TY - JOUR. T1 - Immune Complexes in Pediatric Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. AU - Ellaurie, Maadhava. AU - Calvelli, Theresa. AU - Rubinstein, Arye. PY - 1990/11. Y1 - 1990/11. N2 - Circulating immune complexes (CIC) were analyzed in a cohort of 30 children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. Elevated CIC were detected by the C1 q assay in 70% (21/30) of all patients and by the Raji cell assay in 93% (28/30) of all patients. While only less than one third of patients with elevated CIC had free serum antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus, 80% (16/20) of them had detectable antibodies to Epstein-Barr virus associated with CIC. Enriched CIC in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children contained low levels of complement. These findings document that, as an expression of the humoral immunodeficiency, CIC in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children are deficient in complement and can thus be underestimated if complement-precipitating methods are used for their ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Uveitis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected persons with CD4+ T-lymphocyte count over 200 cells/mL. AU - Rose-Nussbaumer, Jennifer. AU - Goldstein, Debra A.. AU - Thorne, Jennifer E.. AU - Arantes, Tiago E.. AU - Acharya, Nisha R.. AU - Shakoor, Akbar. AU - Jeng, Bennie H.. AU - Yeh, Steven. AU - Rahman, Hassan. AU - Vemulakonda, G. Atma. AU - Flaxel, Christina J.. AU - West, Sarah K.. AU - Holland, Gary N.. AU - Smith, Justine R.. PY - 2014/3. Y1 - 2014/3. N2 - Background: Introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy has altered the course of disease for persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus by elevating CD4+ T-lymphocyte levels. Changes in the spectrum of systemic diseases encountered in human immunodeficiency virus-positive individuals are reported in the general medical literature. Design: Retrospective case series. Participants: Sixty-one individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus, who presented with uveitis when the peripheral CD4+ ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Colonization by Streptococcus pneumoniae in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. AU - Polack, Fernando P.. AU - Flayhart, Diane C.. AU - Zahurak, Marianna L.. AU - Dick, James D.. AU - Willoughby, Rodney E.. PY - 2000/7. Y1 - 2000/7. N2 - Objective. Children with HIV infection are particularly susceptible to invasive pneumococcal disease, yet the effect of HIV infection and its medical management on colonization and resistance to antibiotics are poorly described. To provide a basis for medical practice, we determined the prevalence of nasopharyngeal colonization and antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae in children with HIV infection. Methods. Cross- sectional prevalence sample of children attending the pediatric HIV and pulmonary clinics to examine nasopharyngeal colonization with S. pneumoniae and antibiotic resistance to beta-lactams and trimethoprimsulfamethoxazole (T/S). Subjects were matched by age and date of clinic visit. Results. The colonization ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Efavirenz liquid formulation in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. AU - Starr, Stuart E.. AU - Fletcher, Courtney V.. AU - Spector, Stephen A.. AU - Brundage, Richard C.. AU - Yong, Florence H.. AU - Douglas, Steven D.. AU - Flynn, Patrizia M.. AU - Kline, Mark W.. PY - 2002/7/23. Y1 - 2002/7/23. N2 - Background. This study determined the safety, pharmacokinetics, antiviral activity and immunologic effects of efavirenz liquid formulation, nelfinavir and nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in HIV-infected children, 3 to 9 years of age. Methods. Plasma HIV-1 RNA and lymphocyte subsets were measured at various intervals after initiation of therapy. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed at Week 2, and doses of efavirenz and nelfinavir were adjusted if area under the curve values fell outside specified target ranges. Results. This combination of antiretrovirals was well-tolerated. Pharmacokinetic values were similar to those observed in a previous study ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Adenovirus viremia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected children. by Ronald M. Ferdman et al.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antiretroviral treatment of adult HIV infection. T2 - 2008 Recommendations of the international AIDS society-USA panel. AU - Hammer, Scott M.. AU - Eron, Joseph J.. AU - Reiss, Peter. AU - Schooley, Robert T.. AU - Thompson, Melanie A.. AU - Walmsley, Sharon. AU - Cahn, Pedro. AU - Fischl, Margaret A.. AU - Gatell, Jose M.. AU - Hirsch, Martin S.. AU - Jacobsen, Donna M.. AU - Montaner, Julio S.G.. AU - Richman, Douglas D.. AU - Yeni, Patrick G.. AU - Volberding, Paul A.. PY - 2008/8/6. Y1 - 2008/8/6. N2 - Context: The availability of new antiretroviral drugs and formulations, including drugs in new classes, and recent data on treatment choices for antiretroviral-naive and -experienced patients warrant an update of the International AIDS Society-USA guidelines for the use of antiretroviral therapy in adult human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Objectives: To summarize new data in the field and to provide current recommendations for the antiretroviral management and ...
We have developed a model to determine whether asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals who have a rapid CD4 cell decline are a subgroup who might benefit from early antiretroviral therapy. Data were obtained from a subgroup of participants in the Concorde and EACG020 trials, two randomized, double-blind, comparative trials of immediate (IMM) versus deferred (DEF) zidovudine therapy in asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals. The subgroup comprised 297 patients (IMM = 154, DEF = 143) who had at least one CD4 cell count before and after randomization. The median CD4 cell count at randomization was 491 x 10(6)/L, and the median follow-up was 61 months. The rate of CD4 decline before and after randomization was estimated using multi-level linear regression analysis, and patients were stratified into quartiles according to the rate of CD4 cell decline before randomization. Outcome measures were the development of AIDS, a 50% drop in CD4 count from the baseline, and death. A Cox proportional hazards model was
AfNHi is an Africa based network of HIV Prevention Research advocates whose vision is an Africa Free of New HIV Infections hence the name AfNHi. The network began after extended conversations on the need to champion Africans led advocacy in biomedical HIV Prevention Research among partners. AfNHi is seeking to influence and fast-track the biomedical HIV Prevention Research agenda on the continent through local ownership and use of indigenous strategies to enhance Africas contribution to the global goals. The network will not only advocate for use of the tools available for preventing new HIV infections but also advocate for the development of New Tools and Technology (NTP). Why We Exist. Africa has less than 20% of the global population and is home to approximately 70% of people living with HIV (PLWH). The landscape of HIV response has changed over the years with the development of rapid response and user-friendly HIV test kits, affordable and effective antiretroviral drugs, and impactful ...
Objectives: Rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody tests, routinely used for diagnosis in adults and older children in resource-limited settings (RLS), do not detect early HIV infections prior to seroconversion or when antibody levels are still low. Nucleic acid amplification to detect HIV-1 RNA is the most sensitive method for acute HIV infection diagnosis, but is costly. We therefore investigated HIV- 1 RNA testing of pooled dried blood spots (DBS) to diagnose acute HIV infection. Design: Laboratory-based investigation. Methods: DBS were collected from HIV-1 Voluntary Counselling and Testing (HVCT) clients who tested negative on the Advanced QualityTM HIV antibody rapid test. DBS samples from five participants were pooled and tested on the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 (CAP/CTM) Test v2. Individual DBS were tested when pools tested positive (, 200 RNA copies/ml). Acute infection was confirmed by HIV viral load testing, two fourth-generation HIV serological assays, and ...
Background. Increased monocyte activation and intestinal damage have been shown to be predictive for the increased morbidity and mortality observed in treated people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV). Methods. A cross-sectional analysis of cellular and soluble markers of monocyte activation, coagulation, intestinal damage, and inflammation in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of PLHIV with suppressed plasma viremia on combination antiretroviral therapy and age and demographically comparable HIV-negative individuals participating in the Comorbidity in Relation to AIDS (COBRA) cohort and, where appropriate, age-matched blood bank donors (BBD). Results. People living with HIV, HIV-negative individuals, and BBD had comparable percentages of classical, intermediate, and nonclassical monocytes. Expression of CD163, CD32, CD64, HLA-DR, CD38, CD40, CD86, CD91, CD11c, and CX3CR1 on monocytes did not differ between PLHIV and HIV-negative individuals, but it differed significantly from ...
It is important to consider the role that HIV infected individuals play in ongoing HIV transmission. Different anti-HIV treatment regimens may lead to variations in HIV transmission risk behavior among HIV infected individuals. HIV infected people with viral loads of less than 1,000 copies/ml are less likely to transmit HIV through heterosexual sex. However, condom use sometimes decreases after individuals start combination antiretroviral therapy (ART); also, some studies have shown an increased rate in acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs) following initiation of ART, and those on ART may transmit a drug-resistant strain of HIV. In the SMART study, participants were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups:. ...
It is important to consider the role that HIV infected individuals play in ongoing HIV transmission. Different anti-HIV treatment regimens may lead to variations in HIV transmission risk behavior among HIV infected individuals. HIV infected people with viral loads of less than 1,000 copies/ml are less likely to transmit HIV through heterosexual sex. However, condom use sometimes decreases after individuals start combination antiretroviral therapy (ART); also, some studies have shown an increased rate in acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs) following initiation of ART, and those on ART may transmit a drug-resistant strain of HIV. In the SMART study, participants were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups:. ...
The mission of the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) is to discover and develop interventions that can be used globally to prevent sexual and/or parenteral t...
By several parameters known to be associated with HIV disease progression, children who are treated with protease inhibitor-containing antiretroviral therapy and reconstitute their CD4 T cells despite viral rebound have similar outcomes to those who optimally suppress viral replication. In our study, discordant viral and immune response outcome groups showed sustained increases in CD4 T-cell counts and displayed growth parameters, prevalence of HIV-associated illnesses, and levels of functional immunity that were equivalent to VS/IS children. The substantial restoration of CD4 T-cell counts in the VS/IS and VF/IS response groups during the initial 24 weeks of treatment was sustained over the subsequent 72 weeks in both outcome groups. The durability of CD4 reconstitution in VF/IS children who were enrolled in our study is in contrast to previous examinations of CD4 T-cell reconstitution in HIV-infected adults in which 30% to 40% of patients who displayed discordant viral and immune responses ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Surveillance of pediatric HIV infection. AU - Wilfert, C.. AU - Beck, D. T.. AU - Fleischman, A. R.. AU - Mofenson, L. M.. AU - Pantell, R. H.. AU - Schonberg, S. Kenneth. AU - Scott, G. B.. AU - Sklaire, M. W.. AU - Whitley-Williams, P. N.. AU - Rogers, M. F.. PY - 1998/2. Y1 - 1998/2. N2 - Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) surveillance should expand to include perinatal HIV exposure and HIV infection as well as AIDS to delineate completely the extent and impact of HIV infection on children and families, accurately assess the resources necessary to provide services to this population, evaluate the efficacy of public health recommendations, and determine any potential long- term consequences of interventions to prevent perinatal transmission to children ultimately determined to be uninfected as well as for those who become infected. Ensuring the confidentiality of information collected in the process of surveillance is ...
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recently released new data regarding the HIV infection rate in the USA. The data, covering the years 2003 through 2009 showed that the HIV infection rate is holding steady at about 50,000 new cases per year. However a breakdown of the numbers revealed a shocking disparity in the HIV infection rate among Black men who have sex with men (MSM). During this period, the infection rate for Black MSM nearly doubled! Within Palm Beach County, similar trends have been evident since 2006. A 2007 Care Council of West Palm Beach Bulletin indicated that gay, Black men had one of the highest infection rates, not just in the county, but in the country.. There are no doubt a myriad of interconnected factors contributing to the staggering HIV infection rates among Black males. Even the CDC acknowledges that there is no clear explanation as to why Black men are being decimated by HIV infections in ways that arent quite as prominent among other groups.. One of ...
BACKGROUND. Most adults infected with HIV achieve viral suppression within a year of starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). It is important to understand the risk of AIDS events or death for patients with a suppressed viral load.. METHODS AND FINDINGS. Using data from the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (2010 merger), we assessed the risk of a new AIDS-defining event or death in successfully treated patients. We accumulated episodes of viral suppression for each patient while on cART, each episode beginning with the second of two consecutive plasma viral load measurements ,50 copies/µl and ending with either a measurement ,500 copies/µl, the first of two consecutive measurements between 50-500 copies/µl, cART interruption or administrative censoring. We used stratified multivariate Cox models to estimate the association between time updated CD4 cell count and a new AIDS event or death or death alone. 75,336 patients contributed 104,265 ...
Improved Uptake of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Also Leads to Decrease in Community HIV Plasma Viral LoadVancouver - A comprehensive population-based study, conducted by the BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS (BC-CfE) and presented at the 17th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections in San Francisco, shows that expanded highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) coverage was associated with a 50% decrease in new yearly HIV infections among injection drug users.
World AIDS day on December 1st is marked this year by UNAIDS, the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS, with the theme Getting to Zero - Zero new HIV infections. Zero discrimination. Zero AIDS-related deaths.. The latest estimates conducted by UNAIDS, show that there are 700,000 fewer new HIV infections across the world in 2011 compared to 2001. Although the numbers are still high - 2.5 million new HIV infections detected in 2011 - this shows a dramatic decrease, some by as much as 50%, in low and middle income sub-Saharan African countries like Malawi, Botswana and Namibia. The overall number detected as living with HIV/AIDS remains stubbornly high at 34 million people.. The scaling up of antiretroviral therapy in low- and middle-income countries has transformed national HIV/AIDS responses and has contributed to an overall reduction in global AIDS related deaths by 24% in the last 6 years alone.. In Ireland the number of new HIV infections reflects the global trend of declining numbers, ...
The International AIDS Society (IAS) Conference on HIV Science (IAS 2017) in Paris last week brought together over 6,000 scientists, clinicians, public health practitioners and officials to review the state of the science intended to control and eventually end the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The central thrust of the global effort to control the epidemic is achieving the 90-90-90 targets set by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). These targets state that, by 2020, 90% of those living with HIV know their status, 90% of known HIV-positive individuals receive sustained antiretroviral therapy (ART), and 90% of individuals on ART have durable viral suppression. We know that HIV-infected persons with viral suppression, while not cured, do not transmit HIV infection - hence the focus on treatment, which is prevention. While some countries have made encouraging progress, we are far short of the global 90-90-90 targets, and worse, there were 1.8 million new HIV infections in 2016. We need ...
Since the discovery of AIDS among the gay men in 1981 in the United States of America, it has become a major world pandemic with over 40 million individuals infected world wide. According to the Joint United Nations Programme against HIV/AIDS epidermic updates in 2012, 28.3 million individuals are living with HIV world wide, 23.5 million among them coming from sub-saharan Africa and 4.8 million individuals residing in Asia. The report showed that approximately 1.7 million individuals have died from AIDS related deaths, 34 million ± 50% know their HIV status, a total of 2:5 million individuals are newly infected, 14:8 million individuals are eligible for HIV treatment and only 8 million are on HIV treatment (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS and health sector progress towards universal access: progress report, 2011). Numerous studies have been carried out to understand the pathogenesis and the dynamics of this deadly disease (AIDS) but, still its pathogenesis is poorly understood. More ...
Introduction. Despite HIV prevalence reaching a plateau in South Africa, rates of new infection are still unacceptably high (Department of Health 2012:37). The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) estimated that there were 5.6 million HIV-infected people living in South Africa in 2011. This figure, around 11% of the South African population (Doyle & Dorrington 2011), makes up about 17% of the total global number of people living with HIV. Largely as a result of the expanded antiretroviral treatment (ART) programme, the biggest in the world (Shisana et al. 2009:viii), there has been a substantial reduction in AIDS-related mortality in South Africa. There were, however, still an estimated 194 000 HIV-related deaths in 2008, down from 388 000 in 2003 (Actuarial Society 2011:1).. South Africans are heavy drinkers, with amongst the highest per capita consumption rates for alcohol in the world, namely, 9.46 litres of pure alcohol per person annually (World Health Organization 2011:276). ...
NIH-Funded Study Aims to Identify and Treat HIV-Infected Men Who Have Sex With Men. Achieving moderate reduction of new HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) will depend on significantly increasing the percentage of HIV-infected MSM whose viral load is suppressed to undetectable levels, according to a new mathematical model based on data from Baltimore. Access and adherence to antiretroviral therapy are key to sustained HIV suppression, which dramatically reduces the risk of transmitting HIV to others. Researchers from the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-supported HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) will present their results on Oct. 19 at the HIV Research for Prevention (HIVR4P) 2016 conference in Chicago. Scientists performed the modeling as part of a large clinical research study called HPTN 078, which is funded by NIHs National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). HPTN 078 began enrolling participants ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Persistent immune activation in chronic HIV infection: do any interventions work?. AU - Rajasuriar, Reena. AU - Khoury, Gabriela. AU - Kamarulzaman, Adeeba Binti. AU - French, Martyn A. AU - Cameron, Paul Urquhart. AU - Lewin, Sharon R. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Persistent immune activation (IA) is a hallmark of chronic HIV infection. IA has been associated with poor CD4 T-cell recovery, non-AIDS defining illnesses and mortality during combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Measures of chronic immune activation, namely T-cell activation and more recently monocyte activation and plasma inflammatory and thrombotic biomarkers, have all been shown to remain elevated despite years of suppressive cART. Here we review recent clinical trials and therapeutic approaches targeted to reduce persistent IA in HIV patients and discuss the impact of each of these approaches on clinically relevant end-points.. AB - Persistent immune activation (IA) is a hallmark of chronic HIV infection. IA ...
Delory T., Ngo-Giang-Huong Nicole, Rangdaeng S., Chotivanich N., Limtrakul A., Putiyanun C., Suriyachai P., Matanasarawut W., Jarupanich T., Liampongsabuddhi P., Heard I., Jourdain Gonzague, Lallemant Marc, Le Coeur S., PapilloV study group (collab.). (2017). Human Papillomavirus infection and cervical lesions in HIV-1-infected women on antiretroviral treatment in Thailand. Journal of the International AIDS Society, 20 (Suppl. 5), 92-93. IAS Conference on HIV Science (IAS 2017) , 9., Paris (FRA), 2017/07/23-26. ISSN 1758-2652. ...
BOSTON, Feb 11, 2003 (BUSINESS WIRE) --. 48-Week Data from Alize Trial Presented Today at 10th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. French researchers presented new 48-week data from a Phase III clinical trial today. These data demonstrate that emtricitabine (FTC), an investigational once-daily nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), suppresses HIV when taken as part of a once-daily, protease inhibitor (PI)-sparing antiretroviral regimen. Emtricitabine is being developed by Triangle Pharmaceuticals, which was acquired by Gilead Sciences (Nasdaq:GILD) in January 2003. Dr. Jean-Michel Molina presented the 48-week results of the ANRS 099 Alize trial (Abstract #551) at the 10th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections in Boston, Massachusetts. The ANRS 099 Alize trial is an ongoing three-year, open-label, multicenter study involving 355 patients who at baseline had to have HIV RNA less than 400 copies/mL while receiving PI-based antiretroviral therapy. ...
The study included 34,766 HIV-infected people who were 50 or older, 104,298 HIV-negative 50-or-older people, and 74,476 HIV-infected people between 18 and 49. In the 50-and-older HIV group, 78% were men and 74% were between 50 and 59. Only 55% of the 50-and-older HIV group had ever taken antiretrovirals, compared with 44% of the younger HIV group. The younger HIV group had a higher proportion of women than the older HIV group (31% versus 22%). The older and younger age groups were similar in proportions with a CD4 count below 200 (16% and 15%), a viral load below 400 copies (53% and 50.5%), and a viral load above 100,000 copies (6% versus 8 ...
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Several studies intensively evaluated the effect of antiretroviral therapy initiated during acute HIV infection has on the size of the cellular reservoir. One such study compared the reservoir as measured by HIV DNA as total, integrated and 2-long terminal repeat (LTR) in those treated during acute infection (n=9), chronic infection (n=26) and amongst elite controllers (n=37) (15). It was not surprising that HIV DNA was detectable regardless of how early therapy was initiated and amongst the elite controllers. Nevertheless, they did find that the levels were significantly lower in those treated during acute infection than during chronic. Moreover, the levels in the early treatment group were similar to the elite controller. While early treatment did not eliminate the reservoir, even amongst those with 10 years of follow-up, it is conceivable that the success of any future strategies to target the reservoir may be more successful in those with a smaller reservoir, such as those initiating therapy ...
A steep drop in the local incidence of new HIV infections accompanied the rollout of a U.S.-funded anti-HIV program in a large East African population, according to a study led by researchers at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and Johns Hopkins School of Medicine.. The study, published Nov. 29 in the New England Journal of Medicine, is the first to track a large group of people before, during and after the start of an HIV prevention program and show that the program is likely working on a large scale. The researchers found that as the program began and matured from the early 2000s until 2016, there was a 42 percent decline in the rate of new HIV infections.. The ongoing HIV prevention program - in Ugandas rural Rakai District on the shore of Lake Victoria - has been funded by the Presidents Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), set up in 2004 by the George W. Bush administration. The program provides multiple free services, including anti-HIV drugs for infected people, ...
Author(s): Gingo, Matthew R; Balasubramani, GK; Kingsley, Lawrence; Rinaldo, Charles R; Alden, Christine B; Detels, Roger; Greenblatt, Ruth M; Hessol, Nancy A; Holman, Susan; Huang, Laurence; Kleerup, Eric C; Phair, John; Sutton, Sarah H; Seaberg, Eric C; Margolick, Joseph B; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Morris, Alison | Abstract: OBJECTIVE:To review the incidence of respiratory conditions and their effect on mortality in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals prior to and during the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). DESIGN:Two large observational cohorts of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men (Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study [MACS]) and women (Womens Interagency HIV Study [WIHS]), followed since 1984 and 1994, respectively. METHODS:Adjusted odds or hazards ratios for incident respiratory infections or non-infectious respiratory diagnoses, respectively, in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected individuals in both the pre-HAART (MACS only) and HAART eras; and adjusted Cox proportional
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Increases in CD4+ T-cell count at antiretroviral therapy initiation among HIV-positive illicit drug users during a treatment-as-prevention initiative in Canada. AU - Tran, Mimi. AU - Wood, Evan. AU - Kerr, Thomas. AU - Patterson, Sophie. AU - Bangsberg, David. AU - Dong, Huiru. AU - Guillemi, Silvia. AU - Montaner, Julio S.G.. AU - Milloy, M. J.. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - Background: Although treatment-as-prevention (TasP) efforts are a new cornerstone of efforts to respond to the HIV/AIDS pandemic, their effects among people who use drugs (PWUD) have not been fully evaluated. This study characterizes temporal trends in CD4+ T-cell (CD4) count at ART initiation and rates of virological response among HIV-positive PWUD during a TasP initiative. Methods: We used data on individuals initiating ART within a prospective cohort of PWUD linked to comprehensive clinical records. Using multivariable linear regression, we evaluated the relationship between CD4 count prior to ART ...
The medications used to treat HIV infection are known as anti-retroviral medications. Your doctor caring for you will in conjunction with you make a decision about the best time to commence you on medications for HIV. This decision will be based on your health and blood test results. Once you have the virus, it cannot be cured however using medications can manage the disease and stop it damging your immune system. In most instances you will need to take a combination of medications, this is known as HAART therapy, which stands for Highly active anti-retroviral treatment. Each different medication attacks the HIV at a different level with the aim that this stops the virus from spreading amongst the cells of your immune system. ...
DISCUSSION. The Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) reports the feminization of HIV, and in sub-Saharan Africa, six in 10 adults living with HIV are currently woman18. However, this characteristic was not supported by the findings of the present study, which may be explained by the advanced degree of infection in the patients analyzed, as women are generally more concerned with their health and consequently more likely to adhere to HAART. Moreover, with the introduction of erectile dysfunction medications and the aging of the population worldwide, there has been an increase in the incidence of AIDS among elderly individuals. However, the present sample was composed mainly of young, sexually active, promiscuous individuals.. The findings revealed a malnourished sample with important clinical and biochemical alterations. Despite the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy, these characteristics have also been reported by other studies2,3,19. The mean BMI in the present ...
More than 1 million HIV-exposed, uninfected infants are born annually to HIV-positive mothers worldwide. This growing population of infants experiences twice the mortality of HIV-unexposed infants. We found that although there were very few differences seen in the microbiomes of mothers with and without HIV infection, maternal HIV infection was associated with changes in the microbiome of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. Furthermore, we observed that human breast milk oligosaccharides were associated with bacterial species in the infant microbiome. The disruption of the infants microbiome associated with maternal HIV infection may contribute to the increased morbidity and mortality of HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. ...
Background. This paper describes the impact of human immunodeficiency virus HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS mortality among young adults in Spain with specific reference to other causes of death. Methods. Based on death registration data for the period 1980-1993, HIV/AIDS was compared against all other causes of death by gender,...
HIV infection is a known risk factor for cancer but little is known about HIV testing patterns and the burden of HIV infection in cancer patients. We did a cross-sectional analysis to identify predictors of prior HIV testing and to quantify the burden of HIV in black cancer patients in Johannesburg, South Africa. The Johannesburg Cancer Case-control Study (JCCCS) recruits newly-diagnosed black cancer patients attending public referral hospitals for oncology and radiation therapy in Johannesburg . All adult cancer patients enrolled into the JCCCS from November 2004 to December 2009 and interviewed on previous HIV testing were included in the analysis. Patients were independently tested for HIV-1 using a single ELISA test . The prevalence of prior HIV testing, of HIV infection and of undiagnosed HIV infection was calculated. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with prior HIV testing. A total of 5436 cancer patients were tested for HIV of whom 1833[33.7%
TY - JOUR. T1 - Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers predict cerebral injury in HIV-infected individuals on stable combination antiretroviral therapy. AU - HIV Neuroimaging Consortium. AU - Anderson, Albert M.. AU - Harezlak, Jaroslaw. AU - Bharti, Ajay. AU - Mi, Deming. AU - Taylor, Michael J.. AU - Daar, Eric S.. AU - Schifitto, Giovanni. AU - Zhong, Jianhui. AU - Alger, Jeffry R.. AU - Brown, Mark S.. AU - Singer, Elyse J.. AU - Campbell, Thomas B.. AU - McMahon, Deborah D.. AU - Buchthal, Steven. AU - Cohen, Ronald. AU - Yiannoutsos, Constantin. AU - Letendre, Scott L.. AU - Navia, Bradford A.. PY - 2015/5/1. Y1 - 2015/5/1. N2 - Objectives: HIV-associated brain injury persists despite combination antiretroviral therapy, but contributing factors remain poorly understood. We postulated that inflammation-associated biomarkers will be associated with cerebral injury on proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in chronically HIV-infected subjects. Methods: Five biomarkers were measured in 197 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy on albuminuria in HIV-infected persons. T2 - Results from a randomized trial. AU - Gupta, Samir K.. AU - Parker, Robert A.. AU - Robbins, Gregory K.. AU - Dubé, Michael P.. PY - 2005/10/1. Y1 - 2005/10/1. N2 - Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens, especially those containing protease inhibitors (PIs), are at increased risk for cardiovascular events. Albuminuria is a known independent predictor for the development of cardiovascular disease and may potentially increase in patients receiving PIs. Alternatively, albuminuria may improve with HAART as a result of treating renal parenchymal HIV infection. Longitudinal studies have not been performed previously addressing the effects of HAART on albuminuria. Methods. We evaluated the effects of HAART on albumin to creatinine ratios (ACRs) during the initial 64 weeks of therapy in 68 previously ...
Title: Metabolic and Cardiovascular Complications of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection. VOLUME: 4 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Giuseppe Barbaro. Affiliation:Viale Anicio Gallo 63,00174 Rome, Italy.. Keywords:Human immunodeficiency virus, highly active antiretroviral therapy, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, metabolic syndome, cardiovascular disease. Abstract: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens, especially those including protease inhibitors have been shown to cause, in a high proportion of HIV-infected patients, a metabolic syndrome (lipodystrophy/lipoatrophy, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance) that may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A careful stratification of the cardiovascular risk of HIVinfected patients under HAART is needed according to the most recent clinical guidelines. ...
Results: A total 307 human immunodeficiency virus positive patients, 153 highly active antiretroviral therapy na ve (who didnt take highly active antiretroviral therapy) and 154 on highly active antiretroviral therapy were enrolled in the study. The mean ( SD) age of the participants was 34.69 ( 8.86) years and about 61% were females. The prevalence of renal impairment in highly active antiretroviral therapy na ve and on highly active antiretroviral therapy individuals was 30.1% and 12.9% respectively. Proteinuria was found in 17.9 % of the participant. Low CD4 count (Adjusted odds ratio= 24.11; (95% CI 11.06, 52.56) and being highly active antiretroviral therapy na ve (Adjusted odds ratio = 6.58; 95% CI 2.99, 14.47) showed significant association with the prevalence of renal impairment ...
Primary HIV-associated thrombocytopenia (PHAT) typically improves with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); however, cases continue to occur. Data comparing the epidemiology of PHAT between the pre-HAART and HAART eras are limited. We retrospectively examined the incidence of PHAT over 28 years in the US Military HIV Natural History Study (NHS) from 1986 to 2013. Subjects had a nadir platelet count |100 × 109/l with no other identifiable cause. Time periods were categorized as pre-HAART (1986-1995), early HAART (1996-2001), and later HAART (2002-2013). Incidence, demographic data, and CD4 count were compared across the three eras. A generalized estimating equations model was used to assess any association of platelet count and HIV viral load in cases diagnosed during the HAART eras. 218 participants met the case definition. 86.2 % of cases occurred prior to 2002. The incidence of PHAT per 1000 person-years of follow-up was 16.3, 4.6, and 1.9 during pre-HAART, early HAART and later HAART eras
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on time to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or death using marginal structural models. AU - Cole, Stephen R.. AU - Hernán, Miguel A.. AU - Robins, James M.. AU - Anastos, Kathryn. AU - Chmiel, Joan. AU - Detels, Roger. AU - Ervin, Carolyn. AU - Feldman, Joseph. AU - Greenblatt, Ruth. AU - Kingsley, Lawrence. AU - Lai, Shenghan. AU - Young, Mary. AU - Cohen, Mardge. AU - Muñoz, Alvaro. N1 - Funding Information: The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study is funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, with additional supplemental funding from the National Cancer Institute (grants UO1-AI-35042, 5-MO1-RR-00722 (General Clinical Research Center), UO1-AI-35043, UO1-AI-37984, UO1-AI-35039, UO1-AI-35040, UO1-AI-37613, and UO1-AI-35041). The Womens Interagency HIV Study is funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, with supplemental funding from the National Cancer Institute, the National ...
Racial/ethnic disparities in the incidence of HIV/AIDS among children have been documented since 1981--1986, when 78% of children with AIDS were black or Hispanic (1). These racial/ethnic disparities have been reflected in rates of perinatal HIV infection. Although the total number of annual perinatal HIV infections in the United States has decreased approximately 90% since 1991 (3) and the findings in this report indicate a continued decrease during 2004--2007, racial/ethnic disparities persist. Of all reported diagnoses of perinatal HIV infection during 2004--2007, 85% were in children who were black or Hispanic, and rates were several-fold higher among black and Hispanic children than among white children. To eliminate perinatal transmission and racial/ethnic disparities, continued measures are needed, including primary HIV prevention for women, reproductive health and family planning for women with HIV infection, and prenatal care and early treatment with antiretroviral medications for ...
Objective: Some HIV patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) do not resolve their plasma viraemia or HIV RNA can reappear after a period of virological control. We investigate whether polymorphisms in cytokine genes affect the control of plasma HIV RNA over 5 years on HAART. Design: The study utilized adult HIV-infected patients in Western Australia. Plasma HIV-RNA levels were assessed from commencement of HAART in patients who had a CD4 T-cell count less than 100 cells/μl before HAART and achieved immune reconstitution assessed by CD4 T-cell counts. Results: Control of plasma viraemia could be predicted from carriage of allele 2 at position -889 in the IL1A gene (IL1A-889*2). This was significant when assessed by the proportion of patients with a plasma HIV-RNA level of 400 copies/ml or less (P = 0.002). At 48 months post-HAART, proportions were approximately 0.76, 0.51 and 0.32 for IL1A (1,1), (1,2) and (2,2) patients, respectively. The outcome was independent of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Multicenter evaluation of quantification methods for plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 rna. AU - Lin, Hsiang Ju. AU - Myers, Lawrence E.. AU - Yen-Lieberman, Belinda. AU - Blaine Hollinger, F.. AU - Henrard, Denis. AU - Hooper, Carol J.. AU - Kokka, Robert. AU - Kwok, Shirley. AU - Rasheed, Suraiya. AU - Vahey, Maryanne. AU - Winters, Mark A.. AU - Mc Quay, Lisa J.. AU - Nara, Peter L.. AU - Reichelderfer, Patricia. AU - Coombs, Robert W.. AU - Brooks Jackson, J.. PY - 1994. Y1 - 1994. N2 - Six procedures for quantifying plasma human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA were evaluated by nine laboratories. The procedures differed in their sample volume and preparation of samples and methods of amplification and detection. Coded samples in a IO-folddilution series of HIV-L-spiked plasma were correctly ranked by all six procedures. Subsequently, coded duplicate plasma samples from 16 HIV-I-infected patients were tested using a common set of standards. Several HIV-1 ...
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of different antiretroviral treatment regimens on viral load, CD4 lymphocyte counts, and rates of progression to clinical acquired immunodeficiency syndrome events among treatment-naive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients enrolled in a large community cohort study. METHODS: Based in 7 outpatient clinics, the Swiss HIV Cohort Study is a cohort with national coverage. Virological, immunologic, and clinical results of 755 treatment-naive patients (median age, 36 years; 28.2% female) who initiated antiretroviral therapy between July 1, 1995, and June 30, 1997, were analyzed. Patients started undergoing monotherapy with 1 reverse transcriptase inhibitor (RTI), combination therapy with at least 2 RTIs, or highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with RTIs and protease inhibitors. RESULTS: Antiretroviral treatment led to a mean reduction of viremia of 1.8 log10 copies per milliliter with HAART, 1.2 log10 copies per milliliter with RTI comb
CONTEXT: In British Columbia, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected persons eligible for antiretroviral therapy may receive it free but the extent to which HIV-infected injection drug users access it is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To identify patient and physician characteristics associated with antiretroviral therapy utilization in HIV-infected injection drug users. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study with record linkage between survey data and data from a provincial HIV/AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) drug treatment program.
OBJECTIVE: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) coinfection may influence HIV-1 disease progression during infancy. Our aim was to describe the incidence of CMV infection and the kinetics of viral replication in Kenyan HIV-infected and HIV-exposed uninfected infants. METHODS: HIV-1 and CMV plasma viral loads were serially measured in 20 HIV-exposed uninfected and 44 HIV-infected infants born to HIV-infected mothers. HIV-infected children were studied for the first 2 years of life, and HIV-exposed uninfected infants were studied for 1 year. RESULTS: CMV DNA was detected frequently during the first months of life; by 3 months of age, CMV DNA was detected in 90% of HIV-exposed uninfected infants and 93% of infants who had acquired HIV-1 in utero. CMV viral loads were highest in the 1-3 months following the first detection of virus and declined rapidly thereafter. CMV peak viral loads were significantly higher in the HIV-infected infants compared with the HIV-exposed uninfected infants (mean 3.2 versus 2.7 log10 CMV DNA
Objective: To determine whether opportunistic oral infections associated to HIV infection (OOI-HIV) are found in HIV+/AIDS patients with immune reconstitution related to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods. From among 1100 HIV+/AIDS patients (Service of Internal Medicine, Carlos Haya Hospital, Malaga, Spain) subjected to review of the oral cavity between January 1996 and May 2007, we identified those examined in 1996 and which were again examined between 1997 and 2007, and were moreover receiving HAART. The following data were collected: age, gender, form of contagion, antiretroviral therapy at the time of review, number of CD4+ lymphocytes/ml, and viral load (from 1997 onwards). We identified those subjects with an increase in CD4+ lymphocytes/ml associated to HAART, and classified them as subjects with quantitative evidence of immune reconstitution (QEIR). Among these individuals with QEIR we moreover identified those with undetectable viral loads (QEIR+VL), and ...
Objective:To evaluate HIV-1 transmission trends and the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on newly diagnosed HIV infections in Geneva, Switzerland.Design:Retrospective molecular epidemiology analysis of all newly HIV-diagnosed individuals between 2008 and 2010.Methods:Phylogenet
Written by HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN). This post originally appeared on the HPTN website.. VANCOUVER, B.C. and DURHAM, N.C. - A Phase III, individually randomized trial has found conditional cash transfers for school attendance did not reduce the risk of HIV among high-school aged women in South Africa, investigators from the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) reported today at the 8th International AIDS Society (IAS) Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention in Vancouver, Canada. The new finding is from HPTN 068, the first individually randomized study of young women conditioned on school attendance with an HIV incidence endpoint. In the trial, young women and their parent/guardian were randomized to one of two study arms: 1) a monthly cash transfer of 300 rand ($30) per month conditional on 80 percent school attendance, or 2) a control arm that did not receive cash transfer. Provision of cash conditional on school attendance has been proposed as an intervention for ...
1. PalmerS, MaldarelliF, WiegandA, BernsteinB, HannaGJ, et al. (2008) Low-level viremia persists for at least 7 years in patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105: 3879-3884.. 2. MaldarelliF, PalmerS, KingMS, WiegandA, PolisMA, et al. (2007) ART suppresses plasma HIV-1 RNA to a stable set point predicted by pretherapy viremia. PLoS Pathog 3: e46.. 3. CoffinJM (1995) HIV population dynamics in vivo: implications for genetic variation, pathogenesis, and therapy. Science 267: 483-489.. 4. CoffinJM (1996) HIV viral dynamics. Aids 10(Suppl 3): S75-84.. 5. PerelsonAS, EssungerP, CaoY, VesanenM, HurleyA, et al. (1997) Decay characteristics of HIV-1-infected compartments during combination therapy. Nature 387: 188-191.. 6. DinosoJB, KimSY, WiegandAM, PalmerSE, GangeSJ, et al. (2009) Treatment intensification does not reduce residual HIV-1 viremia in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106: 9403-9408.. 7. GandhiRT, ZhengL, BoschRJ, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The distribution of new HIV infections by mode of exposure in Morocco. AU - Mumtaz, Ghina R.. AU - Kouyoumjian, Silva. AU - Hilmi, Nahla. AU - Zidouh, Ahmed. AU - Rhilani, Houssine El. AU - Alami, Kamal. AU - Bennani, Aziza. AU - Gouws, Eleanor. AU - Ghys, Peter Denis. AU - Aburaddad, Laith. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Objectives Building on a wealth of new empirical data, the objective of this study was to estimate the distribution of new HIV infections in Morocco by mode of exposure using the modes of transmission (MoT) mathematical model. Methods The MoT model was implemented within a collaboration with the Morocco Ministry of Health and the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. The model was parameterised through a comprehensive review and synthesis of HIV and risk behaviour data in Morocco, mainly through the Middle East and North Africa HIV/AIDS Synthesis Project. Uncertainty analyses were used to assess the reliability of and uncertainty around our calculated ...
Retention and viral suppression in a cohort of HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy in Zambia: Regionally representative estimates using a multistage-sampling-based approach
26 July 2005 , Rio de Janeiro - The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS notes with considerable interest the results of a trial examining the potential link between male circumcision and a lower risk of HIV acquisition that were presented today at the 3rd International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis and Treatment, being held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The trial was carried out in Gauteng province in South Africa among men aged 18-24 years and was funded by the French Agence Nationale de Recherches sur le SIDA (ANRS).. Although the trial shows promising protective effects of adult male circumcision in reducing HIV acquisition, UNAIDS emphasizes that more research is needed to confirm the reproducibility of the findings of this trial and whether or not the results have more general application. In particular the findings from two ongoing trials in Uganda and Kenya, funded by the US National Institutes of Health, will be important to clarify the relationship between male ...
We analyzed the effect of age on highly active antiretroviral therapy efficacy and tolerance in 639 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (99 of whom were aged ,50 years, and 540 of whom were aged ,50 years). Late testing, which was more frequent in the older age group, was the only independent factor associated with immunologic and clinical evolution of infection. Age ,50 years was associated with earlier treatment discontinuation.. ...
Objective: Inform the public that receptive anal intercourse (RAI) is a key transmission route of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in the United States. Method: The role of receptive anal intercourse (RAI) in this epidemic will be examined using the following approach: 1) Risk comparison of HIV transmission via RAI to the other major routes of transmission. 2) HIV transmission risks of RAI using some of the present risk reduction techniques. 3) HIV infection via anal intercourse among male youth. 4) HIV infection via anal intercourse among women. Results: Of the major transmission routes of HIV, receptive anal intercourse has the highest transmission risk for acquiring HIV infection. RAI is 2 times the risk of needle-sharing during injection drug use (IDU) and 17 times the risk of receptive vaginal intercourse. The estimated per act probability of acquiring HIV from an infected source by the exposure route of RAI is high in most circumstances: 1) Condoms alone only partially reduce the
To identify virological and immunological correlates of microbial-specific immune reconstitution in children with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, Candida- and tetanus-specific lymphocyte proliferation was measured in 165 children initiating a new highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen. During the study, the proportions of children with immunity to Candida and tetanus increased from 53% to 66% and 19% to 22%, respectively. Tetanus immunity was associated with an HIV load ⩽400 RNA copies/mL and with Candida immunity. At the end of the study, 23% of the patients with baseline negative lymphocyte proliferation had tetanus immunity, and 65% had Candida immunity. Reconstitution of tetanus immunity correlated with lower end-of-study HIV loads and activated CD8+ cell percentages and higher baseline and in-study CD4+ cell percentages, but not with a gain of CD4+ cells. Reconstitution of Candida immunity showed similar trends. In conclusion, children with advanced ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neurological complications of HIV infection in pre-HAART and HAART era. T2 - a retrospective study. AU - Matinella, Angela. AU - Lanzafame, M.. AU - Bonometti, M. A.. AU - Gajofatto, A.. AU - Concia, E.. AU - Vento, S.. AU - Monaco, S.. AU - Ferrari, S.. PY - 2015/5/26. Y1 - 2015/5/26. N2 - The introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) led to a radical change in the natural history of HIV infection and of the associated neurological opportunistic infections. However, the mortality of central nervous system (CNS) complications and opportunistic infections is still high in untreated HIV-infected individuals or in patients unaware of their HIV infection. We describe the outcome of HIV-infected patients followed at a single center for AIDS-related neurological syndromes in the 16 years following the introduction of HAART, and compare the findings with those in patients admitted up to 1996. We have conducted a retrospective study of patients with HIV infection or ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - HIV infection and cancer in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (Review). AU - Barbaro, Giuseppe. AU - Barbarini, Giorgio. PY - 2007/5. Y1 - 2007/5. N2 - The majority of cancers affecting HIV-infected subjects are those established as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining: Kaposis sarcoma (KS), non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL), and invasive cervical cancer (ICC). However, other types of cancer, such as Hodgkins disease (HD), anal cancer, lung cancer and testicular germ cell tumors appear to be more common among HIV-infected subjects compared to the general population. While not classified as AIDS-defining, these malignancies have been referred to as AIDS-associated malignancies. The mechanisms by which depressed immunity could increase the risk for cancer are unclear, except for in KS and most subtypes of NHL, where it is strictly associated with a low CD4 count. Although it remains unclear whether HIV-1 acts directly as an oncogenic agent, it may ...
Neuropsychological impairment is widely accepted as being common in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) but infrequent in asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals. The neuropsychological function of a homogenous sample of HIV-infected haemophiliacs was investigated. Neuropsychological impairment, the nature of which is compatible with that described in the existing literature, was found in one of four AIDS cases. Eleven AIDS related complex (ARC) and 12 asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals were free of neuropsychological deficit.. ...