Professor Pococks subject is how the seventeenth century looked at its own past. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, one of the most important modes of studying the past was the study of the law - the historical outlook which arose in each nation was in part the product of its law, and therefore, in turn of its history. In clarifying the relation of the historical outlook of seventeenth-century Englishmen to the study of law, and pointing out its political implication, Pocock shows how historys ground was laid for a more philosophical approach in the eighteenth century.. ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about Antoni van Leeuwenhoek at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about Antoni van Leeuwenhoek easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
AbeBooks.com: THE FOREST KING OR THE WILD HUNTER OF THE ADACA A TALE OF THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY: NY 1878 Wheat & Cornett. Narrow s 12mo., 63pp., original illustrated wraps. Near Fine.
Read Medical Investigation in Seventeenth Century England - Papers Read at a Clark Library Seminar, October 14, 1967 (Charles W. Bodemer) for free • Full-text!
Knowing the importance of having a masterpiece smile could win a student a $1,000 scholarship.. Masterpiece Smiles Orthodontics announces it has launched a scholarship program for 2018. To apply, applicants must submit a short Facebook post addressing the question, "How do you think a beautiful smile can help your future goal and life in general?". The video must be 60 seconds or less. It may be uploaded directly to Facebook or uploaded to another video-sharing service with a Facebook link to the video. Entry requires tagging Masterpiece Smiles Facebook page with the post.. Entrants must also email Masterpiece Smiles at [email protected] with "Scholarship Entry" as the subject and include their contact information including their phone number and a copy of their post.. Students must be attending college in either the fall or winter of 2018 to apply. Only one entry per applicant is permitted.. Videos will be judged on their content and overall acceptance from the community.. Entrants ...
But the 28 Lieberman 1993:490-3, 1999. See also Lieberman 1995; Pombejra 1990; Cushman 1993; Blussé 1999. Geography as destiny? 41 Bay of Bengal was only one major maritime arena. 29 This emphasis on China is crucial if we are to understand eighteenth century developments. In the late seventeenth century political turmoil in southern China ended when the Qing defeated the Ming. In 1683 Taiwan was conquered, and trade bans were consequently relaxed. This cleared the way for a surge in Chinese trade with Southeast Asia, as merchants from Fujian, Guangdong and Zhejiang (Chekiang) competed with the European companies for products such as pepper. 41 Bay of Bengal was only one major maritime arena. 29 This emphasis on China is crucial if we are to understand eighteenth century developments. In the late seventeenth century political turmoil in southern China ended when the Qing defeated the Ming. In 1683 Taiwan was conquered, and trade bans were consequently relaxed. This cleared the way for a surge ...
Anton Van Leeuwenhoek, known as the father of microbiology, was the first to observe bacteria in 1676. He used one of the first compound microscopes and found what he called cavorting beasties in...
A wealth of literature has shed light on religious, philosophical, scientific and medical concepts of extraordinary bodies, wonders and monsters in the sixteenth, seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Lorraine Daston and Katharine Park have been tremendously influential with their Wonders and the order of nature (1998) and in many ways contributed to our understanding of emotions and the monstrous before 1750. One of their suggestions is that there was no disenchantment, or clear pattern of naturalization, of monsters in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Monstrous births were explained by natural causes, such as a narrow womb or an excess of seed, already by medieval writers whereas they could still be read as divine signs in the late seventeenth century. No linear story took monsters from an older religious framework to a newer naturalistic one or from prodigies to wonders to naturalized objects. Wonders eventually lost their position as cherished elements in European elite culture but ...
Source: PZO1110. Manacles can bind a Medium creature. A manacled creature can use the Escape Artist skill to slip free (DC 30, or DC 35 for masterwork manacles). Breaking the manacles requires a Strength check (DC 26, or DC 28 for masterwork manacles). Manacles have hardness 10 and 10 hit points.. Most manacles have locks; add the cost of the lock you want to the cost of the manacles.. For the same cost, you can buy manacles for a Small creature. For a Large creature, manacles cost 10 times the indicated amount, and for a Huge creature, 100 times the indicated amount. Gargantuan, Colossal, Tiny, Diminutive, and Fine creatures can be held only by specially made manacles, which cost at least 100 times the indicated amount.. False Manacles These manacles are nearly indistinguishable from standard manacles upon inspection (Perception DC 25). A wearer who knows the location of the secret catch can open them as a standard action; otherwise they act like masterwork manacles. Some appear to be of common ...
You can search across as many journals and collections as you wish. Each time you click on one of the boxes below, you can add a new parameter.. ...
Constraining the date of the last major event occurred in a fault is of paramount importance in probabilistic seismic hazard assessment when time-dependent models are considered. Eight of the twelve destructive earthquakes occurred in the eastern Betic Cordillera since sixteenth century, are located less than 10 km away from the Alhama de Murcia fault (AMF). Up to now, it has not been identified any geological evidence on the ground surface to associate these events with the activity of specific fault sections of the AMF. In this work we present the first geological evidence of the catastrophic 1674 event occurred at Lorca (SE Spain). The excavations carried out at La Torrecilla Creek exposed archaeological remains from the Islamic period (VIII-XIII centuries in this region) affected by 55 ± 20 cm offset by the AMF fault. This event reached intensity VIII and produced 30 fatalities at Lorca for an estimated population of 7300 inhabitants. This supports the occurrence of earthquakes with surface ...
An exquisite drink from the seventeenth century Straight to the recipe During the seventeenth century a meal was often concluded by drinking spiced wine to stimulate the digestion. Hippocras was such a drink, which was already known during the Middle Ages. But there were other kinds of spiced wine as well. Vin des dieux (wine of the gods) is such a spiced wine,…. Read More. ...
The burial of a young girl was found at Emlagh townland, near Dingle, County Kerry (Shee and OKelly, 1966). This girl was a bog body, whose hair, skin, and clothes were preserved naturally within a peat bog. Her clothing was a distinctly medieval style gown. Clothing design was probably slow to evolve in this part…
Domenico Bertoloni Meli: Mechanism. A visual, lexical, and conceptual history. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburg Press, 2011, xii + 188pp, $45.00 HB. ...
Many of the classic questions in zooarchaeology, from the cause of Pleistocene extinctions to the relationship of anthropogenic faunal resource depression to the transition of agriculture, are...
From afar, these pieces by artist Sagaki Keita seem to simply be monochrome replicas of classic masterpieces. Look very closely, though, and immense detail suddenly appears. Thousands of little doodles pile up and work together to create one large composition. For darker areas of a masterpiece such as the Mona Lisa or The Great Wave off Kanagawa, Keita arranges his doodles more densely, packing more lines into smaller spaces. Beyond impressively combining the large with the tiny, Keita also playfully contrasts playful doodles with some of art historys most sacred pieces. In Keitas meticulous ink drawings casual skillfully meets formal.. ...
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Desanis masterpiece. An at times strange book that left me wanting more. Pity that so few people have even hear of this masterpiece by Desani. You dont have to take my word for it, here is what Eliot had to say about it: In all my experience, I have not met with anything quite like it.…
Here is my masterpiece tip on how to be really smart, intelligent, extra-capable, overachiever and successful. My way is:Masterpiece on overachieving abilitie…
The unseen world: reflections on Leeuwenhoek (1677) Concerning little animals Leeuwenhoeks 1677 paper, the famous letter on the protozoa , gives the first detailed description of protists and bacteria living in a range of environments. The colloquial, diaristic style conceals the workings of a startlingly original experimental mind. Later scientists could not match the resolution and clarity of Leeuwenhoeks microscopes, so his discoveries were doubted or even dismissed over the following centuries, limiting their direct influence on the history of here ironing analysis biology; but work in the twentieth century confirmed Leeuwenhoeks discovery of bacterial cells, with a resolution of sumerians settled less than 1 m. Leeuwenhoek delighted most in the forms, interactions and behaviour of i stand here ironing his little animalcules, which inhabited a previously unimagined microcosmos. English Meals. In these reflections on the scientific reach of Leeuwenhoeks ideas and observations, I equate ...
Black and white marble join contemporary interior design with the eighteenth century outline of the building. A fashionable checkered floor hiding the new heating system complements the ionic capitals and black architraves. Baudelo Abbey is a testimony of monastic architecture during the Counter-Reformation in modern day Belgium. The original Cistercian abbey was founded in the early twelfth century near Klein Sinaai - an allegorical desert to the north-east of Ghent. During the years of the Calvinist Ghent Republic (1577-1584) both the abbey and its refugium within the city walls were destroyed. Some years after the fall of the City Republic the monks returned from their exile in Cologne. A new abbey was built on the site of the earlier refugium. The church was constructed in a late Gothic style in the early seventeenth century and underwent an internal redesign by Pieter van Reijsschoot in the second half of the eighteenth century. The recent reactivation of the redundant Baudelo Abbey church ...
Seventeenth/eighteenth periodic report submitted by Norway under article 9 of the international convention on the elimination of all forms of racial discriminationContentlinkintHoveddel1IntroductionlinkintHoveddel2GenerallinkintHoveddel3II. Informat...
Long ago when reading a lengthy, serious, and technical book was considered an agreeable and even entertaining way of passing the time, Richard Burtons The Anatomy of Melancholy was a best seller. This was a curious fate for a superannuated medical treatise written in the early seventeenth century not by a doctor but by a reclusive clergyman and scholar at the University of Oxford who set out to write on melancholy and made it the occasion to take up much else as well. During his lifetime the book went through six editions. From 1621 to 1651 it grew considerably in bulk, starting at 353,369 words and finally attaining 516,384 (a seventh edition with no revisions was published in 1660 shortly before Burtons death). It was not reprinted during the eighteenth century, but there must have been many copies still available from the previous century. Samuel Johnson told Boswell that it was "the only book that ever took him out of bed two hours sooner than he wished to rise.". In the early nineteenth ...
It is grand deception -- but a masterpiece nevertheless. That is William M. Harnett`s astonishing tableau of painted realism The Old Violin (1886), recently acquired by the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. A striking example of trompe-l`oeil (French for ``fool the eye``) art, Harnett`s most famous work created a sensation when first exhibited more than a century ago.
January 11 - The Royal Society name Robert Hooke Curator by Office for life. In 1665 Hooke published Micrographia, a book describing his microscopic and telescopic observations, and some original work in biology. Hooke coined the term cell for describing biological organisms, the term being suggested by the resemblance of plant cells to monks cells. The hand-crafted, leather and gold-tooled microscope he used to make the observations for Micrographia, originally constructed by Christopher White in London, is on display at the National Museum of Health and Medicine in Washington, DC. Micrographia also contains Hookes, or perhaps Boyle and Hookes, ideas on combustion. Hookes experiments led him to conclude that combustion involves a substance that is mixed with air, a statement with which modern scientists would agree, but that was not widely understood, if at all, in the seventeenth century. Hooke went on to conclude that respiration also involves a specific component of the air. March 6 - ...
Those preserved animals you dissected in science class are now also artwork that prices up to $20,000 yen or $250. Iori Tomita, a 28 year old Japanese artist, transforms dead animal carcasses into colorful art through a long and tedious scientific process that can take him months, even a year.. Designboom reports that Tomita removes the skins of animals preserved in formaldehyde then soaks the creatures in a mixture of blue stain, ethyl alcohol, and glacial acetic acid. He then breaks down the protein and muscles through the enzyme trypsin to give them a ghostly transparent look. The bones are then soaked in potassium hydroxide and dye and preserved as stained masterpieces in glycerin.. Tomita first learned his trade as a fisherman and has cultivated a niche where science meets art and skeletons meet artistic immortalization.. "People may look at my specimens as an academic material, a piece of art, or even an entrance to philosophy," Tomita said on his website. "There is no limitation to how ...
In addition to the Masterpieces, Godiva will also offer a wide range of Godiva Tablets and Gifting boxes, crafted with premium Belgian chocolate.. On a global scale, Godiva will be partnering with retailers in North America, China, UK, Netherland, Sweden, Turkey and Saudi Arabia during the first year of launch.. Pladis UK and Ireland managing director Jon Eggleton said: "Godiva combines nine decades of traditional chocolate artistry with the latest innovation to offer a sensory experience that is loved by consumers worldwide.. "We are confident this launch will delight discerning UK chocolate lovers.". The launch is reported to be part of Godivas ambition to become a $2bn brand over the next five years, by expanding its presence in the premium global chocolate market and doubling chocolate sales.. Godiva is part of the Pladis group, a global biscuit and confectionery company with operations in 130 countries across Europe, the Middle East, Africa, Asia and the Americas.. ...
This interdisciplinary volume of essays brings together a team of leading early modern historians and literary scholars in order to examine the changing conceptions, character, and condemnation of heresy in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century England. Definitions of heresy and heretics were the subject of heated controversies in England from the English Reformation to the end of the seventeenth century. These essays illuminate the significant literary issues involved in both defending and demonising heretical beliefs, including the contested hermeneutic strategies applied to the interpretation of the Bible, and they examine how debates over heresy stimulated the increasing articulation of arguments for religious toleration in England. Offering fresh perspectives on John Milton, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke and others, this volume should be of interest to all literary, religious and political historians working on early modern English culture.. ...
Travis Lampe. With more than 30 artists in tow, Outré Gallery pays tribute to Hieronymus Boschs masterwork "Within The Garden of Earthly Delights" in a new group show. Each artist has taken aspects of the work and crafted a piece within their own sensibilities, whether a few characters in the painting, an entire panel, or just one of its themes. The line-up includes Allison Sommers, Alex Eckman-Lawn, Alex Kuno, Hi-Fructose co-founder Annie Owens, Bill Crisafi, Brackmetal, Brandi Milne, Brad Gray, Charles Schneider, Davor Gromilovic, Ian Ferguson, Jesse Jacobi, Kiko Capile, Medusa Wolf, Meagan Magpie Rogers, Moon Patrol, Nathan Reidt, Paul Barnes, Parker S. Jackson, Peca, Travis Lampe, and several others.. ...
Bulletin Board: A Post From the Community | The Clarendon Hills Park District will be fighting cabin fever on Thursday mornings this winter, with a new Munchkin Masterpieces class. Parents and their children ages 2/12 to 3 years of age will head out to the Community Center at 9 a.m. for 45 minutes of arts, crafts, stories, music and fun! Please dress to get messy! We'll explore color, shapes and textures using different mediums. This class will begin on January 25 and runs through March 1. There is a $60.00 resident ($75.00 non-resident) fee per couple. Maria Tobin, a Community Center Supervisor, has developed some new and fun ...
The eighteenth century has often been viewed as a period of relative decline in the field of microscopy, as interest in microscopes seemed to wane after an intense period of discovery in the seventeenth century. As such, developments in the field during the Enlightenment have been largely overlooked. This book therefore fills a considerable gap in the study of this life science, providing a thorough analysis of what the main concerns of the field were and how microscopists learned to communicate with each other in relevant ways in order to compare results and build a new discipline.Employing a substantial body of contemporary literature from across Europe, Marc J. Ratcliff is able to present us with a definitive account of the state of research into microscopy of the period. He brings to light the little known work of Louis Joblot, re-evaluates the achievements of Abraham Trembley and gives new weight to Otto-Friedrich M llers important contributions. The book also connects changes in instrument design
What do we need? A new fair! When do we want it? Now! Actually, no thanks, its the last thing, especially at the moment, after the slew of fairs, auctions, biennials and a documenta (enough in itself, from what I read anyway). Masterpiece London Art Antiques Design 2012 (the 3rd to date) is rather soothing on the eye (and belly) though the name is a misnomer, even with a $93,000,000.00 Caravaggio, 1571-1610 (Saint Augustine) on view. Weighing down such an historic painting of interest is a slightly less expensive but insipid Hirst sculptural thing-y covered in gold, which would be better served by a pigeon.. As one of the sponsors/participants is a restaurant company, there are more restaurants and menu choices than fine art works. But any fair that exhibits classic Jags and Ferraris alongside British Mod, Picasso and vintage Marc Newson is not a bad thing, no matter how you look. Artists you dont see enough of like Graham Sutherland, L.S. Lowry drawings and paintings of landscapes and people ...
evitable than our reaching back to the beginning of the seventeenth century and endeavoring to select, among the thousands of Englishmen who emigrated or even thought of emigrating to this country, those who possessed the genuine heart and sinew of the permanent settler. Oliver Cromwell, for instance, is said to have thought of emigrating hither in 1637. If he had joined his friends John Cotton and Roger Williams in New England, who can doubt that the personal characteristics of my brave Oliver would today be identified with the American qualities which we discover in 1637 on the shores of Massachusetts Bay? And what an American settler Cromwell would have made! If we turn from physical and moral daring to the field of theological and political speculation, it is easy today to select, among the writings of the earliest colonists, certain radical utterances which seem to presage the very temper of the late eighteenth century. Pastor John Robinsons farewell address to the ...
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REPEAT PERFORMANCE / Welles Rare Masterpiece Restored / Film based on Kafkas `The Trial opens at the Castro For Orson Welles, making films was nearly always a Promethean struggle -- an endless battle to raise money, maintain his independence and protect his work from meddling studio executives. LOGIC OF A NIGHTMAREThe Trial wasnt a commercial hit -- few of Welles films were -- but in many ways its his most personal. Looking back at Welles career and the struggles he had to keep his work intact, it makes sense that he would identify so strongly with Joseph Ks paranoia. Instead of setting the film in the small, claustrophobic offices that Kafka described, he used vast spaces that emphasized the characters desolation and helplessness. Welles knew that the actor was a closeted homosexual, Jaglom says, and used that quality in Perkins to suggest another texture in Joseph K, a fear of exposure. PSYCHO CONNECTIONPsycho had come out only two years earlier, and Perkins role as cross
Description: Ravel s Tombeau de Couperin, a suite for piano, was published in 1918 by Durand. Its first performance was in the Salle Gaveau in Paris in April, 1919. Shortly afterwards Ravel scored four of the six movements of the piano suite for small orchestra, composed of flutes, oboes, clarinets, bassoons, and horns in pairs, English horn, trumpet, harp, and strings, The new version was introduced in America in 1920. The four orchestrated movements, Prelude, Forlane, Menuet, and Rigaudon, have no programmatic content and the titles identify the forms used. Le Tombeau de Couperin is a souvenir of World War I. Each movement is dedicated to the memory of a French soldier fallen in battle. The Tombeau form dates from the seventeenth century and is a musical homage to Francois Couperin, clavecinist of Louis XIV, and one of the great names of French music. The separate movements, cast in eighteenth century dance forms often used by Qouperin have been described as tonal wreaths, not too ...
I need a clear distinction about magical ranged weapons and ammo. Im using bow and arrows as an example.. If you have a masterwork bow with normal arrows the to hit modifier is +1 and the damage modifier is +0. Also if you have a normal bow with masterwork arrows the to hit modifier is +1 and the damage modifier is +0. And then if you have a masterwork bow with masterwork arrows the to hit modifier is +1 and the damage modifier is +0 because the bonuses do not stack.. If you have a +1 bow with normal arrows the to hit modifier is +1 and the damage modifier is also +1. Also if you have a normal bow with +1 arrows the to hit modifier is +1 and the damage modifier is also +1. And then if you have a +1 bow with +1 arrows the to hit modifier is +1 and the damage modifier is also +1 because the bonuses do not stack.. And finally if you have a +2 bow with +1 arrows the to hit modifier is +2 and the damage modifier is also +2 because the bonuses do not stack but you take the higher bonus. Let me know ...
Artworks essential to history and the history of art, masterpieces bear witness to the wealth of the Louvres collections and the wide range of artistic practices used around the world and through the ages.. Back to all selections ...
|span style=||span style=color: #444343;||span style=font-family: times new roman,serif;||span style=font-size: 12pt;|Youre the Starlet is the second layer of our Seven Layer Masterpiece. This palette includes 28 beautiful purple and blue shade
This is Nymph 05 by Jallen art collection of Whistler Contemporary Gallery represented by Whistler Contemporary Gallery - Masterpiece Online
Cheryl Esposito welcomes Kute Blackson, a new generation firestarter inspiring a global revolution in Consciousness. | Encore: Your Next Masterpiece: You. on Leading Conversations | VoiceAmerica - The Leader in Internet Media
Realmyst has by far the best graphics of all fthe Myst games.I have played every Myst game available. The Walkthrough for Realmyst is a little different than that of the original Myst game, but most of it is the same. Of course, the last chapter of Realmyst is brand new.Once you have played Realmyst, you will never go back to the original game or to The Masterpiece version. Happy gaming ...
Architect Frank Lloyd Wrights fantastic masterpiece house in Pennsylvania, built for the Kaufmann family in the 1930s. I think its just amazing that this house was built so long ago and still is modern and spectacular. Love it. Take a look at the entire house here ...
Compositing is about making complex, visual masterpieces driven by your creative vision. Master compositing to be able to deepen your understanding of color, light, & movement
Amsterdam City Masterpiece Limited Design Oblong Mouse Pad by Cases & Mousepads wangjiang maoyi: Amazon.ca: Cell Phones & Accessories
There are 260 calories in 1 roll (2.5 oz) of Masterpiece Cinnaroll, frozen. Youd need to walk 68 minutes to burn 260 calories. Visit CalorieKing to see calorie count and nutrient data for all portion sizes.
There are 40 calories in 1 tablespoon (0.5 fl.oz) of KC Masterpiece Marinades, Honey Teriyaki. Youd need to walk 10 minutes to burn 40 calories. Visit CalorieKing to see calorie count and nutrient data for all portion sizes.
Craigslist Masterpiece Theatre™ is a new web series by scratchframe. Every episode is based on a real ad from CL. Here is the original ad for Movers
Up for grabs is a nice S&W K-22 Model 17 Masterpiece .22LR Revolver with the original box, warranty card, manualparts list, and S& for sale by nvisel on GunsAmerica - 995338322
Elizabeth turns the tables, Whitworth is checkmated, and Demelza reveals her true feelings. See the Season 3 finale of Poldark on MASTERPIECE on PBS.
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Chef Justin Brunson, of Masterpiece Delicatessen in Denver, drew on the classic pairing of truffles and eggs as his inspiration for this egg salad. Justin has shared his famous recipe with us!
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It later became popular in England, Netherlands and Germany. Marcello Malpighi used it extensively in his analysis of biological structures. His analysis of the human lung is said to have been near accurate mostly because of his reliance on the microscope.. Then came Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek who improved the microscope by up to 300 times magnification. His contribution to the instruments improvement was simple, yet effective. He sandwiched a thin glass ball lens in between two sizeable holes in two metal plates riveted close to each other. He then used adjustable screws to mount his specimen. It wasnt long before this simple discovery bore fruits. Van Leeuwenhoek then rediscovered the red blood cells as well as the spermatozoa. He is noted as one of the most important figures as far as microscopy is concerned. You do not have to read wide to realize this as he is the man who discovered microorganisms. Here is a quick video rundown of its history aswell:. ...
Giulia M.R. De Luca,1,7,* Ronald M.P. Breedijk,1,7 Rick A.J. Brandt,1 Christiaan H.C. Zeelenberg,1 Babette E. de Jong,1 Wendy Timmermans,4 Leila Nahidi Azar,5 Ron A. Hoebe,6 Sjoerd Stallinga,2 and Erik M.M. Manders1,3 1Van Leeuwenhoek Centre for Advanced Microscopy, Molecular Cytology, Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands 2Quantitative Imaging group, Department of Imaging Science & Technology, Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands 3Nikon Centre of Excellence on Super Resolution Microscopy Development, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands 4Swammerdam Institute for Life Sciences, Centre for NeuroScience, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands 5Nederlands Cancer Institute (NKI-AV), Dept. of Cell biology, AmsterdamThe Netherlands 6Van Leeuwenhoek Centre for Advanced Microscopy, Department of Cell Biology and Histology, Academic Medical Centre, AmsterdamThe Netherlands 7These authors contributed ...
Digitale Bibliotheek voor de Nederlandse Letteren (The Digital Library of Dutch Literature is a collection of primary and secondary information on Dutch language and literature in its historical, societal and cultural context.)
A Gram-positive, moderately halophilic, endospore-forming, catalase- and oxidase-positive, motile, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium, designated strain JSM 089168T, was isolated from saline soil collected from Naozhou Island, Leizhou Bay, South China Sea. The organism was able to grow with 2-25% (w/v) total salts (optimum, 5-10%), at pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum, pH 8.0) and 10-45°C (optimum, 30°C). meso-Diam ...
A Gram-positive, moderately halophilic, endospore-forming, catalase- and oxidase-positive, motile, rod-shaped, aerobic bacterium, designated strain JSM 089168T, was isolated from saline soil collected from Naozhou Island, Leizhou Bay, South China Sea. The organism was able to grow with 2-25% (w/v) total salts (optimum, 5-10%), at pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum, pH 8.0) and 10-45°C (optimum, 30°C). meso-Diam ...
This journal publishes papers on fundamental and applied aspects of microbiology, with a particular emphasis on the natural world. Topics covered range from ...
This pill tile, dated 1686, belonged to the Apothecary John Smithies who was made free of the Society that year. The arms and motto demonstrate his affiliation to the Society. Although pill tiles were used for rolling and cutting pills, they were normally hung or displayed in apothecaries shops). The Societys commercial activities developed from the Laboratory Stock (1672). The Navy Stock followed soon afterwards (1703). Originally, the Apothecaries clients were members of the Society but, before long, the Navy, the Army, the East India Company and the Crown Colonies had become lucrative customers. As business boomed during the eighteenth century the Trades premises at the Hall expanded and included laboratories, a mill house and a still house, mortar, magnesia and gas rooms, warehouses, packing rooms and shops.. ...
This book aims to provide scientists and engineers, and those interested in scientific issues, with a concise account of how the nature of scientific knowledge evolved from antiquity to a seemingly final form in the Twentieth Century that now strongly limits the knowledge that people would like to gain in the Twenty-first Century. Some might think that such issues are only of interest to specialists in epistemology (the theory of knowledge); however, todays major scientific and engineering problems-in biology, medicine, environmental science, etc.-involve enormous complexity, and it is precisely this complexity that runs up against the limits of what is scientifically knowable. To understand the issue, one must appreciate the radical break with antiquity that occurred with the birth of modern science in the Seventeenth Century, the problems of knowledge and truth engendered by modern science, and the evolution of scientific thinking through the Twentieth Century. While originally aimed at ...
Scientific inquiry into synaesthesia has only become popular in the past few decades, despite the earliest medically documented cases being recorded in the early nineteenth century [1]. Because of the wide variation in types and degrees of experience within this phenomenon, the term synaesthesia was not implemented until a large number of cases surfaced. Many of the first studied cases involved the the perception of colour. There was much interest at the time regarding the relationship between sounds and colours, a topic first brought to light in the seventeenth century by eminent scientists such as Isaac Newton[2]. He specifically believed in a physical law that could relate the seven colours in the light spectrum with the seven octaves of audible pitch [2]. This led to a liberal outlook in the field of cross-sensory perceptions, although no such experiences had yet been recorded. The lack of case studies prior to the nineteenth century could be due to the supernatural beliefs circulating in ...
The various approaches to the concept of space lattices are described in this chapter. The first one is the space-filling approach, which dates back to Aristotle and Kepler. It was applied to the structure of crystals by the French school of Haüy and Delafosse and by Seeber in Germany, and was further developed by Bravais, Sohncke, Schoenflies, and Fedorov. The contribution of the German school of Weiss and Mohs was to introduce the concept of crystal systems and crystal classes. The second approach is the close-packing approach, first considered by Kepler and Hooke in the seventeenth century, and developed by Wollaston and Barlow in the nineteenth century. In the last part of the chapter the molecular theories used by the early-nineteenth-century physicists to explain the optical and elastic properties of matter are briefly reviewed. The problem of the validity of the Cauchy relations is discussed.
Descendants of John and Grace BarkerbyShaun L Wilson - February 2017 Barker families have resided in Hampsthwaite since the early seventeenth century and were extensive in the area during the nineteenth century. From the 1881 England Census for Hampsthwaite taken on 3rd April that year, Barker was the most popular name totalling 57 out of 457 people enumerated - 12.5% of those recorded living in Hampsthwaite at the time of that census. From the registers of Hampsthwaite parish, Barkers were in existence as early as 1610. The earliest Barker mentioned is John Barker, son of Peter who was baptised on 17th March that year.Where Hampsthwaite is mentioned in this article it refers to both village and parish. We will never know exactly where the early Barkers dwelling houses were as they are not recorded in either the parish registers or on the early census returns, but it is assumed that they lived in the village or within the parish. It was not until the England Census of 1911 that full address ...
Selling the Tudor Monarchy: Authority and Image in Sixteenth-Century England. By Kevin Sharpe. Sharpes Selling the Tudor Monarchy is the first of two volumes exploring the ways in which English monarchs during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries represented themselves to their people. Most people unfamiliar with early modern English monarchy assume that since the monarch had complete power of the army and the navy, they could rule as they wish, and didnt care much for the opinions of their people. But according to Sharpe, the Tudor monarchs were among the first monarchs to create "advertising campaigns" for their own reigns. By hiring artists, printers, writings, and other craftsmen to make flattering portrayals of them, these monarchs were able to inundate their realms with positive images of themselves. This practice was usually very successful in influencing the minds and opinions of their people.. Selling the Tudor Monarchy is vital for my field study project and research experience ...
Kings and noblemen sought after them, everyone from cultured artists to ordinary farmers have admired them for their peculiar and striking marking. They graced the estates of seventeenth century nobility, and their descendants and other cattle carrying their influence on farms in North America still inspire awe and curiosity among passersby, while many stockmen aspire to own some of these fascinating cattle. The Dutch Belted breed is, according to records, the only belted breed of cattle tracing back directly to the original belted or canvassed cattle which were described in Switzerland and Austria. These Gurtenvieh were evidently moved by Dutch nobility from the mountain farms of Canton Appenzell and Tyrol Mountains during or soon after the feudal period. The Dutch were very protective of their belted cattle and would generally not part with them. They were highly prized for their milking and fattening abilities. The breed began to flourish in Holland around 1750. (This historical account ...
The predominant culture of the South was rooted in the settlement of the region by British colonists. In the seventeenth century, most voluntary immigrants were of English origins who settled chiefly along the coastal regions of the Eastern seaboard. The majority of early British settlers were indentured servants, who gained freedom after enough work to pay off their passage. The wealthier men who paid their way received land grants known as headrights, to encourage settlement.[60]. The French and Spanish established colonies in Florida, Louisiana, and Texas. The Spanish colonized Florida in the 16th century, with their communities reaching a peak in the late 17th century. In the British and French colonies, most immigrants arrived after 1700. They cleared land, built houses and outbuildings, and worked on the large plantations that dominated export agriculture. Many were involved in the labor-intensive cultivation of tobacco, the first cash crop of Virginia. With a decrease in the number of ...
Pritchard, P., 2015, (Unpublished) Preaching Death in Early Modern France and England in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. Barros, P. (ed.). France: Editions Garnier Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceeding › Chapter ...
September 7, 2007 Salvatore Giancana by Ron Chepesiuk Editors Note: Policy is a form of lottery in which a ticket is purchased and numbers selected, with the winning numbers announced at a drawing. No one knows for sure how the policy game began, but the Sixteenth century European countries were using the lottery to raise money for the state. In the United States, Virginia first introduced a lottery game in the Seventeenth century, and it spread across the country during the next century. The policy game first appeared in the 1880s in New Orleans, and then spread to New York, Chicago and other cities with large African-American populations. Some historians believe that the name policy derives from the practice of blacks playing the game with money meant for insurance policies. In the policy game, 78 numbers (1 to 78) are wrapped in special containers and dropped in a drum-shaped container or wheel from which numbers are drawn. The player selects a certain amount of numbers, the most common
The constraints of his design on visibility, listed on the table below, created problems that Leeuwenhoek had to solve with his viewing techniques and specimen preparation methods.
Already available at the KIK-IRPAs reception desk. Brochure (pdf). Buyers of the book will also have access to a website with more than 2000 extra illustrations: http://bruegel-brueghel.kikirpa.be/. This volume is the culmination of a long-term research program carried out by the Royal Institute for Cultural Heritage in partnership with the University of Liège; it has benefited from the generous collaboration of 19 Belgian and foreign museums and numerous private collections.. The fascination for the works of Pieter Bruegel in the decades following his death in 1569 is only matched by the public interest they stimulate today. At the end of the sixteenth century and in the first half of the seventeenth century, the most ambitious art collectors fought over the rare paintings by the master that were still on the market. This context was the catalyst for the appearance of copies and pastiches; genuine forgeries were also produced.. It was then that the elder son of Pieter Bruegel, known as ...
Earthenware is glazed or unglazed nonvitreous pottery that has normally been fired below 1200°C. Porcelain, bone china and stoneware, all fired at high enough temperatures to vitrify, are the main other important types of pottery. Earthenware comprises all primitive pottery whatever the color, all terra-cottas, most building bricks, nearly all European pottery up to the seventeenth century, most of the wares of Egypt, Persia and the near East; Greek, Roman and Mediterranean, and some of the Chinese; and the fine earthenware which forms the greater part of our tableware today. Pit fired earthenware dates back to as early as 29,000-25,000 BC. Outside East Asia, porcelain was manufactured only from the 18th century, and then initially as an expensive luxury. Earthenware, when fired, is opaque and non-vitreous, soft and capable of being scratched with a knife. The Combined Nomenclature of the European Communities describes it as being made of selected clays sometimes mixed with feldspars and ...
The patron Saint of Cork, Saint Finbar (c.550-c.620) founded a monastery on the south bank of the River Lee approximately 1,400 years ago. A settlement grew up around this monastery and was added to (and ransacked by) Viking invaders during the ninth and tenth centuries. The town grew and the English Norman King Henry II, who had been requested by Pope Adrian IV (the only English Pope) to collect papal dues not paid, gave Cork city status in 1185. Cork slowly grew during the late middle ages, developing into a crowded, walled city, centered around North and South Main Streets. The city enjoyed a golden age of sorts during the seventeenth century providing butter to ships which plied the North Atlantic. During this period the city expanded and many Italianate residences were built on the hills to the North in Sundays Well and Montenotte. After a sluggish start following independence, the city grew substantially during the latter half of the twentieth century. Currently, as a result of the Celtic ...
The course will investigate European painting of the seventeenth century, a period normally called the Baroque. Students will be introduced to the major artists, subjects, and stylistic developments of the period, with an emphasis on Caravaggio, Rembrandt, and their followers. Additional focus will be placed on current scholarly issues such as patronage, technique, gender, the relationship of painting to other arts, and recent discoveries and debates. The course will include visits to the Memphi ...
The course will investigate European painting of the seventeenth century, a period normally called the Baroque. Students will be introduced to the major artists, subjects, and stylistic developments of the period, with an emphasis on Caravaggio, Rembrandt, and their followers. Additional focus will be placed on current scholarly issues such as patronage, technique, gender, the relationship of painting to other arts, and recent discoveries and debates. The course will include visits to the Memphi ...
Joris Hoefnagel is one of a few artists in the sixteenth century, celebrated for their incredibly accurate and beautiful studies after nature. The symmetric composition of this bouquet might give it a gloss of artifice from a modern viewpoint, but conforms to the predominant taste that lasted well into the seventeenth century
Until 300 years ago, the Chinese considered Taiwan a land beyond the seas, a ball of mud inhabited by naked and tattooed savages. The incorporation of this island into the Qing empire in the seventeenth century and its evolution into a province by the late nineteenth century involved not only a reconsideration of imperial geography but also a reconceptualization of the Chinese domain. The annexation of Taiwan was only one incident in the much larger phenomenon of Qing expansionism into frontier areas that resulted in a doubling of the area controlled from Beijing and the creation of a multi-ethnic polity. The author argues that travelers accounts and pictures of frontiers such as Taiwan led to a change in the imagined geography of the empire. In representing distant lands and ethnically diverse peoples of the frontiers to audiences in China proper, these works transformed places once considered non-Chinese into familiar parts of the empire and thereby helped to naturalize Qing expansionism. By
Adams, Fred; Laughlin, Greg. The Five Ages of the Universe: Inside the Physics of Eternity. xxxiv + 251 pp., illus., figs., bibl., index. New York, N.Y.: The Free Press, 1999. $25. Allen, Richard C. David Hartley on Human Nature. (SUNY series in the Philosophy of Psychology.) cciv + 469 pp., bibl., index. Albany: SUNY Press, 1999. $24.95 (paper). Ames-Lewis, Francis (editor). Sir Thomas Gresham and Gresham College: Studies in the Intellectual History of London in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. Foreword by Francis Baden-Powell. xxii + 234 pp., frontis., illus., tables, index. Aldershot, Eng./Brookfield, Vt.: Ashgate, 1999. $65.95. Arend, Gerhard. Die Mechanik des Niccolo Tartaglia: im Kontext der zeitgenössischen Erkenntnis- und Wissenschaftstheorie. (Algorismus, 24.) x + 596 pp., illus., figs., tables, app., bibl. Münich: Institut für Geschichte der Naturwissenschaften, 1998. DM 39.80 (paper). Ariew, Roger. Descartes and the Last Scholastics. xii + 230 pp., illus., app., bibl., ...
This essay is written on the following premises and argues for them. "Enlightenment" is a word or signifier, and not a single or unifiable phenomenon which it consistently signifies. There is no single or unifiable phenomenon describable as "the Enlightenment," but it is the definite article rather than the noun which is to be avoided. In studying the intellectual history of the late seventeenth century and the eighteenth, we encounter a variety of statements made, and assumptions proposed, to which the (...) term "Enlightenment" may usefully be applied, but the meanings of the term shift as we apply it. The things are connected, but not continuous; they cannot be reduced to a single narrative; and we find ourselves using the word "Enlightenment" in a family of ways and talking about a family of phenomena, resembling and related to one another in a variety of ways that permit of various generalizations about them. We are not, however, committed to a single root meaning of the word ...
Fabian Drixler and I recently spoke about his wonderful new book on the transformations of infanticide, population, and society in Japan from the late seventeenth century through the twentieth century. You can listen to our conversation here. (For a list of previous interviews on NBEAS, click me.)
In his later philosophy, Heidegger liked to indulge in eccentric etymologies because he was certain that there are truths deeply hidden in language. It is one of the more beguilingly magical aspects of his thought and therefore-to my mind-one of the more convincing. Consider, for instance, the wonderful ambiguity one finds in the word invention when one considers its derivation. The Latin invenire means principally "to find," "to encounter," or (literally) "to come upon." Only secondarily does it mean "to create" or "to originate." Even in English, where the secondary sense has now entirely displaced the primary, the word retained this dual connotation right through the seventeenth century. This pleases me for two reasons. The first is that, as an instinctive Platonist, I naturally believe that every genuine act of human creativity is simultaneously an innovation and a discovery, a marriage of poetic craft and contemplative vision that captures traces of eternitys radiance in fugitive splendors ...
A man named Mr. John Harrison was a watchmaker by trade and had taught himself this craft completely with great and wonderful results. Mr. Harrison created a greater accuracy within watches of his times and found that the exact time could help in determining precise longitudinal locations of the ships for the Captains. He worked endlessly for over ten years to invent only four Chronometer Harrison Marine watches in the latter seventeenth century; these miraculous watches were also the size of smaller dinner plates. Through many tests by the Queens Captains these watches proved their worthiness to her and Mr. Harrison then received $20,000 in pounds as a prize for his creative and helpful inventions by Queen Anne of England herself ...
without knowing it because the laws of man decree that if you save a city-state from destruction you are entitled to rule it. And he manages to ferret out the unfortunate secret of his birth and marriage because the laws of individual human psychology decree that until trying to get what you want gets you something else that you emphatically didnt want, you will go on trying to get it. From Sophocles right on up through to Shakespeare, the principle of sufficient dramaturgical reason consisted of, let us say, five parts law of man, three parts law of nature, and one part law of human psychology-in other words, the main thing keeping our boy or girl in the hot seat from winning out was what the king (or God) said he could or couldnt do, followed at a near second by what was physically impossible to do, and followed in turn at a distant third by what people were like made impossible to do. Beginning towards the end of the seventeenth century, the law of nature dropped out to make way for a ...
It has been a great deal of fun setting up Feast Your Eyes with the Bowes Museum team. And what a selection of paintings relating to food and other works it is, the majority from the Bowes collection. A stunning Peter Aertsen of market traders washing vegetables was specially restored for the show. You can see videos of the actual restoration on the Bowes Museum blog, but the crown must go to the breakfast table still life by Jacob van Hulsdonk, which is a striking example of the work of this early seventeenth century Antwerp school artist. He was a contemporary of Osias Beert and the wonderful Clara Peeters, two other important artists working in the city who specialised in painting dining settings of this kind. His work deserves to be better known. He painted a very similar, though less ambitious study which can be seen in the Rijksmuseum Twenthe in Enschede in Holland. Both celebrate simple merchant class meals, a plate of trotters, some rye bread and a glass of weissbier. They must also be ...
It has been a great deal of fun setting up Feast Your Eyes with the Bowes Museum team. And what a selection of paintings relating to food and other works it is, the majority from the Bowes collection. A stunning Peter Aertsen of market traders washing vegetables was specially restored for the show. You can see videos of the actual restoration on the Bowes Museum blog, but the crown must go to the breakfast table still life by Jacob van Hulsdonk, which is a striking example of the work of this early seventeenth century Antwerp school artist. He was a contemporary of Osias Beert and the wonderful Clara Peeters, two other important artists working in the city who specialised in painting dining settings of this kind. His work deserves to be better known. He painted a very similar, though less ambitious study which can be seen in the Rijksmuseum Twenthe in Enschede in Holland. Both celebrate simple merchant class meals, a plate of trotters, some rye bread and a glass of weissbier. They must also be ...
A considerable part of Hills essay concerned itself with the Land question. His emphasis examining economic changes which contributed to the English revolution are an anathema to most modern day historians. According to Hill in his 1940 essay,"The northern and western parts of England remained relatively untouched by the new commercial spirit radiating from London and the ports; but in the south and east many landowners were beginning to exploit their estates in a new way. Both in the Middle Ages and in the seventeenth century the first importance of an estate was that it supplied a land owner (through his control over the labour of others) with the means of livelihood. But over and above this, the large estates had in the Middle Ages maintained with their surplus agricultural produce a body of retainers who would on occasion act as soldiers, and so were the basis of the political power of the feudal lords. Now, with the development of the capitalist mode of production within the structure of ...
W. K. Hinton has contested the view that the Act was the concession to mercantile pressure in his The Eastland Trade and the Common Weal in the Seventeenth Century, 1959, pp. 90-4, 62 It is impossible to calculate how effective this first experiment in statutory control was. The remaining years of the Interregnum were economically abnormal and the evidence of its workings is meagre. But the latest historian to investigate it has suggested that its lawyerlike formula was too neat to be enforceable. Its clockwork action worked singing birds, bells, trumpeters, suns, moons, planets, crowing cocks and striking clocks, besides the organ which played pieces in counterpoint on the hour. 1 Occasionally craftsmen could rise to a high pitch of excellence to produce exquisite pieces in gold, silver and jewels, rich sdks, damasks, tapestries and other trappings of aristocratic living. More often, late Tudor or Jacobean manufactures were crude and simple. They usually abandoned simplicity only at the risk of ...
Advisor: Prof. Voight. Classical unsolved problems often serve as the genesis for the formulation of a rich and unified mathematical fabric. Diophantus of Alexandria first sought solutions to algebraic equations in integers almost two thousand years ago. For instance, he stated that if a two numbers can be written as the sum of squares, then their product is also a sum of two squares: since $5=2^2+1^2$ and $13=3^2+2^2$, then also $13\cdot 5=65$ can be written as the sum of two squares, indeed $65=8^2+1^2$. Equations in which only integer solutions are sought are now called Diophantine equations in his honor. Diophantine equations may seem perfectly innocuous, but in fact within them can be found the deep and wonderously complex universe of number theory. Pierre de Fermat, a seventeenth century French lawyer and mathematician, famously wrote in his copy of Diophantus treatise "Arithmetica" that "it is impossible to separate a power higher than two into two like powers", i.e., if $n>2$ then the ...
William Harvey (1578-1657) was the eldest of seven sons born to Thomas Harvey, and the only member of this family of merchants and landowners to become a physician. After earning ...
The grotto of Posillipo is an artificial tunnel, cut out of the homonymous hill between Naples and Pozzuoli on orders from the emperor Augustus. A motif as fascinating as it is inspiring, the site was considered - at least since the seventeenth century (see cat. no. 83) - a must-see for any traveller or artist performing the Grand Tour. Suvée, a native of Bruges, awarded the Grand Prix de Rome in 1771, was one of them. It was in 1775, during an excursion in Campania, that he came upon this antique vestige, and immortalised it working from life, in red chalk.1. Carved directly out of the rock, the entrance to the tunnel, seen here on the Naples side - the most frequently depicted - is off-centred to the right of the sheet, allowing the artist to describe the sheer wall bordering the passage on the left side. The distant tunnel opening, a tiny rectangle of untouched paper, shows the scale of the grotto, thereby dizzyingly shortening the 705-metres length. With broad strokes of hatching, ...
Denmark has a rich history of nautical charting that dates back to the seventeenth century, and many of its navigational products for Greenland were created in the 1960s. The information on those charts was good and sufficient for traditional navigation, but when GPS started to gain prominence in shipping in the 1990s and early 2000s, hydrographic offices around the world had to start producing Electronic Navigational Charts (ENCs). But Denmarks existing data-especially farther north, around Greenland-didnt line up with GPS points or new high-quality multibeam sonar readings. So the hydrographic office at the Danish Geodata Agency (known by its Danish acronym GST) needed to take a different approach.. ...
Francisco Goya was not a war artist, but his fascination with the subject is evident from the most cursory look at the paintings and etchings. Traditionally, he is viewed as the first critic of war, though there is nothing to distinguish his visual descriptions of atrocity from those of the seventeenth century, and scenes of horror are depicted in the Bayeux tapestry. Goya drew what was described to him by witnesses, or at second and third hand. Great massacres, and the less celebrated savagery of the Peninsular War, seized his imagination, just as he returned again and again to subjects like dead meat, and the spectacle of dead, dying and ravished victims of civil chaos. He gave the drawings of his Desastros and Caprichos ironic titles, which appear to suggest a detachment from the subject, and are therefore frequently interpreted as proof of a moral posture whose very earnestness is contained in their apparent coolness. But Goyas love of the darkest aspects of humanity and its relentless ...
TO CALL THE MINDS OUT OF THE CREATURES OR HOW TO BE A MYSTIC. The point of view of the video on being content reminds me of George Fox, seventeenth century Quaker, theologian, social evolutionary, and passionate lover of God. Fox perceives of God as a Universal God, one who loves every person and who died for each and every person. He also perceives of Him as a particular God. One who loves each and every person the best. Because we are created in the Image of God and Christ enlightens us we have great value. One of the ways in which we are valuable is that we can be aware of God. Everyone can be a mystic and know God. (Christ in the male and female also shows this.) All we have to do is turn our minds away from the world and inward to God. We must turn our minds away from the created world, of all externals and concentrate on worshiping the Living God, Christ, the Light and try to acquire things above. We are to know our pure mind which deals with things that are true and actually exist in each ...
TO CALL THE MINDS OUT OF THE CREATURES OR HOW TO BE A MYSTIC. The point of view of the video on being content reminds me of George Fox, seventeenth century Quaker, theologian, social evolutionary, and passionate lover of God. Fox perceives of God as a Universal God, one who loves every person and who died for each and every person. He also perceives of Him as a particular God. One who loves each and every person the best. Because we are created in the Image of God and Christ enlightens us we have great value. One of the ways in which we are valuable is that we can be aware of God. Everyone can be a mystic and know God. (Christ in the male and female also shows this.) All we have to do is turn our minds away from the world and inward to God. We must turn our minds away from the created world, of all externals and concentrate on worshiping the Living God, Christ, the Light and try to acquire things above. We are to know our pure mind which deals with things that are true and actually exist in each ...
Is color real or illusory, mind independent or mind dependent? Does seeing in color give us a true picture of external reality? The metaphysical debate over color has gone on at least since the seventeenth century. In this book, M. Chirimuuta draws on contemporary perceptual science to address these questions. Her account integrates historical philosophical debates, contemporary work in the philosophy of color, and recent findings in neuroscience and vision science to propose a novel theory of the relationship between color and physical reality ...
1 Jun 2000. Paul Kliber Monod has written an ambitious and very welcome book, which seeks to investigate the relationship between Christianity and kingship across the whole of Christian Europe in the long seventeenth century from 1589 to 1715. This is certa inly a brave enterprise, calling as it does for a working knowledge of several languages and the strikingly diverse histories of many countries.. ...
Their barracks are a hideous invention of modern times. They date from the seventeenth century. Before that time there were only guard-houses where the soldiers played cards and told tales. Louis XIV was a precursor of Bonaparte. But the evil has attained its plenitude since the monstrous institution of the obligatory enlistment. The shame of emperors and of republics is to have made it an obligation for men to kill. In the ages called barbarous, cities and princes entrusted their defence to mercenaries, who fought prudently. In a great battle only five or six men were killed. And when knights went to the wars, at least they were not forced to do it; they died for their pleasure. They were good for nothing else. Nobody in the time of Saint Louis would have thought of sending to battle a man of learning. And the laborer was not torn from the soil to be killed. Nowadays it is a duty for a poor peasant to be a soldier. He is exiled from his house, the roof of which smokes in the silence of night; ...
William Harvey, a history of the discovery of the circulation of the blood by Robert Willis; 2 editions; Subjects: Accessible book
In the seventeenth century, smallpox reigned as the worlds worst killer. Luck, more than anything else, decided who would live and who would die.
This page illustrates a microscope whose construction has been erroneously attributed to the astronomer Galileo in the seventeenth century.