Hibernation is a survival strategy of regulated metabolic suppression adopted by a wide range of mammalian species to survive environmental conditions of low or unpredictable food availability (1, 2). Through complex cellular and molecular reorganization, hibernators have evolved the ability to sustain and spontaneously reverse profoundly low levels of body temperature and rates of oxygen consumption. For example, during torpor the arctic ground squirrel, Urocitellus parryii, adopts a core body temperature of −2.9 °C and a minimum metabolic demand that is 2% of its normal, basal metabolic rate (3, 4). However, during the hibernation season, arctic ground squirrels, like all other small mammalian hibernators, alternate between prolonged torpor (to 24 days) and periodic arousal episodes when they spontaneously rewarm to euthermic body temperatures (36-37 °C) for 10-15 h before returning to torpor. The genetic and molecular mechanisms of regulation and tolerance of hibernation and the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neuroprotection supports signal processing in the hippocampus of Syrian hamsters, a facultative hibernator. AU - Lewis, Carly J.. AU - Becker, Jeffrey J.. AU - Manis, Anna D.. AU - Hamilton, Jock S.. AU - Horowitz, John M.. AU - Horwitz, Barbara A. PY - 2012/6/27. Y1 - 2012/6/27. N2 - Studies on several species of mammalian seasonal hibernators (those hibernating only in winter) show that their neurons are more tolerant to hypoxia than those in non-hibernating species. Such tolerance has not been studied in facultative hibernators [e.g., Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus)], which can hibernate at any time of year. We tested the hypotheses that, when exposed to hypoxia, hamster hippocampal pyramidal cells more effectively support signal processing than do rat hippocampal neurons and this protection is enhanced in slices from hibernating versus non-hibernating hamsters and as temperature decreases. Population spike amplitudes (PSAs) were recorded from CA1 pyramidal cells. ...
Objective To observe the endocrine cells in the digestive tract of Rana amurensis in and out of hibernation. Methods We used the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (ABC) immunohistochemical method and the anti5-HT,anti-SS,anti-PP and anti-SP serums. Results 5-HT,SS and Glu cells were detected in the digestive tract of Rana Amurensis,but GAS , PP and SP cells were not. 5-HT cells distributed widely,observed throughout the digestive tract of Rana Amurensis from esophagus to rectum. The distributive density of 5-HT cells was the highest in pylorus and duodenum in hibernation,but in the pylorus during non-hibernating time.SS cells distributed widely too, observed in the whole digestive tract except the rectum. The highest density of the SS cells was both in the pylorus during the two periods. Glu cells were detected only in gastric cardia, gastric body, jejunum and ileum in hibernation,but also in rectum during the non-hibernating period.The density of Glu distribution peaks in the gastric body.Conclusion The
White-nose syndrome is an emerging disease in North America that has caused substantial declines in hibernating bats. A recently identified fungus (Geomyces destructans) causes skin lesions that are characteristic of this disease. Typical signs of this infection were not observed in bats in North America before white-nose syndrome was detected. However, unconfirmed reports from Europe indicated white fungal growth on hibernating bats without associated deaths. To investigate these differences, hibernating bats were sampled in Germany, Switzerland, and Hungary to determine whether G. destructans is present in Europe. Microscopic observations, fungal culture, and genetic analyses of 43 samples from 23 bats indicated that 21 bats of 5 species in 3 countries were colonized by G. destructans. We hypothesize that G. destructans is present throughout Europe and that bats in Europe may be more immunologically or behaviorally resistant to G. destructans than their congeners in North America because they
We have shown that neural microstructure is highly plastic during hibernation to a similar degree in three brain regions, and that these changes parallel body temperature over the course of a torpor bout. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that torpor-related neural retraction is dependent on the ambient temperature, and hence the minimum body temperature reached during a bout of torpor. Recovery of microstructure reaches fixed values of arbor complexity and spine density with each return to euthermia.. The structural changes we have demonstrated in the hibernator brain are among the most dramatic found in nature. Morphological changes similar in character and magnitude have been found in other models of neural plasticity, but never at such a high rate. Whereas dendritic elongation can reach 114 μm per day in the hippocampus of the developing rhesus monkey embryo (Duffy and Rakic, 1983), adult hibernators exhibit similar changes in just 2 h. In adult rats, 4 months of environmental enrichment ...
White-nose syndrome is caused by the fungus Geomyces destructans and is responsible for the deaths of >1,000,000 bats since 2006. This disease and fungus had been restricted to the northeastern United States. We detected this fungus in a bat in France and assessed the implications of this finding ...
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have strong effects on hibernation and daily torpor. Increased dietary uptake of PUFA of the n-6 class, particularly of Linoleic acid (LA, C18:2 n-6) lengthens torpor bout duration and enables animals to reach lower body temperatures (Tb) and metabolic rates. As previously hypothesized, this well-known influence of PUFA may be mediated via effects of the membrane fatty acid composition on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+−ATPase 2a (SERCA) in the heart of hibernators. We tested the hypotheses that high proportions of n-6 PUFA in general, or specifically high proportions of LA (C18:2 n-6) in SR phospholipids (PL) should be associated with increased cardiac SERCA activity, and should allow animals to reach lower minimum Tb in torpor. We measured activity of SERCA from hearts of hibernating and non-hibernating Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) in vitro at 35°C. Further, we determined the PL fatty acid composition of the SR membrane of these hearts. We found that
Other articles where Superficial hibernation is discussed: dormancy: Types of hibernation in mammals: Superficial hibernation, apparently a compromise between the minimum energy requirements of a deep hibernator and the high energy expended by an animal that remains active during the winter, saves energy without the stress of hibernation. The animal can thus conserve food, while still being able…
Hibernation in an appropriate environment not only is important for the survival of hibernators in winter, but also is crucial for breeding in the following season for many hibernating species. However, the genetic and epigenetic mechanism underlying this process remain unclear. In the current study, we performed an integrative multi-omics analysis of gonads collected from Chinese alligators that overwintered in wild cave and artificial warmroom to explore transcriptomic and epigenomic alternations in these organs. The data revealed that in the breeding season, female alligators were more strongly affected in terms of gene expression than males by non-hibernation because of overwintering in a warm room, especially for genes related to oocyte maturation, and this effect commenced in winter with the downregulation of STAR, which is the rate limiting factor of steroid biosynthesis. Further, miRNAs were found to play essential roles in this negative effect of overwintering in the warm room on hibernation.
The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service said on Tuesday that the death toll for bats in North America that have suffered from White-nose Syndrome has exceeded 5.5 million.. Biologists and partners of the service estimated that at least 5.7 million to 6.7 million bats have died from white-nose syndrome (WNS).. The syndrome was first documented in New York in 2006, and the disease quickly spread into 16 states and four Canadian provinces.. Bats with WNS have symptoms like flying around outside during the day, and clustering near the entrances of caves and mines.. The mortality rate of those bats suffering from WNS can reach up to 100 percent in some areas.. This startling new information illustrates the severity of the threat that white-nose syndrome poses for bats, as well as the scope of the problem facing our nation, Fish and Wildlife Service Director Dan Ashe said in a press release. Bats provide tremendous value to the U.S. economy as natural pest control for American farms and forests every ...
Bat population declines are expected to have substantial impacts on the environment and agriculture. Bats eat insects that damage crops and spread disease. Consumption of insects by bats saves farmers billions of dollars in pest control services annually.. White-nose syndrome is caused by a fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, that infects skin of the muzzle, ears, and wings of hibernating bats. Field signs of WNS can include excessive or unexplained mortality at a hibernaculum; visible white fungal growth on the muzzle or wings of live or freshly dead bats; abnormal daytime activity during winter months or movement toward hibernacula openings; and severe wing damage in bats that have recently emerged from hibernation. Infected bats experience a cascade of physiologic changes that result in weight loss, dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and death. To determine conclusively if bats are affected by white-nose syndrome, scientists must examine a skin specimen to look for a characteristic ...
Bat population declines are expected to have substantial impacts on the environment and agriculture. Bats eat insects that damage crops and spread disease. Consumption of insects by bats saves farmers billions of dollars in pest control services annually.. White-nose syndrome is caused by a fungus, Pseudogymnoascus destructans, that infects skin of the muzzle, ears, and wings of hibernating bats. Field signs of WNS can include excessive or unexplained mortality at a hibernaculum; visible white fungal growth on the muzzle or wings of live or freshly dead bats; abnormal daytime activity during winter months or movement toward hibernacula openings; and severe wing damage in bats that have recently emerged from hibernation. Infected bats experience a cascade of physiologic changes that result in weight loss, dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, and death. To determine conclusively if bats are affected by white-nose syndrome, scientists must examine a skin specimen to look for a characteristic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Functional and structural alterations with 24-hour myocardial hibernation and recovery after reperfusion. T2 - A pig model of myocardial hibernation. AU - Chen, C.. AU - Chen, L.. AU - Fallon, J. T.. AU - Ma, L.. AU - Li, L.. AU - Bow, L.. AU - Knibbs, D.. AU - McKay, R.. AU - Gillam, Linda. AU - Waters, D. D.. PY - 1996/1/1. Y1 - 1996/1/1. N2 - Background: Short-term myocardial hibernation of 3 hours resulting from a moderate resting coronary flow reduction has been reproduced in pigs. This study was designed to determine whether any structural changes accompany short-term hibernation caused by a moderate flow reduction maintained for 24 hours and whether any such structural alterations are reversible after reperfusion. Methods and Results: A severe left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) stenosis was created with a reduction of resting flow to ≃60% of baseline and maintained for 24 hours. Regional coronary flow was measured by a flowmeter; wall thickening was ...
The study evaluates the effect of progressively induced low body temperature on trained performance. Approaches to the cause or causes of performance failure at critical body temperature levels are also presented. The value of the performance temperature suppression method for further behavioral study is proposed. Trained heat reinforcement performance was suppressed in the guinea pig at the same body temperature range as was previously reported for the rat, 23 - 25C, several degrees above the level of complete motor collapse. Other rodents and other behavioral methods were also used in the performance evaluations of unrestrained hypothermic subjects. Physiological studies begun include regional brain lipid analysis and a measurement of cerebral blood flow under the conditions of the hypothermia behavioral studies. A supplementary study on the effect of Dimethylsulfoxide on cold-exposed animals revealed a significant depression of oxygen consumption. This is related to the previously reported
Annual hibernation is an adaptation that helps many animals conserve energy during food shortage in winter. This natural cycle is also accompanied by a remodeling of the intestinal immune system, which is an aspect of host biology that is both influenced by, and can itself influence, the microbiota. In amphibians, the bacteria in the intestinal tract show a drop in bacterial counts. The proportion of pathogenic bacteria is greater in hibernating frogs than that found in nonhibernating frogs. This suggests that some intestinal gut microbes in amphibians can be maintained and may contribute to the functions in this closed ecosystem during hibernation. However, these results were derived from culture-based approaches that only covered a small portion of bacteria in the intestinal tract. In this study, we use a more comprehensive analysis, including bacterial appearance and functional prediction, to reveal the global changes in gut microbiota during artificial hibernation via high-throughput sequencing
Torpor is a state of decreased physiological activity in an animal, usually by a reduced body temperature and metabolic rate. Torpor enables animals to survive periods of reduced food availability.[1] The term torpor can refer to the time a hibernator spends at low body temperature, lasting days to weeks, or it can refer to a period of low body temperature and metabolism lasting less than 24 hours, as in daily torpor. Animals that undergo daily torpor include birds (even tiny hummingbirds, notably Cypselomorphae)[2][3] and some mammals, including many marsupial species,[4] rodent species (such as mice), and bats.[5] During the active part of their day, such animals maintain normal body temperature and activity levels, but their metabolic rate and body temperature drops during a portion of the day (usually night) to conserve energy. Torpor is often used to help animals survive during periods of colder temperatures, as it allows them to save the energy that would normally be used to maintain a ...
* The newly described fungus, Geomyces destructans, causes an invasive skin infection in bats and is the likely agent of white-nose syndrome (WNS). * With immune system functions and body temperatures reduced during hibernation, bats may be unusually susceptible to a pathogenic fungus such as G. destructans. * WNS was first observed in a popular show cave near Albany, New York, leading some investigators to suspect that a visitor inadvertently introduced G. destructans at this site, triggering a wider WNS outbreak in North America. * Biologists trying to manage WNS within North American bat populations face major challenges, including the variety of susceptible host species, incredible dispersal capabilities of bats, difficulties in treating such populations, and persistence of the pathogen in their vulnerable underground habitats....
To tackle the scourge of white-nose syndrome, which has killed more than a million bats in the northeastern United States, the US Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) has proposed a national framework of investigation and response to the outbreak. It is seeking comment on the plan from the public beginning 28 October.. Government officials have been working to manage the disease, which affects bats during their hibernation in the winter months, for at least two years, though mostly under different agencies, says Jeremy Coleman, a FWS biologist coordinating the governments white-nose syndrome response.. The plan brings together all the things weve been doing informally and allows state, federal, and tribal agencies to work together, he says.. The framework, which will be finalized by the end of the year, creates working groups to address various elements of response, including surveillance and monitoring, database construction, decontamination, and communication management between various ...
Is animal hibernation really a blissful, season-long slumber, or is it more like a months-long bout with insomnia? Brian Barnes reports in the Sept/Oct issue of The Sciences magazine on the hibernation patterns of arctic ground squirrels, which appear to go through something more closely resembling an icy stupor rather than a restful sleep
The discovery of a possible hibernation hormone in the brain may unlock the mystery behind the dormant state, researchers reported in the April 7, 2006 issue of Cell. Hibernation allows animals from bears to rodents to survive unscathed -- in a state of suspended animation -- under the harshest of winter conditions. If the findings in chipmunks are confirmed, the hormone would represent the first essential brain signal governing the seasonal adaptation, according to the researchers. As hibernation factors endow animals with an incredible ability to cope under otherwise lethal conditions--ratcheting down their metabolic rate to survive on limited energy reserves and withstanding extreme cardiovascular and oxygen stresses--the candidate hormone might also pave the way toward clinical therapies that lend humans the same kind of protection, they added. The researchers earlier found that concentrations of hibernation-specific protein complex (HPc) decline in the blood of hibernating chipmunks. The ...
Emerging infectious diseases are a key threat to wildlife. Several fungal skin pathogens have recently emerged and caused widespread mortality in several vertebrate groups, including amphibians, bats, rattlesnakes and humans. White-nose syndrome, caused by the fungal skin pathogen Pseudogymnoascus destructans, threatens several hibernating bat species with extinction and there are few effective treatment strategies. The skin microbiome is increasingly understood to play a large role in determining disease outcome. We isolated bacteria from the skin of four bat species, and co-cultured these isolates with P. destructans to identify bacteria that might inhibit or kill P. destructans. We then conducted two reciprocal challenge experiments in vitro with six bacterial isolates (all in the genus Pseudomonas) to quantify the effect of these bacteria on the growth of P. destructans. All six Pseudomonas isolates significantly inhibited growth of P. destructans compared to non-inhibitory control bacteria, and two
The life history schedules of wild organisms have long attracted scientific interest, and, in light of ongoing climate change, an understanding of their genetic and environmental underpinnings is increasingly becoming of applied concern. We used a multi-generation pedigree and detailed phenotypic records, spanning 18 years, to estimate the quantitative genetic influences on the timing of hibernation emergence in a wild population of Columbian ground squirrels (Urocitellus columbianus). Emergence date was significantly heritable [h2 = 0.22 ± 0.05 (in females) and 0.34 ± 0.14 (in males)], and there was a positive genetic correlation (rG = 0.76 ± 0.22) between male and female emergence dates. In adult females, the heritabilities of body mass at emergence and oestrous date were h2 = 0.23 ± 0.09 and h2 = 0.18 ± 0.12, respectively. The date of hibernation emergence has been hypothesized to have evolved so as to synchronize subsequent reproduction with upcoming peaks in vegetation abundance. In ...
While a human can lie in bed for a week before muscles begin to atrophy and blood clots form, hibernators will endure months without moving. During hibernation, the microbiome - the community of bacteria living in an animals digestive tract - is battered by cold and the sudden lack of food. Hibernators lungs become covered with a thick deposit of mucus and collagen like those seen in people with asthma, and their brains show changes that resemble those of early-stage Alzheimers. Some species lose memory during hibernation. Most surprising of all, some show symptoms of sleep deprivation when they finally wake. And yet, hibernators are able to counter all of these issues to bounce back in spring, often without any long-term ill effects. ...
A person typically takes a long time to recover from cardiac surgery or organ transplant. This is in part because organ tissue is damaged when blood flow ceases or is reduced when a heart stops or an organ is removed. Tissue is also damaged when blood flow is restored and the bodys metabolic machinery is not able to safely handle the returning rush of oxygenated blood.. Protection of tissues following cardiac arrest or organ transplant has remained an elusive scientific target, despite significant research and promising data.. In 2009, Barnes, a zoophysiologist, and Dr. Mihai Podgoreanu, chief of Dukes Division of Cardiothoracic Anesthesiology, began collaborating to identify how a hibernating Arctic ground squirrels heart can survive what is akin to repeated cardiac arrests.. Unlike other animals, Arctic ground squirrels can lower their metabolism to 2 percent of their normal rate, which allows them to essentially shut down bodily functions they dont need and, importantly, puts their organs ...
(PhysOrg.com) -- Scientists have proven that the fungus Geomyces destructans causes white-nose syndrome, a fast-spreading and highly lethal disease of bats.
Previous work has suggested that central and peripheral opioid signaling are involved in regulating torpor behavior and tissue protection associated with the hibernation phenotype. We used quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to measure mRNA levels of opioid peptide precursors and receptors in the b …
hibernation: A state of greatly reduced metabolic activity and lowered body temperature adopted by certain mammals as an adaptation to adverse winter conditions. A brief treatment of hibernation...
This woman has had a low body temperature (ranging from 34.3 to 35.1 degrees C) for a couple of years. She was prescribed Thyroxine for a borderline thyroid problem and has been taking adrenal support (herbal), which has increased her energy levels, but her body temperature is still low. She has low blood sugar levels, and her acupuncturist says her heart is under stress although a standard ECG test showed nothing. What causes low body temperature? Could it be low blood sugar or heart problems or is there another underlying cause? One woman who also suffers from a low body temperature says her right heart chambers are enlarged, so her heart doesnt function as well as it should. She suggests a 48-hour ECG, which will give a better picture; if your heart is struggling, it will have down time at night, which your cardiologist should pick up on. Mercury amalgam fillings may also be the cause. One readers body temperature did increase a little after having all 13 fillings changed for ceramic ones. ...
Hibernation Manager Premium v1.8Requirements: 2.3+Overview: Android devices are designed to work all the time, even when you do not use them! Hibernation Ma...
This hibernation Hoodie is printed on a Hoodie and designed by studio19. Available in many sizes and colours. Buy your own Hoodie with a hibernation design at Spreadshirt, your custom t-shirt printing platform!
As we enter the heart of winter, puffy coats, hats, and gloves make it out of our closets to protect us from the frigid air. While we trudge along shivering, the ground squirrel lives happily in the cold weather, resistant to the low temperatures.. The Phenomenon:. A new study shows that when the ground squirrel wakes from hibernation, it is less sensitive to the cold than its non-hibernating relatives. Why? A cold-sensing protein, TRPM8, in the sensory nerve cells is partly responsible for the amazing phenomenon.. The Evidence:. In an experiment conducted with mice (non-hibernating), ground squirrels, and Syrian hamsters (hibernating animals closely related to the ground squirrel), the animals were given the choice between a hotter plate and a colder plate. Whereas the mice gravitated toward the hot plate, the ground squirrel and Syrian hamster did not react to the cold temperature of the plate until it dropped below 10 degrees Celsius.. The Biology:. Part of the squirrels and hamsters ...
Bacteria found naturally on some bats may prove useful in controlling the Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the fungus responsible for white-nose syndrome.
Hibernation is an adaptive strategy in bats that facilitates coping with low ambient temperatures (Ta) and scarce food during winter (Geiser, 2004). The over-winter survival of hibernating bats depends on the quantity of energy that animals store prior to hibernation, the rate of depletion of these reserves and the duration of winter (Humphries et al., 2002). The decline in metabolic rate (MR) and body temperature (Tb) of a bat during hibernation enables a significant reduction of usage of nutrients and water, enhancing the probability of survival (Geiser and Koertner, 2010). Hibernation is not a constant state of reduced Tb and MR; rather, it comprises bouts of torpor interspersed with periods of arousal, when the animal returns to its normothermic Tb and MR (French, 1985). A single torpor bout can last as long as 350 h in bats, but periods of arousal rarely exceed 24 h (Geiser and Ruf, 1995). Although bats arouse for only 5-10% of the time they are hibernating, arousals can account for over ...
A newly discovered virus infecting the fungus that causes white-nose syndrome in bats could help scientists and wildlife agencies track the spread of the disease that is decimating bat populations in the United States, a new study suggests.
The fungus that causes white-nose syndrome, a plague-like disease decimating species of hibernating bats in North America, has been found in California.
Snake researchers are noticing a disturbing trend: Snake fungal disease afflicting increasing numbers of snakes.Could it be to snakes what white-nose syndrome is to bats?
Noun 1. A state of inactivity and metabolic depression in endotherms. Hibernation refers to a season of heterothermy that is characterized by low body temperature, slow breathing and heart rate, and low metabolic rate. Although traditionally reserved for deep hibernators such as rodents, the term has been redefined to include animals such as bears and is now applied based on active metabolic suppression rather than based on absolute body temperature decline. (wikipedia.org) 2. A state of inactivity and metabolic depression in animals during winter. (wiktionary.org) 3. Cessation from or slowing of activity during the winter; especially slowing of metabolism in some animals; the torpid or resting state in which some animals pass the winter; a state of dormancy used by animals in the colder winter months where metabolism is slowed down and expenditure of energy is therefore reduced. This is done mostly due to the fact that food sources are scarce at this time of the year, and if the animal did ...
1. Yamashita O, Hasegawa K. Embryonic diapause. In: (ed.) Kerkut G.A, Gilbert L.I. Comprehensive Insect Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, vol. 1. Oxford: Pergamon Press. 1985:407-434 2. Nakagaki M, Takei R, Nagashima E, Yaginuma T. Cell cycles in embryos of the silkworm, Bombyx mori: G2-arrest at diapause stage. Rouxs Archives of Developmental Biology. 1991;200:223-229 3. MacRae T.H. Molecular chaperones, stress resistance and development in Artemia franciscana. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2003;14(5):251-258 4. Renfree M.B, Shaw G. Diapause. Annu Rev Physiol. 2000;62:353-375 5. Lopes F.L, Desmarais J.A, Murphy BD. Embryonic diapause and its regulation. Reproduction. 2004;128(6):669-678 6. Storey K.B. Out cold: biochemical regulation of mammalian hibernation. Gerontology. 2009 in press 7. Hochachka P.W, Lutz PL. Mechanism, Origin, and Evolution of Anoxia Tolerance in Animals. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 2001;130(4):435- 459 8. Denlinger D.L. Regulation of Diapause. Annu Rev Entomol. 2002;47:93- ...
Estivation and Daily Torpor - Estivation is like hibernation in hot weather, and daily torpor helps birds get through cold times. Learn about different types of hibernation.
We have recently begun to assess the role of another type of chaperone in hypometabolic states. These are the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident chaperones, in particular the glucose-regulated protein, GRP78. We analyzed GRP78 expression in organs of hibernating ground squirrels S. tridecemlineatus, assessing both transcriptional and translational controls. Transcript levels of grp78 were strongly increased by 3.5-fold in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and 4.1-fold in brain of hibernating squirrels, as compared with euthermic controls, but remained stable in other tissues tested (heart, kidney, liver, lung, skeletal muscle)(Mamady and Storey, 2006). Similarly, GRP78 protein was elevated in BAT and brain during hibernation, by 1.57- and 1.37-fold, respectively, but unaltered (kidney, muscle, lung) or lowered (heart and liver, by 19 and 42%, respectively). How can this be interpreted? BAT and brain are both highly oxygen-dependent organs and they are both organs that need to retain considerable ...
Torpor or hibernation in fish is rare, but the most remarkable case features the basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus). It swallows great quantities of plankton, straining it from the water via specialized filters called gill-rakers. A common sight drifting just beneath the sea surface during the plankton-rich summer months, these sharks are rarely seen during the winter, when plankton is scarce. This is because they descend to deeper waters where, scientists assumed, they spend the season in a torpid state. However, when scientists examined two basking sharks during winter they lacked gill-rakers and thus couldnt feed. This unexpected finding suggests that basking sharks hibernate, shedding their gill-rakers and regrowing them in spring. (Shuker 2001:108 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Association of low body temperature and poor outcomes in patients admitted with worsening heart failure. T2 - A substudy of the efficacy of vasopressin antagonism in heart failure outcome study with tolvaptan (EVEREST) trial. AU - Payvar, Saeed. AU - Spertus, John A.. AU - Miller, Alan B.. AU - Ward Casscells, S.. AU - Pang, Peter S.. AU - Zannad, Faiez. AU - Swedberg, Karl. AU - Maggioni, Aldo P.. AU - Reid, Kimberly J.. AU - Gheorghiade, Mihai. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Aims Risk stratification in patients admitted with worsening heart failure (HF) is essential for tailoring therapy and counselling. Risk models are available but rarely used, in part because many require laboratory and imaging results that are not routinely available. Body temperature is associated with prognosis in other illnesses, andwe hypothesized that low body temperature would be associated with worse outcomes in patients admitted with worsening HF. Methods and results The Efficacy of Vasopressin ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Recovery of Syrian hamster hippocampal signaling following its depression during oxygen-glucose deprivation is enhanced by cold temperatures and by hibernation. AU - Mikhailova, Alexandra. AU - Mack, Jacob. AU - Vitagliano, Nicholas. AU - Hamilton, Jock S.. AU - Horowitz, John M.. AU - Horwitz, Barbara A. PY - 2016/5/16. Y1 - 2016/5/16. N2 - Signal transmission over a hippocampal network of CA3 and CA1 neurons in Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus), facultative hibernators, has not been fully characterized in response to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). We hypothesized that during OGD, hippocampal signal transmission fails first at the synapse between CA3 and CA1 pyramidal neurons and that recovery of signal processing following OGD is more robust in hippocampal slices at cold temperature, from hamsters vs. rats, and from hibernating vs. non-hibernating hamsters. To test these hypotheses, we recorded fEPSPs and population spikes of CA1 neurons at 25 °C, 30 °C, and 35 °C in ...
Low Body Temperature Many doctors are not aware that low body temperatures can cause severe problems or that they can be corrected.
Low Body Temperature Many doctors are not aware that low body temperatures can cause severe problems or that they can be corrected.
The winter hibernation in northern North America is very important because of how long and extreme it can be. To up the challenge the wood frog hibernates in the leaf litter and consequently freezes solid during winter. By solid I mean properly solid. The frogs can survive multiple freeze/thaw events as long as less than 65% of their water remains unfrozen. Freeze/thaw stops my experiments on bacteria from working but apparently these frogs are just fine. To survive the big freeze the frogs accumulate urea in the tissues and build enormous glycogen stores which breaks into glucose upon ice formation in the tissues. The soluble urea and glucose prevent ice formation and save the frogs. This phenomenal life cycle enables easier and early access to the natal ponds where eggs are laid and tadpoles develop and must leave before the thawing dries up the pools. So the question was posed, is a wood frog alive during winter hibernation? Technically its dead, no heartbeat, no metabolism and yet it ...
Sometimes in the middle of a heated, political squabble that has drug on for many months, you can feel the need to just get into the nearest cave and wait until it all blows over. Compounding that is the fact that as I write this its the month of February...
Microcystis aeruginosa is a type of cyanobacteria capable of producing a hepatotoxin called microcystin (MC). As toxic M. aeruginosa overwinters in the sediments of lakes, it is consumed by some mayfly larva, such as those of the Hexagenia spp., and thus MC bioaccumulates in these insects. Each summer, Hexagenia emerge from the lake to reproduce. While individual Hexagenia may only live for 48 hours, the emergence of these species can last for several weeks, providing a temporary food source for many terrestrial organisms such as birds and bats. Little brown bats, Myotis lucifugus, feed opportunistically on aquatic insects. To test if microcystin is moving from aquatic to terrestrial ecosystems via trophic transfer, we 1) tested the bat feces for the presence of Hexagenia mayflies; and 2) tested the bat livers and feces for microcystin. In June 2013, bat feces were collected from underneath a maternity roost near Little Traverse Lake (Leelanau County, MI). That same night, one male little brown bat was
But so far, biologists dont have a good answer why the bats are surviving. While they were persisting, it wasnt clear how they were coping with the disease, she said, adding that these reasons can provide clues to the long-term trajectories of these bat populations.. To uncover why the bats were persisting, Langwig and her colleagues compared the patterns of infection in little brown bats in New York to areas in Illinois and Virginia where the disease had more recently been detected and populations were declining.. As part of the study, Langwig and her team swabbed the bats skin and then conducted tests to detect the amount of the fungus they carry during winter hibernation. They used mathematical models to examine three major hypotheses for how bats were persisting with white-nose syndrome, including reduced transmission, tolerance, and resistance. The team found that bats in the New York populations seemed to reduce their fungal pathogen loads toward the end of their hibernation. However, ...
GenDR A curated database of genes associated with dietary restriction in model organisms either from genetic manipulation experiments or gene expression profiling.. ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Domain architecture and assignment details (superfamily, family, region, evalue) for ENSSTOP00000017342 from Ictidomys tridecemlineatus 76_2. Plus protein sequence and external database links.
WASHINGTON (AP) - A small, brown endangered bat would become the official state mammal of Americas capital city, under a proposed ordinance that will get a public hearing in January.. The idea was proposed earlier this year by several Girl Scout troops after they studied the little brown bats, according to a D.C. Council statement.. The Little Brown Bat has good friends in the Girl Scouts of the Capitol Hill Cluster School, the legislation says.. The creatures, known to scientists as myotis lucifugus, typically grow to about 3.5 inches (8 centimeters) tall with a wingspan of up to 11 inches (27 centimeters). They are found in the Chesapeake Bay watershed, according to the Chesapeake Bay Program . Though small, the bats can fly up 22 mph (35 kph) and can eat up to 1,200 bugs per night, accord to the legislation.. The little brown bat population has been hurt by a fungal disease called white-nose syndrome. The disease kills bats by increasing the amount of energy used during hibernation, ...
ID I3N0U5_ICTTR Unreviewed; 1770 AA. AC I3N0U5; DT 11-JUL-2012, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 11-JUL-2012, sequence version 1. DT 27-SEP-2017, entry version 37. DE RecName: Full=Voltage-dependent T-type calcium channel subunit alpha {ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU003808}; GN Name=CACNA1I {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSSTOP00000017991}; OS Ictidomys tridecemlineatus (Thirteen-lined ground squirrel) OS (Spermophilus tridecemlineatus). OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; OC Mammalia; Eutheria; Euarchontoglires; Glires; Rodentia; Sciuromorpha; OC Sciuridae; Xerinae; Marmotini; Ictidomys. OX NCBI_TaxID=43179 {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSSTOP00000017991, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000005215}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,Ensembl:ENSSTOP00000017991} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RG The Broad Institute Genome Assembly & Analysis Group; RG Computational R&D Group; RG and Sequencing Platform; RA Di Palma F., Alfoldi J., Johnson J., Berlin A., Gnerre S., Jaffe D., RA MacCallum ...
To avoid the harsh conditions of winter climates, hibernating mammals undergo a systematic depression of physiological function by reducing their metabolic rate. During this process, hibernators are exposed to significant stresses (e.g., low body temperature, ischemia-reperfusion) that must be dealt with appropriately to avoid irreversible tissue damage. Consequently, we investigated the contribution of stress-responsive antioxidant enzymes, heat shock proteins, signal transduction pathways (e.g., mitogen-activated protein kinases, MAPK), and transcription factors for their role in conferring tolerance to stress in the hibernating thirteen-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus). Using a combination of multiplex protein panels and traditional immunoblotting procedures, we have focused on these stress factors in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) over cycles of torpor-arousal since they provide the means for heat production as a result of non-shivering ...
Arctic ground squirrels overwintering in northern Alaska experience average soil temperature of −10°C. To examine energetic costs of arousing from hibernation under arctic compared to temperate condit
During torpor, the metabolic rate (MR) of thirteen-lined ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) is considerably lower relative to euthermia, resulting in part from temperature-independent mitochondrial metabolic suppression in liver and skeletal muscle, which together account for ~40% of basal MR. Although heart accounts for very little (
Domain architecture and assignment details (superfamily, family, region, evalue) for ENSMLUP00000012783 from Myotis lucifugus 76_2.0. Plus protein sequence and external database links.
Gromov, I.M. and Erbaeva, M.A. 1995. Mammal fauna of Russia and adjacent territories. Lagomorphs and Rodents. Russian Academy of Science, Zoological Institut, St. Petersburg.. Hafner, D.J., Yensen, E. and Kirkland, G.L., Jr. 1998. Status survey and conservation action plan - North American Rodents. IUCN/SSC Rodent Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.. IUCN. 2016. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2016-3. Available at: www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 07 December 2016).. Pacifici, M., Santini, L., Di Marco, M., Baisero, D., Francucci, L., Grottolo Marasini, G., Visconti, P. and Rondinini, C. 2013. Generation length for mammals. Nature Conservation 5: 87-94.. Panteleyev, P. A. 1998. The Rodents of the Palaearctic Composition and Areas. Pensoft, Moscow, Russia.. Serdyuk, V. A. 1986. Arctic Ground Squirrel. DVNC AN SSSR, Vladivostok.. Vinokurov, V. N. and Akhrimenko A. K. 1982. Population ecology of long-tailed ground squirrels in Yakutia. Yakutsk.. Wilson, D.E. and Ruff, S. 1999. The ...
When Arctic ground squirrels are getting ready to hibernate they dont just get fat -- they pack on muscle at a rate that would make a bodybuilder jealous. And they do it without suffering the harmful effects that high levels of testosterone and other anabolic steroids usually cause. University of Toronto Scarborough (UTSC) researchers have started to untangle how the squirrels manage it, and their results could someday have implications for human health.
Definition of Ursus americanus. What does Ursus americanus mean? Meaning of Ursus americanus. Ursus americanus synonyms, pronunciation, spelling and more from Free Dictionary.
Sciuridae: Ictidomys tridecemlineatus (Thirteen-lined Ground Squirrel) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in the Prairie region during summer] MZN1951, Poliocitellus franklinii (Franklins Ground Squirrel) [seeds comprise 2-5% of the diet in Northern Prairies during the summer] MZN1951 ...
35. Maslo, B, M. Valent, J.F. Gumbs, and W.F. Frick. 2015. Annual survival of little brown bats improves over time after initial impacts from white-nose syndrome. Ecological Applications. 2(7): 1832-1840 PDF. 34. Janicki, AF., W.F. Frick, A.M. Kilpatrick, K.L. Parise, J.T. Foster, and G.F. McCracken. 2015. Efficacy of visual surveys for white-nose syndrome at bat hibernacula. PLoS One 10(7): e013339 PDF. 33. Langwig, K.E, J.R. Hoyt, K.L. Parise, J. Kath, D. Kirk, W.F. Frick, J.T. Foster, and A. M. Kilpatrick. 2015. Invasion dynamics of white-nose syndrome fungus, Midwestern United States, 2012-2014 Emerging Infectious Diseases 21(6): 1023-1026. PDF. Press: Nature. 32. Hoyt, J.R., T.L. Cheng, K.E. Langwig, M.H. Hee, W.F. Frick, and A.M. Kilpatrick. 2015. Bacteria isolated from bats inhibit the growth of Pseudogymnoascus destructans, the causative agent of white-nose syndrome. PLoS One 10(4):e0121329 PDF. Press: Quirks and Quarks Radio, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Discovery News,Yahoo News, ...
Hibernation is a complex physiological response that some mammalian species employ to evade energetic demands. Previous work in mammalian hibernators suggests that hibernation is activated not by a set of genes unique to hibernators, but by differential expression of genes that are present in all mammals. This question of universal genetic mechanisms requires further investigation and can only be tested through additional investigations of phylogenetically dispersed species. To explore this question, we use RNA-Seq to investigate gene expression dynamics as they relate to the varying physiological states experienced throughout the year in a group of primate hibernators-Madagascars dwarf lemurs (genus Cheirogaleus). In a novel experimental approach, we use longitudinal sampling of biological tissues as a method for capturing gene expression profiles from the same individuals throughout their annual hibernation cycle. We identify 90 candidate genes that have variable expression patterns when ...
Helpful, trusted answers from doctors: Dr. Moeller on how do i get rid of these little brown dots i have on my arms and cheeks: To figure out the best treatment of the little brown dots on your arms and cheeks, it will be important to find out what the cause is. Freckles? Sun damage? Post inflammatory hyperpigmentation? Your skin type is important as well. You may want to start with having your primary doctor have a look at the areas and recommend treatment. A dermatologist or cosmetic surgeon can be helpful.
BACKGROUND: Despite 5-7 months of physical inactivity during hibernation, brown bears (Ursus arctos) are able to cope with physiological conditions that would be detrimental to humans. During hibernation, the tissue metabolic demands fall to 25% of the active state. Our objective was to assess cardiac function associated with metabolic depression in the hibernating vs. active states in free-ranging Scandinavian brown bears. METHODS: We performed echocardiography on seven free-ranging brown bears in Dalarna, Sweden, anesthetized with medetomidine-zolazepam-tiletamine-ketamine during winter hibernation in February 2013 and with medetomidine-zolazepam-tiletamine during active state in June 2013. We measured cardiac output noninvasively using estimates of hemodynamics obtained by pulsed wave Doppler echocardiography and 2D imaging. Comparisons were made using paired T-tests. RESULTS: During hibernation, all hemodynamic indices were significantly decreased (hibernating vs. active state): mean heart ...
Fasting Biochemistry of Representative Spontaneous and Facultative Hibernators: The White-Tailed Prairie Dog and the Black-Tailed Prairie Dog
Modifications are described which make T-1824 suitable for plasma volume determinations on small bats. An average plasma volume of 6.5 ml/100 gm body weight has been determined for the active little brown bat, Myotis lucifugus; average blood volume, based on plasma volume and hematocrit, is 13.0 ml/100 gm body weight. Seasonal changes have been observed which apparently result primarily from changes in lean body weight and from pregnancy. Young bats have a proportionately greater blood volume. No significant differences have been found between sexes, nor between determinations made during day and night hours. Plasma and blood levels are changing least at the beginning and end of the hibernating period. Comparisons of previous studies suggest that, while a plasma decrease and unchanged cell volume seem generally characteristic of mammals which have entered hibernation, a concurrent drop in heart blood hematocrit of the hibernating bat suggests a redistribution of erythrocytes as well.. ...
Walker, R. , P. Wang, B. Ganesh, R. A. Igal, G.L. Florant and R.A. Coleman. Hepatic enzymes of glycerolipid synthesis: Comparison of seasonal changes in the golden-mantled ground squirrel (S. lateralis )and the yellow-bellied marmot (M. flaviventris ). In: Adaptations to the Cold. F. Geiser, A.J. Hulbert, S.C. Nicol, eds. University of New England Press, Armidale, N.S.W, p. 233, 1996 ...
A new study from University of Michigan biologists presents the first genetic evidence of resistance in some bats to white-nose syndrome, a deadly fungal disease that has decimated some North American bat populations.
Discussion. Rat bites are most commonly reported in reptiles that are fed rats as prey (Barten, 2006b; Schilliger, 2004b). Tortoises are, however, also vulnerable to rat attacks, particularly during the winter months when many tortoises undergo hibernation. Rat bite trauma is, unfortunately, a common presentation in post-hibernation animals (McArthur et al., 2004). The exposed surfaces of the fore and hind limbs, as well as the tail, are most commonly affected, although eye and head injuries are also occasionally seen (McArthur et al., 2004). Gnaw injuries to the shell may also be seen, as in this case.. On presentation, these patients will require a thorough examination and assessment to establish the status of the patient and the extent of their injuries. Initial treatment will aim to stabilise the patient and will consist of fluid therapy, analgesia, rewarming and temporary wound care.. Warming and fluid therapy is recommended in most patients, and indeed necessary to reverse hibernation in ...
The mammalian TE landscape has been finely delineated for the genomes of human, mouse, rat, and dog (1, 6-8). Although these genomes are rich in varied types of TEs, no Helitrons have been identified. Furthermore, only retrotransposons are known to be recently active in these lineages, and there has been no evidence that any mammalian DNA transposons have been active within the last 50 million years (1, 6, 9). Our results provide evidence for the relatively recent amplification of Helitrons, an atypical class of DNA transposons, in a mammalian lineage.. Reiterative searches of all current National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) databases with the REP/Helicase domains of HeliBat1 (or Helentrons) revealed no evidence of Helitrons in any other placental or marsupial species. This result is surprising because complete or partial WGS are presently available for 36 species from 15 different mammalian orders (www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genomes/leuks.cgi). In addition, we could not detect any ...
A little brown bat can consume between 600 to 1,000 mosquitoes in a single hour. A nursing little brown bat mother may consume as many as 4,500 mosquitoes in a single evening, more than her own body...
Pre-order now. Solid gone Popular Song Lyrics. I used to love to watch her dance that grizzly bear. First released in November 1966 on RCA Victor, Grizzly Bear (also seen under the misspelled title Grizzley Bear) was the first single released in advance of their debut album, and their first real hit. Tell me why she was gone (tell me why she was gone) Im gonna take a stab at this Sure you will be alright Make a decision with a kiss Baby I have false spite And when I trek alone back home I make sure that I trek in the snow Would it fall? Billboard Hot 100. Top Lyrics of 2011. Systole is the first song of Grizzly Bear where Chris Taylor sings the lead vocals. Grizzly Bear Lyrics: Whoa-oh, when I woke up this morning / She was gone / Solid gone / When I woke up this morning / She was gone / Solid gone, yeah / I used to love to watch her dance that grizzly It featured work from Christopher Bear, who will end up becoming a band member. Grizzly Bear - Two Weeks Lyrics. By 2005, the group ...
Arctic ground squirrels are a colonial species. Communities are based around kin clusters of closely-related adult females and their offspring, with a single territorial male (McLean 1982, Yensen and Sherman 2003). Adult males establish territories in the spring that are 0.14 to 2.2 ha, and may encompass several kin clusters (Nowak 1999). Adult females make use of existing burrows, or excavate new burrows, that they use as refuge, and to birth and wean their pups (Yensen and Sherman 2003). Home range size varies with sex, life stage, and resource density, but is generally 0.2 to 4 ha (Hubbs and Boonstra 1998, Nowak 1999). After weaning, young are independent and will likely disperse. The females are highly philopatric and will likely remain in the area and kin cluster. Females will only disperse if there is already a high population density, and competition for resources is high (Byrom and Krebs 1999). Males are highly likely to disperse, and 57 to 100% of juveniles will disperse in their first ...
Methods. Preparation of RNA. Thirteen-lined ground squirrels were purchased from TLS Research (Bartlett, IL). Eastern chipmunks were obtained by trapping the animals in Jefferson County, Alabama. The animals were euthanized by carbon dioxide asphyxiation. The eyes were enucleated and the retinas frozen in liquid nitrogen. Animal care guidelines in accordance with those published by the Institute for Laboratory Animal research were followed. Total RNA from ground squirrel and eastern chipmunk retinas was prepared using the TRIzol Reagent (Life Technologies, Gaithersburg, MD) according to the manufacturers protocols. Poly(A)+ RNA was prepared using the polyATtract Kit (Promega, Madison, WI) following procedures described by the manufacturer. Rat poly(A)+ RNA was purchased from Clontech (Palo Alto, CA).. Cloning of GRK7. Two degenerate primers used previously to clone members of the GRK family [25-29], were modified to recognize all GRKs and used to amplify sequence from rat, 13-lined ground ...
TPWD - The fungus that causes white-nose syndrome (WNS) in bats has continued to spread into parts of Central, South, and East Texas, according to the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department.. The fungus was detected for the first time in Texas in early 2017 in six Panhandle counties. This year it was detected at 22 sites in 16 counties, 11 of which were new. There are now 21 counties in Texas where the fungus has been detected in Texas. It was found on 43 cave myotis, 4 tri-colored bats, and 13 Mexican free-tailed bats. No signs of WNS, the disease in bats caused by the fungus, were reported. Biologists say it usually takes a few years after detecting the fungus for the disease to manifest.. A detection in Liberty County is the first yet in East Texas. Detections in Frio and Victoria Counties are now the most southerly detections of the fungus in the country.. The amount the fungus has spread this year is concerning said Jonah Evans, TPWD mammologist. On the bright side, we have yet to observe ...
Emerging infectious diseases present a major perturbation with apparent direct effects such as reduced population density, extirpation and/or extinction. Comparatively less is known about the potential indirect effects of disease that likely alter community structure and larger ecosystem function. Since 2006, white-nose syndrome (WNS) has resulted in the loss of over 6 million hibernating bats in eastern North America. Considerable evidence exists concerning niche partitioning in sympatric bat species in this region, and the unprecedented, rapid decline in multiple species following WNS may provide an opportunity to observe a dramatic restructuring of the bat community. ...
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The Little Brown Skink (Scincella lateralis) is one of eight species of skinks that reside in Texas, but it is the only one of its genus.
TUESDAY, April 6, 2021 (HealthDay News) -- Because of the COVID-19 pandemic, scientists thought twice about studying North American bats in their winter habitats. But theyve now determined that the risk of humans passing the coronavirus to bats under these conditions was low. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) led the study. It found the risk to be one in 1,000 with no protective measures and one in 3,333 with proper use of personal protective equipment or if scientists test negative for COVID-19 before beginning research.. This is a small number, but the consequences of human-to-bat transmission of coronavirus are potentially large, said USGS scientist Evan Grant, an author of the new rapid risk assessment. The virus has not been identified in North American bats, but if it is introduced, it could lead to illness and mortality, which may imperil long-term bat conservation. It could also represent a source for new exposure and infection in humans, Grant explained in a USGS news ...
Syrian hamsters and thirteen-lined ground squirrels are tolerant of chilly temperatures, thanks to amino acid changes in a cold-responsive ion channel. 0 Comments. ...
Syrian hamsters and thirteen-lined ground squirrels are tolerant of chilly temperatures, thanks to amino acid changes in a cold-responsive ion channel. 0 Comments. ...