TY - JOUR. T1 - Stress, glucocorticoid hormones, and hippocampal neural progenitor cells. T2 - Implications to mood disorders. AU - Kino, Tomoshige. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. N2 - The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and its end-effectors glucocorticoid hormones play central roles in the adaptive response to numerous stressors that can be either internal or external. Thus, this system has a strong impact on the brain hippocampus and its major functions, such as cognition, memory as well as behavior, and mood. The hippocampal area of the adult brain contains neural stem cells or more committed neural progenitor cells, which retain throughout the human life the ability of self-renewal and to differentiate into multiple neural cell lineages, such as neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes. Importantly, these characteristic cells contribute significantly to the above-indicated functions of the hippocampus, while various stressors and glucocorticoids influence proliferation, differentiation, ...
The hippocampus proper refers to the actual structure of the hippocampus which is made up of four regions or subfields. The subfields CA1, CA2, CA3, and CA4 use the initials of Cornu Ammonis , an earlier name of the hippocampus. Structure There are four regions in the hippocampus proper which form a neural circuit. CA1 is the first region in the hippocampal circuit, from which a major output pathway goes to layer V of the entorhinal cortex . Another significant output is to the subiculum . CA2 is a small region located between CA1 and CA3. It receives some input from layer II of the entorhinal cortex via the perforant path . Its pyramidal cells are more like those in CA3 than those in CA1. It is often ignored due to its small size. CA3 receives input from the mossy fibers of the granule cells in the dentate gyrus , and also from cells in the entorhinal cortex via the perforant path. The mossy fiber pathway ends in the stratum lucidum . The perforant path passes through the stratum lacunosum and ends in
TY - JOUR. T1 - Peripheral origin of IL-1Β production in the rodent hippocampus under in vivo systemic bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge and its regulation by P2X7 receptors. AU - Csölle, C.. AU - Sperlágh, B.. PY - 2010/2/1. Y1 - 2010/2/1. N2 - In this study we showed that in vivo bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge elevated IL-1Β level in the rodent hippocampus. Antagonists of P2X receptors inhibited LPS-induced IL-1Β level with a pharmacological profile similar to that of P2X7R and their inhibitory effect was attenuated in the absence of P2X7R. In wild-type mice, LPS overexpressed mRNA encoding P2X4 and P2X7 receptors in the hippocampus and caused also a remarkable increase in the levels of IL-1Β in the serum. The hippocampal increase of IL-1Β has substantially alleviated when contamination of circulating blood cells was excluded by transcardial perfusion, indicating the peripheral origin of hippocampal IL-1Β elevation. These results point to the key role of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Age dependence of homosynaptic non-NMDA mediated long-term depression in field CA1 of rat hippocampal slices. AU - Velíšek, Libor. AU - Moshe, Solomon L.. AU - Stanton, Patric K.. PY - 1993/10/15. Y1 - 1993/10/15. N2 - It has been hypothesized that high levels of presynaptic activity that fail to activate postsynaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors may lead to long-term depression (LTD). Therefore, we tested the ability of high-frequency (50 Hz) synaptic stimulation in the presence of a blocker of NMDA receptors to elicit homosynaptic LTD at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in hippocampal slices from 15-, 30- and 60-day-old rats. In control slices, there were no developmental differences in the incidence of long-term potentiation (LTP) of either EPSP slope or population spike amplitude. However, while NMDA receptor blockade with the specific antagonist d-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5; 25 μM) completely eliminated LTP in 30 and 60-day-olds, a significant number ...
Starting at the dentate gyrus and working inward along the S-curve of the hippocampus means traversing a series of narrow zones. The first of these, the dentate gyrus (DG), is actually a separate structure, a tightly packed layer of small granule cells wrapped around the end of the hippocampus proper, forming a pointed wedge in some cross-sections, a semicircle in others. Next come a series of Cornu Ammonis areas: first CA4 (which underlies the dentate gyrus), then CA3, then a very small zone called CA2, then CA1. The CA areas are all filled with densely packed Pyramidal cells similar to those found in the neocortex. After CA1 comes an area called the subiculum. After this comes a pair of ill-defined areas called the presubiculum and parasubiculum, then a transition to the cortex proper (mostly the entorhinal area of the cortex). Most anatomists use the term "hippocampus proper" to refer to the four CA fields, and hippocampal formation to refer to the hippocampus proper plus dentate gyrus and ...
The CA (Cornu Ammonis) fields, too, contain 3 distinct strata and house excitatory neurons known as pyramidal cells. The alveus is the most superficial layer and contains the commissural fibers of pyramidal cells via the fimbria, a major source of output from the hippocampus. Stratum oriens layer contains basal dendrites of the pyramidal cells and a large body of basket cells (inhibitory interneurons). This strata includes fibers from the septal and commissural areas that are received from the contralateral hippocampus. This region also contains the basal dendrites of the pyramidal cells. The next layer is the stratum pyramidale, named so because it contains the soma, or cell body, of the pyramidal cell. This layer in CA3 contains the mossy fiber connections and also houses interneurons. The stratum moleculare is divided into sublayers. The stratum lucidum is the thinnest layer and, in CA3, this area receives input from the dentate gyrus mossy fibers. Stratum radiatum contains apical dendrites ...
The ventral subiculum (vSUB) plays a key role in addiction, and identifying the neuronal circuits and synaptic mechanisms by which vSUB alters the excitability of dopamine neurons is a necessary step to understand the motor changes induced by cocaine. Here, we report that high-frequency stimulation of the vSUB (HFSvSUB) over-activates ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine neurons in vivo and triggers long-lasting modifications of synaptic transmission measured ex vivo. This potentiation is caused by NMDA-dependent plastic changes occurring in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). Finally, we report that the modification of the BNST-VTA neural circuits induced by HFSvSUB potentiates locomotor activity induced by a sub-threshold dose of cocaine. Our findings unravel a neuronal circuit encoding behavioral effects of cocaine in rats and highlight the importance of adaptive modifications in the BNST, a structure that influences motivated behavior as well as maladaptive behaviors associated ...
The hippocampus is a section of the brain located below the cerebral cortex. It is a part of the limbic system and plays a part in memory.. The name derives from the fact that its curved shape resembles that of a sea horse (Greek: hippocampus).. There is substantial evidence (from animal studies and from patients with brain injury) that the hippocampus is crucial in the conversion of short term memory into long memory, though it is not yet clear how this occurs. Individuals whose hippocampus becomes damaged (for instance, those with Korsakoffs syndrome), whilst retaining the ability to access long-term memories from before their injury, become unable to form new ones. They can, however, learn new skills (such as playing a musical instrument) but will be totally unable to remember how they gained those skills.. There is also evidence, that the hippocampus is involved in storing unique information, as for example locations. Without a fully functional hippocampus a person may no more be able ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Implication of cyclooxygenase-2 on enhanced proliferation of neural progenitor cells in the adult mouse hippocampus after ischemia by 勉 佐々木
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nitric oxide-containing pyramidal neurons of the subiculum innervate the CA1 area. AU - Seress, László. AU - Ábrahám, Hajnalka. AU - Lin, Hong. AU - Totterdell, Susan. PY - 2002/10/31. Y1 - 2002/10/31. N2 - Neurons and axon terminals containing neuron-specific nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) were examined in the rat subiculum and CA1 area of Ammons horn. In the subiculum, a large subpopulation of the pyramidal neurons and non-pyramidal cells are immunoreactive for nNOS, whereas in the neighbouring CA1 area of Ammons horn only non-pyramidal neurons are labelled with the antibody against nNOS. In the pyramidal layer of the subiculum, nNOS-positive axon terminals form both asymmetric and symmetric synapses. In the adjacent CA1 area the nNOS-positive terminals that form symmetric synapses are found in all layers, whereas those terminals that form asymmetric synapses are only in strata radiatum and oriens, but not in stratum lacunosum-moleculare. In both the subiculum and CA1 area, ...
The hippocampus has long been understood to play a critical role in flexible relational learning, episodic memory, and navigation. More recently, a growing body of work implicates the hippocampus in value-based decision making. However, a dichotomy exists between research performed in different organisms and from distinct theoretical traditions. For instance, results in rodent models support an active role for the hippocampus in evaluating potential next-step actions and outcomes. Meanwhile, human research has mainly emphasized the role of the hippocampus in forming representations that may then support later decisions. Other divisions concern the nature of spatial versus more general relational processing, various algorithms for active sampling in support of decisions, and whether the hippocampus plays a part in tasks that require short-term memory or well-learned outcomes. These divergences are in part due to different experimental methods, but they also reveal fundamental gaps in the theory. ...
We determined whether basal excitatory synaptic transmission and long-term synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus were altered in MAGL−/− mice. fEPSPs were evoked by Schaffer collateral stimulation at 0.05 Hz, and the recording electrode was placed in the stratum radiatum of the CA1 region of the hippocampal slices prepared from MAGL+/+ and MAGL−/− mice. We first determined the I/O relationship between presynaptic axon fiber volley and fEPSP slopes by stimulating Schaffer collateral with incremental intensities. MAGL−/− mice did not exhibit significant changes in the slope of I/O curves compared with that of MAGL+/+ mice (n = 7-8 slices from 4 mice each; p , 0.05; data not shown). These results indicate that basal synaptic strength was not significantly changed in MAGL−/− mice.. Next, we compared the paired-pulse ratio (PPR), which is used as a measure of the probability of transmitter release. Synapses with high probability of transmitter release often display low PPR, whereas ...
Aging is characterized by an increased risk of cognitive deficits. It was shown using rodents that aging is associated with a significant reduction in the function of hippocampus, the brain structure important in forming spatial memories. Long-term potentiation (LTP) is an electrophysiologically induced phenomenon, whereby high frequency currents, artificially passed across specific axonal pathways, elicit a long-lasting change in the activity of the postsynaptic neurone. LTP induced in vivo in the adult rat hippocampus can last for months. Interestingly, LTP and learning activate common molecular mechanisms, which when impeded, can affect LTP persistence and memory. Thus, LTP serves as an excellent experimental model for studying memory-related mechanisms. It was previously established that LTP consists of distinct temporal phases, and that LTP-related gene expression changes in the early phase influence the late phase of LTP. Specifically, the robust expression of important immediate early ...
Purified Human Hippocampus Cytoplasmic Lysate from Creative Biomart. Human Hippocampus Cytoplasmic Lysate can be used for research.
Hippocampus hippocampus is a coastal marine seahorse that inhabits mud, sand, rubble and other habitats in the Northeast Atlantic. It occurs from the UK and the Netherlands to Senegal, including the Mediterranean Sea and coastal waters of the Azores, Madeira, and the Canary Islands. The species is under threat from being caught as bycatch in beach seines, gillnets, traps, and trawls. In addition its coastal habitats have suffered as a result of development and pollution. There is some evidence for a large (73%) decrease in population census size from one location (Ria Formosa, Portugal), but a lack of reliable survey data in many parts of this species range means that no consistent trends have been observed across the species range. Thus, based on a lack of data the extinction risk of this species cannot be reliably categorised on a global level. Hippocampus hippocampus is therefore listed as Data Deficient ...
Stažení (download) souboru Family Guy - 08x10 - Big Man on Hippocampus.avi, Velikost 182340402|bytes, Typ: avi, Délka: 20:55, Bitrate:1 127,13 kB/s, Video kodek: XviD MPEG-4 (www.xvid.org), Rozlišení: 512 x 384, Video FPS: 24, Audio kodek: mp3, Vzorkování: 48000, Audio kanálů: 2, Typ audia: joint stereo
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Looking for hippocampus minor? Find out information about hippocampus minor. A ridge that extends over the floor of the descending horn of each lateral ventricle of the brain. A genus of marine fishes in the order Gasterosteiformes... Explanation of hippocampus minor
BioAssay record AID 194727 submitted by ChEMBL: Compound was tested for the selective increase in K+ stimulated AcCh release in brain region of hippocampus at 10 uM concentration.
RESULTS: Both hippocampal volumes were small in patients with MDD compared with healthy controls, and the right hippocampal volume was negatively correlated with the number of episodes at marginal significance. Regional shape contractions were found in the ambient gyrus, basal hippocampal head, posterior subiculum, and dorsal hippocampus of the left hemisphere. The right hippocampus showed a similar pattern but was less atrophic compared with the left hippocampus. A negative correlation was found between the HDRS and shape deformation in the CA3, ambient gyrus, posterior subiculum, and gyrus fasciolaris of the left hippocampus. ...
Dietary effects of arachidonate-rich fungal oil and fish oil on murine hepatic and hippocampal gene expression Roberts, Matthew A; Berger, Alvin; Bruce German, J; Mutch, David M ...
Binding. I think its important to distinguish between the type of binding that may occur in the hippocampus and the binding involved in, say, recognizing a novel configural stimulus (e.g., a word or face) in order to take an action. Although these two types of "binding" may use similar computation or at least yield similar results, it may be misleading to use one term for both processes. I think that when most people say "binding", they are referring to the latter process.. Certainly, it seems as though the hippocampus is *able* to bind features, but cant people with hippocampal damage still bind, perceive, and make decisions on complex configural stimuli?. What about Hippocampal Consolidation?. In the studies you cited above, the increased activation of the hippocampus for novel objects during the working memory delays could simply reflect the fact that novel objects are ones that have yet to be learned, i.e., have not yet been consolidated. As per hippocampal consolidation theory, a ...
Although originally cloned from rat brain, the P2X7 receptor has only recently been localized in neurones, and functional responses mediated by these neuronal P2X7 receptors (P2X7 R) are largely unknown. Here we studied the effect of P2X7 R activation on the release of neurotransmitters from superfused rat hippocampal slices. ATP (1-30 mm) and other ATP analogues elicited concentration-dependent [3 H]GABA outflow, with the following rank order of potency: benzoylbenzoylATP (BzATP) | ATP | ADP. PPADS, the non-selective P2-receptor antagonist (3-30 microm), Brilliant blue G (1-100 nm) the P2X7 -selective antagonist and Zn2+ (0.1-30 microm) inhibited, whereas lack of Mg2+ potentiated the response by ATP. In situ hybridization revealed that P2X7 R mRNA is expressed in the neurones of the cell body layers in the hippocampus. P2X7 R immunoreactivity was found in excitatory synaptic terminals in CA1 and CA3 region targeting the dendrites of pyramidal cells and parvalbumin labelled structures. ATP (3-30 microm)
Gender differences in spatial memory favoring men are frequently reported, and the involvement of the hippocampus in these functions is well-established. However, little is known of whether this behavioral gender difference is mirrored in a gender difference in hippocampal function. Here we assessed hippocampal activity, using functional MRI, while 24 men and women moved through three-dimensional virtual mazes (navigation phase) of varying length, and at the end-point estimated the direction of the starting-point (pointing phase). Men were indeed more accurate than women at estimating direction, and this was especially true in longer mazes. Both genders activated the posterior hippocampus throughout the whole task. During the navigation phase, men showed a larger activation in the right hippocampus than women, while in the pointing phase, women showed a larger activation in the left hippocampus than men. Right-lateralized activation during the navigation phase was associated with greater task ...
During development, activity-dependent processes increase the specificity of neural responses to stimuli, but the role that this type of process plays in adult plasticity is unclear. We examined the dynamics of hippocampal activity as animals learned about new environments to understand how neural selectivity changes with experience. Hippocampal principal neurons fire when the animal is located in a particular subregion of its environment, and in any given environment the hippocampal representation is sparse: less than half of the neurons in areas CA1 and CA3 are active whereas the rest are essentially silent. Here we show that different dynamics govern the evolution of this sparsity in CA1 and upstream area CA3. CA1, but not CA3, produces twice as many spikes in novel compared with familiar environments. This high rate firing continues during sharp wave ripple events in a subsequent rest period. The overall CA1 population rate declines and the number of active cells decreases as the environment ...
In the hippocampus, a structure extremely well-known for its role in learning and memory, the answer for why there would be a need for newborn neurons in the adult might seem a little more straightforward. And, as it turns out, it appears that newborn neurons in the adult hippocampus are required for the formation of new memories. But, interestingly, the production of too many newborn neurons in the hippocampus may paradoxically induce forgetting. In a paper recently published in Science, Aker and colleagues suggest an explanation for the phenomenon of infantile amnesia. Dont vividly remember the first few years of your life? Based on the interesting evidence presented in the paper, the authors suggest that the production of new cells within the hippocampus actually regulates forgetting. When we are newborns, the process of neurogenesis is occurring at an alarming rate and because of this, we are not able to retain any of our first memories during early life. I found this particular study to be ...
Brain and hippocampus. Coloured magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of a coronal section through the head of a healthy 30-year-old, showing the location of the hippocampus (highlighted). The hippocampus is part of the limbic system and plays important roles in the consolidation of information from short-term memory to long-term memory, as well as spatial navigation. - Stock Image C023/9772
Hi all there. I am new in cell culture and dont know anything about cell shape. My cells are spherical after isolation and their shape dont change even after 3-4 days. I like to know the normal pattern of hippocampal cell growth in cell culture. Meaning that how much time last to cells getting their projections ...
For other uses, see Hippocampus (disambiguation). Brain: Hippocampus The hippocampus is located in the medial temporal lobe of the brain. In this lateral view of the human brain, the frontal lobe is at le
Hippocampus can be related to limbic system of the brain and it has a significant role in not only maintaining long term memory but also in spatial navigation ...
Whats is up with our hippocampus these days? The hippocampus is a region in our brain that ostensibly helps people tell whether an object is near or far. Considering that I walk into walls and chairs all the time, I have a feeling my hippocampus is a little. off. I am thinking, however, that…
Network oscillations of different frequencies, durations and amplitudes are hypothesized to coordinate information processing and transfer across brain areas. Among these oscillations, hippocampal sharp wave-ripple complexes (SPW-Rs) are one of the most prominent. SPW-Rs occurring in the hippocampus are suggested to play essential roles in memory consolidation as well as information transfer to the neocortex. To-date, most of the knowledge about SPW-Rs comes from experimental studies averaging responses from neuronal populations monitored by conventional microelectrodes. In this work, we investigate spatiotemporal characteristics of SPW-Rs and how microelectrode size and distance influence SPW-R recordings using a biophysical model of hippocampus. We also explore contributions from neuronal spikes and synaptic potentials to SPW-Rs based on two different types of network activity. Our study suggests that neuronal spikes from pyramidal cells contribute significantly to ripples while high amplitude ...
Hotel Hippocampus: The swimming pool and garden areas were very very... - See 268 traveler reviews, 192 candid photos, and great deals for Hotel Hippocampus at TripAdvisor.
Our group has done significant work in the development of novel automated techniques for mapping the hippocampus and its subfields (Winterburn et al., NeuroImage, 2013; Pipitone et al., NeuroImage, 2014). We have a developed a suite of detailed atlases that demonstrate the anatomy and architecture of this morphologically complex region of the brain. This work is currently being used to study healthy ageing and the hippocampus in the context of different neuropsychiatric disorders (see also: atlas pages).. ...
Optically visualized spread of neural activity of area CA1 of rat hippocampal slice preparation evoked by an electrical stimulation. The signal represents the change in fluorescence of voltage sensitive dye (about 5 x 10^-3 deltaF/F at the peak of the response) being incorporated into membranes of neural tissue. Frame rate is 0.7 ms/frame. The field of view is about 2 mm x 1.3 mm. Takashi Tominaga, Ph.D ...
MRI is the modality of choice to evaluate the hippocampus, however dedicated TLE protocol needs to be performed if good sensitivity and specificity is to be achieved. Thin section angled coronal sequences at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the hippocampus are required, to minimize volume averaging. Coronal volume and coronal high resolution T2WI/FLAIR are best to diagnose MTS. Findings include: reduced hippocampal volume: hippocampal atrophy increased T2 signal abnormal morphology: loss of internal architecture (interdigitations of hippocampus) Although comparing left to right side is easiest, it must be remembered that up to 10% of cases are bilateral, and thus if symmetry is the only feature being evaluated, many cases may be misinterpreted as normal. Often mentioned, but probably one of the least specific findings, is enlargement of the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle. If anything, care must be taken to not allow an enlarged horn to trick you into thinking the hippocampus is ...
Pyramidal neuron located in the CA1 region of the rat hippocampus. These neurons receive information from CA3 pyramidal neurons and send their axons out of the hippocampus.. Image used with permission of Synapse Web ...
Norepinephrine (NE) causes an increase in the frequency of inhibitory postsynaptic potentials in CA1 pyramidal neurons in vitro. The possibility that this increase in tonic inhibition is caused by an excitatory effect on inhibitory interneurons was investigated through whole-cell recordings from pyramidal cells and both whole-cell and cell-attached patch recordings from visualized interneurons in acute slices of rat hippocampus. Adrenergic agonists caused a large increase in the frequency and amplitude of spontaneous IPSCs recorded from pyramidal cells in the presence of ionotropic glutamate receptor blockers, but they had no effect on either the frequency or the amplitude of action potential-independent miniature IPSCs recorded in tetrodotoxin. This effect was mediated primarily by an alpha adrenoceptor, although a slight beta adrenoceptor-dependent increase in IPSCs was also observed. NE caused interneurons located in all strata to depolarize and begin firing action potentials. Many of these ...
Hippocampus neuron. Coloured transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of a section through a neuron from the hippocampus, a structure in the brain responsible for long-term memory. Neurons are responsible for passing information around the central nervous system (CNS) and from the CNS to the rest of the body. The neuron consists of a cell body with a large nucleus (pale brown) and inner nucleolus (dark brown). The single nerve fibre (axon, right) transmits nerve impulses away from the cell body. The surrounding material is the brains grey matter. Magnification: x1800 when printed at 10 centimetres wide. - Stock Image C006/5621
Enkephalins (ENKs) are endogenous opioids that regulate synaptic excitability of GABAergic networks in the cerebral cortex. Using retrograde tracer injections in the subiculum, we identified a hippocampal population of ENK-expressing projection neurons. In situ hybridization for GAD shows that ENK-expressing cells are a small GABAergic subpopulation. Furthermore, by extracellular recording and juxtacellular labeling in vivo, we identified an ENK-expressing cell in stratum radiatum of the CA1 area by its complete axodendritic arborization and characteristic spike timing during network oscillations. The somatodendritic membrane was immunopositive for mGluR1alpha, and there was both a rich local axon in CA1 and subicular-projecting branches. The boutons showed cell-type- and layer-specific innervation, i.e., interneurons were the main targets in the alveus, both interneurons and pyramidal cell dendrites were innervated in the other layers, and interneurons were exclusive targets in the subiculum.
Yes if you want to participate in the project, but have a specific sample you want to use in your composition, then post the sample in the field recordings section for everyone as well. To do so, Just start a new topic with the subject as the title for your field recording, add as an attachment in your post. Site only supports mp3, but I post mine in 256k which is pretty decent ...
Overall, our 2H2O labeling results are consistent with measurements of hippocampal neurogenesis by BrdU labeling. Assuming that the hippocampus has ≈2 × 106 total cells (Abusaad et al., 1999), the labeling rate of 0.2% per day in total C57Bl/6 hippocampus that we observed with 2H2O would be equivalent to ≈4000 labeled cells/day, a value comparable with estimates by 12- to 24-h saturation labeling with BrdU (Hayes and Nowakowski, 2002). Palmer et al. (1999) reported that 0.7% of progenitor cells were labeled after daily BrdU injection for 6 days in a confocal analysis of BrdU incorporation into gradient-isolated progenitor cells from rat hippocampus, a similar value as we measured by 2H2O labeling on similarly isolated rat hippocampal progenitors (1% per week). In mice, the hierarchy of baseline progenitor cell proliferation across different mouse strains in our study agreed well with strain effects on total hippocampal cell proliferation obtained by BrdU labeling (C57Bl/6 , BALB/c , ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The neuroprotection of KIBRA in promoting neuron survival and against amyloid β-induced apoptosis. AU - Song, Lin. AU - Tang, Shi. AU - Dong, Lingling. AU - Han, Xiaolei. AU - Cong, Lin. AU - Dong, Jixin. AU - Han, Xiaojuan. AU - Zhang, Qinghua. AU - Wang, Yongxiang. AU - Du, Yifeng. PY - 2019/4/12. Y1 - 2019/4/12. N2 - Background: Recent research has identified the nucleotide polymorphisms of KIdney and BRAin expressed protein (KIBRA) to be associated with cognitive performance, suggesting its vital role in Alzheimers disease (AD); however, the underlying molecular mechanism of KIBRA in AD remains obscure. Methods: The AD animal model (APP/PS1 transgenic mice) and KIBRA knockout (KIBRA KO) mice were used to investigate pathophysiological changes of KIBRA in vivo. Mouse hippocampal cell line (HT22) was used to explore its molecular mechanism through KIBRA CRISPR/Cas9-sgRNA system and KIBRA overexpression lentivirus in vitro. Results: Aged APP/PS1 mice displayed increased ...
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Five AD hippocampal specimens (A1-A5) and one normal control (N4) are shown. Note the signal voids in AD specimens along the hippocampus compared with the lack of such signal voids in the normal control. The border between field CA1 and the subiculum is indicated by the white line derived from coregistered acetylcholine, myelin, and Nissl staining. The variability in their locations relative to the medial aspect of the hippocampal body illustrates the challenges inherent in in vivo imaging studies of hippocampal subregions. Reprinted from Neurobiology of Aging, vol 36, Zeineh M, Chen Y, Kitzler HH, Hammond R, Vogel H, Rutt BK, "Activated iron-containing microglia in the human hippocampus identified by magnetic resonance imaging in Alzheimers disease," pp 2483-2500, 2015, with permission from Elsevier ...
Five AD hippocampal specimens (A1-A5) and one normal control (N4) are shown. Note the signal voids in AD specimens along the hippocampus compared with the lack of such signal voids in the normal control. The border between field CA1 and the subiculum is indicated by the white line derived from coregistered acetylcholine, myelin, and Nissl staining. The variability in their locations relative to the medial aspect of the hippocampal body illustrates the challenges inherent in in vivo imaging studies of hippocampal subregions. Reprinted from Neurobiology of Aging, vol 36, Zeineh M, Chen Y, Kitzler HH, Hammond R, Vogel H, Rutt BK, "Activated iron-containing microglia in the human hippocampus identified by magnetic resonance imaging in Alzheimers disease," pp 2483-2500, 2015, with permission from Elsevier ...
Probable homophilic and heterophilic cell adhesion molecule involved in long term potentiation at hippocampal excitatory synapses through activation of p38MAPK. May also regulate neurite outgrowth by activating the FGFR1 signaling pathway. May play a role in synaptic plasticity (By similarity).
The hippocampus functions as the long-term data storage portion of the human brain, according to Healthline. The hippocampus is part of the brains limbic system, which includes several structures in...
OK, Im about to dork out on you big time. Ive been writing a paper this week about neurogenesis in the hippocampus and how it relates to depression. Its possible that I lost you right about at the point where I said neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Stick with me - this is cool stuff. The…
Hippocampus Learning Centres (HLC) in Karnataka region have after-school learning centres for primary school going kids that looks at curriculum development, teaching training, educational activities and overall child development. Hippocampus also has a foundation for library and other educational activities.. The project involved designing education material for students and teachers. The design had to be visually communicative, simple to comprehend, standardization of design and ease in production.. ...
The best selection of Royalty Free Hippocampus Vector Art, Graphics and Stock Illustrations. Download 460+ Royalty Free Hippocampus Vector Images.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Yinxiu Ding, Zixin Zhang, Jiangbo Ma, Hechun Xia, Yin Wang, Yinming Liu, Quanrui Ma, Tao Sun, Juan Liu].
They found that in mice with chronic pain, the hippocampus has fewer new cells. By staining for two specific markers DCX and BrdU, you can tell which neurons are new. The hippocampi of control (normal) mice had around 40 new cells, while the chronic pain mice had only 14. This is an indication that neurogenesis is much reduced in response to chronic pain, and suggests that the reduction in hippocampal volume could be related to fewer new neurons being generated (though it does not show this conclusively ...
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Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Yinying Chen, Caixiu Zhou, Yanan Yu, Jun Liu, Zhiwei Jing, Aiping Lv, Fanyun Meng, Zhong Wang, Yongyan Wang].
An examination of 54 human brains suggests that adults dont grow new neurons in the hippocampus, contrary to several widely accepted studies.
IGF2 infusion alters the level of NGF, NT3, BDNF, FGF2 and IGF1 in WT/CHGFP and Application.PS1/CHGFP mice. Hippocampal lysates had been used to assay NGF (A),
Humans and other vertebrates depend on a portion of the brain called the hippocampus for learning, memory and their sense of location. Nerve cell structures in the adult hippocampus are sustained by factors whose identities ...
(PhysOrg.com) -- McGill University researchers have presented three studies suggesting depending on GPS to navigate may have a negative effect on brain function, especially on the hippocampus, which is involved in memory ...
English, McKenzie, et al. identify, validate, and quantify monosynaptic connections between pyramidal cells and interneurons, using the spike timing of pre- and postsynaptic neurons in vivo. Their large-scale method uncovers a backbone of connectivity rules in the hippocampus CA1 circuit.. ...
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This is a clearinghouse for all the miscellaneous things that do not fit (spacewise) in our top navigation. On Memory - fun facts about the Hippocampus Book
Strong epidemiological and experimental evidence indicates that hypertension has detrimental effects on the cerebral microcirculation and thereby promotes accelerated brain aging. Hypertension is an i
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Human Adult Normal Tissue: Brain: Hippocampus, 0.1 mg. Tissue total protein is prepared from whole tissue homogenates and presents a consistent pattern on SDS-PAGE analysis.
Hippocampus guttulatus can be up to 15 cm in length and has a long snout. The fleshy protuberances on the back of the neck, from the head to dorsal fin, give an appearance of a mane. It can be coloured from greenish-yellow through to reddish-brown and often mimics the colour of associated vegetation. It is speckled with bluish-white spots and flecks and its body rings carry bony tubercles giving it an angular, knobbly appearance. ...
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Camera: NIKON D300 , Date: 2/10/09 01:10 , Resolution: 480 x 672 , ISO: 200 , Exp. Time: 1/250s , Aperture: 20.0 , Focal Length: 60.0mm (=91mm ...
Royalty free stock wildlife clipart of hippocampus. These vector wildlife designs are available now under a traditional rf license.
Thе term Hippocampus іѕ nаmеd аftеr thе аnаtоmіѕt Gіulіо Cesare Arаnzіо whо іn thе 16th century observed thаt thіѕ brаіn structure bеаrѕ a grеаt
Photo of marine species Hippocampus guttulatus in undetermined spot, undetermined, undetermined with the following description Seahorse is a type of marine fish that can be easily recognized because of its specific morphology. In the seahgorse, the male holds the eggs in an abdominal p.
Photo of marine species Hippocampus guttulatus in undetermined spot, undetermined, undetermined with the following description Seahorse is a type of marine fish that can be easily recognized because of its specific morphology. In the seahgorse, the male holds the eggs in an abdominal p.
Gallienus, AE Antoninianus, 260-268, Rome. GALLIENVS AVG. Radiate head right. NEPTVNO CONS AVG. Hippocampus facing right. N in exergue. RIC V, 245 ...
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This was a tremendously difficult process. The best lingered with me for days-such raw truth, such emotion. A perfect display of what creative nonfiction can
Das Programm des Hippocampus Verlag umfasst Bücher, Zeitschriften und Therapiematerial zu Themen aus dem Bereich der Neurologie, der neurologischen Rehabilitation und der Neurowissenschaften.
Das Programm des Hippocampus Verlag umfasst Bücher, Zeitschriften und Therapiematerial zu Themen aus dem Bereich der Neurologie, der neurologischen Rehabilitation und der Neurowissenschaften.
Hippocampus Magazine is an exclusively online publication set out to entertain, educate and engage writers and readers of creative nonfiction. Each monthly issue features memoir excerpts, personal essays, reviews, interviews and craft articles.. ...
Around the same time, neuroscientist Tracey Shors, Professor of Psychology at Rutgers University, USA, was also captivated by the phenomenon of adult neurogenesis and teamed up with Gould to investigate. Together we asked ourselves: Why are these new neurons in the hippocampus? Shors said. As the hippocampus is involved in learning, Gould and Shors analyzed whether hippocampus‐dependent learning affects the number of adult‐generated cells. Indeed, it does: "We were shocked that it worked so well," Shors said. "We found that the effect of learning is to keep cells alive. It is not making more cells, but it is making them survive.". One important discovery Shors made is that the survival of the cells is dependent on whether or not the animals learn successfully. Animals that actually learned a skill maintained more neurons than those that had the same amount of training but failed to master the task. "I often tell my students that it is not enough to show up for the class, you do have to ...
Researchers refute central tenet of neuroscience regarding the function of hippocampal NMDA receptor-transmitted plasticity in spatial learning.
The cognitive map theory has been a dominant influence over research into hippocampal function since the publication of OKeefe and Nadels The Hippocampus as a Cognitive Map in 1978 (now freely available at http://www.cognitivemap.net). The main premise of the theory is articulated in the books first paragraph: "We shall argue that the hippocampus is the core of a neural memory system, providing an objective spatial framework within which the items and events of an organisms experience are located and interrelated" (OKeefe and Nadel, 1978). The existence of "place cells" in the hippocampus-principal cells that fire selectively when the animal occupies restricted locations in an environment-is one of the primary pieces of evidence in support of the theory (OKeefe and Nadel, 1978; Ekstrom et al., 2003). Early investigations of place cells characterized some of these cells as "misplace cells" (OKeefe and Nadel, 1978), which fired in a specific location only when an unexpected object or reward ...
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We present a simple wide-field imaging technique, called HiLo microscopy, that is capable of producing optically sectioned images in real time, comparable in quality to confocal laser scanning microscopy. The technique is based on the fusion of two raw images, one acquired with speckle illumination and another with standard uniform illumination. The fusion can be numerically adjusted, using a single parameter, to produce optically sectioned images of varying thicknesses with the same raw data. Direct comparison between our HiLo microscope and a commercial confocal laser scanning microscope is made on the basis of sectioning strength and imaging performance. Specifically, we show that HiLo and confocal 3-D imaging of a GFP-labeled mouse brain hippocampus are comparable in quality. Moreover, HiLo microscopy is capable of faster, near video rate imaging over larger fields of view than attainable with standard confocal microscopes. The goal of this paper is to advertise the simplicity, robustness, ...
Supplementary MaterialsAdditional document 1: Figure S1. in blue (related to Figure ?Figure22). 12974_2019_1582_MOESM3_ESM.mp4 (34M) GUID:?5E2C8E2F-16E2-44C5-8442-6D29BA744B63 Additional file 4: Video S3. Representative video depicting Iba1 immunoreactivity in a 1?mm thick hippocampal section cleared using CLARITY from a URMC-099-treated surgical mouse (Video S3). All mice were 3-month-old for this experiment. Iba1 is denoted in red; DAPI in […]. ...
It may be possible for this team to design another study that could rule out a forward-causal interpretation (have an extra condition where you measure preplay firing activity but the mice *dont* explore the novel arm?). However, I wont hold my breath that they would try it, and I doubt it has even crossed their minds. If we eventually discover that retro-causation in the nervous system is a routine occurrence, this experiment may be a nice example of how we used to overlook it because we started with the wrong assumptions. However, I think we should also bear in mind that the results of this study may simply be due to causation flowing forward in the normal manner. But Ive never been one for parsimony.... ReplyDelete ...
Scientists studying SIDS have determined that a brain abnormality might be responsible for at least 40 percent of SIDS-related deaths. News on NewsHub.org
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Daily News How Gaining and Losing Weight Affects the Body Millions of measurements from 23 people who consumed extra calories every day for a month reveal changes in proteins, metabolites, and gut microbiota that accompany shifts in body mass.. ...
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Activation results during learning (Day 1).A: JULIDE results. At Day 1, the hippocampus (HP) and the parietal associative cortex (PTLp) are the most activated r
Mice, Animals, Brain, Cells, Central Nervous System, Concentration, Gene, Gene Expression, Hippocampus, Immunocytochemistry, In Situ Hybridization, Knockout Mice, Liver, Mouse, mRNA, Nervous System, Neurons, PCR, Populations, Rat
One reason we dont yet have robot personal assistants buzzing around doing our chores is because making them is hard. Assembling robots by hand is time-consuming, while automation - robots building other robots - is not yet fine-tuned enough to make robots that can do complex tasks.But if humans and robots cant do the trick, what about 3-D printers?In a new paper, researchers at MITs Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) present the first-ever technique for 3-D printing robots that involves printing solid and liquid materials at the same time.The new method allows the team to automatically 3-D print dynamic robots in a single step, with no assembly required, using a commercially-available 3-D printer ...
Looking for online definition of pyramidal layer in the Medical Dictionary? pyramidal layer explanation free. What is pyramidal layer? Meaning of pyramidal layer medical term. What does pyramidal layer mean?