Effects of 24-72 h of hindlimb suspension on body and muscle weights (a), muscle-to-body weight ratio (b), and parameters (c) of rat soleus twitch tensions.
In the present study, the baseline LVEDP of the working heart was higher in the tail-suspended rats compared with the control, while a blunted response to ISO in all parameters measured in the working heart, isolated cardiomyocytes and skinned fibers was identified in tail-suspended rats. Thus, the decrease in ISO sensitivity with tail-suspension was associated with changes in the β-AR signaling pathway at the level of the individual cardiomyocyte.. Stimulation of β-AR by ISO activates Gs, which in turn activates adenylate cyclase and increases the formation of cAMP within cardiomyocytes. Elevated levels of cAMP increase activation of PKA, which phosphorylates intracellular targets, including L-type Ca2+ channels, ryanodine receptor (RyR), PLB, cTnI and myosin-binding protein C (MyBPC). Therefore, the upstream components in the β-AR signal transduction pathway include β-AR, Gs, adenylate cyclase, cAMP and PKA. The downstream components are the targeting proteins of PKA.. Forskolin, a direct ...
Serotonin receptors play a variety of functional roles in the body. Some indications and treatment claims for one of the classes of serotonin receptors, the 5-HT3 receptor family, include: anxiety, depression, chemotherapy- and radiation-induced emesis, constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, pain, drug addiction, and satiety control. A 5-HT3 receptor partial agonist, MD-354, served as a lead compound in the development of new 5-HT3 receptor ligands. Using halogenated analogs the study investigated their effect on binding to the 5-HT3 receptor. Conformationally-constrained analogs (quinazolines) were shown to be a novel class of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. The log P values were determined for several analogs, and indicated that these ligands should be able to penetrate the blood-brain barrier. A homology model of the 5-HT3 receptor was built and the docking modes were assessed for these two series. Quinazolines were investigated for antidepressant properties using the mouse tail suspension test, and
The rapid-acting and long-lasting antidepressant effects of (R,S)-ketamine have recently gained much attention. Although (S)-ketamine has been studied as an active isomer, recent evidence suggests that (R)-ketamine exhibits longer-lasting antidepressant effects than (S)-ketamine in rodents. However, the antidepressant potential of (R)-ketamine has not been fully addressed. In the present study, we compared the antidepressant effects of (R)-ketamine with those of (S)-ketamine in animal models of depression, including a model that is refractory to current medications. Both (R)-ketamine and (S)-ketamine exhibited antidepressant effects at 30 minutes as well as at 24 hours after administration in forced-swimming and tail-suspension tests in mice. At 48 hours after administration, however, (R)-ketamine still exerted a significant antidepressant effect in the tail-suspension test, whereas the effect of (S)-ketamine was no longer observed. Moreover, (R)-ketamine, but not (S)-ketamine, significantly ...
Although anecdotal reports suggest that cannabis may be used to alleviate symptoms of depression, the psychotropic effects and abuse liability of this drug prevent its therapeutic application. The active constituent of cannabis, delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, acts by binding to brain CB1 cannabinoid receptors, but an alternative approach might be to develop agents that amplify the actions of endogenous cannabinoids by blocking their deactivation. Here, we show that URB597, a selective inhibitor of the enzyme fatty-acid amide hydrolase, which catalyzes the intracellular hydrolysis of the endocannabinoid anandamide, exerts potent antidepressant-like effects in the mouse tail-suspension test and the rat forced-swim test. Moreover, URB597 increases firing activity of serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus and noradrenergic neurons in the nucleus locus ceruleus. These actions are prevented by the CB1 antagonist rimonabant, are accompanied by increased brain anandamide levels, and are ...
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Skeletal muscle dysfunction and atrophy are characteristic features accompanying chronic conditions. Epigenetic events regulate muscle mass and function maintenance. We hypothesized that the pattern of epigenetic events (muscle-enriched microRNAs and histone acetylation) and acetylation of transcription factors known to signal muscle wasting may differ between early- and late-time points in skeletal muscles of mice exposed to hindlimb immobilization (I) and recovery following I. Body and muscle weights, grip strength, muscle-enriched microRNAs, histone deacetylases (HDACs), acetylation of proteins, histones, and transcription factors (TF), myogenic TF factors, and muscle phenotype were assessed in gastrocnemius of mice exposed to periods (1, 2, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days, I groups) of hindlimb immobilization, and in those exposed to reloading for different periods of time (1, 3, 7, 15, and 30 days, R groups) following 7-day immobilization ...
A novel test procedure for antidepressants was designed in which a mouse is suspended by the tail from a lever, the movements of the animal being recorded. The total duration of the test (6 min) can be divided into periods of agitation and immobility. Several psychotropic drugs were studied: ampheta …
• Fast evaluation of antidepressive, psychotropic drugs |br| |br /| • Up to 6 mice at the same time |br| |br /| • Automatic measurement of immo
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Changes of Contractile Properties of Extensor Digitorum Longus in Response to Creatine-Analogue Administration and/or Hindlimb Suspension in Rats ...
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The time between lifting is dependent on how intense your last training day was. You can train several times a day if you want, or if you train like an old style bodybuilder, you may need a week between parts. 2 days is appropriate for beginners and intermediates doing whole body routines. Others may need more or less. I saw a nice chart once that outlined this but I cant find it ...
Researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine have pinpointed why normal aging is accompanied by a diminished ability to ...
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Ok so with everything reloading getting so #$%&*[email protected] expensive would anyone be willing to tell me how one can make some priming compound at home? In real SMALL batches!
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