TY - JOUR. T1 - Stimulation of human and rat islet β-cell proliferation with retention of function by the homeodomain transcription factor Nkx6.1. AU - Schisler, Jonathan C.. AU - Fueger, Patrick T.. AU - Babu, Daniella A.. AU - Hohmeier, Hans E.. AU - Tessem, Jeffery S.. AU - Lu, Danhong. AU - Becker, Thomas C.. AU - Naziruddin, Bashoo. AU - Levy, Marlon. AU - Mirmira, Raghavendra G.. AU - Newgard, Christopher B.. PY - 2008/5/1. Y1 - 2008/5/1. N2 - The homeodomain transcription factor Nkx6.1 plays an important role in pancreatic islet β-cell development, but its effects on adult β-cell function, survival, and proliferation are not well understood. In the present study, we demonstrated that treatment of primary rat pancreatic islets with a cytomegalovirus promoter-driven recombinant adenovirus containing the Nkx6.1 cDNA (AdCMV-Nkx6.1) causes dramatic increases in [methyl-3H] thymidine and 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and in the number of cells per islet relative to islets ...
Homeodomain transcription factors control developmental processes. They pattern body formation, specify cell lineages and switch the onset of gene regulatory cascades. Pitx2, a bicoid-related homeodomain transcription factor, is asymmetrically expressed in the left lateral plate mesoderm and mesoderm-derived tissues. Pitx2 null mice are characterized by failure of body wall closure, axial and cardiac malformations and arrest of organ development. By analyzing Pitx2 expression pattern and phenotype of Pitx2 null mice, we have established that (1) Pitx2 is a universal muscle marker, because it marks the muscle lineage more completely that any of the known markers, (2) expression of Pitx2 precedes the onset of myogenic progression in the cephalic mesoderm and mesodermal core of first BA and activates the transcription factors Tbx1, Tcf21, and Msc, (3) Pitx2 follows the onset of myogenic progression in the somitic mesoderm, (4) loss of Pitx2 leads to absence of extraocular, mastication and abdominal ...
High-risk breast cancer comprises distinct tumor entities such as triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) which is characterized by lack of estrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) and the |i|HER2|/i| receptor and breast malignancies which have spread to more than three lymph nodes. For such patients, current (inter)national guidelines recommend anthracycline-based chemotherapy as the standard of care, but not all patients do equally benefit from such a chemotherapy. To further improve therapy decision-making, predictive biomarkers are of high, so far unmet, medical need. In this respect, predictive biomarkers would permit patient selection for a particular kind of chemotherapy and, by this, guide physicians to optimize the treatment plan for each patient individually. Besides DNA mutations, DNA methylation as a patient selection marker has received increasing clinical attention. For instance, significant evidence has accumulated that methylation of the |i|PITX2|/i| (paired-like homeodomain transcription factor
This gene encodes a paired-like homeodomain transcription factor in the developing pituitary gland. Expression occurs prior to and is required for expression of pou domai
Looking for Homeodomain protein? Find out information about Homeodomain protein. A highly conserved sequence of deoxyribonucleic acid that occurs in the coding region of development-controlling regulatory genes and codes for a protein... Explanation of Homeodomain protein
Hox proteins are transcriptional regulators that specify cell fate during early embryonic development and organogenesis (reviewed by Krumlauf, 1994). However, Hox protein monomers display poor specificity and affinity for enhancer sequences, suggesting that they do not act in isolation. Recently, two families of Hox cofactors, Pbx and Meis, belonging to the TALE (Three Amino acid Loop Extension) homeodomain superfamily, were identified (reviewed by Mann and Affolter, 1998). In vitro analyses indicate that Meis and Pbx function by forming multimeric complexes with Hox proteins. In particular, Pbx binds to Hox proteins from paralog group 1-10 (Shen et al., 1997b) and Meis binds to Hox proteins from paralog group 9-13 (Shen et al., 1997a). Meis and Pbx also interact, via the Meinox domain (particularly the M1 and M2 subdomains) in Meis and the PBC-A and PBC-B domains in Pbx (reviewed by Mann and Affolter, 1998), to permit the formation of Meis/Pbx/Hox trimers (Berthelsen et al., 1998a; Jacobs et ...
Pbx genes encode TALE class homeodomain transcription factors that pattern the developing neural tube, pancreas, and blood. Within the hindbrain, Pbx cooperates with Hox proteins to regulate rhombomere segment identity. Pbx cooperates with Eng to regulate midbrain-hindbrain boundary maintenance, and with MyoD to control fast muscle cell differentiation. Although previous results have demonstrated that Pbx is required for proper eye size, functions in regulating retinal cell identity and patterning have not yet been examined. Analysis of retinal ganglion cell axon pathfinding and outgrowth in pbx2/4 null embryos demonstrated a key role for pbx genes in regulating neural cell behavior. To identify Pbx-dependent genes involved in regulating retino-tectal pathfinding, we conducted a microarray screen for Pbx-dependent transcripts in zebrafish, and detected genes that are specifically expressed in the eye and tectum. A subset of Pbx-dependent retinal transcripts delineate specific domains in the dorso
Homeotic genes are key developmental regulators that are highly conserved throughout evolution. Their encoded homeoproteins function as transcription factors to control a wide range of developmental processes. Although much is known about homeodomain-DNA interactions, only a small number of genes acting downstream of homeoproteins have been identified. Here we use a functional genomic approach to identify candidate target genes of the Drosophila homeodomain transcription factor Labial. High-density oligonucleotide arrays with probe sets representing 1,513 identified and sequenced genes were used to analyze differential gene expression following labial overexpression in Drosophila embryos. We find significant expression level changes for 96 genes belonging to all functional classes represented on the array. In accordance with our experimental procedure, we expect that these genes are either direct or indirect targets of labial gene action. Among these genes, 48 were upregulated and 48 were downregulated
Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Hox transcription factors are extensively investigated in diverse fields of molecular and evolutionary biology. Hox genes belong to the family of homeobox transcription factors characterised by a 60 amino acids region called homeodomain. These genes are evolutionary conserved and play crucial roles in the development of animals. In particular, they are involved in the specification of segmental identity, and in the tetrapod limb differentiation. In vertebrates, this family of genes can be divided into 14 groups of homology. Common methods to classify Hox proteins focus on the homeodomain. Classification is however hampered by the high conservation of this short domain. Since phylogenetic tree reconstruction is time-consuming, it is not suitable to classify the growing number of Hox sequences. The first goal of this thesis is therefore to design an automated approach to classify vertebrate Hox proteins in their groups of homology. This approach classifies Hox proteins on the basis of their scores ...
Homeobox genes encode DNA-binding proteins, many of which are thought to be involved in early embryonic development. Homeobox genes encode a DNA-binding domain of 60 to 63 amino acids referred to as the homeodomain. This gene is a member of the DPRX homeobox gene family. Evidence of mRNA expression has not yet been found for this gene. Multiple, related processed pseudogenes have been found which are thought to reflect expression of this gene in the germ line or embryonic cells. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Hox genes encode evolutionarily conserved transcription factors involved in the specification of segmental identity during embryonic development. This specification of identity is thought to be directed by differential Hox gene action, based on differential spatiotemporal expression patterns, protein sequence differences, interactions with co-factors and regulation of specific downstream genes. During embryonic development of the Drosophila brain, the Hox gene labial is required for the regionalized specification of the tritocerebral neuromere; in the absence of labial, the cells in this brain region do not acquire a neuronal identity and major axonal pathfinding deficits result. We have used genetic rescue experiments to investigate the functional equivalence of the Drosophila Hox gene products in the specification of the tritocerebral neuromere. Using the Gal4-UAS system, we first demonstrate that the labial mutant brain phenotype can be rescued by targeted expression of the Labial protein ...
In human cancer cells of the colon and other epithelial tissues, the level of p27Kip1 is frequently reduced by its accelerated degradation through proteasomes (36, 37). The reduced level of p27Kip1 is also correlated with poor prognosis, suggesting its tumor-suppressing activity (25). Consistently, homozygous p27Kip1 mutation increased the number of intestinal polyps in Apc mutant mice by 5 to 6 times (38). In colon cancer cells, however, the mechanism that stimulates the degradation of p27Kip1 was unknown. Here we have shown that homeobox transcription factor CDX2 stabilizes p27Kip1 by blocking its proteolysis (Figs. 3 and 4). Interestingly, we have found a significant correlation between CDX2 and p27Kip1 protein levels in human colon cancer tissues (Fig. 6). Our present results suggest that the decreased level of CDX2 is one of the causes that stimulate the p27Kip1 proteolysis in colon cancer cells.. During the G1 to S transition, phosphorylation of p27Kip1 at T187 triggers its proteasomal ...
First, the model proposes EXD as a required co‐activator for most HOX target elements. All known elements activated in response to HOX proteins also require exd function (Chan et al., 1994, 1996; Rauskolb and Wieschaus, 1994; Popperl et al., 1995; Sun et al., 1995). Based on the phenotypes of exdmz− mutants and of clones of exd mutant cells in adult cuticular structures (Peifer and Wieschaus, 1990; Gonzalez‐Crespo and Morata, 1995; Rauskolb et al., 1995), it seems likely that a great many other HOX target elements also require exd for their activation. The only HOX protein that appears to have some exd‐independent activation function is ABD‐B (Peifer and Wieschaus, 1990). This correlates with the absence of a YPWM motif just upstream of the ABD‐B homeodomain sequence. The YPWM or hexapeptide motif is required for the formation of HOX-EXD or HOX-PBX cooperative binding complexes (Chang et al., 1995; Johnson et al., 1995; Knoepfler and Kamps, 1995; Neuteboom et al., 1995; Phelan et ...
In Drosophila, the Hox gene Ultrabithorax (Ubx) specifies the development of two different metameres--parasegment 5, which is entirely thoracic, and parasegment 6, which includes most of the first abdominal segment. Here we investigate how a single Hox gene can specify two such different morphologies. We show that, in the early embryo, cells respond similarly to UBX protein in both parasegments. The differences between parasegments 5 and 6 can be explained by the different spatial and temporal pattern of UBX protein expression in these two metameres. We find no evidence for multiple threshold responses to different levels of UBX protein. We examine in particular the role of Ubx in limb development. We show that UBX protein will repress limb primordia before 7 hours, when Ubx is expressed in the abdomen, but not later, when UBX is first expressed in the T3 limb primordium. The regulation of one downstream target of UBX, the Distalless gene, provides a model for this transition at the molecular ...
Introduction: The Dlx1/Dlx2 double knockout mouse has reduced numbers (33% fewer) of retinal ganglion cells (RGC), due to enhanced apoptosis. Brn3a and Brn3b are closely related members of the Class IV POU-domain gene family, and play functionally interchangeable roles in retinal development. We hypothesized that Brn3a and/or Brn3b are direct DLX transcriptional targets during retinal development. Methods: Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays were performed on E16.5 retinas to identify DLX proteins bound to the Brn3a or Brn3b promoters. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) were used to confirm the specificity of this binding. Luciferase reporter gene assays were performed to confirm the functional significance of DLX binding to the Brn3 or Brn3ba promoters in vitro. In utero retinal electroporation was used to study the effect of DLX gain-of-function on Brn3a/Brn3b expression in vivo. Compound Dlx1/Dlx2/Brn3a and Dlx1/Dlx2/Brn3b knockout mice were generated for analysis of retinal ...
The homeodomain transcription factor, Irx5, negatively regulates KV4.2 expression in the heart, forming an inverse transient outward K+ current (Ito,f) gradient from epicardium (EPI) to endocardium (ENDO) that ensures coordinated cardiac repolarization. Loss of Irx5 in mice (i.e. Irx5−/−) eliminated the KV4.2 and Ito,f gradients, leading to increased susceptibility to tachyarrhythmias. To further investigate the cardiac role of Irx5, we examined the contractile properties of Irx5−/− mouse heart. Compared to control, Irx5−/− hearts displayed lower cardiac contractility as measured either in in vivo or in isolated Langendorff perfused hearts. Consistent with previous studies showing that Ito,f levels regulate Ca2+ entry and contractility via modulation of action potential (AP) profile, we observed that isolated ENDO ventricular myocytes from Irx5−/− had reduced cell shortening and [Ca2+]i transients along with increased Ito,f and abbreviated AP durations compared to control. By ...
Developmental reprogramming of splenic vasculature and homeostasis of B-1a cells in Nkx2.3 homeodomain transcription factor deficient mouse ...
insulin promoter factor 1: PDX-1/IPF1/STF-1/IDX-1/IUF-1 is a homeodomain containing transcription factor; found in pancreatic beta-cells; RIPE3b1 was cloned and identified as the mammalian homologue of an avian regulator of cellular differentiation MafA/L-Maf; amino acid sequence in first source; RerSeq NM_008814 (mouse), NM_013311 (human), NM_022852
Homeodomain-containing proteins are transcription regulators controlling the coordinated expression of genes involved in development, differentiation, and cellular transformation. They share a highly conserved 60-amino-acid region (the homeodomain), which allows them to bind DNA and modulate the e …
The HOX genes are a family of homeodomain-containing transcription factors that determine cellular identity during development and which are subsequently re-expressed in many types of cancer. Some recent studies have shown that HOX genes may have key roles both in pancreatic development and in adult diseases of the pancreas, including cancer. In this review we consider recent advances in elucidating the role of HOX genes in these processes, how they may connect early developmental events to subsequent adult disease, and their potential both as diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets.. ...
J:48576 Sussel L, Kalamaras J, Hartigan-OConnor DJ, Meneses JJ, Pedersen RA , Rubenstein JL , German MS, Mice lacking the homeodomain transcription factor Nkx2.2 have diabetes due to arrested differentiation of pancreatic beta cells. Development. 1998 Jun;125(12):2213-21 ...
This locus is a processed pseudogene of the transcription factor NANOG. NANOG plays a central role in regulating self-renewal in pluripotent stem cells and tumor cells. This pseudogene contains an intact open reading frame that could potentially encode a protein similar to NANOG. Although there is no evidence of transcription from this pseudogene, RT-PCR studies suggest that NANOGP8 may be expressed in some cancer cell lines. In vitro studies using a recombinant NANOGP8 protein have shown that the protein localizes to the nucleus and can promote cell proliferation, similar to NANOG. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2009 ...
Hox complex genes are key developmental regulators highly conserved throughout evolution. They encode transcription factors that initiate genetic programs of diversified morphogenesis along the anteroposterior embryonic axis. We report the characterization of the novel Drosophila Hox target gene dlarp, isolated from a further screen of a previously described library of genomic DNA fragments associated in vivo with Ultrabithorax proteins. The dlarp spatio-temporal pattern of transcription in wild-type and homeotic mutant embryos is consistent with a positive regulation by Sex combs reduced and Ultrabithorax in the parasegment 2 ectoderm and the abdominal mesoderm, respectively. The teashirt gene product, thought to act in concert with Hox proteins, is also required for the transcriptional control of this target. Search in databases revealed that dlarp has been highly conserved during evolution. The embryonic expression pattern of the mouse orthologue does not support a function downstream of Hox ...
Vertebrate Hox and Otx genes encode homeodomain-containing transcription factors thought to transduce positional information along the body axis in the segmental portion of the trunk and in the rostral brain, respectively. Moreover, Hox and Otx2 genes show a complementary spatial regulation during embryogenesis. A 1821-base pair (bp) upstream DNA fragment of the Otx2 gene is positively regulated by co-transfection with expression vectors for the human HOXB1, HOXB2, and HOXB3 proteins in an embryonal carcinoma cell line (NT2/D1) and a shorter fragment of only 534 bp is able to drive this regulation. The HOXB1, HOXB2, and HOXB3 DNA-binding region on the 534-bp Otx2 genomic fragment has been demonstrated using nuclear extracts from Hox-transfected COS cells and 12.5 days postcoitum mouse embryos or HOXB3 homeodomain-containing bacterial extracts. HOXB1, HOXB3, and nuclear extracts from 12.5 day mouse embryos bind to a sequence containing two palindromic TAATTA sites, which bear four copies of the ...
This is the first systemic report on the expression of 39 HOX genes in both noncancerous esophageal mucosa and in ESCC. In noncancerous mucosa, we found that 5 of 39 HOX genes (HOXA2, HOXA7, HOXA9, HOXC6, and HOXC9) were expressed, and others were not detectable in our study. Three of these five expressed HOX genes (HOXA7, HOXA9, and HOXC6) were also expressed in ESCC, and the expression level is significantly lower in noncancerous mucosa than in cancer tissue. It is widely accepted that HOX genes play a crucial role as molecular address labels in early embryogenesis by conferring cell fate and establishing regional identity in tissues. However, HOX gene expression is not restricted to early development but also observed in differentiated cells of adult tissues. To better understand the functionality of HOX gene expression in adult tissues in physiologic and pathologic phenomena, and the potential role in pathogenesis, it is important to determine the expression profiles of HOX genes in specific ...
1HDD: Crystal structure of an engrailed homeodomain-DNA complex at 2.8 A resolution: a framework for understanding homeodomain-DNA interactions.
Organogenesis is dependent on the formation of distinct cell types within the embryo. Important to this process are the hox genes, which are believed to confer positional identities to cells along the anteroposterior axis. Here, we have identified the caudal-related gene cdx4 as the locus mutated in kugelig (kgg), a zebrafish mutant with an early defect in haematopoiesis that is associated with abnormal anteroposterior patterning and aberrant hox gene expression. The blood deficiency in kgg embryos can be rescued by overexpressing hoxb7a or hoxa9a but not hoxb8a, indicating that the haematopoietic defect results from perturbations in specific hox genes. Furthermore, the haematopoietic defect in kgg mutants is not rescued by scl overexpression, suggesting that cdx4 and hox genes act to make the posterior mesoderm competent for blood development. Overexpression of cdx4 during zebrafish development or in mouse embryonic stem cells induces blood formation and alters hox gene expression. Taken ...
The homeodomain transcription factor Pdx1 is required for pancreas development, including the differentiation and function of β cells. Mutations in Pdx1 or upstream hepatocyte nuclear factors cause autosomal forms of early-onset diabetes (maturity-onset diabetes of the young [MODY]). In mice, the Irs2 branch of the insulin/Igf signaling system mediates peripheral insulin action and pancreatic β cell growth and function. To investigate whether β cell failure in Irs2-/- mice might be related to dysfunction of MODY-related transcription factors, we measured the expression of Pdx1 in islets from young Irs2-/- mice. Before the onset of diabetes, Pdx1 was reduced in islets from Irs2-/- mice, whereas it was expressed normally in islets from wild-type or Irs1-/- mice, which do not develop diabetes. Whereas male Irs2-/-Pdx1+/+ mice developed diabetes between 8 and 10 weeks of age, haploinsufficiency for Pdx1 caused diabetes in newborn Irs2-/- mice. By contrast, transgenic expression of Pdx1 restored ...
The specificity of action of Hox gene products in vivo is probably achieved through the activity of still ill‐defined co‐factors modulating their transcriptional functions. Requirement for such factors in vivo would account for the relatively relaxed target specificity displayed by Hox proteins in vitro. While Hox gene products are apparently able to regulate transcription in a co‐factor‐independent manner (Zappavigna et al., 1991; Arcioni et al., 1992; Jones et al., 1992, 1993; Pöpperl and Featherstone, 1992), regulation of some target genes in vivo was indeed shown to require the presence of additional factors (Chan et al., 1994; Pöpperl et al., 1995; Gross and McGinnis, 1996). The products of the exd/Pbx genes have been proposed as Hox co‐factors on the basis of genetic analysis and of their ability to modulate DNA binding of Hox proteins in vitro (reviewed in Mann and Chan, 1996). A large amount of data has been gathered on site‐selective and cooperative DNA binding by Pbx and ...
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Meis1 and Prep1 homeodomain-containing transcription factors are essential for the normal embryonic development of several tissues and organs. Although they both can recruit Pbx at least for some of their biological function using the same homology region, the Meis1-Pbx and Prep1-Pbx complexes bind different DNA sequences and play opposite roles in tumorigenicity. In cancer, Meis1 has been extensively implicated in leukemia and neuroblastoma. Overexpression of Meis1 greatly shortens the latency and affects the penetrance of myeloid leukemia induced by Hox genes retroviral transduction. Furthermore, Meis1 has essential oncogenic function in all human leukemic MLL- translocation. Although, Meis1 is strongly suggested for involvement in human neuroblastoma and glioma, its function in non-hematological malignancies and solid tumors remains poorly defined. In contrast, Prep1 does not accelerate Hox-induced leukemogenesis. In fact heterozygous or homozygous Prep1-deficient mice develop tumors at high ...
HD proteins represent a large family of developmental regulators that, when misexpressed, represent an equally large pool of potential oncoproteins. Hox HD oncoproteins, such as HoxB8, dimerize on DNA with Pbx1, whose transcriptionally activated form, E2a-Pbx1, is also an oncoprotein. Thus, both members of this transcription factor complex can cause oncogenesis, a paradigm also observed for the Fos and Jun constituents of AP1 (36). As in the case of Fos and Jun, the mechanism of leukemogenesis by certain class I Hox proteins and E2a-Pbx1 may proceed through transcriptional targeting of a common subset of genes, Hox proteins acting in concert with endogenous Pbx proteins, and E2a-Pbx1 acting in concert with endogenous Hox proteins. The implication that Meis1 and HoxA7 or HoxA9 are involved in myeloid transformation presents another instance of potential cooperativity of oncoproteins (32); however, although the simplest hypothesis is that Meis1 and HoxA7 or HoxA9 themselves heterodimerize, ...
Hox genes encode a family of transcriptional regulators that elicit distinct developmental programmes along the head-to-tail axis of animals. The specific regional functions of individual Hox genes largely reflect their restricted expression patterns, the disruption of which can lead to developmental defects and disease. Here, we examine the spectrum of molecular mechanisms controlling Hox gene expression in model vertebrates and invertebrates and find that a diverse range of mechanisms, including nuclear dynamics, RNA processing, microRNA and translational regulation, all concur to control Hox gene outputs. We propose that this complex multi-tiered regulation might contribute to the robustness of Hox expression during development.. ...
Individual PREP1 and PBX1 are homeodomain transcriptional elements, whose biochemical and structural characterization hasnt yet been defined fully. of eukaryotic DNA-binding protein that control transcription of a wide selection of developmentally essential genes [1]. These protein talk about a 60 amino acidity DNA-binding domains which includes been conserved in series, system and framework of DNA-binding. While monomeric homeodomain protein exhibit a restricted capability to discriminate between different DNA sequences, their specificity is enhanced through the cooperative binding with various other DNA binding partners significantly. PBX1 (pre-B-cell leukemia homeobox 1) [2,3], and PREP1 (PBX-regulating proteins 1) also called PKNOX1 [4] both participate in the TALE category of homeodomain protein and form a solid and steady DNA-independent complicated [5]. PBX1 includes a nuclear localization indication and holds PREP1 in to the nucleus while subsequently PREP1 stops PBX1 nuclear export ...
Complete information for CRX gene (Protein Coding), Cone-Rod Homeobox, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
A controversy seems to be brewing over some recent theories and quantitative analyses addressing the fundamental question of how the Bicoid morphogen gradient is established and decoded in early Drosophila embryos. The transcription factor Bicoid controls the anterior-posterior patterning of the developing embryo. It is translated from maternal mRNA localized at the anterior pole of the egg and its graded distribution activates, in a concentration-dependent manner, the expression of gap genes, thus determining their spatial domain of expression. Synthesis from a localized source combined with diffusion and uniform degradation of the Bicoid morphogen provides one of the simplest models to explain the approximately exponential shape of its gradient. BACK TO ARTICLE. ...
The insulin gene, expressed only in islet β-cells, is regulated transcriptionally by glucose (1). Important cis-acting elements, located within 350 bp of the transcriptional start site, have been defined by deletion analysis. Particularly important are four sites, A1, 2, 3, and 5, that bind the homeodomain transcription factor pancreatic/duodenum/Xenopus 1 (PDX-1, also called IPF-1, IUF-1, STF-1, or IDX-1), whereas sites binding the factors RIPE3B, USF, and E47 may also be important. Systematic mutagenesis suggests that the A3 site is important for induction by glucose. Increased occupancy of the A3 site is observed with elevated glucose. Both A1 and A3 sites include a TAATG/C motif, the canonical recognition sites for homeodomain proteins. This observation led to the eventual cloning of PDX-1, a factor expressed strongly only in islet β-cells, some gut cells, and (much more weakly) in pancreatic exocrine cells (J. Egan, personal communication). Human mutations in this factor cause a ...
Rabbit recombinant monoclonal Iroquois homeobox protein 3 antibody [EPR12124] validated for WB, Flow Cyt and tested in Human, Mouse and Rat. Referenced in 2…
PHOX2B antibody (paired-like homeobox 2b) for ICC/IF, WB. Anti-PHOX2B pAb (GTX109677) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Gene Information The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the Ser/Thr family of protein kinases and HIPK subfamily. It phosphorylates homeodomain transcription factors and may also function as a co-repressor for homeodomain transcription factors. Alternative splicing results in four transcript variants encoding four distinct isoforms. [provided by RefSeq Jul 2008]. ...
Join Dr. Suzan Imren, as she discusses the roles of notch, small molecule UM171 and HOX transcription factors in the in vitro expansion of human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs).
Vertebrate embryos form from initially symmetric fertilized eggs as a result of progressively more complex interactions between differently programmed groups of daughter cells that arise from the cleavage of the zygote. We are studying secreted intercellular signaling molecules or transcription factors that dictate cell fates in different parts of the embryo. These include the TGF -superfamily members nodal and BMP4 (and their transmembrane kinase receptors), and homeodomain-containing transcription factors, which are expressed according to the type of extracellular signals received by a cell. Our main model systems are the frog and mouse. Frog embryos can be microinjected with plasmids, mRNA, proteins and antibodies, and the large number of embryos available allows biochemical studies. In contrast, the mouse allows genetic analysis of function. We can transgenically misexpress proteins, or genes can be inactivated or mutated by gene recombination in ES cells. The latter can be done globally, or
Tubular epithelial cells are one of the most abundant cell types in multicellular organisms. Tubular cells transport gases and liquids, and funnel harmful excretory waste from our bodies. It is clear that Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (RTK) signaling is essential for the formation of many tubular organs such as our kidneys and blood vessels. However, which steps in tube development require RTK signaling is less well understood. The C.elegans excretory system is a primitive renal system with just three essential cells (duct, pore, and canal cells), providing a simple yet dynamic system to study tube specification and morphogenesis. In the C.elegans excretory system, we demonstrated that the EGF-Ras-Erk signaling pathway specified the excretory duct tube versus the pore tube fate. In addition, EGF-Ras-Erk signaling influenced the positions that the duct and pore cells adopted within the tubular network. And finally, after position and fate determination, EGF-Ras-Erk signaling had a continued role in
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
J:16215 Ontell MP, Sopper MM, Lyons G, Buckingham M, Ontell M, Modulation of contractile protein gene expression in fetal murine crural muscles: emergence of muscle diversity. Dev Dyn. 1993 Nov;198(3):203-13 ...
Sequence-specific transcription factor which is part of a developmental regulatory system that provides cells with specific positional identities on the anterior-posterior axis.
SEQUENCE amino acids 289 aa >BC006226 BC006226 Homo sapiens distal-less homeobox 5, mRNA (cDNA clone MGC:10672 IMAGE:3941691), complete cd MTGVFDRRVPSIRSGDFQAPFQTSAAMHHPSQESPTLPESSATDSDYYSPTGGAPHGYCS PTSASYGKALNPYQYQYHGVNGSAGSYPAKAYADYSYASSYHQYGGAYNRVPSATNQPEK EVTEPEVRMVNGKPKKVRKPRTIYSSFQLAALQRRFQKTQYLALPERAELAASLGLTQTQ VKIWFQNKRSKIKKIMKNGEMPPEHSPSSSDPMACNSPQSPAVWEPQGSSRSLSHHPHAH PPTSNQSPASSYLENSASWYTSAASSINSHLPPPGSLQHPLALASGTLY CDS cDNA 870 bp 1 atgacaggag tgtttgacag aagggtcccc agcatccgat ccggcgactt ccaagctccg 60 61 ttccagacgt ccgcagctat gcaccatccg tctcaggaat cgccaacttt gcccgagtct 120 121 tcagctaccg attctgacta ctacagccct acggggggag ccccgcacgg ctactgctct 180 181 cctacctcgg cttcctatgg caaagctctc aacccctacc agtatcagta tcacggcgtg 240 241 aacggctccg ccgggagcta cccagccaaa gcttatgccg actatagcta cgctagctcc 300 301 taccaccagt acggcggcgc ctacaaccgc gtcccaagcg ccaccaacca gccagagaaa 360 361 gaagtgaccg agcccgaggt gagaatggtg aatggcaaac caaagaaagt tcgtaaaccc 420 421 aggactattt attccagctt tcagctggcc gcattacaga ...
Pitx2 is a homeobox transcription factor involved in left-right signaling during embryogenesis. Disruption of left-right signaling in mice within its core nodal/lefty cascade, results in impaired expression of the last effector of the left-right casc
Complete information for PRRX2 gene (Protein Coding), Paired Related Homeobox 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium