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The Epstein-Barr Virus Capsid Antigen (VCA) IgM ELISA Kit is intended for the measurement of IgM antibodies to Epstein-Barr Virus Capsid Antigen (VCA) in a sample. This kit utilizes Epstein-Barr VCA antigen (P3H3 cell extract, cultured in human Burkitt lymphoma cells).
TY - JOUR. T1 - Value of combined approach with thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography and Epstein-Barr virus DNA polymerase chain reaction in CSF for the diagnosis of AIDS-related primary CNS lymphoma. AU - Antinori, Andrea. AU - De Rossi, G.. AU - Ammassari, A.. AU - Cingolani, A.. AU - Murri, R.. AU - Di Giuda, D.. AU - De Luca, A.. AU - Pierconti, F.. AU - Tartaglione, T.. AU - Scerrati, M.. AU - Larocca, L. M.. AU - Ortona, L.. PY - 1999/2. Y1 - 1999/2. N2 - Purpose: To determine the diagnostic capability of thallium-201 (201Tl) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) combined with Epstein-Barr virus DNA (EBV-DNA) in CSF for the diagnosis of AIDS-related primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL). Patients and Methods: All human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with focal brain lesions observed between June 1996 and March 1998 underwent lumbar puncture and 201Tl SPECT. Each CSF sample was tested with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for EBV-DNA. Results: ...
BioAssay record AID 288762 submitted by ChEMBL: Inhibition of TPA-induced Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation assessed as EBV-EA induction in Raji cells at 3.2 nM after 48 hrs relative to TPA.
Epstein-Barr virus early antigen: synthesized before or in the absence of viral-progeny DNA replication & present only in infected cells
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synthetic peptides deduced from the amino acid sequence of Epstein‐Barr virus nuclear antigen 6 (EBNA 6). T2 - Antigenic properties, production of monoreactive reagents, and analysis of antibody responses in man. AU - Falk, K.. AU - Linde, A.. AU - Johnson, D.. AU - Lennette, E.. AU - Ernberg, I.. AU - Lundkvist, A.. PY - 1995/8. Y1 - 1995/8. N2 - Studies on the antibody responses to various Epstein‐Barr virus (EBV) antigens have been instrumental in the understanding of the seroepidemiology and diagnosis of this viral infection and the subsequent carrier state. While antibodies to the viral capsid antigen (VCA), early antigen (EA), and nuclear antigens 1 and 2 (EBNA 1 and 2) have been well characterized, the antibody response to the other nuclear antigens is not well understood. EBNA 6 is expressed by lymphoblasts during acute EBV infection and may be an important antigen for diagnosis and evaluation of the immune response. In order to analyze the antibody response to EBNA ...
The role of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) early antigen diffuse component (EA-D) and its relationship with EBV DNA polymerase in EBV genome-carrying cells are unclear, EBV-specified DNA polymerase was purified in a sequential manner from Raji cells treated with phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate and n-butyrate by phosphocellulose, DEAE-cellulose, double-stranded DNA-cellulose, and blue Sepharose column chromatography. Four polypeptides with molecular masses of 110,000, 100,000, 55,000, and 49,000 daltons were found to be associated with EBV-specified DNA polymerase activity. A monoclonal antibody which could neutralize the EBV DNA polymerase activity was prepared and found to recognize 55,000- and 49,000-dalton polypeptides. An EA-D monoclonal antibody, R3 (G. R. Pearson, V. Vorman, B. Chase, T. Sculley, M. Hummel, and E. Kieff, J. Virol. 47:183-201, 1983), was also able to recognize these same two polypeptides associated with EBV DNA polymerase activity. It was concluded that EBV EA-D polypeptides, as ...
Background aims. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) belong to the most dreaded complications of immunosuppression. The efficacy of EBV-specific T-cell transfer for PTLD has been previously shown, yet the optimal choice of EBV-derived antigens inducing polyclonal CD4þ and CD8þ T cells that cover a wide range of human leukocyte antigen types and efficiently control PTLD remains unclear. Methods. A pool of 125 T-cell epitopes from seven latent and nine lytic EBV-derived proteins (EBVmix) and peptide pools of EBNA1, EBNA3c, LMP2a and BZLF1 were used to determine T-cell frequencies and to isolate T cells through the use of the interferon (IFN)-g cytokine capture system. We further evaluated the phenotype and functionality of the generated T-cell lines in vitro. Results. EBVmix induced significantly higher T-cell frequencies and allowed selecting more CD4þIFN-gþ and CD8þIFN-gþ cells than single peptide pools. T cells of all specificities ...
This study will examine the effects of long-term antiviral therapy with valaciclovir (Valtrex) on Epstein-Barr virus infection. This virus infects more
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Poly(ADP-ribosylation) is a post-translational modification of nuclear proteins involved in several cellular events as well as in processes that characterize the infective cycle of some viruses. In the present study, we investigated the role of poly(ADP-ribosylation) on Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) lytic cycle activation. Inhibition of PARP-1 by 3-aminobenzamide (3-ABA) during EBV induction, diminished cell damage and apoptosis in the non-productive Raji cell line while markedly reducing the release of viral particles in the productive Jijoye cells. Furthermore, incubation with 3-ABA up-regulated the levels of LMP1 and EBNA2 latent viral proteins. At the same time, it slightly affected the expression of the immediate early BZLF1 gene, but largely down-regulated the levels of the early BFRF1 protein. The modulation of the expression of both latent and lytic EBV genes appeared to be post-transcriptionally regulated. Taken together the data indicate that PARP-1 plays a role in the progression of EBV lytic
Immunotherapy approaches targeting Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded antigens induce objective clinical responses only in a fraction of patients with undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (UNPC). In the present study, we have characterized the immunogenicity of the EBV-encoded BARF1 oncogene with the aim to assess whether this protein could constitute a new target antigen for immunotherapy in this setting. Spontaneous CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses specific for the recombinant p29 BARF1 protein were detected by IFNγ-ELISPOT in both EBV-seropositive donors and UNPC patients, but not in EBV-seronegative individuals. Using immunoinformatic prediction tools, we have selected 5 different candidate BARF1 T cell epitopes presented by HLA-A*0201. Although only one of these peptides was able to bind HLA-A2 with low affinity in the T2 stabilization assay, all 5 BARF1 nonamers readily elicited specific CD8+ T cell responses in EBV-seropositive HLA-A*0201+ donors and UNPC patients. Notably, the ...
p,Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), or human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), infects the vast majority of adults worldwide, and establishes both nonproductive (latent) and productive (lytic) infections. Host immune responses directed against both the lytic and latent cycle-associated EBV antigens induce a diversity of clinical symptoms in patients with chronic active EBV infections who usually contain an oligoclonal pool of EBV-infected lymphocyte subsets in their blood. Episomal EBV genes in the latent infection utilize an array of evasion strategies from host immune responses: the minimized expression of EBV antigens targeted by host cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), the down-regulation of cell adhesion molecule expression, and the release of virokines to inhibit the host CTLs. The oncogenic role of latent EBV infection is not yet fully understood, but latent membrane proteins (LMPs) expressed during the latency cycle have essential biological properties leading to cellular gene expression and immortalization, ...
EBV infection is primarily controlled by a delicate balance of B and T cells. Outgrowth of EBV-infected B cells is a direct consequence of inadequate EBV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, hence the higher incidence of EBV-associated malignancy in immunocompromised hosts (12). While no vaccine is currently available for the disease, adoptive transfer of EBV-specific T lymphocytes that recognize EBV antigens have emerged as a promising therapeutic option. These ex vivo-manufactured donor T cells and patient-derived EBV-specific T cells have eradicated disease in patients with refractory EBV+ polymorphic and monomorphic PTLD (13-15). Thus, the role of T cells in controlling EBV in immunocompetent hosts and in eradicating EBV in immunocompromised hosts following ex vivo antigen-specific priming is clear and encourages the development and design of EBV vaccines. The quest for an EBV-directed vaccine has proven quite challenging, in large part because of the lack of preclinical models for vaccine ...
Background: Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) infection is closely associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), but the relationship between viral load and disease activity is unclear. This study tested the observed levels of salivary EBV in MS, as a first step in investigating this relationship. Methods: Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) was used to measure EBV DNA levels in saliva samples from three separate Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patient cohorts. Results: The qPCR assay was used to delineate EBV shedding, defined here as a reliably detectable level of extracellular EBV DNA in saliva. Frequency of EBV shedding was found to be similar across the groups, with 20-25% of subjects releasing virus on any given sampling date. Diurnal variation in EBV count was tested in one of the cohorts, in which 26% of subjects showed more than a 10-fold difference between the highest and lowest EBV levels on a single day. In the same cohort, elevated viral levels at one time point did not predict elevated viral levels at a ...
Epigenetic modifications leading to either transcriptional repression or activation, play an indispensable role in the development of human cancers. Epidemiological study revealed that approximately 20% of all human cancers are associated with tumor viruses. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), the first human tumor virus, demonstrates frequent epigenetic alterations on both viral and host genomes in associated cancers-both of epithelial and lymphoid origin. The cell type-dependent different EBV latent gene expression patterns appear to be determined by the cellular epigenetic machinery and similarly viral oncoproteins recruit epigenetic regulators in order to deregulate the cellular gene expression profile resulting in several human cancers. This review elucidates the epigenetic consequences of EBV-host interactions during development of multiple EBV-induced B-cell lymphomas, which may lead to the discovery of novel therapeutic interventions against EBV-associated B-cell lymphomas by alteration of reversible
The initiation of cell-mediated immunity to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been analyzed with cells from EBV-seronegative blood donors in culture. The addition of dendritic cells (DCs) is essential to prime naive T cells that recognize EBV-latent antigens in enzyme-linked immunospot assays for interferon γ secretion and eradicate transformed B cells in regression assays. In contrast, DCs are not required to control the outgrowth of EBV-transformed B lymphocytes from seropositive donors. Enriched CD4+ and CD8 + T cells mediate regression of EBV-transformed cells in seronegative and seropositive donors, but the kinetics of T-dependent regression occurs with much greater speed with seropositives. EBV infection of DCs cannot be detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction with primers specific for mRNA for the EBNA1 U and K exons. Instead, DCs capture B cell debris and generate T cells specific for EBV latency antigens. We suggest that the cross-presentation of EBV-latent antigens from
Structure of a trimeric variant of the Epstein-Barr virus glycoprotein B. - Marija Backovic, Richard Longnecker, Theodore S Jardetzky
Clinical benefit rate (CBR, percent of patients experiencing complete response [CR], partial response [PR] or stable disease [SD] for at least 12 weeks from post cycle 2 to cycle 6 measurements) determined according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST), or by immune-related Response criteria (irRC) in the absence of measurable disease ...
Clinical benefit rate (CBR, percent of patients experiencing complete response [CR], partial response [PR] or stable disease [SD] for at least 12 weeks from post cycle 2 to cycle 6 measurements) determined according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST), or by immune-related Response criteria (irRC) in the absence of measurable disease ...
In this study, 63 (5.6%) of 1127 consecutive gastric carcinomas were EBV-positive, and this rate was similar to the findings of previous reports in the United Kingdom (3) , Italy (20) , and Japan (21) . Between January 1 and June 30, 1995, the EBV-positive rate was 5.6% (17 of 304), and between July 1, 1995, and December 31, 1996, the EBV-positive rate was also 5.6% (46 of 823). The former 17 EBV-positive gastric carcinomas had a similar protein expression profile to that of the total of 63 EBV-positive carcinomas (data not shown). The clinicopathological characteristics of these 63 EBV-positive gastric carcinomas, such as rich lymphoid stroma, proximal location, and predominance in males, were also in agreement with the results of other investigations (22 , 23) .. The role of EBV in carcinogenesis of the stomach is not completely understood. The latency type of EBV in gastric adenocarcinomas is distinct from the known EBV latency types, e.g., in Burkitts lymphomas and nasopharyngeal ...
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Adoptive transfer of polyclonal Epstein-Barr-virus (EBV)-specific T cell lines has been used as prophylaxis and therapy in patients with EBV-associated malignancies. This approach, however, is limited by the difficult expansion of polyclonal T cells directed mainly against dominant EBV antigens presented on EBV-transformed B cell lines (LCLs). Isolating EBV-specific T cell receptors (TCRs) for transduction of T cells is an alternative strategy to confer T cell immunity against EBV antigens including subdominant EBV antigens. In this study, we have used peptide-pulsed DCs to selectively expand EBV-specific CD4+ T cell clones against an EBNA2-derived epitope. Data suggested that peptide-pulsed DCs are particularly effective in stimulating T cells specific for subdominant EBV antigens. TCR genes from one of these clones as well as from two CD8+ T cell clones were identified by RACE PCR. TCR alpha and beta chains where then cloned into retroviral vectors for transduction of T cells to equip them ...
We have recently developed a culture system in which 90% of B cells from human peripheral blood or spleen are induced to strongly proliferate and generate short-term clones of a mean of about 400 antibody-secreting cells. B cells are stimulated by mutant EL-4 thymoma cells in conjunction with T cell supernatant. In the present study, we first investigated whether the frequency of B cell immortalization by EBV would be higher in this system than in a conventional system by using PBMC as fillers. The results showed that the EBV-dependent cloning frequency (0.7%) was not increased compared with the system with the use of PBMC (2.1%). However, the short term proliferation of EBV-infected B cells was 20 times increased in the EL-4 system and EBV nuclear Ag-positive cells participated in this response. Recent reports showed that transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) inhibited the growth of normal B cells, whereas the growth of EBV-immortalized (lymphoblastoid) cells was not inhibited. We have ...
Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) is an insidious virus that can cause many debilitating conditions. The insidious part comes from the viruses ability to camouflage
pathogen (EBV) latent membrane proteins 2A (LMP2A) is certainly widely portrayed in EBV-infected cells inside the contaminated individual host and EBV-associated malignancies suggesting that LMP2A is essential for EBV latency persistence and EBV-associated tumorigenesis. B lymphocytes contaminated in vitro with EBV become immortalized building lymphoblastoid cell lines DMH-1 (LCLs). This technique constitutes an in vitro model for the contribution of EBV to B lymphoid disease. EBV gene appearance in LCLs is fixed to six nuclear antigens (EBNA1 -2 -3 -3 -3 and -LP) three essential membrane protein (latent membrane proteins 1 DMH-1 [LMP-1] -2 and -2B) two nonpolyadenylated RNAs. ...
Lee et al (87), used a high-throughput genotyping platform to determine the mutation status of 474 hotspots in 41 genes using 237 gastric adenocarcinomas, which included 58 EBVaGCs. Among these, 34 cases (14.3%) harbored somatic mutations, 6 of which concomitantly had two different mutations. Fourteen EBVaGC cases had mutations; 6 in PIK3CA (10.3%), 1 in p53 (1.7%), 2 in APC (3.4%), 1 in STK11 (1.7%), 3 in CTNNB1 (5.2%) and 1 in CDKN2A (1.7%). CTNNB1 mutations were significantly more frequent in EBVaGC than in EBV-negative gastric carcinomas (one of 179 cases, 0.6%). Frequent PIK3CA mutations were also reported in two subsequent studies; 16.7% (of 18 EBVaGCs) in a report by Sukawa et al (88), and 80% (of 28 EBVaGCs) in a report by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network (89). A recent report by Liang et al (90), showed several newly identified mutations in EBVaGC, including mutations in MAP3K4 (20.8%), TGFBR1 (25.0%), CCNA1 (25.0%) and AKT2 (38.2%). Among these, an AKT2 mutation was ...
The various antigen complexes of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are broadly classified as the viral capsid antigen (VCA), diffuse early antigen (EA-D), restricted early antigen (EA-R), membrane antigen (MA) and the Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen (EBNA). The different EBV-related diseases may be differentiated according to the reactivity of these different classes of antibodies towards the various classes of antigen complexes. However, with the recent development of molecular biology, it is now known that the individual polypeptides of the different EBV antigen complexes can be used as serological markers for the detection of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Among the useful serological markers which have been used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of NPC are the gp125 from the VCA complex (IgA), pp58 from the EA-D complex (IgG), ribonucleotide reductase (IgG and IgA), DNase (IgA) and thymidine kinase (IgA) from the EA-R complex, gp 250/200 from the MA complex (IgA) and ...
According to the Ann Arbor staging method, advanced disease (defined as stages IIB-IV) was present in 19 patients and the frequency of EBV DNA was higher in this group (63% versus 9%, p = 0.006, 95% CI = 0.26-0.81). Plasma EBV DNA was found in all HIV-positive patients (100% versus 29%, p = 0.0007). When only the 24 HIV-negative patients were analyzed, the frequency of EBV DNA remained higher in the 13 patients with advanced disease (54% versus 9%, p = 0.03). DISCUSSION. The presence of tumor-derived DNA in the plasma and serum of cancer patients opens up new possibilities for detecting and monitoring cancer.. In the present study, 43% of the patients with Hodgkin s disease had EBV DNA that was detectable by conventional PCR in the plasma prior to treatment, whereas only one healthy individual (8%) was positive for plasma EBV DNA (p = 0.03). Moreover, plasma EBV DNA was present in almost every patient (10/11, 91%) with proven LMP-1 in the lymph nodes, and also in 3/19 patients (16%) without ...
Immobilization of Raji cells on surface coated with anti-lymphocyte globulin (ALG) at low cell densities lead to the synthesis of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) early antigen (EA) in up to 5% of the cells. At higher cell densities the percentage of antigen-positive cells decreased and at confluency no antigen synthesis was observed. Addition of iododeoxyuridine (IdUrd) to low density cultures increased the expression of EA to 20%, whereas in confluent cultures the cells could not be induced to synthesize EA. Treatment of cells in suspension with ALG failed to induced EA synthesis and did not potentiate the effect of IdUrd. Immobilized Raji cells proved to be suitable targets for superinfection with EBV derived from P3HR1 cultures. ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Sharada Ramasubramanyan, Kay Osborn, Rajaei Al-Mohammad, Ijiel B Naranjo Perez-Fernandez, Jianmin Zuo, Nicolae Balan, Anja Godfrey, Harshil Patel, Gordon Peters, Martin Rowe, Richard G Jenner, Alison J Sinclair].
EBI-3 has an induced expression in B lymphocytes in reaction to Epstein-Barr virus infection. EBI- 3 encodes a secreted glycoprotein belonging to the hematopoietin receptor family, and heterodimerizes with a 28 kDa protein to form IL-27. EBI-3 drives rapid clonal expansion of naive cd4(+) T-cells. EBI-3 strongly synergizes with IL-12 to activate IFN-gamma production of naive cd4(+) T-cells. EBI-3 mediates its biologic effects through the cytokine receptor WSX-1/TCCR. Human recombinant EBI-3 produced in E. coli is a single, non-glycosylated, polypeptide chain containing 209 amino acids fragment (21-229) having a molecular weight of 34 kDa and fused with a 4.5 kDa amino-terminal hexahistidine tag ...
People react differently when they are diagnosed with a disease of chronic Epstein-Barr virus. Some depressed people, while others remain positive and hopeful. In fact, some people find that EBV disease using grow emotionally, making them stronger and more tolerant, more understanding.. Here are some methods that can help you better cope with the disease of chronic Epstein-Barr virus.. First, it is important that the expression of emotions. Be honest and admit your health, instead of pretending not to exist. People who communicate their feelings tend to need less treatment, and offers fewer symptoms and keep more independence and physical performance.. The next thing to do is to control. And more people to actively manage chronic Epstein-Barr virus themselves, the better they do. Set goals, such as what you eat, and how they stay fit, and how it will be easier to manage your stress, what supplements to take and what is much better than the passive acceptance of what the treatment is given for ...
Gurudutt Gupta, Jatin S. Gandhi, Roshini Gala, Anila Sharma, Sunil Pasricha, Anurag Mehta. Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute & Research Centre, Delhi, India. Background: EBV infects ,90 % of the worlds population and is associated with both Hodgkin (HL) and Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (NHL). Our study evaluates EBV(via EBER-ISH) expression in neoplastic, as well as non-neoplastic bystander cells in lymphomas.. Methods: Slides and blocks of all lymphoma cases were evaluated for morphology, IHC and EBV association. The EBER in situ hybridization was performed using iblueVentana detection kit, on Benchmark-XT platform to elucidate EBV encoded small RNA.. Results: Total cases evaluated were 184(HL, n=39;NHL, n=145), out of 145 NHL cases, 81% and 19% cases were B-cell and T-cell lymphomas respectively. EBER expression was seen in 3.2%(4/122) of B- cell and 13%(3/23) of T- cell lymphomas. The EBER positivity was seen 51% in HL (20/39), with 60%(3/5) positivity in paediatric(,12 years) age group. Single ...
How is Epstein-Barr Virus Insertion Site 1 abbreviated? EBVS1 stands for Epstein-Barr Virus Insertion Site 1. EBVS1 is defined as Epstein-Barr Virus Insertion Site 1 rarely.
What Is the Epstein-Barr Virus?By age 35, almost everyone has been infected with Epstein-Barr virus, the most common cause of mononucleosis.The Epstein-Barr
Antigens made by the Epstein Barr virus may provide a perfect target for tumor therapy A typically innocuous virus found in 90 % of people worldwide is the key to a new treatment for a malignancy particularly common in North Africa and Southeast Asia. A fresh research showing that antigens produced by the Epstein Barr virus may provide an ideal focus on for therapy will end up being published in the March 1, 2005, problem of Blood, the official journal of the American Culture of Hematology. Related StoriesCornell biomedical engineers develop super natural killer cells to destroy tumor cells in lymph nodesViralytics enters into scientific trial collaboration agreement with MSDMeat-rich diet plan may increase kidney tumor riskPatients received intravenous doses of specialized T cells that specifically targeted antigens produced by the Epstein Barr virus suhagracipla.org . Continue reading →. ...
Various studies have shown a close relationship between undifferentiated gastric carcinoma with lymphoid stroma and Epstein-Barr virus infection; the presence of viral DNA in tumour cell nuclei has been demonstrated using polymerase chain reaction and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA in neoplastic cell nuclei have been found using in situ hybridization ...
Dr. Verma research involves understanding the pathogenesis of tumor viruses, specifically Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) and Kaposis sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV). Both viruses undergo lytic replication in epithelial cells during primary infection and during reactivation from latent infection in B-lymphocytes. Epstein Barr virus SM is an RNA binding protein essential for viral replication that enhances EBV gene expression by enhancing RNA stability and RNA export. Dr. Verma has shown that SM interacts with cellular splicing factors and influences splicing of both EBV and cellular pre-mRNAs. Like EBV SM, KSHV ORF57 is also a post-transcriptional regulatory protein, essential for KSHV lytic replication and has high degree of gene specificity. His current research is focused on regulation of gene expression and antiviral drug screening in the following areas ...
Mouse anti Epstein-Barr virus viral capsid antibody, clone 0231 recognizes the viral capsid antigen of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), also know
We describe a method for generating transformed B cell lines using Epstein-Barr virus. We also illustrate a novel assay that can...
Douglas W. Hanto, Glauco Frizzera, David T. Purtilo, Kiyoshi Sakamoto, John L. Sullivan, Ari K. Saemundsen, George Klein, Richard L. Simmons, John S. Najarian ...
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a widely disseminated herpesvirus (human herpes virus 4), which is spread by intimate contact between susceptible persons and asymptomatic EBV shedders. The majority of primary EBV infections throughout the world are subcl
Results EBV dysregulation was observed exclusively in ELS+ RA but not osteoarthritis (OA) synovia, as revealed by presence of EBV latent (LMP2A, EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER)) transcripts, EBER+ cells and immunoreactivity for EBV latent (LMP1, LMP2A) and lytic (BFRF1) antigens in ELS-associated B cells and plasma cells, respectively. Importantly, a large proportion of ACPA-producing plasma cells surrounding synovial germinal centres were infected with EBV. Furthermore, ELS-containing RA synovia transplanted into SCID mice supported production of ACPA and anti-VCP1/VCP2 antibodies. Analysis of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell localisation and granzyme B expression suggests that EBV persistence in ELS-containing synovia may be favoured by exclusion of CD8+ T cells from B-cell follicles and impaired CD8-mediated cytotoxicity.. ...
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a type of herpes virus. As an acute infection, EBV is the virus that causes mononucleosis (mono). While up to 90% of people have been infected with EBV, not everyone develops symptoms. An EBV infection can cause symptom...
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EBV was among the first viruses which were described to express miRNAs (21, 22). A wide spectrum of cellular, host, and viral functions have been described to be regulated by at least 44 mature miRNAs that EBV expresses (3, 23). Our in vivo model of EBV infection in huNSG mice now reveals that the main outcome of loss of miRNA expression is elevated T-cell-mediated immune control of viral infection and associated tumorigenesis. This improved immune control is associated with decreased numbers of proliferating EBV-infected B cells and attenuated T cell expansion. Consistent with a previous study that already demonstrated delayed kinetics of EBV infection and a tendency toward lower virus-associated lymphomagenesis in the absence of the BHRF1 miRNAs (14), we also find reduced viral loads and no detectable tumorigenesis with the complete miRNA-deficient virus but unchanged infection with BART miRNA knockout EBV. Furthermore, deletion of the EBERs, another prominent species of EBV-expressed ...