Central European type of finished parchment made of goatskin stretched on a wooden frame ( Wikimedia Commons ). Professor Matthew Collins, head of the University of Yorks Department of Archaeologys BioArCh research center, said: We believe the two specimens derive from an unimproved northern hill-sheep typical in Yorkshire in the 17th century, and from a sheep derived from the improved flocks, such as those bred in the Midlands by Robert Bakewell, which were spreading through England in the 18th century. We want to understand the history of agriculture in these islands over the last 1,000 years and, with this breath-taking resource, we can. Writing in The Royal Society Publishing , the researchers estimated there could be 4 million or more ancient parchments in Britain alone because the primary method of inscribing was on parchment until paper replaced parchment in the later Middle Ages, around the 15 th century. Many parchment documents were protected from heat and moisture damage in the ...
The word parchment evolved (via the Latin pergamenum and the French parchemin) from the name of the city of Pergamon, which was a thriving center of parchment production during the Hellenistic period.[9] The city so dominated the trade that a legend later arose which said that parchment had been invented in Pergamon to replace the use of papyrus which had become monopolized by the rival city of Alexandria. This account, originating in the writings of Pliny the Elder (Natural History, Book XII, 69-70), is dubious because parchment had been in use in Anatolia and elsewhere long before the rise of Pergamon.[10] Herodotus mentions writing on skins as common in his time, the 5th century BC; and in his Histories (v.58) he states that the Ionians of Asia Minor had been accustomed to give the name of skins (diphtherai) to books; this word was adapted by Hellenized Jews to describe scrolls.[11] In the 2nd century BC, a great library was set up in Pergamon that rivaled the famous Library of Alexandria. As ...
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Parchment Northwood Elementary School, Parchment School District, Kalamazoo has a homepage to make vocabulary and spelling lists available to students to study at school or home. Students can take vocabulary and spelling tests online and play many learning games with their word lists for reinforcement.
This synthesis of historical studies of the Black Death undertakes two tasks: to track the epidemic from its origin in the Golden Horde in 1346-not [End Page 514] (as some have argued) in China in the 1330s-through its entry into Europe via Italy in late 1347, up to its departure via Russia in 1353; and to determine the percentage of the population that died in each region as a result. The author upholds the traditional argument that the Black Death was caused by bubonic plague and advances a new hypothesis that 60 percent of Europes population died in the epidemic, a figure that has been proposed previously only for certain localities and never as a general mortality rate. Although this work comes after some years of international debate, it offers no discussion of the current historical and scientific literature that seeks to determine what disease caused the epidemic.. The epidemic is described using a military metaphor with the disease as a ruthless general, and travelers, rats, and fleas ...
to, the black death. During this time period the Black Death was a major factor in Europe from when it swept threw from 1300 to 1450. Many people said it
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Baking in parchment packets is a simple way to seal in the juices and the flavor of delicate fish. Substitute foil for the parchment paper, if necessary.
Baking in parchment packets is a simple way to seal in the juices and the flavor of delicate fish. Substitute foil for the parchment paper, if necessary.
Black Death and AIDS are global pandemics that have captured the popular imagination, both attracting extravagant hypotheses to account for their origins and geographical distributions. Medical scientists have recently attempted to connect these two great pandemics. Some argue that the Black Death of 1346-52 was responsible for a genetic shift that conferred a degree of resistance to HIV 1 infection, that this shift was almost unique to European descendents, and that it mirrors the intensity of Black Death mortality within Europe. Such a hypothesis is not supported by the historical evidence: the Black Death did not strike Europe alone but spread from the east, devastating regions such as China, North Africa, and the Middle East as much or even more than Europe. Further, in Europe its levels of mortality do not correspond with the geographic distribution of the proportion of descendents with this CCR5 gene. If anything, the gradient of Black Death mortality sloped in the opposite direction from ...
This is easy. Mix dry ingredients and set aside. Combine wet ingredients in a glass measuring cup and whisk to combine. Add wet to dry ingredients and stir with a wooden spoon until dough forms. Divide dough in half to make two balls. Place one ball on a piece of parchment paper and top with a second piece of parchment. Roll out to an even 1/8-thickness (dont worry about the shape if you can). Remove top parchment and make vertical then horizontal slices in the rolled dough using a pizza cutter. Prick dough with a fork, or a tool like I have that I think is for pricking pastry (its awesome!). Pick up the parchment and transfer to a cookie sheet. Repeat process for other ball of dough. Discard the parchment topper sheet...it just saves you from having to scrub the rolling pin, and not having to dust flour around! ...
DOZENS of medics treating patients infected by the lethal Black Death plague ravaging Madagascar have been struck down by the deadly disease.
Archaeologists recently unearthed 25 skeletons of Black Death victims in London, and their DNA is revising our understanding of the pandemic.
Find essays and research papers on Black Death at zpkqsa.info. Weve helped millions of students since 1999. Join the worlds largest study community.
The feudal system began to decline after the Black Death struck Europe in the late 1340s. The feudal system joined politics and grouped together the social...
AIDS will surpass the Black Death as the worlds worst pandemic if the 40 million people living with HIV or AIDS do not get life prolonging drugs.
In article ,E0yMs1.K6v at cix.compulink.co.uk,, ecoli at cix.compulink.co.uk (K N and P J Harris) wrote: ,, ========== ,, bionet/microbiology #4284, from sb34 at york.ac.uk, 2136 chars, 10 Nov ,1996 06:35:23 -0 ,, ---------- ,, Article: 5285 of bionet.microbiology ,, Path: ,cix.compulink.co.uk!news.compulink.co.uk!dispatch.news.demon.net!demon!w ,ww.nntp.primenet.com!nntp.primenet.com!nntp.uio.no!nntp-oslo.UNINETT.no! ,nntp-trd.UNINETT.no!daresbury!biosci!york.ac.uk!sb3 ,, 4 ,, From: sb34 at york.ac.uk (Sidsel Barfoed) ,, Newsgroups: bionet.microbiology ,, Subject: The Black Death ,, Date: 10 Nov 1996 06:35:23 -0800 ,, Organization: BIOSCI International Newsgroups for Molecular Biology ,, Lines: 34 ,, Sender: daemon at net.bio.net ,, Distribution: world ,, Message-ID: ,ECS9611101443A at york.ac.uk, ,, NNTP-Posting-Host: net.bio.net ,, ,, ,, I have taken the liberty of subscribing to your list even though I ,am not a microbiologist. ,, ,, My name is Sidsel Barfoed, I am a postgraduate student ...
Genetics and the Black Death - Studies May Help Us Understand The Evolution of Disease by Aubrey Collopy | This newsletter was created with Smore, an online tool for creating beautiful newsletters for for educators, nonprofits, businesses and more
Remember THAT guy standing extreme-left of the pic seen on Machine56s Instagram? Dudes known as Black Death from the Bonehead crew, and he is now available to pre-order as a 1/6th-scaled action figure ...
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Help no parchment paper, All Answers ltd, Final Law Essay Evaluation (t, March 2020) t/law-help/essay/final_p?vref1 accessed Reference Copied to Clipboard. Teacher, Law. (November 2013).
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Cooking the salmon in parchment paper is the perfect technique for a GERD friendly fish recipe. It lets you control exactly how much fat to use for your fish. Easy clean up is a great bonus.
Niccolò di Iacopo di Alberti, nicknamed Father of the Poor, was known for financing hospitals during the Black Death. Decades of fighting eventually saw Niccolòs family, Alberti Del Giudice, emerge as the dominant banking descendant; enacting the Peace of Lodi in 1454, which saw peace for the next 40 years. Whereas the vast realms of Spain and France were monarchies, and citizens were under absolutist villa control, the Kingdom of Italy took on new perspectives of banking constructed on monastic estates and set off a major economic revolution that funded not only the Early Modern Age, but forged all historical sites cited before the Medieval Times. Contrary to popular belief, personification of nature (the Black Death) killed almost everybody in the world. However, the recovery allowed the bloom of Renaissance in the 15th century, representing the fertility of Earth ...
Today was the first full day of class in Cluny. We brushed up on biochemistry and microbiology so that everyone was on the same page. I can now wake up at 3 AM and tell you that fructose-1,6-bisphosphate is the intermediate the regulates glycolysis-in the EMP pathway thanks to Dr. Haggbloms why and how discussion. Having a small class and learning by discussing really helped retain and learn the science. To recharge ourselves, we went out to lunch in Cluny to a local café. I had the most delicious pea and carrot soup with emmental cheese and garlic croutons with a glass of Macon rosé wine. Gastronomy and taking time to eat is a big part of the French culture. There is no such thing as to go here because everybody eats a proper lunch here and it considered vulgar to rush food. Local stores and shops close in between 12-2PM for a lunch break, while people flock at the local cafés even for just a cup of coffee. There is no such thing as coffee to go either! For dessert, we had espresso ...
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Students who attain an average of grade 11.0 or above at the first sitting in the requisite 2000-level modules and who meet all other programme requirements will be given automatic offers of entry into Honours programmes*.*Apart from students on Integrated Masters degrees. Students permitted automatic entry to Honours will only be permitted to trail one module to a maximum of 30 sub-honours credits into Honours.. Some Schools permit qualified entry to Honours (see www.st-andrews.ac.uk/media/teaching-and-learning/policies/honsentry.pdf ). ...
June 14, 2012 - HEALTH - Although the plague is typically considered a remnant of the Middle Ages, when unsanitary conditions and rodent infestations prevailed amid the squalor of poverty, this rare but deadly disease appears to be spreading through wealthier communities in New Mexico, researchers report. Why the plague is popping up in affluent…
As the rains raged on in 1340s Europe, most of the crops rotted, leading to food shortages in a colder environment. Amidst the malnourished population, rodents, fleas and perhaps even lice were spreading a disease that had most likely never before infected humankind, and would wipe out up to half of...
Boccaccio wrote, ... in men and women alike there appeared, at the beginning of the malady, certain swellings, either on the groin or under the armpits, whereof some waxed of the bigness of a common apple, others like unto an egg, some more and some less, and these the vulgar named plagueboils ... to appear and come indifferently in every part of the body; wherefrom, after awhile, the fashion of the contagion began to change into black or livid blotches, which showed themselves in many, first on the arms and about the thighs and after spread to every other part of the person ... a very certain token of coming death ...
HUMA 13018/11/14 Have you ever been interested in apocalyptic scenarios and wondered if one would ever happen during your lifetime? Naturally, everything would probably be riddled in death, chaos, and ultimately the collapse of life as you knew it. Suc...
This article was first published in issue 13, volume 1 / 2011 of The Dot Connector Magazine, official publication of Sott.net. Comets are vile stars. Every time they appear in the south, they wipe out the old and establish the new. Fish grow...
No; it had much of the appearance of paper, and at first I supposed it to be such, but when I came to draw upon it, I discovered it, at once, to be a piece of very thin parchment. It was quite dirty, you remember. Well, as I was in the very act of crumpling it up, my glance fell upon the sketch at which you had been looking, and you may imagine my astonishment when I perceived, in fact, the figure of a deaths-head just where, it seemed to me, I had made the drawing of the beetle. For a moment I was too much amazed to think with accuracy. I knew that my design was very different in detail from this --although there was a certain similarity in general outline. Presently I took a candle, and seating myself at the other end of the room, proceeded to scrutinize the parchment more closely. Upon turning it over, I saw my own sketch upon the reverse, just as I had made it. My first idea, now, was mere surprise at the really remarkable similarity of outline --at the singular coincidence involved in the ...
Parchment Paper- I just discovered the joys of parchment paper. Those of you who use it regularly where do you buy? Online? Reynolds? Can you bakers hook ...
1) Preheat the oven to 350°F. Lightly grease a 9 round cake pan at least 2 deep. Line the bottom with parchment, and grease the parchment.2) Slice the top, including the stem, off one of the apples and set it aside before peeling and slicing the rest of the apples into 1/4 thick wedges.3) Place the apple top, stem side down, in the middle of the pan, and overlap the rest of the apple wedges in a ring around it. 4) Prepare the topping by heating the butter, sugar, boiled cider, cinnamon, and corn syrup together over low heat, stirring until the sugar is dissolved. 5) Pour 1/2 cup of the syrup mixture into the prepared pan, and set the rest aside.6) To make the cake: Beat the oil, brown sugar, boiled cider, eggs, spices, and salt together for 2 minutes at medium speed7) Mix the flour with the baking soda, and stir it into the batter.8) Add the chopped apple and nuts, and mix until just blended.9) Drop scoops of the batter atop the apples in the pan, gently spreading to cover.10) Bake the cake ...
1) Preheat the oven to 350°F. Lightly grease a 9 round cake pan at least 2 deep. Line the bottom with parchment, and grease the parchment.2) Slice the top, including the stem, off one of the apples and set it aside before peeling and slicing the rest of the apples into 1/4 thick wedges.3) Place the apple top, stem side down, in the middle of the pan, and overlap the rest of the apple wedges in a ring around it. 4) Prepare the topping by heating the butter, sugar, boiled cider, cinnamon, and corn syrup together over low heat, stirring until the sugar is dissolved. 5) Pour 1/2 cup of the syrup mixture into the prepared pan, and set the rest aside.6) To make the cake: Beat the oil, brown sugar, boiled cider, eggs, spices, and salt together for 2 minutes at medium speed7) Mix the flour with the baking soda, and stir it into the batter.8) Add the chopped apple and nuts, and mix until just blended.9) Drop scoops of the batter atop the apples in the pan, gently spreading to cover.10) Bake the cake ...
The Black Death had substantially different impacts on populations and exacerbated social change in many regions. In Western Europe, where populations were generally higher prior to the Black Death, the reduction of population made the remaining peasants and workers better able to negotiate higher wages (Figure 1). Revolts and rebellions occurred after the plague, but it ultimately helped lead to major social changes. It also led to the death of some of the nobility. Law changes to inheritance, allowing women in particular to inherit, led to gradual gender changes and increasing power for women in Europe in particular. Serfs also increased their power as their wages went up. In the long-term, the plague helped stamp out serfdom in Western Europe. In the immediate sense, serfs and nobility often fought in the years after the Black Death, but the lack of productivity in farms did help give more powers to peasants in Western Europe. In effect, the Black Death helped to liberate societies and helped ...
No one is surprised that old parchments are discolored and hard to read, but have you ever pondered why? The cause of the purple spots found on many ancient parchments has resisted investigations until now, but a study of a 13th-century Vatican roll has found a two-stage bacterial infection to be responsible. The work may help archivists prevent the decay of other ancient manuscripts.. In around 1205 the soldier Laurentius Loricatus accidentally killed a man. Despite living in an era where homicide was common, Loricatus was distressed enough to move to a cave for 34 years, where he flagellated himself and wore instruments of penance. In 1244 his story was written onto a 5-meter (17 foot) roll of goat parchment as consideration for canonization, stored since the late 18th-century in the Vaticans Secret Archives.. Although goat parchment is valued for its longevity, it is far from eternal. Collagen, its main ingredient, develops purple spots that make it hard to read. According to a paper in ...
The Black Death made many changes in Europe. The Black Death killed about 1/3 of the European population, and also killed 70% of the people who caught the disease. People thought that by burning the diseased bodies it would help stop the spread of the disease. Burning the bodies was actually a good thing. Burning the bodies was a good idea because the disease cant live unless the body is alive so by burning the bodies of the dead they where killing the disease. One form of plague traveled through air, and bodies had to be alive to have it. The Black Death was caused by a tiny bacterium only visible under a microscope, usually found in rats that where infected by the tiny bacterium that would bite them. The people where very dirty so they had rats everywhere, and thats how it started. Because there is so much garbage and it is dirty it provides the rats a place to live that carry the disease and spread it even farther. These people had no natural immunity to the disease because the disease had ...
Plato explicitly discussed suicide in two works. First, in Phaedo, Socrates expresses guarded enthusiasm for the thesis, associated with the Pythagoreans, that suicide is always wrong because it represents our releasing ourselves (i.e., our souls) from a guard-post (i.e., our bodies) the gods have placed us in as a form of punishment (Phaedo 61b-62c). Later, in the Laws, Plato claimed that suicide is disgraceful and its perpetrators should be buried in unmarked graves. However, Plato recognized four exceptions to this principle: (1) when ones mind is morally corrupted and ones character can therefore not be salvaged (Laws IX 854a3-5), (2) when the self-killing is done by judicial order, as in the case of Socrates, (3) when the self-killing is compelled by extreme and unavoidable personal misfortune, and (4) when the self-killing results from shame at having participated in grossly unjust actions. (Laws IX 873c-d) Suicide under these circumstances can be excused, but, according to Plato, it ...
Plato explicitly discussed suicide in two works. First, in Phaedo, Socrates expresses guarded enthusiasm for the thesis, associated with the Pythagoreans, that suicide is always wrong because it represents our releasing ourselves (i.e., our souls) from a guard-post (i.e., our bodies) the gods have placed us in as a form of punishment (Phaedo 61b-62c). Later, in the Laws, Plato claimed that suicide is disgraceful and its perpetrators should be buried in unmarked graves. However, Plato recognized four exceptions to this principle: (1) when ones mind is morally corrupted and ones character can therefore not be salvaged (Laws IX 854a3-5), (2) when the self-killing is done by judicial order, as in the case of Socrates, (3) when the self-killing is compelled by extreme and unavoidable personal misfortune, and (4) when the self-killing results from shame at having participated in grossly unjust actions. (Laws IX 873c-d) Suicide under these circumstances can be excused, but, according to Plato, it ...
Long time readers will know that if I were asked to relive my life doing something entirely different, I would like to try studying economic history. Today, in a bit of a coincidence, my son called me with a question about the effect of the Black Death in Europe on labor and grain prices ... just days after I had been learning about the exact same part of history in Professor Daileaders awesome Teaching Company course on the Middle Ages (actually he has three courses - early, high, late - which are all excellent).. From the beginning of the 14th century, Europe suffered a series of demographic disasters. Climate change in the form of the end of the Medieval warm period led to failed crops and several years of famine early in the century. Then, later in the century, the Black Death came... over and over, perhaps made worse by the fact that Europeans were weakened already from famine. As a result, the population of Europe dropped by something like half.. It is not entirely obvious to me what such ...
The Lazzaretto Nuovo (pictured) is an island in the Venetian Lagoon just north of Venice. The island served as a lazaret (quarantine hospital) for plague victims, a function that is believed to have begun in 1468 and lasted until the 18th century. It is the younger of two lazarets that served Venice. The other was Lazzaretto Vecchio, which was established in 1403 and is the oldest plague lazaret in the world.. Following its service as a lazaret, Lazzaretto Nuovo served for a time as a military barracks before becoming a hotbed of archaeological activity. During the Black Death, those who fell ill were sent to these lazarets where they faced a slim chance of recovery. The sick were tended to by the few who survived. Surviving the Black Death effectively inoculated one against falling ill again.. Those who did not survive were buried in mass graves, a grisly site uncovered in the past few years. Thousands of dead were buried on this tiny island.. Vampires. Stories of vampires are common and ...
bionet/microbiology #4284, from sb34 at york.ac.uk, 2136 chars, 10 Nov 1996 06:35:23 -0 , ---------- , Article: 5285 of bionet.microbiology , Path: cix.compulink.co.uk!news.compulink.co.uk!dispatch.news.demon.net!demon!w ww.nntp.primenet.com!nntp.primenet.com!nntp.uio.no!nntp-oslo.UNINETT.no! nntp-trd.UNINETT.no!daresbury!biosci!york.ac.uk!sb3 , 4 , From: sb34 at york.ac.uk (Sidsel Barfoed) , Newsgroups: bionet.microbiology , Subject: The Black Death , Date: 10 Nov 1996 06:35:23 -0800 , Organization: BIOSCI International Newsgroups for Molecular Biology , Lines: 34 , Sender: daemon at net.bio.net , Distribution: world , Message-ID: ,ECS9611101443A at york.ac.uk, , NNTP-Posting-Host: net.bio.net , , , I have taken the liberty of subscribing to your list even though I am not a microbiologist. , , My name is Sidsel Barfoed, I am a postgraduate student at the Department of History, the University , of York, Great Britain. I am writing a dissertation on the Black Death in England 1348-50 seen from an ...
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Skeletons dug up by London Crossrail excavations are giving scientists a more detailed look at the bubonic plague, or Black Death, of the 1300s.
Eric Smith was a beloved ski instructor who died, at age 37, on February 24, 2003 of a rare form of cancer. A memorial service was held for him up on the Sneakys run on the Big Burn. The shrine was installed in the summer of 2003. This is one of the most well-protected shrines on any of the mountains, since the shrine items are contained inside a wooden structure and are very well protected from exposure to the elements. The shrine was installed by friends of Eric Smith, and during the summer of 2010 they did some work on the shrine and enlarged and improved it. Caretakers of this shrine include the following people: Dennis Burns, Troy Stiles, Scotty Eklund, and John Norman.. Erics wife was Sarah, and they were married in June, 2002, just eight months before he died.. See this February 17, 2004 article from the Aspen Times newspaper, written by Naomi Havlen: After husbands death, wife awaits their twins. See http://www.aspentimes.com/article/20040217/NEWS/40216013&parentprofile=search. This ...
Federico Lombardi explains It used to be thought that the death of 100 million people was nothing but one of the worst tragedies of European history, said Fr Federico Lombardi of the Holy See Press Office, but nowadays we can look back and see the positive aspects of this period of history. Many people were brought to God rather sooner than they expected, and industrialization came to a halt, protecting the Middle Ages from the worst aspects of climate change. It is thought that Pope Francis is anxious to reach out to the rodent community - although he will not celebrate the Rodentine Mass - since he appreciates that, although rats are widely blamed for bringing the Black Death to Europe, they too suffered many grievous losses. The Holy Father has a great fondness for funny little creatures with whiskers, explained Fr Lombardi. ...
The appearance of both lay piety movements and heresy during the Black Death owes something to the moral crisis of the late Middle Ages and to the disillusionment of the people with the church of that time. Popular terror was reflected in frenzies of religious excess, as in the case of the Flagellants. Jews were accused of spreading the plague by poisoning wells, and pogroms directed against them occurred in the Rhineland and Switzerland, in spite of papal protests. Hysterical charges of sorcery and witchcraft were brought against eccentric and unpopular people. The art and literature of the period testify to the contemporary obsession with death and decay ...
A mass grave containing the remains of nearly 50,000 people killed by the Black Death plague some 650 years ago was discovered earlier this week in the
Most people have heard of the Black Death, also known as the Bubonic Plague. There were actually 3 plagues, the Bubonic, which infected the lymph nodes, the Pneumonic, which infected the lungs, and the most deadly of all, the Septicemic Plague which infected the blood and had a mortality...
The black death is not only back but is back with a vengeance. On the 25 of July (2014) it was reported that China sealed off an entire town for bubonic plague
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Palaeoproteomic Profiling of Conservation Layers on a 14th Century Italian Wall Painting. AU - Mackie, Meaghan Emma. AU - Rüther, Patrick Leopold. AU - Samodova, Diana. AU - Di Gianvincenzo, Fabiana. AU - Granzotto, Clara. AU - Lyon, David. AU - Peggie, David A.. AU - Howard, Helen. AU - Harrison, Lynne. AU - Jensen, Lars Juhl. AU - Olsen, Jesper Velgaard. AU - Cappellini, Enrico. N1 - © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.. PY - 2018. Y1 - 2018. N2 - Ahead of display, a non-original layer was observed on the surface of a fragment of a wall painting by Ambrogio Lorenzetti (active 1319, died 1348/9). FTIR analysis suggested proteinaceous content. Mass spectrometry was used to better characterise this layer and revealed two protein components: sheep and cow glue and chicken and duck egg white. Analysis of post-translational modifications detected several photo-oxidation products, which suggest that the egg experienced prolonged exposure to UV light and was likely ...
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From AD 1347 to AD 1353, the Black Death killed tens of millions of people in Europe, leaving misery and devastation in its wake, with successive epidemics ravaging the continent until the 18th century. The etiology of this disease has remained highly controversial, ranging from claims based on genetics and the historical descriptions of symptoms that it was caused by Yersinia pestis to conclusions that it must have been caused by other pathogens. It has also been disputed whether plague had the same etiology in northern and southern Europe. Here we identified DNA and protein signatures specific for Y. pestis in human skeletons from mass graves in northern, central and southern Europe that were associated archaeologically with the Black Death and subsequent resurgences. We confirm that Y. pestis caused the Black Death and later epidemics on the entire European continent over the course of four centuries. Furthermore, on the basis of 17 single nucleotide polymorphisms plus the absence of a ...
What makes it stand out a bit from other history books is that the Terry Jones in the books title is the same one you may remember from Monty Python. As it happens, he was a medieval history scholar at Oxford and that has always remained his passion.. The book is organized so that each chapter looks at different figures in medieval society: kings, knights, entertainers, alchemists, clerics, etc., and gives a brief summary of the development of those roles over the length of the medieval era from the so-called Dark Ages before the 13th century, all the way through the Renaissance. Its quite obviously not a deep history, but its organization is useful in seeing the trajectory of an institution or idea over the centuries.. The chapter on the initial purity and resulting corruption of the medieval church, which eventually and inevitably led to Reformation and Counter Reformation, struck me as being peculiarly familiar. It wasnt just that Ive read so many medieval history books over the decades ...
Birgitta Jónsdóttir articles and opinion pieces published by Common Dreams, a non-profit independent media outlet publishing since 1997 in Portland, Maine. Page 0
Preheat the oven to 400°F. - In a food processor fitted with a metal S blade, or using an electric hand mixer, blend the sweet potato mash until smooth. Stop the machine add in the egg, vinegar, olive oil, and spices/herbs and blend to combine. Add in the almond flour and 4 Tbsp of coconut flour, and pulse to combine. The crust will be very soft and just slightly tacky. If its still a little too sticky or theres too much moisture, add the additional Tbsp of coconut flour. - Pour the dough out onto a large baking sheet lined with parchment paper. Form the dough into a disc, top with another sheet of parchment paper, and gently press it out to form a 12 circle about 1⁄4 thick. When done, remove and discard the top sheet of parchment and place the pizza crust into the oven for 25-30 minutes until the sides are lightly golden. - Remove the crust from the oven. Top with 1⁄3-1⁄2 cup of bbq sauce, depending on how much you would like or the size of your crust. Sprinkle with 1⁄2-3⁄4 cup ...
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Preheat oven to 375°F with rack in middle. Line a large baking sheet with parchment paper.. Roll out 1 piece of dough on a floured surface with a floured rolling pin into a 15- by 12-inch rectangle. Cut out 16 to 20 rounds with cookie cutter.. Put a scant teaspoon filling on each round, then brush edge lightly with water and fold pastry over filling to form a half-moon. Press edges to seal. Shape each into a crescent by pushing a finger against middle of flat side.. Bake 1 inch apart on baking sheet until golden, 15 to 20 minutes. Transfer cookies on parchment to a rack to cool 2 minutes. Toss warm cookies, a few at a time, in confectioners sugar to coat generously. Cool completely.. Repeat with remaining dough (cool baking sheet and line with fresh parchment). Reroll scraps once for extra cookies if desired.. ...
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Castles and kings, battles and treaties, famine and plague, intrigue and invasion! Medieval LEGO takes you through real English history in the middle ages with a unique twist, with every event illustrated by a tiny little LEGO scene. With contributions by medievalists and scholars, this book brings medieval history to life in a fun, kid-friendly way.. Inside, youll learn about events like the Battle of Hastings, the chartering of Oxford University, and the signing of the Magna Carta. Youll witness the infamous Black Death, and the Great Famine, and youll read about famous historical figures like Robin Hood, Richard the Lionheart, Geoffrey Chaucer, and William the Conqueror. Grab your broadsword and turn the page to join the adventure.. ...
Not until the later 1370s - almost thirty years after the Black Death - did real wages finally recover and then rapidly surpass the peak achieved in the late 1330s. Thereafter, the rise in real wages was more or less continuous, though at generally slower rates, during the 15th century, reaching a peak in 1476-80 - at a level not thereafter surpassed until 1886-90, by the usual methods of calculating real wages with index numbers: i.e., by NWI/CPI = RWI [nominal wage index divided by the consumer price index equals the real wage index]. Most of the textbooks that still perpetuate the myth about the role of the Black Death in raising real wages, as an almost immediate consequence, employ a demographic model based on Ricardian economics, which predicts (ceteris paribus) that depopulation will result in falling grain prices and thus in falling rents on grain-producing lands (on land in general) and in rising real wages. The fall in population - perhaps as much as 50 percent by the late 15th century ...
A Bestial Genocide surgiu nos pensamentos da guitarrista Lurrane Gomes com a proposta de ser um projeto de Death Metal e em 28 de setembro de 2014, após ter convidado Diego Luiz (bateria), Edih Sjöfn (vocal) e Leo Sepultura (baixo), aconteceu o primeiro ensaio com a composição da faixa Cruel Death (composição de Edih Sjöfn). Aparentemente tudo correria bem. Membros convidados e convocados a ensaiar. O único obstáculo era somente o baixo: Leo estava sem o instrumento e pediu para os demais membros conseguirem um emprestado para aquele primeiro momento. Encontrar quem o emprestasse não foi algo complicado, pois a vocalista Edih pedira emprestado ao amigo Renan Peres, que emprestaria o instrumento e compareceria ao primeiro ensaio para apoiar a sua amiga em seu momento. Acontece que Leo não compareceu ao ensaio, que iniciou com os demais membros. Renan, incomodado com o vazio que as cordas deixavam, tomou a iniciativa de ligar o seu instrumento e acompanhar os riffs feitos pela ...
As Susan Duclos recently pointed out, the 2014 outbreak of Ebola here in the US, while limited to only a few victims, showed us just how totally unprepared most of our hospitals were for handling the infectious waste that comes along with a human outbreak of a disease caused by a biolevel 4 pathogen such as ebola. And while thankfully the killer disease was nipped in the bud back then and the spread halted, we must remember that ebola is largely spread via bodily or fluid contact, not through the air like the black death plague is now causing such havoc in Madagascar.. Imagine a worst case scenario of an untreatable and airborne version of the black death plague that killed off more than 60% of Europes population during the 14th century suddenly striking heavily populated areas of America. With anybody hit by it first showing symptoms of the common flu, likely leaving some staying home to recuperate while others think its just a bug while they go about their normal routines, the ...
Release Date: 2013-12-04. CAN A PLAGUE PANDEMIC STRIKE AGAIN? What happens when there is no treatment for the plague? Before antibiotics, millions lost their lives. Today, some plague bacterial strains have acquired resistance, while others have been weaponized for war. In light of this threat, Dr. Dana Sparks, an immunology professor at Duane University is searching for a vaccine. Desperate for tenure and to catch the eye of her old flame Nick Biget, Dana needs to prove her worth. Opportunity to shine arrives when the plague hits her small college town days before a vice presidential visit. But Dana is sidelined by her department chairman and outside experts, including Nick. Accused of incompetence and worse, Dana is left on her own to combat fast-acting deadly bacteria that are spreading quickly.. ...
JF Ptak Science Books Post 1740 It is generally conceded that the introduction of the Plague1 into Europe in 1348 had its very terroristic beginning in the Genoese trade and port city of Caffa, the result of a series of...
Directed by Christopher Smith. With Eddie Redmayne, Sean Bean, Carice van Houten, Kimberley Nixon. Set during the time of the first outbreak of bubonic plague in England, a young monk is given the task of learning the truth about reports of people being brought back to life in a small village.
Deaths heads moths come in three species, each named after one of the three sisters of fate in Greek lore, which weave, measure, and cut the threads of life.
Interesting times, no? We live in interesting times. Oh ho ho the times they are interesting. By that, of course, I mean that I am very bored, but at the same time so anxious I am giving myself headaches. Pandemics are not fun! Staying in your house is not fun! Worrying that people are going…
Plague is a serious bacterial infection thats transmitted by fleas. Known as the Black Death during medieval times, today plague occurs in fewer than 5,000 people a year worldwide. It can be deadly if not treated promptly with antibiotics.. The organism that causes plague, Yersinia pestis, lives in small rodents found most commonly in rural and semirural areas of Africa, Asia and the United States. The organism is transmitted to humans who are bitten by fleas that have fed on infected rodents or by humans handling infected animals. ...
The first volume of this series includes most of the papers and three recent articles presented at the International Seminar Transfer of Knowledge in Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, held in the Faculty of Humanities of the University of Cordoba, as an opening academic activity of the CNERU. The new Arabica Veritas series recalls the idea of the new or renovated knowledge that the Arabs bring to the Medieval Latin world. Arabica Veritas concerns the transmission of knowledge from Late Antiquity to the Middle Ages, a philosophical, scientific and cultural exchange that compels Latin scholars to investigate - through translation and interpretation - philosophical and scientific works written or transmitted in Arabic ...
This is one of the commonest pitfalls that I see among amateur researchers. It stems from beginning with a result and then trying to establish a historic basis for it. It may manifest as an interest in a particular modern craft or technique, followed by a desire to establish a medieval history for this craft. (E.g., I like to crochet -- crocheting seems fairly simple and obvious, so people must have been doing it since ancient times -- what evidence can I find that could be interpreted as crochet?) It may manifest as an esthetic appreciation for a particular effect or form, followed by a desire to create that effect or form in a historic context. (E.g., I really like how I look in tight-fitting clothes -- surely Viking women also liked how they looked in tight-fitting clothes -- what evidence can I find for Viking styles that would show off my figure?). While a certain amount of this hazard can be avoided when your initial research-stimulus is taken from historic sources, rather than from ...
1. Line a baking sheet with parchment paper. Melt white-chocolate melting wafers and transfer to piping bag with a small, plain tip. Pipe 2 1/2-inch-wide snowflakes onto the parchment (for a template, go to familyfunmag.com/printables), decorate with nonpareils and sanding sugar, and let set. Gently press onto chocolate cupcakes topped with pale-blue frosting. ...
One of the more fascinating pieces of work at a DOE National Laboratory was the examination of an ancient work by Archimedes on parchment that had been erased, written over, and so, mostly, lost to history. Lost, that is, until the SLAC synchrotron X-ray beam tore into the parchment and was able to let us see and read much of the original Archimedean text. Archimedes would have used a lab notebook, if he had had paper, or a computer and a thumb-drive to record his work if they had been available, but he did not live long enough to invent those things, which he probably could have if given the time. One hopes that before his study was erased, others were able to read it, profit from its insights, and use the knowledge as a springboard to another discovery. Thats one way we make progress.. We often hear that with declining costs in storage, increased bandwidth, and faster processing speeds, the power and potential of the electronic age to spread and communicate science are amazing things to ...
One of the more fascinating pieces of work at a DOE National Laboratory was the examination of an ancient work by Archimedes on parchment that had been erased, written over, and so, mostly, lost to history. Lost, that is, until the SLAC synchrotron X-ray beam tore into the parchment and was able to let us see and read much of the original Archimedean text. Archimedes would have used a lab notebook, if he had had paper, or a computer and a thumb-drive to record his work if they had been available, but he did not live long enough to invent those things, which he probably could have if given the time. One hopes that before his study was erased, others were able to read it, profit from its insights, and use the knowledge as a springboard to another discovery. Thats one way we make progress.. We often hear that with declining costs in storage, increased bandwidth, and faster processing speeds, the power and potential of the electronic age to spread and communicate science are amazing things to ...
I played cricket today. Against the wall. Not The Wall, I hasten to add. Much as Id love to have one of my dibbly-dobbly off-cutters sneak through that most unbreachable of defenses, and cart his seldom-seen off-breaks to all points on the compass, the wall I faced up to was one of brick, mortar, white paint and a switchboard put in place by someone with no knowledge of wall cricket. Its hard to hit a good length if impediments exist on the wall. Pulling short balls was a no-no too, with a grandmother asleep at forward short leg.. The bat I employed was my ancient SG Super Cover. I bought this when I was in the fifth standard. It was then a size 5. Through years of tapping on concrete and tarmac, and flinging over fences in moments of pique and angst, it has shrunk to a size 3.18 or thereabouts. The sticker says English Willow and while it most certainly is an English Willow, its an English Willow covered with parchment - which is a little short on street-cred, because parchment bats look ...
Edited to add: THE GIVEAWAY WINNER IS KRISTINA B! Congratulations! Please check your email (and possibly spam folder! :) ) for an email with details on how to receive your package! Also, there was so much interest in the Plexus products, and I would love to talk more with any of you who are interested,…
This is a fantastic way to cook sole or any fish. Use any combination of fish filet, veggies, liquid & herb or spice along with the light spread. It makes both an easy weeknight meal as well as a weekend dinner party dish.