensis yn tarddu o linach yr Homo ergaster o Affrica. Maer ffaith fod gan H. heidelbergensis ymennydd gyda chyfaint o1100-1400 cm³ (oi gymharu gydar ymennyd modern: 1350 cm³) yn peri i baleoanthropolegion gredu fod ganddo allu i drin offer llaw ac ymddygiad cymdeithasol eitha datblygedig. Oherwydd hyn, rhoddwyd iddo ddosbarthiad tacsonomegol ei hun: rhywogaeth unigryw ei hun. Roedd taldra gwryw y rhywogaeth Homo heidelbergensis oddeutu 1.75 m (5 tr 9 modf) a phwysent 62 kg (136 pwys); taldra cymharol y fenyw oedd 1.57 m (5 tr 2 modf) a 51 kg (112 pwys).[6] Roeddent felly ychydig talach nar dyn Neanderthal.[7] Yn ôl Lee R. Berger roedd rhai ohonynt cyn daled a 2.13 m (7 tr) - sef yr Homo heidelbergensis a drigai yn Ne Affrica rhwng 500,000 a 300,000 CP.[8][9] ...
H. heidelbergensis is a critical human species in the Middle Pleistocene (∼130-780 thousand years ago (ka)). We know from several beautifully preserved crania that this species had a large brain, within the lower range of modern human variation, and a less robust face than early fossil humans. We know from their long bones that they were tall, strong people. From their associated archaeology we know they were capable of producing beautiful tools such as the large handaxes found in huge numbers at Boxgrove in Sussex. But there are many unanswered questions: who exactly belongs to the species Homo heidelbergensis, where did they live, how do they fit into the human family tree, and are they a separate species at all? [. . .] Are they our ancestors? African H. heidelbergensis material, such as Broken Hill, shares numerous features with European fossils such as Petralona, leading many to group them together. As long as Mauer is also included, this taxon can be named H. heidelbergensis. Proponents ...
Numerous studies have proposed different lists of morphological features to define the species of Homo erectus; among these, some are considered to be autapomorphic. The intention of this study is to discuss two of these possible autapomorphic traits: thickened cranial bones and equal participation of the three structural bone layers (inner and outer tables, diploe) in this thickening. This study brings new information concerning cranial vault thickness and structural composition in the mid-sagittal plane of some Asian Homo erectus. The Ngandong and Sambungmacan fossils, as well as the Zhoukoudian and Sangiran individuals, have cranial vault thickness values within the range of variation observed in our Homo sapiens comparative sample. Moreover, even if the frontal and sagittal keels in Homo erectus constitute a relief on the external cranial vault surface, they do not necessary correspond to a real thickening of the underlying bone. The diploic layer principally contributes to their internal
Pôvodne sa zaraďoval ako (viac-menej) jediný nález samostatného druhu Homo heidelbergensis či tzv. heidelberskej rasy. Pre mnohých autorov nešlo o príslušníka rodu Homo a zaraďovali ho do rodu Pithecanthropus či ako nový rod Maueranthropus atď. (pozri podnadpis Synonymá). Ešte v rokoch 1955 a 1964 Le Gros Clark uvádza, že podľa neho nie je isté, či nález vôbec patrí do rodu Homo. Neskôr (prvýkrát už u Hrdličku v roku 1927) sa nález zaraďoval pod Homo erectus (často v rámci poddruhu Homo erectus heidelbergensis) alebo pod Homo sapiens (často v rámci poddruhu Homo sapiens heidelbergensis). Zaraďoval sa aj ako raný preneandertálec.. Najnovšie sa najčastejšie zaraďuje do samostatného druhu Homo heidelbergensis v širšom zmysle (tak ako ho uvádza napr. Rightmire v roku 1995), ale niektorí (napr. Hublin v roku 1998) ho zaraďujú pod Homo neanderthalensis alebo ho považujú za incertae sedis (napr. Hublin v roku 2009).. ...
Pôvodne sa zaraďoval ako (viac-menej) jediný nález samostatného druhu Homo heidelbergensis či tzv. heidelberskej rasy. Pre mnohých autorov nešlo o príslušníka rodu Homo a zaraďovali ho do rodu Pithecanthropus či ako nový rod Maueranthropus atď. (pozri podnadpis Synonymá). Ešte v rokoch 1955 a 1964 Le Gros Clark uvádza, že podľa neho nie je isté, či nález vôbec patrí do rodu Homo. Neskôr (prvýkrát už u Hrdličku v roku 1927) sa nález zaraďoval pod Homo erectus (často v rámci poddruhu Homo erectus heidelbergensis) alebo pod Homo sapiens (často v rámci poddruhu Homo sapiens heidelbergensis). Zaraďoval sa aj ako raný preneandertálec. Najnovšie sa najčastejšie zaraďuje do samostatného druhu Homo heidelbergensis v širšom zmysle (tak ako ho uvádza napr. Rightmire v roku 1995), ale niektorí (napr. Hublin v roku 1998) ho zaraďujú pod Homo neanderthalensis alebo ho považujú za incertae sedis (napr. Hublin v roku 2009). ...
How They Survived: There is evidence that H. heidelbergensis was capable of controlling fire by building hearths, or early fireplaces, by 790,000 years ago in the form of fire-altered tools and burnt wood at the site of Gesher Benot Ya-aqov in Israel. Social groups probably often gathered around their hearths sharing food, stay warm, and ward off predators. H. heidelbergensis probably took advantage of natural shelters but this species was also the first to build simple shelters. Evidence for this comes from the site of Terra Amata, France. H. heidelbergensis was also the first hunter of large game animals; remains of animals such as wild deer, horses, elephants, hippos, and rhinos with butchery marks on their bones have been found together at sites with H. heidelbergensis fossils. Evidence for this also comes from 400,000 year old wooden spears found at the site of Schöningen, Germany, which were found together with stone tools and the remains of more than 10 butchered horses.. One site in ...
ID G3R0Q3_GORGO Unreviewed; 856 AA. AC G3R0Q3; DT 16-NOV-2011, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 16-NOV-2011, sequence version 1. DT 27-SEP-2017, entry version 34. DE RecName: Full=V-type proton ATPase subunit a {ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU361189}; GN Name=ATP6V0A2 {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSGGOP00000008746}; OS Gorilla gorilla gorilla (Western lowland gorilla). OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; OC Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; OC Catarrhini; Hominidae; Gorilla. OX NCBI_TaxID=9595 {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSGGOP00000008746, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001519}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSGGOP00000008746, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000001519} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RA Scally A.; RT Insights into the evolution of the great apes provided by the gorilla RT genome.; RL Submitted (MAY-2011) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases. RN [2] {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSGGOP00000008746} RP IDENTIFICATION. RG Ensembl; RL Submitted ...
The origin of hominins found on the remote Indonesian island of Flores remains highly contentious. These specimens may represent a new hominin species, Homo floresiensis, descended from a local population of Homo erectus or from an earlier (pre-H. erectus) migration of a small-bodied and small-brained hominin out of Africa. Alternatively, some workers suggest that some or all of the specimens recovered from Liang Bua are pathological members of a small-bodied modern human population. Pathological conditions proposed to explain their documented anatomical features include microcephaly, myxoedematous endemic hypothyroidism (cretinism) and Laron syndrome (primary growth hormone insensitivity). This study evaluates evolutionary and pathological hypotheses through comparative analysis of cranial morphology. Geometric morphometric analyses of landmark data show that the sole Flores cranium (LB1) is clearly distinct from healthy modern humans and from those exhibiting hypothyroidism and Laron ...
From my alma mater comes a research study where African mole rats are used as a point of reference to understand the diets of Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus. I caught this new yesterday off of Nature but Yann has also shared it with us. The basic method, isotopic analysis, is a tried and true…
Abstract Background Sequence analysis of the orangutan genome revealed that recent proliferative activity of Alu elements has been uncharacteristically quiescent in the Pongo (orangutan) lineage, compared with all previously studied primate genomes. With relatively few young polymorphic insertions, the genomic landscape of the orangutan seemed like the ideal place to search for a driver, or source element, of Alu retrotransposition. Results Here we report the identification of a nearly pristine insertion possessing all the known putative hallmarks of a retrotranspositionally competent Alu element. It is located in an intronic sequence of the DGKB gene on chromosome 7 and is highly conserved in Hominidae (the great apes), but absent from Hylobatidae (gibbon and siamang). We provide evidence for the evolution of a lineage-specific subfamily of this shared Alu insertion in orangutans and possibly the lineage leading to humans. In the orangutan genome, this insertion contains three ...
BUFFALO, N.Y. - In saliva, scientists have found hints that a ghost species of archaic humans may have contributed genetic material to ancestors of people living in Sub-Saharan Africa today.. The research adds to a growing body of evidence suggesting that sexual rendezvous between different archaic human species may not have been unusual.. Past studies have concluded that the forebears of modern humans in Asia and Europe interbred with other early hominin species, including Neanderthals and Denisovans. The new research is among more recent genetic analyses indicating that ancient Africans also had trysts with other early hominins.. It seems that interbreeding between different early hominin species is not the exception - its the norm, says Omer Gokcumen, PhD, an assistant professor of biological sciences in the University at Buffalo College of Arts and Sciences.. Our research traced the evolution of an important mucin protein called MUC7 that is found in saliva, he says. When we looked ...
In August 1856 Neanderthal 1 was discovered in the Feldhofer grotto, in the Neander Valley, Germany. The material recovered consisted of a skull cap, two femora, the three right arm bones, two of the left arm bones, part of the left ilium, and fragments of a scapula and ribs. In 1864 a new species was recognized: Homo neanderthalensis. A remarkable find among Neanderthal fossils are the appearance of fractures of corresponding degree and location in both males and females, suggesting little to no division of labor. All specimens display very robust bodies adapted for Ice Age Europe with fairly significant dimorphism (males were approximately 58″/145 lbs vs females at 54″/112 lbs). H. neanderthalensis skulls exhibit a massive double-arched brow ridge, midfacial prognathism, occipital bun, and a wide nasal aperture (helps to cool down the air so the hunting Neanderthal doesnt over heat). Their dentition shows large, shovel shaped incisors with taurodont molors, and a vice grip bite ...
While inferring life history schedules in fossil taxa is still a challenge (due to the sampling issues inherent in small sample sizes), based on the currently available data, we can draw some general conclusions about the developmental timing of our hominin ancestors and what this might mean about their life histories. A comparison of growth rates derived from dental data of modern humans, extant non-human apes, and fossil hominins reveals that the modern human pattern of growth and development did not characterize early genus Homo. Homo erectus, a species that skeletally resembles modern humans more than any earlier hominins (i.e., it had modern body proportions, a larger brain, and smaller teeth than previous taxa), had a first molar eruption a little bit later than a chimpanzee (chimpanzee 3-4 yr, H. erectus ~4.5 yr), but still earlier than modern H. sapiens (~6 yr). Similarly, the M2 erupted earlier than modern humans (one Homo erectus specimen yields an M2 eruption age of ~8 years, modern ...
Two aspects of the australopithecine morphology that were hailed by evolutionists most widely as indicating a transitional status for this creature were his dental characteristics and the alleged evidence for habitual bipedal gait. The dental evidence cited is the fact that, although these creatures, believed to have weighed 60-70 pounds, had cheek teeth as large as those found in 400-pound gorillas, thus possessing massive jaws, their front teeth (incisors and canine teeth) were relatively small in comparison with their cheek teeth when compared to the relative size of incisors and canines to cheek teeth in modern apes.. Based on very little fragmentary evidence, it has been claimed by most evolutionists, as mentioned above, that the australopithecines had walked upright. Recently, Richard Leakey, the son of Louis Leakey, has challenged this claim, asserting that more complete remains of the forelimbs and hindlimbs of this creature he had found indicated that this creature did not walk ...
ID HBB_HUMAN Reviewed; 147 AA. AC P68871; A4GX73; B2ZUE0; P02023; Q13852; Q14481; Q14510; Q45KT0; AC Q549N7; Q6FI08; Q6R7N2; Q8IZI1; Q9BX96; Q9UCD6; Q9UCP8; Q9UCP9; DT 21-JUL-1986, integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot. DT 23-JAN-2007, sequence version 2. DT 15-JUN-2010, entry version 88. DE RecName: Full=Hemoglobin subunit beta; DE AltName: Full=Hemoglobin beta chain; DE AltName: Full=Beta-globin; DE Contains: DE RecName: Full=LVV-hemorphin-7; GN Name=HBB; OS Homo sapiens (Human). OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; OC Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; OC Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo. OX NCBI_TaxID=9606; RN [1] RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA]. RX MEDLINE=77126403; PubMed=1019344; RA Marotta C., Forget B., Cohen-Solal M., Weissman S.M.; RT Nucleotide sequence analysis of coding and noncoding regions of human RT beta-globin mRNA.; RL Prog. Nucleic Acid Res. Mol. Biol. 19:165-175(1976). RN [2] RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA]. RX ...
ID ACACB_HUMAN Reviewed; 2458 AA. AC O00763; A6NK36; Q16852; Q1HEC1; Q6KE87; Q6KE89; Q6TY48; DT 01-NOV-1997, integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot. DT 05-OCT-2010, sequence version 3. DT 22-NOV-2017, entry version 179. DE RecName: Full=Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2; DE EC=6.4.1.2 {ECO:0000269,PubMed:16854592, ECO:0000269,PubMed:20952656}; DE AltName: Full=ACC-beta; DE Includes: DE RecName: Full=Biotin carboxylase; DE EC=6.3.4.14; DE Flags: Precursor; GN Name=ACACB; Synonyms=ACC2, ACCB; OS Homo sapiens (Human). OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; OC Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Primates; Haplorrhini; OC Catarrhini; Hominidae; Homo. OX NCBI_TaxID=9606; RN [1] RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORMS 1 AND 2), AND TISSUE SPECIFICITY. RC TISSUE=Liver; RX PubMed=9099716; DOI=10.1074/jbc.272.16.10669; RA Abu-Elheiga L., Almarza-Ortega D.B., Baldini A., Wakil S.J.; RT Human acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2. Molecular cloning, characterization, RT chromosomal mapping, and ...
Researchers have revealed new details about the brain, pelvis, hands and feet of Australopithecus sediba, a primitive hominin that existed around the same time early Homo species first began to appear on Earth. Due to the
Activities of Daily Living • Adaptation, Physiological • Adaptation, Psychological • Adult • African Continental Ancestry Group • Age Factors • Aged • Aged, 80 and over • Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor • Animals • Animals, Newborn • Anthropology, Physical • Anthropometry • Anxiety • Arthralgia • Behavior • Behavior, Animal • Biological Evolution • Biomechanics • Bone Density • Comorbidity • Disability Evaluation • Disabled Persons • Disease Models, Animal • Educational Status • Electromyography • Electrophysiology • Employment • Energy Metabolism • European Continental Ancestry Group • Evolution • Fear • Feeding Behavior • Female • Forearm • Fossils • Gait • Gait Disorders, Neurologic • Harmaline • Hominidae • Humans • Hyperalgesia • Imaging, Three-Dimensional • Joint Instability • Knee Joint • Life Style • Locomotion • Lumbosacral Region • Male • Mice • Mice, Inbred C57BL • Mice, Transgenic • ...
This i from http://humanorigins.si.edu/evidence/human-fossils/species/paranthropus-boisei. Like other members of the Paranthropus genus, P. boisei is characterized by a specialized skull with adaptations for heavy chewing. A strong sagittal crest on the midline of the top of the skull anchored the large chewing muscles (temporalis muscles) from the top and side of the braincase to the lower jaw, and thus moved the massive jaw up and down. The force was focused on the large back teeth (molars and premolars). Flaring cheekbones gave P. boisei a very wide and dish-shaped face, creating a larger opening for bigger jaw muscles to pass through and support massive cheek teeth four times the size of a modern human s. This species had even larger cheek teeth than P. robustus, a flatter, bigger-brained skull than P. aethiopicus, and the thickest dental enamel of any known early human. Cranial capacity in this species suggests a slight rise in brain size (about 100 cc in 1 million years) independent of ...
Australopithecus sediba: Australopithecus sediba, extinct primate species that inhabited southern Africa beginning about 1.98 million years ago and that shares several morphological characteristics in common with the hominin genus Homo. The first specimens were found and identified by American-born South African
Neanderthals (Homo sapiens neanderthalensis) lived in Ice-Age Europe between 350,000 and 30,000 years ago. Neanderthals are considered a sub-species of humans and now that we know that modern humans share about 4% of our DNA with Neanderthals the the sub-species or breed argument is very strong. The Neanderthals lived in small tribes of clan groups…
We are currently seeking highly qiualified and motivated post-doctoral researchers with experience in computational biology, The institute has access to a wide variety of biological material from extant and extinct primates. Current projects cover a wide range of genomic analysis designed to detect and describe human uniqueness. These projects include genome sequencing of the Neandertal and bonobo and comparative expression studies in great apes.. Competitive applicants will have relevant quantitative biology experience and technical knowledge including programming experience. Demonstrated scientific creativity and familiarity with high-troughput sequencing data is a plus.. Interested applicants should send a cover letter, CV, and names of references to:. Svante ...
We are currently seeking highly qiualified and motivated post-doctoral researchers with experience in computational biology, The institute has access to a wide variety of biological material from extant and extinct primates. Current projects cover a wide range of genomic analysis designed to detect and describe human uniqueness. These projects include genome sequencing of the Neandertal and bonobo and comparative expression studies in great apes.. Competitive applicants will have relevant quantitative biology experience and technical knowledge including programming experience. Demonstrated scientific creativity and familiarity with high-troughput sequencing data is a plus.. Interested applicants should send a cover letter, CV, and names of references to:. Svante ...
Weve got the lineage of the hobbit, Homo floresiensis (in quotation marks because its human status in not yet clear), perhaps diverging more than two million years ago, evolving in isolation in southeast Asia, and apparently going extinct about 17,000 years ago.. Weve got Homo erectus, most likely originating in Africa, giving rise to lineages which continue in the Far East in China and Java, but which eventually go extinct. In Europe, it perhaps gave rise to the species Homo antecessor, Pioneer Man, known from the site of Atapuerca in Spain. Again, going extinct.. In the western part of the Old World, we get the development of a new species, Homo heidelbergensis, present in Europe, Asia and Africa. We knew heidelbergensis had gone two ways, to modern humans and the Neanderthals. But we now know because of the Denisovans that actually heidelbergensis went three ways-in fact the Denisovans seem to represent an off-shoot of the Neanderthal lineage.. North of the Mediterranean, ...
This discovery is one of several challenges to the traditional view, which sees the Neanderthals as being not only distinct from other archaic humans but also intermediate on the line of descent from Homo erectus to modern humans. Indeed, the Neanderthals increasingly look like an evolutionary dead end. Modern humans seem to owe most, if not all, of their ancestry to a demic expansion that started in East Africa some 80,000 years ago and began to spread out of Africa some 50,000 years ago. There may have been some intermixture with archaic humans already present in Europe and Asia, but even this scenario is looking more and more problematic. We can now compare mtDNA from late European Neanderthals with mtDNA from early modern Europeans and there is no measurable gene flow from the former to the latter (Caramelli et al., 2003). Perhaps some minor intermixture did occur here and there, enough to provide the modern European gene pool with a few advantageous Neanderthal genes. It could not have been ...
A new batch of stone tools suggest humans colonised the famous Indonesian hobbit island of Flores much earlier than previously thought, say researchers.. Professor Mike Morwood and Dr Adam Brumm of the University of Wollongong and colleagues report their study of the tools today in the journal Nature.. Were pushing back the antiquity of hominins on Flores, says Morwood.. Prior to this study, the oldest stone tools found on Flores were about 880,000 years old.. Now in joint research with the Indonesian-Australian research with the Geological Survey Institute of Bandung, Morwood, Brum and colleagues have dated tools around a million years old, pushing the date that humans colonised Flores back by 120,000 years.. The tools came from an entirely new site in the Soa basin, to the east of Liang Bua cave, where the 18,000-year-old hobbit, Homo floresiensis was found.. The tools, which could only have been made by early humans, were in the very bottom sediment layers of the site, just above the ...
With this information, the researchers have started to make educated guesses about australopithecine behaviour. It seems unlikely that they roamed and foraged in the same way as modern chimps. If their ecology had been like that of chimpanzees, they would have been hard pressed to survive in most of the places that we know from the fossil record they did in fact occupy, Dunbar says. In their hot open homelands, they would have had to spend too much time on the move to feed themselves. We can then ask which parameter values need to be tweaked to get them to live in the habitats we know they lived in, and not in those we know they didnt.. The tweak may be that australopithecines were able to move more rapidly than previously thought. Alternatively, it could be a more fluid group structure: small groups move more quickly, so it is possible that large bands of australopithecines split into smaller parties when on the move. A more radical suggestion is that australopithecines might have been ...
Early Human Culture. Homo habilis Homo rudolphensis Homo erectus Homo ergaster. Evolution of Humans. Homo habilis (ca. 2.5-1.6 mya). Homo habilis was first discovered in 1959 in the Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania. Slideshow 6713844 by norman-benton
Humans are unique, compared with our closest living relatives (chimpanzees) and early fossil hominins, in having an enlarged body size and lower limb joint surfaces in combination with a relatively gracile skeleton (i.e., lower bone mass for our body size). Some analyses have observed that in at least a few anatomical regions modern humans today appear to have relatively low trabecular density, but little is known about how that density varies throughout the human skeleton and across species or how and when the present trabecular patterns emerged over the course of human evolution. Here, we test the hypotheses that (i) recent modern humans have low trabecular density throughout the upper and lower limbs compared with other primate taxa and (ii) the reduction in trabecular density first occurred in early Homo erectus, consistent with the shift toward a modern human locomotor anatomy, or more recently in concert with diaphyseal gracilization in Holocene humans. We used peripheral quantitative CT and
Discovered by Zeresenay Alemseged in 2000 at Dikika in Ethiopa (Alemseged et al. 2006). This is a well-preserved 3.3 million year old partial skeleton of an approximately 3 year old Australopithecus afarensis child. The fossil consists of an almost complete skull, hyoid bone, limb fragments, rib fragments, collar bones (clavicles) and shoulder blades (scapulae), and some vertebrae. It is the most complete juvenile hominid skeleton known until Neandertal times. The bipedal features of other A. afarensis fossils are mostly found in this fossil, confirming that afarensis was bipedal. However, there is vigorous debate as to whether bipedalism was its primary method of locomotion, or whether it was combined with a significant amount of tree-climbing (arborealism). The features of Selams upper body tend to be apelike: the shoulder blade closely resembles that of a gorilla, the finger bones are curved as in chimpanzees, and the semicircular canals are more like those of chimps than humans. All these ...
Just how human was Homo floresiensis? / Warnings about Arctic climate change / Upcoming polio vaccination days in West and Central Afri
The evolutionary history of the human brain shows primarily a gradually bigger brain relative to body size during the evolutionary path from early primates to hominids and finally to Homo sapiens. Human brain size has been trending upwards since 2 million years ago, with a 3 factor increase. Early australopithecine brains were little larger than chimpanzee brains. The increase has been seen as larger human brain volume as we progressed along the human timeline of evolution, starting from about 600 cm3 in Homo habilis up to 1500 cm3 in Homo Sapiens Neanderthalensis which is the hominid with the biggest brain size. The increase in brain size topped with neanderthals, since then the average brain size has been a shrinking over the past 28,000 years. The male brain has decreased from 1,500 cm3 to 1,350 cm3 while the female brain has shrunk by the same relative proportion. However it is argued that another essential element of brain evolution in humans is rearrangement. Larger brains require more ...
View Notes - 9b.+Early+Hominoid-Hominid+Diet.ppt+[Read-Only] from ANTHRBIO 161 at University of Michigan. PATH TO THE HUMAN GRADE HOMINOID-HOMINID STAGE Early Hominids Australopithecines EVOLUTION OF
In SOMSO-Plast®. Site and date of finding: Feldhofer Cave, Neander Valley near Düsseldorf, 1856. Age: middle Upper Pleistocene (Würm Glacial), approx…
From: http://edition.cnn.com/2006/TECH/science/11/08/neanderthals.brains.reut/index.html. November 8, 2006. WASHINGTON (Reuters) -- Neanderthals may have given the modern humans who replaced them a priceless gift -- a gene that helped them develop superior brains, U.S. researchers reported Tuesday.. And the only way they could have provided that gift would have been by interbreeding, the team at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute and the University of Chicago said.. Their study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, provides indirect evidence that modern Homo sapiens and so-called Neanderthals interbred at some point when they lived side by side in Europe.. Finding evidence of mixing is not all that surprising. But our study demonstrates the possibility that interbreeding contributed advantageous variants into the human gene pool that subsequently spread, said Bruce Lahn, a Howard Hughes Medical Institute researcher at the University of Chicago who led the ...
Interpretation of fossil finds and what they imply about human evolution often means different things to different scientists. To many, evidence shows that the sequence of species in the Homo genus followed a linear route, fromHomo habilis to Homo erectus and eventually to Homo sapiens. To other scientists, the fossil record points to a bushy, branching tree rather than a single stem. Two new fossil finds from the rich deposits around the Koobi Fora ridge in Kenyas Lake Turkana basin add more conclusive evidence that our ancestral tree branches and that species often occupied the same time periods and the same regions. Some species evolved on their own paths and died out, leaving no ancestors, while others eventually developed into new species.. The discovery team, which was led by University College London anthropologist Fred Spoor and Meave Leakey of the National Museums of Kenya, has identified the fossils as belonging to Homo habilis and Homo erectus. The fossils dated to similar time ...
Mutations in several genes in Table 3 have been associated with diseases affecting cognitive capacities. DYRK1A, which lies in the Down syndrome critical region, is thought to underlie some of the cognitive impairment associated with having three copies of chromsome 21 (64). Mutations in NRG3 have been associated with schizophrenia, a condition that has been suggested to affect human-specific cognitive traits (65, 66). Mutations in CADPS2 have been implicated in autism (67), as have mutations in AUTS2 (68). Autism is a developmental disorder of brain function in which social interactions, communication, activity, and interest patterns are affected, as well as cognitive aspects crucial for human sociality and culture (69). It may thus be that multiple genes involved in cognitive development were positively selected during the early history of modern humans.. One gene of interest may be RUNX2 (CBFA1). It is the only gene in the genome known to cause cleidocranial dysplasia, which is characterized ...
For several decades Laetoli had just missed as a hominid fossil site. Louis Leakey had a try there in 1935, but came up emptyhanded. He did not know that a tooth he had sent to the British Museum labeled as a baboons was a hominid canine. Not only was it the first adult australopithecine tooth ever found, but it was the first of any kind since the discovery of the Taung Baby. Nevertheless, it lay unnoticed in the Museum collection until 1979, when it was spotted and properly identified by White.. Leakey, meanwhile, not realizing that he had had in his hand the oldest hominid fossil then known, packed up and moved to Olduvai. He was followed at Laetoli in 1938-1939 by a German named Kohl-Larsen, who recovered a bit of an upper jawbone with a couple of premolars in it, and a well-preserved alveolus - or socket - for a canine tooth.. The trouble with those early Laetoli finds was that they were far too old and far too primitive for anyone then to dream that they were not apes or monkeys; the ...