TY - JOUR. T1 - Colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. AU - Polack, Fernando P.. AU - Flayhart, Diane C.. AU - Zahurak, Marianna L.. AU - Dick, James D.. AU - Willoughby, Rodney E.. PY - 2000/7. Y1 - 2000/7. N2 - Objective. Children with HIV infection are particularly susceptible to invasive pneumococcal disease, yet the effect of HIV infection and its medical management on colonization and resistance to antibiotics are poorly described. To provide a basis for medical practice, we determined the prevalence of nasopharyngeal colonization and antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in children with HIV infection. Methods. Cross- sectional prevalence sample of children attending the pediatric HIV and pulmonary clinics to examine nasopharyngeal colonization with S. pneumoniae and antibiotic resistance to beta-lactams and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole (T/S). Subjects were matched by age and date of clinic visit. Results. The colonization ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Efavirenz liquid formulation in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. AU - Starr, Stuart E.. AU - Fletcher, Courtney V.. AU - Spector, Stephen A.. AU - Brundage, Richard C.. AU - Yong, Florence H.. AU - Douglas, Steven D.. AU - Flynn, Patrizia M.. AU - Kline, Mark W.. PY - 2002/7/23. Y1 - 2002/7/23. N2 - Background. This study determined the safety, pharmacokinetics, antiviral activity and immunologic effects of efavirenz liquid formulation, nelfinavir and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in HIV-infected children, 3 to 9 years of age. Methods. Plasma HIV-1 RNA and lymphocyte subsets were measured at various intervals after initiation of therapy. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed at Week 2, and doses of efavirenz and nelfinavir were adjusted if area under the curve values fell outside specified target ranges. Results. This combination of antiretrovirals was well-tolerated. Pharmacokinetic values were similar to those observed in a previous study ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Adenovirus viremia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. by Ronald M. Ferdman et al.
We have developed a model to determine whether asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals who have a rapid CD4 cell decline are a subgroup who might benefit from early antiretroviral therapy. Data were obtained from a subgroup of participants in the Concorde and EACG020 trials, two randomized, double-blind, comparative trials of immediate (IMM) versus deferred (DEF) zidovudine therapy in asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals. The subgroup comprised 297 patients (IMM = 154, DEF = 143) who had at least one CD4 cell count before and after randomization. The median CD4 cell count at randomization was 491 x 10(6)/L, and the median follow-up was 61 months. The rate of CD4 decline before and after randomization was estimated using multi-level linear regression analysis, and patients were stratified into quartiles according to the rate of CD4 cell decline before randomization. Outcome measures were the development of AIDS, a 50% drop in CD4 count from the baseline, and death. A Cox proportional hazards model was
Background. Increased monocyte activation and intestinal damage have been shown to be predictive for the increased morbidity and mortality observed in treated people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV). Methods. A cross-sectional analysis of cellular and soluble markers of monocyte activation, coagulation, intestinal damage, and inflammation in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of PLHIV with suppressed plasma viremia on combination antiretroviral therapy and age and demographically comparable HIV-negative individuals participating in the Comorbidity in Relation to AIDS (COBRA) cohort and, where appropriate, age-matched blood bank donors (BBD). Results. People living with HIV, HIV-negative individuals, and BBD had comparable percentages of classical, intermediate, and nonclassical monocytes. Expression of CD163, CD32, CD64, HLA-DR, CD38, CD40, CD86, CD91, CD11c, and CX3CR1 on monocytes did not differ between PLHIV and HIV-negative individuals, but it differed significantly from ...
It is important to consider the role that HIV infected individuals play in ongoing HIV transmission. Different anti-HIV treatment regimens may lead to variations in HIV transmission risk behavior among HIV infected individuals. HIV infected people with viral loads of less than 1,000 copies/ml are less likely to transmit HIV through heterosexual sex. However, condom use sometimes decreases after individuals start combination antiretroviral therapy (ART); also, some studies have shown an increased rate in acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs) following initiation of ART, and those on ART may transmit a drug-resistant strain of HIV. In the SMART study, participants were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups:. ...
It is important to consider the role that HIV infected individuals play in ongoing HIV transmission. Different anti-HIV treatment regimens may lead to variations in HIV transmission risk behavior among HIV infected individuals. HIV infected people with viral loads of less than 1,000 copies/ml are less likely to transmit HIV through heterosexual sex. However, condom use sometimes decreases after individuals start combination antiretroviral therapy (ART); also, some studies have shown an increased rate in acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs) following initiation of ART, and those on ART may transmit a drug-resistant strain of HIV. In the SMART study, participants were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups:. ...
The mission of the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) is to discover and develop interventions that can be used globally to prevent sexual and/or parenteral t...
By several parameters known to be associated with HIV disease progression, children who are treated with protease inhibitor-containing antiretroviral therapy and reconstitute their CD4 T cells despite viral rebound have similar outcomes to those who optimally suppress viral replication. In our study, discordant viral and immune response outcome groups showed sustained increases in CD4 T-cell counts and displayed growth parameters, prevalence of HIV-associated illnesses, and levels of functional immunity that were equivalent to VS/IS children. The substantial restoration of CD4 T-cell counts in the VS/IS and VF/IS response groups during the initial 24 weeks of treatment was sustained over the subsequent 72 weeks in both outcome groups. The durability of CD4 reconstitution in VF/IS children who were enrolled in our study is in contrast to previous examinations of CD4 T-cell reconstitution in HIV-infected adults in which 30% to 40% of patients who displayed discordant viral and immune responses ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Surveillance of pediatric HIV infection. AU - Wilfert, C.. AU - Beck, D. T.. AU - Fleischman, A. R.. AU - Mofenson, L. M.. AU - Pantell, R. H.. AU - Schonberg, S. Kenneth. AU - Scott, G. B.. AU - Sklaire, M. W.. AU - Whitley-Williams, P. N.. AU - Rogers, M. F.. PY - 1998/2. Y1 - 1998/2. N2 - Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) surveillance should expand to include perinatal HIV exposure and HIV infection as well as AIDS to delineate completely the extent and impact of HIV infection on children and families, accurately assess the resources necessary to provide services to this population, evaluate the efficacy of public health recommendations, and determine any potential long- term consequences of interventions to prevent perinatal transmission to children ultimately determined to be uninfected as well as for those who become infected. Ensuring the confidentiality of information collected in the process of surveillance is ...
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently released new data regarding the HIV infection rate in the USA. The data, covering the years 2003 through 2009 showed that the HIV infection rate is holding steady at about 50,000 new cases per year. However a breakdown of the numbers revealed a shocking disparity in the HIV infection rate among Black men who have sex with men (MSM). During this period, the infection rate for Black MSM nearly doubled! Within Palm Beach County, similar trends have been evident since 2006. A 2007 Care Council of West Palm Beach Bulletin indicated that gay, Black men had one of the highest infection rates, not just in the county, but in the country.. There are no doubt a myriad of interconnected factors contributing to the staggering HIV infection rates among Black males. Even the CDC acknowledges that there is no clear explanation as to why Black men are being decimated by HIV infections in ways that arent quite as prominent among other groups.. One of ...
BACKGROUND. Most adults infected with HIV achieve viral suppression within a year of starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). It is important to understand the risk of AIDS events or death for patients with a suppressed viral load.. METHODS AND FINDINGS. Using data from the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (2010 merger), we assessed the risk of a new AIDS-defining event or death in successfully treated patients. We accumulated episodes of viral suppression for each patient while on cART, each episode beginning with the second of two consecutive plasma viral load measurements ,50 copies/µl and ending with either a measurement ,500 copies/µl, the first of two consecutive measurements between 50-500 copies/µl, cART interruption or administrative censoring. We used stratified multivariate Cox models to estimate the association between time updated CD4 cell count and a new AIDS event or death or death alone. 75,336 patients contributed 104,265 ...
Improved Uptake of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Also Leads to Decrease in Community HIV Plasma Viral LoadVancouver - A comprehensive population-based study, conducted by the BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS (BC-CfE) and presented at the 17th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections in San Francisco, shows that expanded highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) coverage was associated with a 50% decrease in new yearly HIV infections among injection drug users.
World AIDS day on December 1st is marked this year by UNAIDS, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, with the theme "Getting to Zero - Zero new HIV infections. Zero discrimination. Zero AIDS-related deaths.". The latest estimates conducted by UNAIDS, show that there are 700,000 fewer new HIV infections across the world in 2011 compared to 2001. Although the numbers are still high - 2.5 million new HIV infections detected in 2011 - this shows a dramatic decrease, some by as much as 50%, in low and middle income sub-Saharan African countries like Malawi, Botswana and Namibia. The overall number detected as living with HIV/AIDS remains stubbornly high at 34 million people.. The scaling up of antiretroviral therapy in low- and middle-income countries has transformed national HIV/AIDS responses and has contributed to an overall reduction in global AIDS related deaths by 24% in the last 6 years alone.. In Ireland the number of new HIV infections reflects the global trend of declining numbers, ...
The International AIDS Society (IAS) Conference on HIV Science (IAS 2017) in Paris last week brought together over 6,000 scientists, clinicians, public health practitioners and officials to review the state of the science intended to control and eventually end the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The central thrust of the global effort to control the epidemic is achieving the 90-90-90 targets set by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). These targets state that, by 2020, 90% of those living with HIV know their status, 90% of known HIV-positive individuals receive sustained antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 90% of individuals on ART have durable viral suppression. We know that HIV-infected persons with viral suppression, while not cured, do not transmit HIV infection - hence the focus on treatment, which is prevention. While some countries have made encouraging progress, we are far short of the global 90-90-90 targets, and worse, there were 1.8 million new HIV infections in 2016. We need ...
Since the discovery of AIDS among the gay men in 1981 in the United States of America, it has become a major world pandemic with over 40 million individuals infected world wide. According to the Joint United Nations Programme against HIV/AIDS epidermic updates in 2012, 28.3 million individuals are living with HIV world wide, 23.5 million among them coming from sub-saharan Africa and 4.8 million individuals residing in Asia. The report showed that approximately 1.7 million individuals have died from AIDS related deaths, 34 million ± 50% know their HIV status, a total of 2:5 million individuals are newly infected, 14:8 million individuals are eligible for HIV treatment and only 8 million are on HIV treatment (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS and health sector progress towards universal access: progress report, 2011). Numerous studies have been carried out to understand the pathogenesis and the dynamics of this deadly disease (AIDS) but, still its pathogenesis is poorly understood. More ...
Introduction. Despite HIV prevalence reaching a plateau in South Africa, rates of new infection are still unacceptably high (Department of Health 2012:37). The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) estimated that there were 5.6 million HIV-infected people living in South Africa in 2011. This figure, around 11% of the South African population (Doyle & Dorrington 2011), makes up about 17% of the total global number of people living with HIV. Largely as a result of the expanded antiretroviral treatment (ART) programme, the biggest in the world (Shisana et al. 2009:viii), there has been a substantial reduction in AIDS-related mortality in South Africa. There were, however, still an estimated 194 000 HIV-related deaths in 2008, down from 388 000 in 2003 (Actuarial Society 2011:1).. South Africans are heavy drinkers, with amongst the highest per capita consumption rates for alcohol in the world, namely, 9.46 litres of pure alcohol per person annually (World Health Organization 2011:276). ...
NIH-Funded Study Aims to Identify and Treat HIV-Infected Men Who Have Sex With Men. Achieving moderate reduction of new HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) will depend on significantly increasing the percentage of HIV-infected MSM whose viral load is suppressed to undetectable levels, according to a new mathematical model based on data from Baltimore. Access and adherence to antiretroviral therapy are key to sustained HIV suppression, which dramatically reduces the risk of transmitting HIV to others. Researchers from the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-supported HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) will present their results on Oct. 19 at the HIV Research for Prevention (HIVR4P) 2016 conference in Chicago. Scientists performed the modeling as part of a large clinical research study called HPTN 078, which is funded by NIHs National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). HPTN 078 began enrolling participants ...
Delory T., Ngo-Giang-Huong Nicole, Rangdaeng S., Chotivanich N., Limtrakul A., Putiyanun C., Suriyachai P., Matanasarawut W., Jarupanich T., Liampongsabuddhi P., Heard I., Jourdain Gonzague, Lallemant Marc, Le Coeur S., PapilloV study group (collab.). (2017). Human Papillomavirus infection and cervical lesions in HIV-1-infected women on antiretroviral treatment in Thailand. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 20 (Suppl. 5), 92-93. IAS Conference on HIV Science (IAS 2017) , 9., Paris (FRA), 2017/07/23-26. ISSN 1758-2652. ...
BOSTON, Feb 11, 2003 (BUSINESS WIRE) --. 48-Week Data from Alize Trial Presented Today at 10th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. French researchers presented new 48-week data from a Phase III clinical trial today. These data demonstrate that emtricitabine (FTC), an investigational once-daily nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), suppresses HIV when taken as part of a once-daily, protease inhibitor (PI)-sparing antiretroviral regimen. Emtricitabine is being developed by Triangle Pharmaceuticals, which was acquired by Gilead Sciences (Nasdaq:GILD) in January 2003. Dr. Jean-Michel Molina presented the 48-week results of the ANRS 099 Alize trial (Abstract #551) at the 10th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections in Boston, Massachusetts. The ANRS 099 Alize trial is an ongoing three-year, open-label, multicenter study involving 355 patients who at baseline had to have HIV RNA less than 400 copies/mL while receiving PI-based antiretroviral therapy. ...
The study included 34,766 HIV-infected people who were 50 or older, 104,298 HIV-negative 50-or-older people, and 74,476 HIV-infected people between 18 and 49. In the 50-and-older HIV group, 78% were men and 74% were between 50 and 59. Only 55% of the 50-and-older HIV group had ever taken antiretrovirals, compared with 44% of the younger HIV group. The younger HIV group had a higher proportion of women than the older HIV group (31% versus 22%). The older and younger age groups were similar in proportions with a CD4 count below 200 (16% and 15%), a viral load below 400 copies (53% and 50.5%), and a viral load above 100,000 copies (6% versus 8 ...
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Several studies intensively evaluated the effect of antiretroviral therapy initiated during acute HIV infection has on the size of the cellular reservoir. One such study compared the reservoir as measured by HIV DNA as total, integrated and 2-long terminal repeat (LTR) in those treated during acute infection (n=9), chronic infection (n=26) and amongst elite controllers (n=37) (15). It was not surprising that HIV DNA was detectable regardless of how early therapy was initiated and amongst the elite controllers. Nevertheless, they did find that the levels were significantly lower in those treated during acute infection than during chronic. Moreover, the levels in the early treatment group were similar to the elite controller. While early treatment did not eliminate the reservoir, even amongst those with 10 years of follow-up, it is conceivable that the success of any future strategies to target the reservoir may be more successful in those with a smaller reservoir, such as those initiating therapy ...
A steep drop in the local incidence of new HIV infections accompanied the rollout of a U.S.-funded anti-HIV program in a large East African population, according to a study led by researchers at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.. The study, published Nov. 29 in the New England Journal of Medicine, is the first to track a large group of people before, during and after the start of an HIV prevention program and show that the program is likely working on a large scale. The researchers found that as the program began and matured from the early 2000s until 2016, there was a 42 percent decline in the rate of new HIV infections.. The ongoing HIV prevention program - in Ugandas rural Rakai District on the shore of Lake Victoria - has been funded by the Presidents Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), set up in 2004 by the George W. Bush administration. The program provides multiple free services, including anti-HIV drugs for infected people, ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Increases in CD4+ T-cell count at antiretroviral therapy initiation among HIV-positive illicit drug users during a treatment-as-prevention initiative in Canada. AU - Tran, Mimi. AU - Wood, Evan. AU - Kerr, Thomas. AU - Patterson, Sophie. AU - Bangsberg, David. AU - Dong, Huiru. AU - Guillemi, Silvia. AU - Montaner, Julio S.G.. AU - Milloy, M. J.. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - Background: Although treatment-as-prevention (TasP) efforts are a new cornerstone of efforts to respond to the HIV/AIDS pandemic, their effects among people who use drugs (PWUD) have not been fully evaluated. This study characterizes temporal trends in CD4+ T-cell (CD4) count at ART initiation and rates of virological response among HIV-positive PWUD during a TasP initiative. Methods: We used data on individuals initiating ART within a prospective cohort of PWUD linked to comprehensive clinical records. Using multivariable linear regression, we evaluated the relationship between CD4 count prior to ART ...
The medications used to treat HIV infection are known as anti-retroviral medications. Your doctor caring for you will in conjunction with you make a decision about the best time to commence you on medications for HIV. This decision will be based on your health and blood test results. Once you have the virus, it cannot be cured however using medications can manage the disease and stop it damging your immune system. In most instances you will need to take a combination of medications, this is known as HAART therapy, which stands for Highly active anti-retroviral treatment. Each different medication attacks the HIV at a different level with the aim that this stops the virus from spreading amongst the cells of your immune system. ...
DISCUSSION. The Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) reports the feminization of HIV, and in sub-Saharan Africa, six in 10 adults living with HIV are currently woman18. However, this characteristic was not supported by the findings of the present study, which may be explained by the advanced degree of infection in the patients analyzed, as women are generally more concerned with their health and consequently more likely to adhere to HAART. Moreover, with the introduction of erectile dysfunction medications and the aging of the population worldwide, there has been an increase in the incidence of AIDS among elderly individuals. However, the present sample was composed mainly of young, sexually active, promiscuous individuals.. The findings revealed a malnourished sample with important clinical and biochemical alterations. Despite the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy, these characteristics have also been reported by other studies2,3,19. The mean BMI in the present ...
More than 1 million HIV-exposed, uninfected infants are born annually to HIV-positive mothers worldwide. This growing population of infants experiences twice the mortality of HIV-unexposed infants. We found that although there were very few differences seen in the microbiomes of mothers with and without HIV infection, maternal HIV infection was associated with changes in the microbiome of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. Furthermore, we observed that human breast milk oligosaccharides were associated with bacterial species in the infant microbiome. The disruption of the infants microbiome associated with maternal HIV infection may contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. ...
Background. This paper describes the impact of human immunodeficiency virus HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS mortality among young adults in Spain with specific reference to other causes of death. Methods. Based on death registration data for the period 1980-1993, HIV/AIDS was compared against all other causes of death by gender,...
HIV infection is a known risk factor for cancer but little is known about HIV testing patterns and the burden of HIV infection in cancer patients. We did a cross-sectional analysis to identify predictors of prior HIV testing and to quantify the burden of HIV in black cancer patients in Johannesburg, South Africa. The Johannesburg Cancer Case-control Study (JCCCS) recruits newly-diagnosed black cancer patients attending public referral hospitals for oncology and radiation therapy in Johannesburg . All adult cancer patients enrolled into the JCCCS from November 2004 to December 2009 and interviewed on previous HIV testing were included in the analysis. Patients were independently tested for HIV-1 using a single ELISA test . The prevalence of prior HIV testing, of HIV infection and of undiagnosed HIV infection was calculated. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with prior HIV testing. A total of 5436 cancer patients were tested for HIV of whom 1833[33.7%
We examined associations between B and T cell phenotypic profiles and antibody responses to the pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5) in perinatally HIV-infected infants (PHIV) on antiretroviral therapy and in HIV-exposed uninfected infants (PHEU) enrolled in IMPAACT P1072 study (NCT00880698). Of 17 B and T cell subsets analyzed, PHIV and PHEU differed only in the number of CD4+ T cells and frequency of naive B cells, which were higher in PHEU than in PHIV. In contrast, the B and T cell phenotypic profiles of PHIV and PHEU markedly differed from those of geographically-matched contemporary HIV-unexposed infants. The frequency of regulatory T and B cells (Treg, Breg) of PHIV and PHEU displayed two patterns of associations: FOXP3+CD25+ Treg positively correlated with CD4+ T cell numbers; while TGF-b+ Treg and IL10+ Treg and Breg positively correlated with the frequencies of inflammatory and activated T cells. Moreover, the frequencies of activated and inflammatory T cells of PHIV and PHEU positively
Despite years of fully suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV persists in its hosts and is never eradicated. One major barrier to eradication is that the virus infects multiple cell types that may individually contribute to HIV persistence. Tissue macrophages are critical contributors to HIV pathogenesis; however, their specific role in HIV persistence during long-term suppressive ART has not been established. Using humanized myeloid-only mice (MoM), we demonstrate that HIV infection of tissue macrophages is rapidly suppressed by ART, as reflected by a rapid drop in plasma viral load and a dramatic decrease in the levels of cell-associated viral RNA and DNA. No viral rebound was observed in the plasma of 67% of the ART-treated animals at 7 weeks after ART interruption, and no replication-competent virus was rescued from the tissue macrophages obtained from these animals. In contrast, in a subset of animals (~33%), a delayed viral rebound was observed that is consistent with the ...
Fleming, Patricia L.; Ward, John W.; Janssen, Robert S.; De Cock, Kevin M.; Valdiserri, Ronald O.; Gayle, Helene D.; Jones, Jeffrey L.; Lehman, J. Stan; Lindegren, Mary Lou; Nakashima, Allyn K.; Posid, Joseph M.; Sullivan, Patrick S.; Sweeney, Patricia A.; Wortley, Pascale M.; Seiler, Eva M.; Jaffe, Harold W. (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1999-12-10) ...
In 2011, Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS announced a plan to eliminate new HIV infections among children by 2015. This increased focus on the elimination of maternal to child transmission (MTCT) is most welcome but is insufficient, as access to prevention of MTCT (PMTCT) programming is neither uniform nor universal. A new and more expansive agenda must be articulated to ensure that those infants and children who will never feel the impact of the current elimination agenda are reached and linked to appropriate care and treatment. This agenda must addresses challenges around both reducing vertical transmission through PMTCT and ensuring access to appropriate HIV testing, care, and treatment for all affected children who were never able to access PMTCT programming. Option B+, or universal test and treat for HIV-infected pregnant women, is an excellent start, but it may be time to rethink our current approaches to delivering PMTCT services. New strategies will reduce vertical transmission ...
Knowledge about the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection gained since 1988 has necessitated an update of our previously published policies.Important advances have been made in the treatment of HIV infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), resulting in a prolongation of the symptom-free period. Transmission of HIV infection from a dentist to several of his patients is believed to have occurred. Heterosexual transmission of HIV infection is increasing in importance.. This statement emphasizes the ethical imperative to care for all patients; the need for health care professionals to adhere scrupulously to universal precautions because of the low but definite risk for transmission of HIV in the health care setting; the expanded recommendations for HIV testing to identify infected persons as early as possible; and the need for national leadership in public education, public policy development, and health care funding.. *This ...
The advent in 1996 of potent combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), sometimes called HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) or cART (effective combination antiretroviral therapy), changed the course of the HIV epidemic. These "cocktails" of three or more antiretroviral drugs used in combination gave patients and scientists new hope for fighting the epidemic and have significantly improved life expectancy-to decades rather than months. For many years, scientists believed that treating HIV-infected persons also significantly reduced their risk of transmitting the infection to sexual and drug-using partners who did not have the virus. The circumstantial evidence was substantial, but no one had conducted a randomized clinical trial--the gold standard for proving an intervention works. That changed in 2011 with the publication of findings from_the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 052 study, a randomized clinical trial designed in part to evaluate whether the early initiation of ART can ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cerebral metabolite changes prior to and after antiretroviral therapy in primary HIV infection. AU - Young, Andrew C.. AU - Yiannoutsos, Constantin. AU - Hegde, Manu. AU - Lee, Evelyn. AU - Peterson, Julia. AU - Walter, Rudy. AU - Price, Richard W.. AU - Meyerhoff, Dieter J.. AU - Spudich, Serena. PY - 2014/10/1. Y1 - 2014/10/1. N2 - Objective: We examined the longitudinal effects of primary HIV infection (PHI) and responses to early antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the brain using high-field magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Methods: Cerebral metabolites were measured longitudinally with 4T proton MRS and assessed for ART effects in participants with PHI. Levels of glutamate (Glu), N-acetylaspartate (NAA), myo-inositol (MI), and choline-containingmetabolites (Cho) weremeasured relative to creatine1 phosphocreatine (Cr) in anterior cingulate, basal ganglia, frontal white matter, and parietal gray matter. Results: Fifty-three participants recruited at median 3.7 months post ...
BACKGROUND: The life expectancy of HIV-positive individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) is approaching that of HIV-negative people. However, little is known about how these populations compare in terms of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We aimed to compare HRQoL between HIV-positive and HIV-negative people in Zambia and South Africa. METHODS: As part of the HPTN 071 (PopART) study, data from adults aged 18-44 years were gathered between Nov 28, 2013, and March 31, 2015, in large cross-sectional surveys of random samples of the general population in 21 communities in Zambia and South Africa. HRQoL data were collected with a standardised generic measure of health across five domains. We used beta-distributed multivariable models to analyse differences in HRQoL scores between HIV-negative and HIV-positive individuals who were unaware of their status; aware, but not in HIV care; in HIV care, but who had not initiated ART; on ART for less than 5 years; and on ART for 5 years or ...
With the availability of potent antiretroviral therapy (ART), morbidity and mortality have significantly declined in individuals living with HIV, including those with perinatally acquired HIV. An increasing number of women with perinatal HIV are now reaching childbearing age and becoming pregnant. A significant number of these pregnancies are unintended.1-3 The components of prenatal care and general principles of ART and HIV management do not differ between pregnant women with perinatally acquired HIV and those who acquired HIV infection in other ways (e.g., acquired through sexual contact or injection drug use). However, there are unique challenges in this population related to reproductive health care needs and the prevention of perinatal transmission. Adherence to ART is commonly a major challenge for women with perinatal HIV. In addition, because most of these women are still adolescents and young adults, they may be at higher risk of certain pregnancy complications such as preterm ...
Study results released today at the XIX International Conference on AIDS by the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) show greatly elevated rates of new HIV infections occurring among black gay and bisexual men in the U.S.
Antiretroviral therapy coverage (% of people with advanced HIV infection) in Sub-Saharan Africa (all income levels) was reported at 63.45 % in 2018, according to the World Bank collection of development indicators, compiled from officially recognized sources. Sub-Saharan Africa (all income levels) - Antiretroviral therapy coverage (% of people with advanced HIV infection) - actual values, historical data, forecasts and projections were sourced from the |a href=https://data.worldbank.org/ target=blank>World Bank|/a> on February of 2020.
Access and well-modulated use of antiretroviral agents (ARVs) in North America dates as early as 1990 with the initial guidelines recommended zidovudine monotherapy, just 4 years after FDA approved the drug. Continued review of emerging data, led to the recommendation of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) in 1998. Clear documentation of access and use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource limited settings was first observed in 2002 after the World Health Organization (WHO) issued guidelines for resource limited settings, and included key ARVs into the WHO essential drug list. Delayed access to ART heavily impacted the initial control of the HIV epidemic in resource limited settings, but even with improved access to ART, differences in the management of HIV still exist; including timing for ART initiation and HIV/ART monitoring strategies. Access to key HIV/ART monitoring tools including viral load testing is limited in low resource settings, leading to gaps in HIV/ART ...
Introduction: Since 2004, the authors have been operating First Call NYU, an outreach program to identify acute and recent HIV infections, also called primary HIV infections, among targeted at-risk communities in the New York City (NYC) metropolitan area. Materials and Methodology: First Call NYU employed mass media advertising campaigns, outreach to healthcare providers in NYC, and Internet-based efforts including search engine optimization (SEO) and Internet-based advertising to achieve these goals.. Results: Between October 2004 and October 2008, 571 individuals were screened through this program, leading to 446 unique, in-person screening visits. 47 primary HIV infections, including 14 acute and 33 recent HIV infections, were identified.. Discussion: Internet and traditional recruitment methods can be used to increase self-referrals for screening following possible exposure to HIV. Conclusion: Community education of at-risk groups, with the goal of increased self-diagnosis of possible acute ...
Despite years of great progress in treating AIDS, the number of new infections with the virus that causes it has remained stubbornly around 50,000 a year in the United States for a decade, according to new figures released on Wednesday by federal officials. The American epidemic is still concentrated primarily in gay men, and is growing rapidly worse among young black gay men. That realization is causing a rift in the AIDS community. Activists say the persistent H.I.V. infection rate proves that the government prevention policy is a flop. Federal officials are on the defensive even as they concede that the epidemic will grow if prevention does not get better, which they know is unlikely while their budgets are being cut (McNeil, 8/3). CQ HealthBeat: HIV Infection Rates Plateau, Except For Increases Among Young Black Men ...
It is unclear whether HIV-infected individuals remain at higher risk of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) compared with HIV-uninfected individuals. We conducted a cohort study of HIV-infected and demographically matched HIV-uninfected adults within Kaiser Permanente Northern California during the period 1996-2011. We used Poisson models to obtain rate ratios (RRs) for incident IPD associated with HIV infection and other risk factors. Among 13,079 HIV-infected and 137,643 HIV-uninfected adults, the IPD rate per 100,000 person-years was 160 (n = 109 events) for HIV-infected and 8 (n = 75 events) for HIV-uninfected subjects, with an adjusted RR of 13.0 [95% confidence interval (CI): 9.1-18.7]. For HIV-infected individuals, IPD incidence per 100,000 person-years decreased by 71% during study follow-up, from 305 in 1996-1999 to 88 in 2010-2011 (p , 0.001), with an adjusted RR of 6.6 (95% CI: 2.7-16.1) compared with HIV-uninfected subjects in 2010-2011. Risk factors for IPD among HIV-infected ...
... Learn about HIV, its treatment, and how to take care of yourself when you have HIV.
This systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrates that despite the availability of ART, HIV-positive populations continue to experience more respiratory symptoms than comparable HIV-negative groups, at least in resource-rich settings for which there are sufficient data to draw conclusions. It also highlights several research needs: in particular the lack of rigorous data concerning respiratory symptoms in HIV-positive populations in low-income and middle-income settings where the majority of the worlds HIV-positive individuals live.. The successful provision of ART means that HIV-positive populations can expect considerable improvements in life expectancy;38 however, ageing HIV-positive populations have more comorbidities and respiratory illness is likely to become increasingly important over time.39 ,40 An improved understanding of the health needs of ageing HIV-positive populations is required, as even in resource-rich settings, the impact of respiratory illness on individuals (measured ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - CD4+ and viral load outcomes of antiretroviral therapy switch strategies after virologic failure of combination antiretroviral therapy in perinatally HIV-infected youth in the United States. AU - Pediatric HIV AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS). AU - International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials (IMPAACT). AU - Fairlie, Lee. AU - Karalius, Brad. AU - Patel, Kunjal. AU - Van Dyke, Russell B.. AU - Siberry, George K.. AU - Hernán, Miguel A.. AU - Siberry, George K.. AU - Seage, George R.. AU - Agwu, Allison Lorna. AU - Wiznia, Andrew. AU - Shearer, William. AU - Paul, Mary. AU - Cooper, Norma. AU - Harris, Lynette. AU - Purswani, Murli. AU - Baig, Mahboobullah. AU - Cintron, Anna. AU - Puga, Ana. AU - Navarro, Sandra. AU - Patton, Doyle. AU - Leon, Deyana. AU - Burchett, Sandra. AU - Karthas, Nancy. AU - Kammerer, Betsy. AU - Yogev, Ram. AU - Sanders, Margaret Ann. AU - Malee, Kathleen. AU - Hunter, Scott. AU - Burey, Marlene. AU - Nozyce, Molly. AU - Chen, Janet. AU - ...
An understanding of the immunopathogenic mechanisms of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is fundamental in developing successful approaches to designing effective therapeutic and vaccine strategies. In this regard, we have investigated the mechanisms by which HIV inserts itself into the human immune system and uses the elaborate cytokine network to its own replicative advantage. We have also shown that the burden of HIV in CD4+ T cells is directly associated with a decline in this cell population in vivo and a progression to disease. Mononuclear phagocytes may play a role in the pathogenesis of HIV infection by serving as reservoirs of the virus. Of note is the fact that monocytes in the peripheral blood of HIV-infected individuals are rarely infected in vivo, whereas infected-tissue macrophages may play a role in organ-specific HIV-related pathogenesis. The role of HIV-specific humoral and cell-mediated immunity in HIV infection is not well understood. However, fine specificity ...
A daily dose of an oral antiretroviral drug, currently approved to treat HIV infection, reduced the risk of acquiring HIV infection by 43.8 percent among men who have sex with men. The findings, a major advance in HIV prevention research, come from a large international clinical trial published online Nov. 23 by the New England Journal of Medicine. The study, titled "Chemoprophylaxis for HIV Prevention in Men," found even higher rates of effectiveness, up to 72.8 percent, among those participants who adhered most closely to the daily drug regimen.. "We now have strong evidence that pre-exposure prophylaxis with an antiretroviral drug, a strategy widely referred to as PrEP, can reduce the risk of HIV acquisition among men who have sex with men, a segment of the population disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS," says Anthony S. Fauci, M.D., director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), part of the National Institutes of Health. "Additional research is needed, but ...
Residual viral replication persists in a significant proportion of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving potent antiretroviral therapy. To determine the source of this virus, levels of HIV RNA and DNA from lymphoid tissues and levels of viral RNA in serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and genital secretions in 28 patients treated for ⩽2.5 years with indinavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine were examined. Both HIV RNA and DNA remained detectable in all lymph nodes. In contrast, HIV RNA was not detected in 20 of 23 genital secretions or in any of 13 CSF samples after 2 years of treatment. HIV envelope sequence data from plasma and lymph nodes from 4 patients demonstrated sequence divergence, which suggests varying degrees of residual viral replication in 3 and absence in 1 patient. In patients receiving potent antiretroviral therapy, the greatest virus burden may continue to be in lymphoid tissues rather than in central nervous system or genitourinary compartments ...
ContextPlasma human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA level predicts HIV disease progression, but the extent to which it explains the variability in rate of CD4
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... Fore Pharma announced the results of its HIV - Market research report and industry analysis - 11228543
This proposal addresses statistical challenges that arise in HIV prevention research. Recent progress in prevention from different uses of antiretroviral drugs...
SEATTLE-The number of HIV-infected patients that a physician has treated independently predicts HIV-related mortality in patients starting anti-retroviral therapy for the first time, Robert S. Hogg, PhD, said at the 9th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (abstract 749W). 1
The number of HIV (non-AIDS) diagnoses has remained fairly constant over the past decade from 2005 through 2015, at approximately 247 cases per year. With a peak of 282 newly diagnosed HIV (non-AIDS) cases in 2009, 228 new HIV (non-AIDS) cases were reported in 2015 (a decrease of 4% from 2014).. Historically, and in 2015, over 80% (255/294) of new HIV diagnoses (both HIV [non-AIDS] and AIDS at first diagnosis) occurred in the metropolitan area. However, HIV or AIDS cases have been diagnosed in residents of 86 counties statewide. HIV infection is most common in areas with higher population densities and greater poverty.. The majority of new HIV infections in Minnesota occur among males. Trends in the annual number of new HIV infections diagnosed among males differ by race/ethnicity. New infections occurred primarily among white males in the 1980s and early 1990s. Whites still comprise the largest number of new HIV infections among males, but the proportion of cases that white males account for is ...
In 2008, in honour of Omololus memory and commitment to the field, The Omololu Falobi Award for Excellence in HIV Prevention Research Community Advocacy was established by the African Microbicides Advocacy Group (AMAG) and partners. The Award is presented to an individual nominated by their peers at the biennial International Microbicides Conferences. Lori Heise (USA) and Aylur Srikrishnan (India) were the 2008 recipients and Charles Shagi (Tanzania) the recipient in 2010 ...
SUMMARY: Despite the success of antiretroviral prophylaxis in reducing mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission, postpartum transmission through breast milk remains a problem. Antiretroviral administration to the infant during the period of breast-feeding could protect against postnatal transmission. An open-label phase 1/2 study was designed to assess the safety and trough concentrations of nevirapine (NVP) given once weekly (OW), twice weekly (TW), or once daily (OD) to HIV-exposed breast-feeding infants for 24 weeks. Following maternal dosing with 200 mg NVP orally at onset of labor, breast-feeding infants were randomized within 48 hours of birth to 1 of 3 regimens: arm 1, NVP given OW (4 mg/kg from birth to 14 days, upward arrow to 8 mg/kg from 15 days to 24 weeks), arm 2, NVP given TW (4 mg/kg from birth to 14 days, upward arrow to 8 mg/kg from 15 days to 24 weeks), and arm 3, NVP given OD (2 mg/kg from birth to 14 days, upward arrow to 4 mg/kg from 15 days to 24 weeks). Trough NVP concentrations ...
HIV infection rate in Australia is at its highest in 20 years with an increase of 10 percent according to the report released by Kirby Institute of New South Wales. The rapid increase of diagnosed HIV cases has turned it into an epidemic. Studies conducted by the institute found out that 1,253 new cases were added in 2
The incidence of HIV infection in South Africa tops that of any nation in the world, with some 6 million of the countrys nearly 50 million residents infected. Sadly, young women - and particularly young pregnant women - suffer some of the highest rates of HIV infection. More than one-fourth of pregnant South African women are infected with the virus; in some communities, the infection rates are even higher.. But those infection rates might be reduced - and the overall health of children improved - through community-based peer counseling programs, according to a new study conducted by UCLAs Mary Jane Rotheram-Borus, the director of the UCLA Global Center for Children and Families at the Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, and her colleagues from Stellenbosch University in South Africa. A paper about the randomized controlled trial appears in the current edition of the journal PLoS One.. The study found that having specially trained lay community mothers from the Mentor Mother ...
Background: High BMI and blood pressure are leading chronic disease risk factors in South Africa. Longterm effects of HIV and ART on adiposity and blood pressure are poorly understood, and direct comparisons of risk factor trajectories in HIV- versus HIV+ populations are rare. Methods: In 2003 and 2010, height, weight, and blood pressure were recorded in a study population (n = 505) in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (30% adult HIV prevalence). We modeled change in BMI and BP longitudinally in HIV- individuals (n = 315), seroconverters (n = 32), HIV+ patients not on ART (HIV+ART−; n = 52), HIV+ patients on ART for 0-,2 years as of 2010 (HIV+ART0-,2 yrs; n = 18), patients on ART for 2-5 years (HIV+ART2-5yrs; n = 44), and a subgroup with unknown HIV status (n = 44). Difference-in-differences were assessed in reference to the HIV- population. Results: Between 2003 and 2010, BMI increased significantly in the HIV- group, by 0.874 (95% CI 0.339, 1.41; p = 0.001), to 30.4. BMI drop was significantly ...
Dr. Feeneys project will involve detailed longitudinal studies of the HIV-specific immune response and viral evolution during the early years following perinatal infection and will build upon the existing collaboration with Dr. Celia Christies Perinatal AIDS Program in Kingston, Jamaica. The project compares the HIV-specific immune response during early HIV infection among adults and children, to elucidate developmental differences in the antiviral response of CD4 and CD8 T cells.. ...
The first conference on the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for the 21st century held promises for the ...
The Director General of the National Agency for Control of AIDS (NACA), Dr. Gambo Aliyu, has stated that Nigeria has achieved 60 per cent control of HIV infection rate.
Taking Truvada dramatically reduces HIV infection rates. Activists want to break the monopoly of the firm that holds the drugs U.S. patent and also the levers of its high costs.
HIV prevalence was 5.6% [95% confidence interval (CI): 4.9 to 6.3] in 2012, a significant decrease from 2007, when HIV prevalence, excluding the North Eastern region, was 7.2% (95% CI: 6.6 to 7.9). HIV incidence was 0.5% (95% CI: 0.2 to 0.9) in 2012. Among women, factors associated with undiagnosed HIV infection included being aged 35-39 years, divorced or separated, from urban residences and Nyanza region, self-perceiving a moderate risk of HIV infection, condom use with the last partner in the previous 12 months, and reporting 4 or more lifetime number of partners. Among men, widowhood, condom use with the last partner in the previous 12 months, and lack of circumcision were associated with undiagnosed HIV infection ...
Prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) is vital for HIV/AIDS control [1-3]. In developing countries, antiretroviral (ARV) prophylaxis averted HIV infection in 409,000 children between 2009 to 2011 [4]. However, PMTCT is not optimum in Nigeria, with largest number of new paediatric HIV infection globally occurring here - averaging 60 000 yearly from 2009 to 2012 [5]. For enhanced PMTCT, mutual knowledge of partners HIV status is ideal [6], yet clinicians frequently have to presume that HIV-positive women have partners whose status are either negative or unknown.. We introduce the term serodiscordancy to encompass serodiscordant and seroconcordant heterosexual couples. Serodiscordant or serodiscordance applies when one partner of an intimate couple pairs HIV result is positive and other negative. If positive HIV results are known for both, this is a seroconcordant or seroconcordance relationship [7]. A discordant status is particularly risky because regular coitus without condoms ...
The HIV Epidemiology and Prevention program conducts research into the transmission and prevention of HIV and sexually transmissible infections. Our work is multidisciplinary and collaborative. We work in partnership with communities most affected by HIV, particularly the gay community and people who are living with HIV.. Because effective HIV prevention acknowledges the complexities of everyday life for at-risk communities, we work across the spectrum of biomedical, behavioural and structural prevention. Our work includes behavioural risk surveillance, studies of risk behaviour, and studies of biomedical preventive interventions.. Researchers in our program also conduct work on the intersection of infection, immunity and cancer to inform our knowledge of how we might prevent cancer in people with HIV. A particular focus is the prevention of anal cancer in gay men.. ...
Objective: To investigate HIV-testing behaviour and HIV prevalence among homosexual visitors of a sexually transmitted infection (STI) outpatient clinic, and to investigate determinants of unknown HIV status, and of HIV testing separately for men with unknown and negative HIV status.. Design: Cross-sectional survey conducted from March 2002 to December 2003 among homosexual men with negative or unknown HIV status visiting the Amsterdam STI clinic.. Methods: A convenience sample of 1201 men with negative or unknown HIV status answered a written questionnaire about history of HIV testing, sexual risk behaviour and behavioural determinants (non-response, 35%). Information was matched to the STI registration system. Associations were determined using logistic regression.. Results: 817 men reported a negative HIV status, and 384 reported an unknown HIV status. The overall HIV prevalence among the 523 men who tested at new STI consultation was 2.8%. The proportion of men with unknown HIV status was ...
The Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS and the World Health Organization estimate that nearly half of the 33.4 million people living with HIV/AIDS in the world are women [1]. In sub-Saharan Africa, women account for 59% of all infected adults, and HIV-positive women aged 15 to 24 years outnumber their male peers by three to one, representing 76% of the total cases in that age group [2, 3]. These figures highlight the vulnerability of women, particularly young women, to becoming infected with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa.. In addition to biological factors [4-6] that make women more vulnerable than men to acquiring HIV during sex, certain sexual behavior patterns place young women at high risk, including partnering with older men who are more likely to be infected [7], multiple concurrent relationships [8], low marriage rates [9], low consistent condom use rates [10, 11], and limited skills in negotiating safer sex practices. Gender-based violence increases vulnerability [12], and poverty ...
Antiretroviral (ART) regimen switch is a common occurrence in resource-limited settings where patients present late for care or with an AIDS-defining event. ART regimen switch can be attributed to several factors emanating from either the individual, program or facility level. This retrospective study was carried out in a resource-limited comprehensive facility in North-central Nigeria. Treatment records of 4,206 Adult HIV/AIDS patients initiated on first line ART regimen from 2006 to 2013 were extracted and examined for switch to second line ART regimen for the purpose of this study after ethical clearance had been sought. Absolute CD4 count, World Health Organisation (WHO) clinical stage and viral load results at treatment initiation, point of switch to second line and at the end of 2014 (end-point for the study) were obtained. About 75% of the 4,206 patients initiated on first line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were retained in care and were still on first line HAART at the end of
The number of HIV (non-AIDS) diagnoses has remained fairly constant over the past decade from 2006 through 2016, at approximately 269 cases per year. There was a peak of 280 newly diagnosed HIV (non- AIDS) cases in 2009, and 229 new HIV (non-AIDS) cases were reported in 2016. In 2016, 82% (238/290) of new HIV diagnoses (both HIV [non-AIDS] and AIDS at first diagnosis) occurred in the metropolitan area. Regionally, there was a 41% increase in new HIV cases in Greater Minnesota, with 52 cases in 2016 compared to 37 cases in 2015. However, HIV or AIDS cases have been diagnosed in residents of more than 98% of counties statewide. HIV infection is most common in areas with higher population densities and greater poverty. The majority of new HIV infections in Minnesota occur among males. Trends in the annual number of new HIV infections diagnosed among males differ by race/ethnicity. New infections occurred primarily among white males in the 1980s and early 1990s. Whites still comprise the largest ...
CYTOKINE RESPONSE ASSOCIATED WITH HEPATITIS C VIRUS CLEARANCE IN HIV COINFECTED PATIENTS INITIATING PEG INTERFERON- BASED THERAPY.
The Mercury, 14 December 2017, KwaZulu-Natal-based medical research organisations have developed an improved method to accurately predict where the highest rate of new HIV infections will likely occur in a community. Press coverage of our KRISP paper by Tanser et al. (Science TM 2017). The Africa Health Research Institute (AHRI) said in a statement that this innovative set of measurements would help to target treatment and prevention resources and interventions where they are most needed.. In the paper, published in the scientific journal Science Translational Medicine, the researchers show that Population Viral Load (PVL) measures, which have previously been used to try to predict the intensity of new HIV infections in a particular area, do not accurately predict HIV incidence in a rural South African setting.. They proposed and rigorously tested a set of modified indices, which considered variations in viral load patterns as well as the proportion of the population already infected with HIV, ...
Following are summaries of some of the research findings on HIV positive women over the last few years from WIHS (Womens Interagency HIV Study). This ...
The United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) is reporting world AIDS deaths and new HIV infections have each dropped 21 percent since the peak of the AIDS
HIV infection - MedHelps HIV infection Center for Information, Symptoms, Resources, Treatments and Tools for HIV infection. Find HIV infection information, treatments for HIV infection and HIV infection symptoms.
Trained staff searched the following computer databases: National Library of Medicines Gateway database, Psych INFO, Sociological Abstracts, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and EMBASE, as well as the following HIV/AIDS-related journals: AIDS Care, AIDS, AIDS & Behavior, AIDS Education and Prevention, and the Journal of AIDS. Additionally, the reference sections of previous review papers and meta-analyses were searched. Studies meeting the following criteria were included: 1. conducted in a developing country or emerging economy (World Bank 2005); 2. evaluated VCT interventions that adhered to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/Joint United Nations Programme on HIVAIDS (UNAIDS) guidelines;(1,2) 3. used assessments pre- and post-VCT or in people receiving or not receiving VCT; 4. measured HIV-related outcomes, such as knowledge and HIV-risk behavior; and 5. were published between 1990 and 2005. Identified studies were independently reviewed for ...
When secondary causes are excluded, mechanisms underlying central nervous system angiitis (ACNS) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are still not understood and optimal treatment remains undefined. We report here a patient with an untreated HIV infection who presented multiple ischemic strokes probably due to HIV-ACNS. ACNS signs on vessel-wall imaging magnetic resonance monitoring retracted with combined antiretroviral therapy without adjunct immunosuppressive drugs.
UNITED NATIONS - Without a vaccine or a cure for HIV/AIDS, it could prove difficult to end the epidemic by 2030, according to Simon Bland, the director of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS New York office. But UNAIDS is still working ... ...
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Little is known about immunovirological treatment outcomes and adherence in HIV/AIDS patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) treated using a simplified management approach in rural areas of developing countries, or about the main factors influencing those outcomes in clinical practice. METHODS: Cross-sectional immunovirological, pharmacological, and adherence outcomes were evaluated in all patients alive and on fixed-dose ART combinations for 24 months, and in a random sample of those treated for 12 months. Risk factors for virological failure (,1,000 copies/mL) and subtherapeutic antiretroviral (ARV) concentrations were investigated with multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: At 12 and 24 months of ART, 72% (n=701) and 70% (n=369) of patients, respectively, were alive and in care. About 8% and 38% of patients, respectively, were diagnosed with immunological failure; and 75% and 72% of patients, respectively, had undetectable HIV RNA (,400 copies/mL). Risk factors for ...
Background : Liver disease has become one of the serious health problems as it is exposed to many kinds of xenobiotics and therapeutic agents. Moreover the rapidly growing morbidity and mortality from liver disease are attributable to the increasing number of chemical compounds and environmental pollution. Unfortunately, so far, in the modern era of medicine there is no specific treatment to counter the menacing impact of these dreaded diseases. Many polyherbal formulations are used widely to treat these disorders. Livactine is a polyherbal formulation and is claimed to be useful in jaundice and biliary dysfunctions. Most of these formulations do not have standard and approved reports stating their pharmacological action or therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, there is a need for experimental confirmation of the pharmacological effects of this formulation. The rationale behind the selection of carbon tetrachloride is due to its free radical mechanism based liver injury, and paracetamol is consumed ...
Background Life expectancy has increased for newly diagnosed HIV patients since the inception of combination antiretroviral treatment (cART), but there remains a need to better understand the characteristics of long-term survival in HIV-positive patients. We examined long-term survival in HIV-positive patients receiving cART in the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD), to describe changes in mortality compared to the general population and to develop longer-term survival models. Methods Data were examined from 2,675 HIV-positive participants in AHOD who started cART. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated by age, sex and calendar year across prognostic characteristics using Australian Bureau of Statistics national data as reference. SMRs were examined by years of duration of cART by CD4 and similarly by viral load. Survival was analysed using Cox-proportional hazards and parametric survival models. Results The overall SMR for all-cause mortality was 3.5 (95% CI: 3.0-4.0). SMRs
The Original Study Several observational studies have reported that the early use of antiretroviral therapy by patients diagnosed with HIV decreases rates of HIV acquisition among their sexual partners. This study evaluates the impact of early antiretroviral therapy on HIV acquisition among serodiscordant couples from nine countries.
Monday at the International AIDS Society conference in Rome, an expanded session featured information on the HPTN 052 study, the Partners PrEP Study, and the Centers for Disease Controls TDF2 study presented in a joint session titled Treatment Is Prevention: The Proof Is Here, on Monday. The results of these trials will fundamentally change the way we think about HIV prevention and treatment, although implementation of these approaches will likely prove as challenging as ever.. HPTN 052, sponsored by the HIV Prevention Trials Network, was the first randomized clinical trial to definitively indicate that an HIV-infected individual can reduce sexual transmission of HIV to an uninfected partner by beginning antiretroviral therapy sooner. The study involved 1,763 HIV-serodiscordant couples at 13 sites across Africa, Asia, and the Americas. The trial results were initially released in May 2011 on the recommendation of an independent data and safety monitoring board (DSMB) and Mondays session was ...
Women account for approximately one-half of all human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections worldwide. Sexual transmission is the dominant mode of HIV transmission to women, and there is a concomitant associated epidemic of transmission to infants. The majority of HIV infections in women are in sub-Saharan Africa, with a disproportionate burden in young women | 25 years of age. Acquisition and prevention of HIV infection in women is complex and influenced by biological, behavioral, and structural factors. Efforts to reduce the incidence of HIV infection among women in sub-Saharan African could play a substantial role in altering global trajectories of HIV infection. Increasing access to sexual and reproductive health services, addressing gender-based violence and social instability, reducing poverty and the need to engage in sex for survival, and encouraging greater male responsibility are critical short-to-medium-term interventions. Efforts to find a microbicide and HIV vaccine need to be matched
This CE activity was originally published in The Rx Consultant. If you received credit for it previously, you cannot receive credit for it again.. Thirty seven years after the first case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was reported, 36.7 million people world-wide are living with HIV. About 1.8 million new HIV infections and 1 million AIDS-related deaths were reported in 2016. However, there has been significant progress in battling the disease over the last 20 years. Since 2001, the number of new cases decreased by 40% worldwide, and since 2005, AIDS-related deaths have declined by 56%. For the first time in the US, the number of new infections declined 18% between 2008 and 2014.. Due to the availability of potent and better-tolerated antiretroviral agents (ARVs) that prolong life, the number of people living with HIV has increased significantly since the late 1990s. About 1.1 million people in the US are currently living with HIV infection. People living with HIV now have a similar ...
Early identification and immediate treatment of individuals newly infected with HIV is important for two reasons: it benefits the long-term health of the infected patient, and it reduces onward HIV transmission. Primary HIV infection (PHI) reflects the period following HIV acquisition during which viraemia bursts until the establishment of a stable plasma HIV-RNA level approximately six months post infection. During this period, patients are particularly contagious and are often unaware of the infection. As a consequence, PHI disproportionally affects onward transmission. During PHI the immune system is irreparably damaged and persistent viral reservoirs are formed. Initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) during PHI could potentially lead to a functional cure through early and prolonged viral suppression. Unfortunately, symptoms of PHI are nonspecific and the diagnosis is frequently missed. This impedes timely diagnosis and prompt initiation of ART. To increase awareness and underscore the ...
In 2013, WHO published the first consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for HIV treatment and prevention across all age groups and populations. A comprehensive revision of these guidelines based on new scientific evidence and lessons from implementation is being undertaken in 2015.. This early-release guideline makes available two key recommendations that were developed during the revision process in 2015. First, antiretroviral therapy (ART) should be initiated in everyone living with HIV at any CD4 cell count. Second, the use of daily oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) is recommended as a prevention choice for people at substantial risk of HIV infection as part of combination prevention approaches. The first of these recommendations is based on evidence from clinical trials and observational studies released since 2013 showing that earlier use of ART results in better clinical outcomes for people living with HIV compared with delayed treatment. The second ...
As world leaders meet to discuss the future of financing for development1, this report from the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the Kaiser Family Foundation finds that funding to address HIV in low- and middle-income countries from nine of fourteen donor governments assessed either declined or remained flat in 2014; funding from five governments increased. Donor government funding for HIV overall grew by less than 2 percent, totaling US$8.64 billion in 2014. After adjusting for inflation and exchange rate changes, the increase was marginal (1%). Still, this was its highest level to date. Most of the increase in HIV funding in 2014 can be attributed to the United Kingdom, without which overall disbursements would have dropped. In addition, contributions to Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (the Global Fund), an increasing channel of HIV support for some donors over time, went up overall, while bilateral funding went down. Funding from the United States, ...
Importance: Approximately 1.1 million persons in the United States are currently living with HIV, and more than 700000 persons have died of AIDS since the first cases were reported in 1981. There were approximately 38300 new diagnoses of HIV infection in 2017. The estimated prevalence of HIV infection among persons 13 years and older in the United States is 0.4%, and data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention show a significant increase in HIV diagnoses starting at age 15 years. An estimated 8700 women living with HIV give birth each year in the United States. HIV can be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy, labor, delivery, and breastfeeding. The incidence of perinatal HIV infection in the United States peaked in 1992 and has declined significantly following the implementation of routine prenatal HIV screening and the use of effective therapies and precautions to prevent mother-to-child transmission. Objective: To update the 2013 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF)
Background Three national HIV household surveys were conducted in South Africa, in 2002, 2005 and 2008. A novelty of the 2008 survey was the addition of serological testing to ascertain antiretroviral treatment (ART) use. Methods and Principal Findings We used a validated mathematical method to estimate the rate of new HIV infections (HIV incidence) in South Africa using nationally representative HIV prevalence data collected in 2002, 2005 and 2008. The observed HIV prevalence levels in 2008 were adjusted for the effect of antiretroviral treatment on survival. The estimated
The International AIDS Society mourns the passing of Amsterdam Mayor Eberhard van der Laan and honours his life of service and dedication to an open society and to the fight against AIDS. Amsterdam,
INTRODUCTION:Despite the tremendous improvements in survival, some groups of people living with HIV (PLHIV) continue to have lower survival rates than the overall HIV-positive population. Here, we characterize the evolving pattern of mortality among PLHIV in British Columbia since the beginning of the expansion of antiretroviral treatment in 2003.
The Center for Infectious Diseases and the Institute for Global Health and Infectious Diseases co-sponsor a weekly conference series featuring distinguished clinicians and scientists from UNC, local universities and other national and international institutions. The topics are varied and appeal to not only infectious disease specialists, but also professionals in epidemiology, public health, microbiology, biostatistics and other global health-related disciplines.. Dr. Pettifor is an epidemiologist who has conducted HIV prevention research in South Africa for over 10 years; her research focuses on HIV prevention among young people, particularly young women, in South Africa and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Other research interests include HIV prevention interventions for young couples; Positive Prevention; and Acute HIV Infection and sexual behavior.. ...
BACKGROUND As the search for reliable clinical indicators for management of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in resource-poor settings continues, mucocutaneous disorders of HIV should be considered among key clinical indicators for prediction of underlying immune status, disease progression, and possible complications of highly active antiretroviral therapy in Africa. OBJECTIVE To identify and correlate mucocutaneous disorders to CD4-positive cell count and total lymphocyte count in HIV/AIDS patients of southeast Nigeria. METHODOLOGY Data were collected through interview-administered survey followed by clinical and dermatological examination of recruited patients and controls. RESULT Mean CD4 cell count of HIV/AIDS patients was 303.81 cells/mm(3) and was significantly lower to the control group - 807.3 cells/mm(3) (z = 10.089 and P | 0.005). In comparison with the CD4 cell count of asymptomatic HIV-positive patients (mean 433.6 cells/mm(3)), CD4 cell count
The most significant change in the global response to HIV has been the rapid expansion of antiretroviral therapy (ART) using drug combinations in developing countries. Since WHO and UNAIDS launched the 3 by 5 strategy in 2003,1 the number of people on ART has grown to exceed 4 million people by the end of 2008.2 High levels of ART in many countries are now having a major impact on HIV prevalence. Because survival of individuals on ART is greatly prolonged, HIV prevalence in the population as a whole will be higher than in the absence of ART. These increased prevalence effects are often reflected in surveillance data which the UNAIDS Estimation and Projection Package (EPP) fits to the model developed by the UNAIDS Reference Group on Estimates, Modelling and Projections (hereafter, the Reference Group model).3-6 EPP has been used extensively for modelling national epidemics.7-10 The EPP model must incorporate these effects of ART on prevalence before fitting to the data. High levels of ART can ...
Dr. Amesh was not involved in the experiment while he is an infectious disease specialist at the John Hopkins Center for Health Security in Baltimore. He said that this experiment should be successful.. It was a very different study in which scientists edited the DNA of embryos so that the gene Alterations can be passed into the next generation. Well, these changes were made in adult DNA cells. Therefore, it would not be transferred.. The study was done on a single patient that was suffering from blood cancer. There was a need for Bone marrow transplantation. Chinese scientists used the opportunity to edit DNA in bone marrow stem cells from a donor before bone marrow transplantation.. They deleted a gene CCR5 with the help of CRISPR. This gene occupies in the immune cells surface that gives instructions to protein. HIV infection uses this as a port to enter into the cells.. People who have a mutation in the CCr5 gene are resistant to HIV infection. Only two patients From HIV infection cured who ...