BACKGROUND Hepatitis delta virus is a unique human pathogen responsible for some 20 million infections globally. This virus is dependent on hepatitis B virus for transmission and propagation. Currently, at least three genotypes of hepatitis delta virus with different geographic distribution and clinical manifestations are described. METHODS In this study, hepatitis delta virus RNA of 35 patients sera were analyzed by RT- semi-nested polymerase chain reaction. Based on genomic differences of hepatitis delta antigen coding region of hepatitis delta virus RNA among hepatitis delta virus RNA-positive sera, the polymerase chain reaction products were digested with restriction enzymes and studied by restriction fragment length polymorphism. RESULTS Out of 35 samples, 13 (38.46%) were positive for hepatitis delta virus RNA by RT- semi-nested polymerase chain reaction. All polymorphisms were shown to be genotype I. Out of 13 hepatitis delta virus RNA-positive (13/35), eight were HBeAg negative.
Background and Aims: The global epidemiology of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection is changing. This study was performed to determine the epidemiology and clinical impact of hepatitis delta in Pakistan.. Methods: Countrywide data was collected from 1994 to 2001. A total of 8721 patients were tested for hepatitis delta antibody. A subset of 97 hepatitis delta antibody reactive inpatients with chronic liver disease were compared to 97 patients admitted with liver disease due to hepatitis B alone.. Results: Of the 8721 patients tested, 1444 (16.6%) were reactive for hepatitis delta antibody. Most were males (87.4%, P , 0.001) and younger (mean age 31 years, P , 0.001) compared to HDV non-reactive patients. Prevalence of delta infection was highest in the rural (range 25-60%) compared to the urban population (range 6.5-11%). Analysis of the inpatient data showed that delta infected patients had significantly less severe clinical liver disease and a trend towards lesser development of ...
We have investigated the usefulness of serum hepatitis delta virus (HDV) RNA detection using a slot hybridization analysis of serum samples from ten patients with acute hepatitis and delta markers (group I), from 28 patients with chronic delta hepatitis (group II) and from seven liver graft recipients with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and HDV related cirrhosis or fulminant hepatitis (group III). The slot-blots were hybridized with both HDV-complementary DNA and single-stranded RNA probes. With the single-stranded RNA probe, HDV RNA was detected in the first serum sample available in 9/10 of the patients with acute hepatitis (group I). In addition, HDV RNA was detected in 8/9 and 7/8 of the samples obtained within and after 1 month of the onset of hepatitis. Five of the ten patients scored positive for HDV RNA and negative for hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) while one was negative for HDV RNA and positive for HDAg. The same RNA probe enabled the detection of serum HDV RNA in 21/28 chronic hepatitis ...
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) B is a DNA virus belonging to the Hepadnaviridae family. Hepatitis B infection is a serious health problem and two billion people worldwide are infected with this virus and 350 million people are infected with the chronic infection (1). Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a satellite virus and a single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the delta viride family. Delta antigen was identified by Rizzetto et al. in patients with hepatitis B during year 1977 (2). Hepatitis delta virus requires the surface antigen of hepatitis B virus to replicate and transmit. Hepatitis D virus infection in HBsAg carriers can be found as a simultaneous and acute infection. This infection simultaneously leads to chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma (3). Currently, eight genotypes have been described for HDV, HDV-1 to HDV-8, with the exception of HDV-1; all genotypes are found in distinct and different geographic regions. Most studies in Iran have reported on the HDV-1 ...
A simple rapid detection of antibody to hepatitis delta virus (anti-HDV) in human serum was developed by using double antigen sandwich ELISA. HDV gene fragment encoding HDAg was isolated from a Chinese patient infected with HDV by RT-PCR, and a high-efficient expression HD-PQE31 strain was constructed with the fragment. We obtained high titer and good quality hepatitis delta virus protein purified by Ni-NTA metal-affinity chromatography, which was identified by Western blot and ELISA, then we set up the double antigen sandwich ELISA for detection of anti-HDV in human serum, and the performance of the sandwich ELISA was evaluated in terms of specificity and sensitivity. Results were: 1) The purified HDAg proteins purity was 90%, and its ELISA titer was 1/100 000. 2) 42 anti-HDV positive sera were detected and showed that the sensitivity of sandwich ELISA was higher than that of competitive ELISA (t=2.44, p<0.01). 3) The inhibitory rates for 2 anti-HDV positive sera by the specific HDAg were 74% and 93%
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a defective RNA virus that has an absolute requirement for a virus belonging to the hepadnaviridae family like hepatitis B virus (HBV) for its replication and formation of new virions. HDV infection is usually associated with a worsening of HBV-induced liver pathogenesis, which leads to more frequent cirrhosis, increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and fulminant hepatitis. Importantly, no selective therapies are available for HDV infection. The mainstay of treatment for HDV infection is pegylated interferon alpha; however, response rates to this therapy are poor. A better knowledge of HDV-host cell interaction will help with the identification of novel therapeutic targets, which are urgently needed. Animal models like hepadnavirus-infected chimpanzees or the eastern woodchuck have been of great value for the characterization of HDV chronic infection. Recently, more practical animal models in which to perform a deeper study of host virus interactions and to
Chronic delta hepatitis, caused by hepatitis delta virus (HDV), is the most severe form of viral hepatitis, affecting at least 20 million hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients worldwide. HDV/HBV co- or superinfections are major drivers for hepatocarcinogenesis. Antiviral treatments exist only for HBV and can only suppress but not cure infection. Development of more effective therapies has been impeded by the scarcity of suitable small-animal models. We created a transgenic (tg) mouse model for HDV expressing the functional receptor for HBV and HDV, the human sodium taurocholate cotransporting peptide NTCP. Both HBV and HDV entered hepatocytes in these mice in a glycoprotein-dependent manner, but one or more postentry blocks prevented HBV replication. In contrast, HDV persistently infected hNTCP tg mice coexpressing the HBV envelope, consistent with HDV dependency on the HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) for packaging and spread. In immunocompromised mice lacking functional B, T, and natural killer ...
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The genotypes of hepatitis B (HBV) and delta (HDV) viruses circulating among fulminant hepatitis cases from the western Amazon Basin of Brazil were characterized in this study. HBV and HDV isolates were obtained from liver samples from 14 patients who developed fulminant hepatitis and died during 1978-1989. HBV DNA and HDV RNA were detected in all samples. Phylogenetic analyses of HDV sequences showed that they all clustered with previously characterized sequences of HDV genotype 3 (HDV-3). HBV genotypes F, A and D were found in 50.0, 28.6 and 21.4 % of cases, respectively. These results confirm the predominance of HDV-3 in South America and its association with the severe form of hepatitis, and the finding of the co-infection of HDV-3 with different genotypes of HBV suggests that the association between HDV-3 and HBV-F is not necessarily causally related to a more severe clinical course of infection.
Homepage »Research Network »Publications »2016 »Liver capsule: Entry and entry inhibition of hepatitis B virus and hepatitis delta virus into hepatocytes ...
Coiled-coil domain-containing protein 85B is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CCDC85B gene. Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a pathogenic human virus whose RNA genome and replication cycle resemble those of plant viroids. Delta-interacting protein A (DIPA), a cellular gene product, has been found to have homology to hepatitis delta virus antigen (HDAg). DIPA interacts with the viral antigen, HDAg, and can affect HDV replication in vitro. CCDC85B has been shown to interact with: C19orf25, KIAA1267, Keratin 17, and Protein kinase N1. GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000175602 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000095098 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed Reference:". "Mouse PubMed Reference:". Brazas R, Ganem D (Oct 1996). "A cellular homolog of hepatitis delta antigen: implications for viral replication and evolution". Science. 274 (5284): 90-4. doi:10.1126/science.274.5284.90. PMID 8810253. Bezy O, Elabd C, Cochet O, Petersen RK, Kristiansen K, Dani C, Ailhaud G, ...
Hepatitis delta, also known as hepatitis D, is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) that results in the most severe form of human viral hepatitis for which there is no approved therapy.. HDV is a single-stranded, circular RNA virus that requires the envelope protein (HBsAg) of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) for its own assembly. As a result, hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection occurs only as a co-infection in individuals infected with HBV. However, HDV/HBV co-infections lead to more serious liver disease than HBV infection alone. HDV is associated with faster progression to liver fibrosis (progressing to cirrhosis in about 80% of individuals in 5-10 years), increased risk of liver cancer, and early decompensated cirrhosis and liver failure ...
The incidence of hepatitis Delta virus in the general Italian population was estimated by a specific surveillance system for acute viral hepatitis over the period 1987-1992. The hepatitis Delta virus incidence rate declined from 3.1/1 000 000 inhabitants in 1987 to 1.2/1 000 000 in 1992. Males predominated 83.8% of cases ; the sex ratio was 5.2....
42 patients between 18 and 60 years of age who had serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), serum antibody to hepatitis delta antigen of the IgG and IgM classes, and serum hepatitis delta virus (HDV) RNA recorded on 3 occasions within 6 months before enrollment; serum levels of alanine aminotransferase at least twice the upper limit of normal 6 months before enrollment; histologic evidence of chronic hepatitis; and a positive test for intrahepatic HDV antigen. Exclusion criteria were a course of antiviral or immunosuppressive therapy within 6 months before enrollment, pregnancy or lactation, advanced or decompensated cirrhosis, clotting abnormalities precluding a liver biopsy, hepatocellular carcinoma, leukocyte count , 3 × 109/L, platelet count , 100 × 109/L, hemophilia, drug abuse, presence of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1, and other serious medical illnesses. Follow-up was 93 ...
PALO ALTO, Calif., Oct. 23, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- Eiger BioPharmaceuticals, Inc., (NASDAQ: EIGR) today announced positive interim 24-week data with pegylated ...
With its design, the Subviral RNA Database could be considered as a fundamental building block for the study of these related RNAs. It is freely available via a web browser at the URL: http://subviral.med.uottawa.ca.
For people who have been diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B and delta coinfection, a low or undetectable hepatitis B viral load does not usually indicate that theyve cleared both infections. This is because, in cases of coinfection, hepatitis delta usually becomes the dominant virus, and suppresses hepatitis B, slowing or even stopping its replication entirely. If someone is still positive for the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), the hepatitis delta virus can still replicate (often with copies in the millions) and cause potential liver damage 1. For this reason, the test to measure hepatitis delta activity, the HDV RNA test, is important in disease monitoring and management 2,3. Available since 2013, the HDV RNA test can be acquired internationally through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and from several labs in the US. For those suspected of having acute hepatitis B and delta coinfection, HBsAg testing should follow 6 months after initial diagnosis. If HBsAg is ...
LMBRD1 Full-Length MS Protein Standard (NP_060838), Labeled with [U- 13C6, 15N4]-L-Arginine and [U- 13C6, 15N2]-L-Lysine, was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) with fully chemically defined cell culture medium to obtain incorporation efficiency at Creative-Proteomics. This gene encodes a lysosomal membrane protein that may be involved in the transport and metabolism of cobalamin. This protein also interacts with the large form of the hepatitis delta antigen and may be required for the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the hepatitis delta virus. Mutations in this gene are associated with the vitamin B12 metabolism disorder termed, homocystinuria-megaloblastic anemia complementation type F.
BACKGROUND: Reverse genetics systems enable the manipulation of viral genomes and therefore serve as robust reverse genetic tools to study RNA viruses. A DNA-launched rescue system initiates the transcription of viral genomic cDNA from eukaryotic promoter in transfected cells, generating homogenous RNA transcripts in vitro and thus enhancing virus rescue efficiency. As one of the hazardous pathogens to ducklings, the current knowledge of the pathogenesis of duck astrovirus type 1 (DAstV-1) is limited. The construction of a DNA-launched rescue system can help to accelerate the study of the virus pathogenesis. However, there is no report of such a system for DAstV-1. METHODS: In this study, a DNA-launched infectious clone of DAstV-1 was constructed from a cDNA plasmid, which contains a viral cDNA sequence flanked by hammerhead ribozyme (HamRz) and a hepatitis delta virus ribozyme (HdvRz) sequence at both terminals of the viral genome. A silent nucleotide mutation creating a Bgl II site in the ORF2 ...
The cDNA (651nt - 941nt) fragment of an isolate of hepatitis delta virus with 289 bp was determined by cloning and Sequencing, from a HBsAg carrier positive both for anti - HDAg and HDV RNA from China, Sichuan Province, using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.It contains the region of HDV ribozyme and its self - cleavage site. Comparing this Sichuan isolate with other known HDV isolates from Henan, US - 1, Japan, Peru and Taiwan, the result showed that the homology of nucbotides is 97. 2 %, 93 %, 94 %, 79 %, 96 %, respectively.
BACKGROUND:. Patients with classical hemophilia (hemophilia A) and Christmas disease (hemophilia B) were exposed to many hepatotropic viruses during the course of their therapy. Severe chronic hepatitis among these patients was most likely related to persistent infection with non-A, non-B hepatitis virus, hepatitis B virus, or delta hepatitis virus, a defective RNA virus which is dependent upon coinfection with HBV for essential helper functions. Carriers of HBV could contract an acute delta hepatitis infection that was invariably more severe than the illness caused by HBV alone. The morbidity and mortality of delta hepatitis infection was remarkably high. Transmission of the delta hepatitis agent appeared to follow the same routes of transmission as HBV. Direct parenteral inoculation was the classic mode of transmission of HBV which suggested a similar mode of transmission for delta hepatitis.. In 1986, hemophiliacs treated with commercial concentrates of coagulation factors prepared from pools ...
BACKGROUND:. Patients with classical hemophilia (hemophilia A) and Christmas disease (hemophilia B) were exposed to many hepatotropic viruses during the course of their therapy. Severe chronic hepatitis among these patients was most likely related to persistent infection with non-A, non-B hepatitis virus, hepatitis B virus, or delta hepatitis virus, a defective RNA virus which is dependent upon coinfection with HBV for essential helper functions. Carriers of HBV could contract an acute delta hepatitis infection that was invariably more severe than the illness caused by HBV alone. The morbidity and mortality of delta hepatitis infection was remarkably high. Transmission of the delta hepatitis agent appeared to follow the same routes of transmission as HBV. Direct parenteral inoculation was the classic mode of transmission of HBV which suggested a similar mode of transmission for delta hepatitis.. In 1986, hemophiliacs treated with commercial concentrates of coagulation factors prepared from pools ...
Ribozymes enhance chemical reaction rates using many of the same catalytic strategies as protein enzymes. In the hepatitis delta virus (HDV) ribozyme, site-specific self-cleavage of the viral RNA phosphodiester backbone requires both divalent cations and a cytidine nucleotide. General acid-base catalysis, substrate destabilization and global and local conformational changes have all been proposed to contribute to the ribozyme catalytic mechanism. Here we report ten crystal structures of the HDV ribozyme in its pre-cleaved state, showing that cytidine is positioned to activate the 2-OH nucleophile in the precursor structure. This observation supports its proposed role as a general base in the reaction mechanism. Comparison of crystal structures of the ribozyme in the pre- and post-cleavage states reveals a significant conformational change in the RNA after cleavage and that a catalytically critical divalent metal ion from the active site is ejected. The HDV ribozyme has remarkable chemical ...
Princeton University researchers have developed a new, scalable cell culture system that allows for detailed investigation of how host cells respond to infection with hepatitis B (HBV) and delta virus (HDV). The paper describing their findings was published online on June 17, 2019 in the journal Hepatology.. By Caitlin Sedwick for the Department of Molecular Biology. HBV causes an acute illness that is usually rapidly cleared by adults with intact immune systems, but young children and people with HIV are at particular risk of chronic HBV infection, which can lead to cirrhosis or cancer of the liver. Infection with HBV also renders a person vulnerable to infection with HDV, which can cause acute liver failure and/or accelerate the progression to cirrhosis or cancer. Fortunately, an effective vaccine exists for HBV, and because HDV requires HBV in order to reproduce, both can be considered preventable diseases. However, the expense and limited availability of the vaccine leaves millions at risk ...
Chronic HDV/HBV infection is perhaps the most intriguing and difficult to treat among the human viral hepatitis and is one of the most neglected diseases worldwide [44]. The study area included was based upon previous articles that demonstrated the endemicity and near exclusivity of HDV infection in the Amazon region of Brazil [12, 19, 45, 46], only two studies have identified HDV cases outside the locations presented in this study [47, 48].. In Brazil, 77 % of the HDV infections occur in the North region [48]. The isolation of this virus in this location can be a consequence that the majority of HDV cases are present in the indigenous population, that generally lives in isolated regions and interacts preferentially among individuals of their own tribes.. The DBS was used to collect the samples because: distant areas were included, this method is less invasive for the patient once the blood is collected via puncture of the finger using a lancet, it requires minimal collector training, allows the ...
Discontinuation of anti-HBV therapy may be associated with severe acute exacerbations of hepatitis B. Closely monitor for several months after stopping treatment; if appropriate, anti-HBV therapy may be warranted. Not for treatment of HIV/HBV co-infection (use doses appropriate for HIV). Risk of HIV-1 resistance in patients with unrecognized or untreated HIV-1 infection; do HIV testing and counseling before and periodically during treatment. Emergence of resistance-associated HBV substitutions: monitor ALT and HBV DNA levels during treatment; consider alternative regimen if serum HBV DNA remains detectable after 24wks of treatment. Suspend if lactic acidosis or pronounced hepatotoxicity (eg, hepatomegaly, steatosis) occurs. Diabetes (oral soln). Liver transplant recipient, chronic HBV with decompensated liver disease, HCV or hepatitis delta virus co-infection: not established. Women. Obesity. Pregnancy. Nursing mothers.. ...
Full text of Hepatitis Delta Virus (2006) Book Series: Â"Current Topics in Microbiology and ImmunologyÂ" Vol. 307 J.L. Casey is part of the Springer Book Series. For USC users only. Requires USC network connection.. Permalink. Access this resource ...
19:20 Andrew Vaillant" Functional control and clinical benefit 1 year following completion of REP 2139 / peg-IFN therapy in patients with chronic HBV / HDV co-infection ...
The report presents a detailed analysis of the Hepatitis diagnostics market in France. Current scientific views on the Hepatitis definition, epidemiology and etiology are reviewed. The report provides five-year test volume and sales forecasts for HAV NAT, HBV NAT, HBs Ag, HCV, HCV NAT, Anti-HBc, Anti-HBs, Anti-HAV, Hepatitis Delta, HBc Ag, HBe Ag, and ALT/SGPT tests performed in the following markets ...
In con-trast to HBV, HDV infec-tion induces pro-found innate immune response which is medi-at-ed by pat-tern recog-ni-tion recep-tor MDA5 (Zhang, et al. 2018. J Hepa-tol. 69:25-35). MDA5 is a cytosol sen-sor usu-al-ly rec-og-niz-ing long dou-ble strand RNA (dsR-NA). How-ev-er, unlike oth-er RNA virus-es, HDV repli-cates its RNA in the nucle-us via a unique dou-ble-rolling-cycle mech-a-nism with-out pro-duc-ing long dsR-NA. Inves-ti-gat-ing the innate immune acti-va-tion dur-ing HDV repli-ca-tion will pro-vide impor-tant insights for under-stand-ing MDA5 medi-at-ed innate immune sens-ing of viral RNA. To this aim, we plan to: (i) iden-ti-fy the HDV RNA lig-and rec-og-nized by MDA5; (ii) deter-mine the sub-cel-lu-lar loca-tion of MDA5-HDV RNA inter-ac-tion; and (iii) elu-ci-date the roles of host fac-tors (LGP2, ADAR1, etc.) and viral fac-tors (HDAg and HBV enve-lope pro-teins) in the process of innate immu-ni-ty acti-va-tion.. Long term per-sis-tence of HBV and HDV makes it chal-leng-ing to ...
I was at a video conference the other day and the Sony rep said TV stations around the country were embracing the HDV format by purchasing HDV cameras.
Both isoforms of the hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) are highly associated with virus proliferation and may act as co-activators of cellular gene expression. Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell line Huh7, which stably expresses HDAgs, was differentially screened and the results showed that clusterin gene expression was enhanced. The mechanisms for HDAg-mediated clusterin gene upregulation were investigated. Expression of HDAgs was associated with enhanced histone H3 acetylation within the clusterin promoter in a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Transient transfection of HDAg-expressing plasmids into Huh7 cells also enhanced clusterin expression and histone acetylation. Furthermore, HDV replication was associated with histone hyperacetylation and clusterin induction. The effect of increased clusterin expression was determined by a chemosensitivity assay with adriamycin treatment. These data indicated that HDV-induced clusterin protein increases cell survival
Hepatitis Delta virus (HDV) is a subviral agent that is dependent on the hepatitis B (HBV) virus for its life cycle. Hepatitis Delta infection cannot occur...
Description of disease Delta agent (Hepatitis D). Treatment Delta agent (Hepatitis D). Symptoms and causes Delta agent (Hepatitis D) Prophylaxis Delta agent (Hepatitis D)
AHDV : Hepatitis D virus (HDV), also known as delta hepatitis virus, is a defective RNA virus comprising of a delta antigen and a hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) as the core and protein coat of the virus, respectively. This virus cannot replicate effectively by itself, and it requires the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) to initiate and maintain its replication in the infected liver cells.   Infection with HDV occurs either as an acute coinfection together with HBV or an acute superinfection of chronic HBV. Acute HBV-HDV coinfection usually follows a self-limited clinical course with spontaneous resolution, but may have a fulminant clinical presentation. HDV superinfection in chronic HBV or in HBV carrier state typically manifests as an acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B, with tendency to result in chronic HBV-HDV coinfection and early cirrhosis or liver failure. Chronic HDV infection is found in 1% of all chronically HBV-infected individuals in the United States.  
Delta hepatitis is a liver disease caused by the hepatitis D virus (HDV). HDV is a defective virus that requires the helper function of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) to replicate. People may become infected with HDV at the same time they acquire HBV (co-infection), or people may acquire the virus after infection with HBV (superinfection). The modes of transmission are similar to those for HBV. HDV is transmitted by percutaneous exposure or sexually through contact with infected blood. Most cases are acquired by exposure to contaminated needles. There were no reported cases of delta hepatitis in Indiana during the five-year period 1999-2003. You can learn more about hepatitis D by visiting the following Web site ...
The prevalence of recent hepatitis D virus infection among patients with HIV/hepatitis B virus coinfection has increased significantly since 1992, according to recent study findings. Additionally, recent hepatitis D virus (HDV) seroconversion was found to be associated with hepatitis flares … Continue reading →. ...
Yes there is a hepatitis D virus, HDV, also called hepatitis Delta. It cannot replicate (make more viruses) or cause infection without help from the hepatitis B virus. So HDV only infects persons...
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This is an important study for many reasons: Note: The hepatitis D virus (HDV) needs the hepatitis B virus in order to replicate. The prevalence of HDV is unknown in the United States so this small study is important because … Continue reading →. ...
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MONTREAL, CANADA--(Business Wire/Korea Newswire) April 20, 2017 -- Replicor Inc., a privately held biopharmaceutical company targeting a cure for chronic HBV and HDV infection, today disclosed significa
SYBR vs FAM probe - posted in PCR, RT-PCR and Real-Time PCR: I will be looking at virus replication by real-time PCR using primers for antigenomic RNA. I originally wanted to do this with a FAM probe for increased sensitivity, but I am having much better luck with SYBR green. I am unfamiliar with what is acceptable for measuring virus replication. If I was to present my data measuring replication by RT-PCR with SYBR green, would reviewers question why I did not use a more sensitive techni...
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Q. More and more modern PCs are ditching optical drives and floppy drives. Also, for memory cards, more people are using the card readers integrated into their monitors. In this way, the need for the external 5.75 inch drive seems to be dwindling. How does Cooler Master see this trend? Is there still a need for these bays? Will we be seeing less external drive bays in future Cooler Master cases in favor of other components or better airflow?