In coastal California, the principal vector of PD was Graphocephala atropunctata, known as the blue-green sharpshooter (BGSS) (52). BGSS overwinters in riparian vegetation but readily feeds and multiplies on grapevines. These insects transmit Xf in a persistent manner, with a short or even no latent period required between acquisition and transmission (44). In the southeastern USA, another sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis Germar (Fig. 2) (61), was identified as a vector of Xf. Homalodisca vitripennis [formerly Homalodisca coagulata (60)], popularly known as the glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), was introduced to California in the 1990s. BGSS and GWSS have similar feeding habits. However, BGSS prefers to feed on young leaves and tissues while GWSS, although it can exist on these tissues, is also found on woody parts of the plants (29). At present, GWSS is considered to be the most efficient vector of PD because it displays greater mobility, is capable of feeding on older woody stems, and ...
Invasive whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, is a highly destructive agricultural and ornamental crop pest. As a group, B. tabaci damages host plants through phloem feeding and vectoring plant pathogens. Introductions of B. tabaci are difficult to quarantine and eradicate due to high reproductive rates, broad host plant range, and resistance to chemical insecticides. A 658 Mb draft genome for the Q-type B. tabaci (MED/Q) assembled and annotated with 20,786 protein-coding genes. Metabolic pathways show an expansion in the number of gene family members, in particular, the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. Additionally, amino acid biosynthesis pathways are partitioning among host and endosymbiont genomes in a manner that is distinct from other hemipteran systems, wherein evidence of horizontal gene transfer to the host genome likely form the basis of obligatory relationships. Putative loss of function of the immune deficiency (IMD) signaling pathway due to gene loss is a shared ancestral trait of hemipteran insects
Invasive whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, is a highly destructive agricultural and ornamental crop pest. As a group, B. tabaci damages host plants through phloem feeding and vectoring plant pathogens. Introductions of B. tabaci are difficult to quarantine and eradicate due to high reproductive rates, broad host plant range, and resistance to chemical insecticides. A 658 Mb draft genome for the Q-type B. tabaci (MED/Q) assembled and annotated with 20,786 protein-coding genes. Metabolic pathways show an expansion in the number of gene family members, in particular, the cytochrome P450 monooxygenases. Additionally, amino acid biosynthesis pathways are partitioning among host and endosymbiont genomes in a manner that is distinct from other hemipteran systems, wherein evidence of horizontal gene transfer to the host genome likely form the basis of obligatory relationships. Putative loss of function of the immune deficiency (IMD) signaling pathway due to gene loss is a shared ancestral trait of hemipteran insects
Selection and Evaluation of Potential Reference Genes for Gene Expression Analysis in the Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Hemiptera: Delphacidae Using Reverse-Transcription Quantitative PCR. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Campos, Z.R.; Boica, A.L.; Jr; Lourencao, A.L.; Campos, A.R., 2005: Cotton crop effects on Bemisia tabaci Genn biotype B Hemiptera Aleyrodidae oviposition Fatores que afetam a oviposicao de Bemisia tabaci Genn biotipo B Hemiptera Aleyrodidae na cultura algodoeira
Unscramble hemipteran, Unscramble letters hemipteran, Point value for hemipteran, Word Decoder for hemipteran, Word generator using the letters hemipteran, Word Solver hemipteran, Possible Scrabble words with hemipteran, Anagram of hemipteran
Introduction. Whitefly is a small insect that infests a diverse array of plants. More than 1,500 species of whitefly have been discovered worldwide. Whiteflies comprise the family Aleyrodidae. The nymphs and adults are injurious to plants. They feed by extracting sap, and other plant liquids from new growth. The persistent feeding causes leaf discoloration, while stunting growth, and reducing crop and flower yield. Dense whitefly populations will gradually weaken host plants, rendering them more susceptible to disease pathogens, and other environmental stressors. Small plants may eventually succumb to infestation.. Distribution & Habitat. Whitefly has a global distribution. It may be found wherever susceptible plants are present. Whitefly is most prevalent in North America, Asia, and southern Africa.. Hosts. Whitefly infests more than 250 ornamental and vegetable plants. Common hosts include astilbe, cabbage, chenille, citrus, columbine, cucumber, chrysanthemum, dicentra, eggplant, flowering ...
AKT-interacting protein (AKTIP) interacts with serine/threonine protein kinase B (PKB)/AKT. AKTIP modulates AKTs activity by enhancing the phosphorylation of the regulatory site and plays a crucial role in multiple biological processes. In this study, the full length cDNA of NlAKTIP, a novel AKTIP gene in the brown planthopper (BPH) Nilaparvata lugens, was cloned. The reverse transcription quantitive PCR (RT-qPCR) results showed that the NlAKTIP gene was strongly expressed in gravid female adults, but was relatively weakly expressed in nymphs and male adult BPH. In female BPH, treatment with dsAKTIP resulted in the efficient silencing of NlAKTIP, leading to a significant reduction of mRNA levels, about 50% of those of the untreated control group at day 7 of the study. BPH fed with dsAKTIP had reduced growth with lower body weights and smaller sizes, and the body weight of BPH treated with dsAKTIP at day 7 decreased to about 30% of that of the untreated control. Treatment of dsAKTIP significantly
BioAssay record AID 1081063 submitted by ChEMBL: Insecticidal activity against compound sensitive second-instar larvae Nilaparvata lugens (brown planthopper) in compound rice seedlings assessed as mortality at 25 degC measured after 6 days.
Abstract. Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are small, plant-sucking insects which comprise the second largest family of scale insects (Coccoidea). Relationships among many pseudococcid genera are poorly known and there is no stable higher level classification. Here we review previous hypotheses on relationships and classification and present the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of the Pseudococcidae based on analysis of nucleotide sequence data. We used three nuclear genes, comprising two noncontiguous fragments of elongation factor 1α (EF-1α 5′ and EF-1α 3′), fragments of the D2 and D10 expansion regions of the large subunit ribosomal DNA gene (28S), and a region of the small subunit ribosomal DNA gene (18S). We sampled sixty-four species of mealybug belonging to thirty-five genera and representing each of the five subfamilies which had been recognized previously, and included four species of Puto (Putoidae) and one species each of Aclerda (Aclerdidae) and Icerya ...
Hamzah, Nuratiqah (2018) Comparison and the effect of selected insecticide against thrips on capsicum annum / Nuratiqah Hamzah. Student Project. Faculty of Plantation and Agrotechnology, Jasin, Melaka. (Unpublished) Hasran, Mohd Hasmirul (2017) A review on the toxicity of insecticides against brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) in paddy / Mohd Hasmirul Hasran. Student Project. Faculty of Plantation and Agrotechnology, Jasin, Melaka. (Unpublished) ...
A species of scale insect new to Florida is potentially one of the most devastating pests of trees and shrubs in the states history. The lobate lac scale, Paratachardina lobata lobata (Chamberlin) (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea: Kerriidae), a scale insect native to India and Sri Lanka, was found for the first time in Florida in August 1999 by personnel of the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Plant Industry (DPI) (Hamon 2001). The identification of the species by Avas Hamon of DPI was confirmed by D. R. Miller of the Systematic Entomology Laboratory, U. S. Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD. This first record was on a hibiscus (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis) in the town of Davie (Broward County). The plant was destroyed by DPI personnel. Plants in the vicinity of this infested hibiscus were inspected without finding P. lobata lobata. However, the species was found again in 2000 on a Benjamin fig (Ficus benjamina) in Davie, on cocoplum (Chrysobalanus ...
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In economic terms, grapes are worth US $3.2 billion and associated economic activity exceeds US $33 billion in California. In addition, crops such as...
For the B. tabaci complex, 28 cryptic species have been delineated based on a number of phylogenetic analysis and reproductive isolation studies; however, the evolutionary origin and basal taxa have not been ascertained. Furthermore, the genetic factors associated with the evolution of invasive whitefly species are almost unknown. This is partially due to the fact that few molecules are available for inferring the evolutionary history and genetic divergence of B. tabaci. So far, only the mitochondrial 16S DNA, cytochrome oxidase 1 and the nuclear ribosomal intergenic spacer have been explored [12, 15]. In this study, we have identified nearly 3,585 ortholog gene pairs and determined the average sequence divergence between MEAM1 and MED to be 0.83% for the CDS. This is much higher than the reported mean 0.45% divergence at the coding region between human and chimpanzee [55, 56]. The gene divergence at the non-coding regions is even more obvious for 5UTR (1.66%) and 3UTR (1.43%) regions - nearly ...
Berger EW. 1909. Whitefly studies in 1908. Florida Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 97: 43-97.. Evans GA, Hamon AB. (2002). Whitefly taxonomic and ecological Web site: an on-line interactive catalog of the whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) of the world and their parasites and predators. http://www.fsca-dpi.org/homoptera_hemiptera/Whitefly/whitefly_catalog.htm (13 September 2016). Fasulo TR, Brooks RF. (2001). Whitefly pests of citrus. EDIS. (no longer available online). Fulmex L. 1943. Virtsindex der Aleyrodiden - und Cocciden-parasiten. Entomol. Beih. Berl. Bahlem. 10: 30.. Hamon AB. (2001). Whitefly of citrus in Florida. Division of Plant Industry, FDACS. http://www.freshfromflorida.com/Divisions-Offices/Plant-Industry/Bureaus-and-Services/Bureau-of-Pest-Eradication-Control/Citrus-Health-Response-Program/Key-to-Whitefly-of-Citrus-in-Florida (13 September 2016). Jensen AS. 2001. A cladistic analysis of Dialeurodes, Massilieurodes and Singhiella, with notes and keys to the Nearctic ...
The whiteflies, comprising only the family Aleyrodidae, are small hemipterans which typically feed on the underside of plant leaves. While feeding damage can cause economic losses, it is the ability of whiteflies to transmit or spread viruses that has had the widest impact on global food production. In the tropics and subtropics, whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)have become one of the most serious crop protection problems. Economic losses are estimated in the hundreds of millions of dollars. While several species of whitefly cause crop losses through direct feeding, a species complex, or group of whiteflies in the genus Bemisia are important in the transmission of plant diseases. Bemisia tabaci and B. argentifolii, transmit African cassava mosaic, bean golden mosaic, bean dwarf mosaic, bean calico mosaic, tomato yellow leaf-curl, tomato mottle, and other Begomoviruses, in the Family: Geminiviridae. The world-wide spread of emerging biotypes, such as B. tabaci biotype B, also known as, B. ...
With the establishment of the Library in 1926, the first collection acquired was that of the founder, John Gennadius, and his father, George Gennadius. Ten years later the family of Heinrich Schliemann, the excavator of Troy and Mycenae, deposited his personal papers in the Gennadius Library. Originally on loan, the papers were purchased in 1962 thanks to a generous grant from the Eli Lilly Endowment. It was the first serious commitment of the American School towards the creation of an organized archival repository at the Gennadius Library. A short time later in 1963, the papers of the famous orchestra conductor Dimitri Mitropoulos were donated to the Library by his literary heirs. The collections continued to grow in importance. In 1971 poet and Nobel laureate George Seferis stipulated in his will that all his manuscripts and papers should come to the Gennadius Library, a wish which was honored by his widow Maro Seferi. These developments were not accidental and it is only befitting to draw ...
Citation: McKenzie, C.L., Albano, J.P. 2009. The effect of time of sweetpotato whitefly infestation on plant nutrition and development of tomato irregular ripening disorder. Horticulture Technology. 19(2):353-359. Interpretive Summary: Tomato irregular ripening (TIR) disorder is associated with Bemisia tabaci biotype B feeding and is characterized by incomplete ripening of longitudinal sections of fruit. Our objective was to determine the effect of time of whitefly infestation on plant nutrition and the development of tomato irregular ripening disorder. Healthy tomato plants were introduced to whitefly infestations at different developmental stages of plant growth (control, 5-7 true leaf, flower, green fruit, and breaking red fruit). Nutrition, plant and whitefly parameters were monitored over time and fruit was rated for tomato irregular ripening disorder at final harvest. We found infestations of the B-biotype whitefly can cause substantial losses in tomato crop production due to tomato ...
Citation: Hert, M., Hunter, W.B., Katsar, C.S., Sinisterra, X.H., Hall, D.G., Katsar, C.S., Powell, C.A. 2009. Reovirus-like sequences isolated from adult Asian citrus psyllid, (Hemiptera: Psyllidae: Diaphorina Citri). Florida Entomologist. 92:314-320. Interpretive Summary: We discovered an insect infecting virus in field collected Asian citrus psyllids in Florida. The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a small insect that feeds on the sap of citrus trees and is the primary vector of the plant pathogenic bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticum, which causes Huanglongbing, HLB, also known as Citrus Greening. The bacterium, which was recently discovered in Florida, causes severe economic losses to citrus making the fruit taste bad. To identify new biological control agents in psyllid populations we examined the genetic sequences from adult psyllids collected from citrus trees. We identified a new insect virus which was similar to the insect-infecting ...
Morphology of the Female Reproductive System and Physiological Age-Grading of Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), a Biological Control Agent of Water Hyacinth
The cryptic species Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1), formerly referred to as B biotype, of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci complex entered China in the mid 1990s, and the Mediterranean (MED) cryptic species, formerly referred to as Q biotype, of the same whitefly complex entered China around 2003. Field surveys in China after 2003 indicate that in many regions MED has been replacing the earlier invader MEAM1. The factors underlying this displacement are unclear. We conducted laboratory experiments and field sampling to examine the effects of insecticide application on the competitive interactions between MEAM1 and MED. In the laboratory, on cotton, a plant showing similar levels of suitability to both whitefly species, MEAM1 displaced MED in five generations when initial populations of the two species were equal and no insecticide was applied. In contrast, MED displaced MEAM1 in seven and two generations, respectively, when 12.5 and 50.0 mg l−1 imidacloprid was applied to the plants via soil ...
Sogatella furcifera is an important phloem sap-sucking and plant virus-transmitting migratory insect of rice. Because of its high reproductive potential, dispersal capability and transmission of plant viral diseases, S. furcifera causes considerable damage to rice grain production and has great economical and agricultural impacts. Here we present a total of 241.3 Gb of raw reads from the whole genome of S. furcifera generated by Illumina sequencing using different combinations of mate-pair and paired-end libraries from 17 insert libraries ranging between 180 bp and 40 kbp. The final genome assembly (0.72 Gb), with average N50 contig size of 70.7 kb and scaffold N50 of 1.18 Mb, covers 98.6% of the estimated genome size of S. furcifera. Genome annotation, assisted by eight different developmental stages (embryos, 1st-5th instar nymphs, 5-day-old adults and 10-day-old adults), generated 21 254 protein-coding genes, which captured 99.59% (247/248) of core CEGMA genes and 91.7% (2453/2675) of BUSCO genes.
Looking for hemipteran? Find out information about hemipteran. The true bugs, an order of the class Insecta characterized by forewings differentiated into a basal area and a membranous apical region. , an order of... Explanation of hemipteran
Many insect groups depend on ancient obligate symbioses with bacteria that undergo long-term genomic degradation due to inactivation and loss of ancestral genes. Sap-feeding insects in the hemipteran suborder Auchenorrhyncha show complex symbioses with at least two obligate bacterial symbionts, inhabiting specialized host cells (bacteriocytes). We explored the symbiotic relationships of the spittlebugs (Auchenorrhyncha: Cercopoidea) using phylogenetic and microscopy methods. Results show that most spittlebugs contain the symbionts Sulcia muelleri (Bacteroidetes) and Zinderia insecticola (Betaproteobacteria) with each restricted to its own bacteriocyte type. However, the ancestral Zinderia symbiont has been replaced with a novel symbiont closely related to Sodalis glossinidius (Enterobacteriaceae) in members of the ecologically successful spittlebug tribe Philaenini. At least one spittlebug species retains Sulcia and Zinderia, but also has acquired a Sodalis-like symbiont, possibly representing a ...
ID Challenge #4 seems to have been a little more difficult than I anticipated - only a few people mustered the courage to even hazard a guess, of whom TGIQ emerged with maximum points to take the win. Looking sort of like a cross between a leafhopper (family Cicadellidae) and a treehopper (family Membracidae), Aetalion reticulatum is one of a few species and the only genus comprising the family Aetalionidae. While lacking the pronotal processes that characterize species in the much more diverse and better known Membracidae, aetalionids are nevertheless considered treehoppers as well, along with another little-known family Melizoderidae. As a whole, the Aetalionidae + Melizoderidae + Membracidae form a sister group to the Cicadellidae (Deitz and Dietrich 1993), which combine to form the most diverse and successful lineage of sap-sucking phytophagous insects. Like many treehoppers, A. reticulatum exhibits ant-mutualistic and presocial behaviors; however, it remains unclear whether these behaviors ...
Safari® 20 SG Insecticide, a super-systemic insecticide with quick uptake and knockdown, controls a broad spectrum of ferocious and invasive pests, including Q- and B-biotype whitefly, Hemlock woolly adelgid, emerald ash borer, mealybug, leafminer, fungus gnat, black vine weevil, glassy-winged sharpshooter, armored and soft scales and lacebug-some of the most costly pests that affect trees, shrubs and herbaceous ornamentals in the landscape and production ornamental markets.. ...
Populations of Bemisa tabaci MEAM1 were established from nineteen locations in south Florida, primarily from commercial tomato fields, and were tested using a cotton leaf petiole systemic uptake method for susceptibility to the nicotinic acetylcholine agonist insecticides imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, dinotefuran and flupyradifurone. Eleven populations produced LC50s for one or more chemicals that were not significantly different from the susceptible laboratory colony based on overlapping fiducial limits, indicating some degree of susceptibility. LC50s more than a 100-fold the laboratory colony were measured in at least one population for each material tested, indicating tolerance. LC50s (ppm) from field populations ranged from 0.901-24.952 for imidacloprid, 0.965-24.430 for thiamethoxam, 0.043-3.350 for dinotefuran and 0.011-1.471 for flupyradifurone. Based on overlapping fiducial limits, there were no significant differences in relative mean potency estimates for flupyradifurone and dinotefuran in
Free Online Library: Trailers transporting oranges to processing plants move Asian citrus psyllids.(Report) by Florida Entomologist; Biological sciences Automobiles Bacteria, Phytopathogenic Research Disease transmission Phytopathogenic bacteria Plant diseases
Discover Lifes page about the biology, natural history, ecology, identification and distribution of Cicadellidae - Leafhoppers -- Discover Life
Not only are the periodical cicada lifecycles curious for their prime numbers 13 or 17, but also their evolution is intricately tied to one- and four-year changes in their lifecycles.[17][19] One-year changes are less common than four-year changes and are probably tied to variation in local climatic conditions. Four-year early and late emergences are common and involve a much larger proportion of the population than one-year changes. Recent research suggests, in extant periodical cicadas, the 13- and 17-year lifecycles evolved at least eight different times in the last 4 million years and that different species with identical lifecycles developed their overlapping geographic distribution by synchronization of lifecycle to existing dominant populations.[40] The same study estimates that the Decim species group split from the common ancestor of the Decula plus Cassini species groups around 4 million years ago (Mya). At around 2.5 Mya, the Cassini and Decula groups split from each other. The Sota ...
BACKGROUND: The widespread planting of insect-resistant crops has caused a dramatic shift in agricultural landscapes, thus raising concerns about the potential impact on both target and non-target pests worldwide. In this study, we examined the potential effects of six seed-mixture ratios of insect-resistant dominance (100%-R100, 95%-S05R95, 90%-S10R90, 80%-S20R80, 60%-S40R60, and 0%-S100) on target and non-target pests in a 2-year field trial in southern China. RESULTS: The occurrence of target pests, Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera, decreased with the increased ratio of resistant rice, and the mixture ratios with ≥90% resistant rice significantly increased the pest suppression efficiency, with lowest occurrences of non-target pests, Sesamia inferens, Chilo suppressalis and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, in S100 and S10R90 seed-mixture ratios ...
BACKGROUND: The widespread planting of insect-resistant crops has caused a dramatic shift in agricultural landscapes, thus raising concerns about the potential impact on both target and non-target pests worldwide. In this study, we examined the potential effects of six seed-mixture ratios of insect-resistant dominance (100%-R100, 95%-S05R95, 90%-S10R90, 80%-S20R80, 60%-S40R60, and 0%-S100) on target and non-target pests in a 2-year field trial in southern China. RESULTS: The occurrence of target pests, Nilaparvata lugens and Sogatella furcifera, decreased with the increased ratio of resistant rice, and the mixture ratios with ≥90% resistant rice significantly increased the pest suppression efficiency, with lowest occurrences of non-target pests, Sesamia inferens, Chilo suppressalis and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, in S100 and S10R90 seed-mixture ratios ...
In the first cytogenetic study of the recently proposed family Myerslopiidae the male karyotype of Mapuchea chilensis (Nielson, 1996) was analyzed using conventional chromosome staining, AgNOR- and C-bandings, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S rDNA and (TTAGG)n telomeric probes. A karyotype of 2n = 16 + XY, NOR on a medium-sized pair of autosomes, subterminal location of C-heterochromatin, and presence of (TTAGG)n telomeric sequence were determined. Additionally, the male internal reproductive system was studied.
Bemisia tabaci is one of the most devastating pests in tomato greenhouse production. Insecticide resistance management for B. tabaci requires a novel approach that maximizes non-chemical methods for pest control. The aim of this study was to test the effects of rootstocks on B. tabaci populations in hydroponically grown tomato plants. In order to contribute to the better understanding of the mechanisms defining the attractiveness of plant to the aerial pest, the effects of rootstocks on leaf anatomy and the amino acid composition of phloem sap were assessed. A two-factorial experimental design was adopted using cultivars (rootstock cultivars and Clarabella) grown as either non-grafted or grafted with cultivar Clarabella as a scion. The rootstock cultivars included Arnold, Buffon, Emperador, and Maxifort. A reduction in B. tabaci density was observed using all rootstock cultivars. The number of adult individuals per leaf was 2.7-5.4 times lower on rootstock cultivars than on Clarabella. The number of
A serpentine robotic crawler capable of multiple movement moves is disclosed. The serpentine robotic crawler includes a plurality of frame units, coupled together by at least one actuated linkage. Each frame unit includes a continuous track, enabling forward movement of the serpentine robotic crawler. The at least one actuated linkage has at least 7 degrees of movement freedom, enabling the serpentine robotic crawler to adopt a variety of poses.
O Magma Crawler é provavelmente uma forma de vida produzida artificialmente. A sua agressividade puramente irracional comparada à óbvia estratégia de desenvolvimento do Magma Crawler leva à única conclusão, que eles são uma arma biológica muito difícil de controlar. É correto presumir que eles têm origem nas baias de reprodução do que os gnomos chamam de "aqueles embaixo". Se esse for o caso, eles foram criados para guerra e destruição. Eles foram provavelmente criados para causar o máximo de danos aos ambientes subterrâneos. Depois que um Magma Crawler é solto, eles são geralmente abandonados. Isso explica porque espécies errantes podem ser encontradas em quase todos os lugares subterrâneos, geralmente no fim de um caminho de destruição. Como até agora só foram encontrados Magma Crawlers machos, supõe-se que as criaturas fêmeas são retidas somente para reprodução e também para prevenir que a raça se espalhe excessivamente. Devido a longevidade dos Magma ...
Horvaths development of the DNA methylation based age estimation method known as epigenetic clock was featured in Nature magazine.[2] In 2011 Horvath co-authored the first article that described an age estimation method based on DNA methylation levels from saliva.[3] In 2013 Horvath published a single author article on a multi-tissue age estimation method that applies to all nucleated cells, tissues, and organs.[4] This discovery, known as the Horvath clock, was unexpected because cell types differ in terms of the their DNA methylation patterns and age related DNA methylation changes tend to be tissue specific. In his article, he demonstrated that estimated age, also referred to as DNA methylation age, has the following properties: it is close to zero for embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, it correlates with cell passage number; it gives rise to a highly heritable measure of age acceleration; and it is applicable to chimpanzees.[4] Since the Horvath clock allows one to contrast the ...
The karyotype analysis of ten species of Membracidae (Homoptera) showed the oogonial and spermatogonial chromosomes as bean shaped and gradually seriated elements. Sex chromosomes were two in the female and only one in the male but these did not exhibit any staining difference compared to the auto somes. The diploid number in female and male complements were 22 and 21 respectively in Oxyrachis tarandus, Oxyrachis sp., Leptocentrus substitutus, Otinotus elongatus, Otinotus sp. and 20 and 19 in Tricentrus albomaculatus, Tricentrus sp., Gargara contraria, G. flavolineatus, Cocosterphus decoloratus. The pattern of meiosis in males of the species investigated was very conservative type. There was a faint "bouquet" at the early primary prophase. The first division was reductional while the second equational. The sex determining mechanism was XX: XO in all of them. The 19 chromosome species were character-ised by a huge autosomal bivalent. The relative percentage volumes of the chro-mosomes was ...
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In other parts of the world biological control of citrus mealybug varied. Kennett et al. (1999) report that in Western Australia, where P. citri and other mealybug species were serious pests of citrus, highly successful control was obtained simply by transferring Cryptolaemus from New South Wales (Wilson 1960). In other areas, results following introduction of Cryptolaemus have generally followed the patter shown in California, with failure of the beetle to become permanently established attributed to its inability to overwinter (Wood 1963, Rosen 1967, Argyriou 1969, Beingolea 1969, Greathead 1976). The beetle established only in more tropical climates such as Florida and Hawaii and in some Mediterranean countries (Muma 1955, Greathead 1976). Reports from Spain (Gomez-Clemente 1954) and Italy (Mineo 1967) point to the production and periodic colonization of Cryptolaemus giving some success. Parasitoid introductions were of course also made into other countries, but with limited success (Zinna ...
Insect classification at NC State University: http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/library/compendium/index.html. Excellent site for Homopteran bugs in Japan: Auchenorrhyncha (Homoptera) includes insects such as cicadas, leafhoppers, spittlebugs and treehoppers etc. In English and Japanese. http://www.ne.jp/asahi/rhyncha/index/indexE/index.html. Another site on Japanese bugs (Hemiptera): http://hemipter.hp.infoseek.co.jp/seitai/seitai-photo.html. PADIL: Pests and Diseases Image Library (Australian government site): http://www.padil.gov.au/. Insect database at Gifu University: http://chigaku.ed.gifu-u.ac.jp/chigakuhp/html/kyo/seibutsu/doubutsu/500KonchuTop/. KONCHU entomology database at Kyushu University in Japan: http://konchudb.agr.agr.kyushu-u.ac.jp/. Useful introduction to the classification of insects: http://www.earthlife.net/insects/classtax.html. Diptera of Japan (wiki). Set up by Osamu Furuta, this site is useful for fly identification. ...
The defining feature of hemipterans is their possession of tubular, sucking mouthparts where the mandibles and maxillae are in the form of a proboscis, sheathed within a modified labium to form a "beak" or "rostrum." This structure is capable of piercing tissues (usually plant tissues) and sucking out the liquids, such as sap. Hemipterans do not have chewing mouthparts and any food source that is going to be ingested has to be in liquid form.. Essentially, all hemipterans have a piercing rostrum or labium that is in distinct segments. The sucking mouthparts are formed from tubular structures called stylets that are modified from their use in other insects groups, where they surround the jaws. In hemipterans, the stylets of the mandible, or lower jaw, are serrated and surround the stylets of the maxilla, or upper jaw, which are smooth and are longer. The serrated mandibular stylets help to cut into the feeding substrate, while the smooth maxillary stylets are then pushed further into the ...
These two relatively common pests are more difficult to eradicate because of their protective outer covering. Both the mealy bug and the scale are sap-sucking insects, which feed by puncturing the suface of the leaf. They are clearly visible to the naked eye. Mealy bugs are covered with a waxy, whitish substance and frequently hide in the leaf axils of plants. Dendrobiums, especially nobile soft cane types, are particulary vulnerable to attack. Scale insects, as the name indicates, are protected by a dome-shaped hard shell, which is resistent to most chemical sprays. Systemic insecticide, which makes the plant toxic to sap-sucking pests, will control both these pests if applied two or three times at intervals of 10 to 14 days. Where only a small number of orchids is involved and infestations are minor, methylated spirit applied with a small paintbrush will clean up the plants. ...
The Texas Sharpshooter fallacy is a logical fallacy where a man shoots a barn thirty times then circles the bullet holes nearest each other after the fact calling that his target. Its of particular concern in epidemiology. Folks, you are never going to see a better example of the Texas Sharpshooter work itself out in…
The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), is one of the most serious and destructive pests of rice, and can be found throughout the rice-growing areas of Asia. To date, more than 24 major BPH-resistance genes have been reported in several Oryza sativa ssp. indica cultivars and wild relatives. Here, we report the genetic basis of the high level of BPH resistance derived from an Indian ...
Michael Harper for redOrbit.com - Your Universe Online. Every 17 years, the Eastern seaboard plays host to millions and millions of visitors who arrive with only one purpose in mind: to mate.. The Magicicada septendecim Brood II, or periodical cicada has an unusual life cycle and spends most of its days living underground, living on the bounty of tree roots. Then, when they near the end of their life, they emerge to breed and procreate. Very shortly afterwards, they die before returning to the ground, leaving a mess for any humans who live in the area.. The cicadas are expected to return to the surface once more this year, and public radio podcast Radiolab is asking for help to predict when to expect the cicadas.. Radiolab is turning this somewhat dire occasion into an opportunity for community science. The cicadas normally only emerge once the temperature reaches 64 degrees Fahrenheit. The resulting swarm is what Radiolab will be calling #swarmageddon, hashtag and all. When the temperature is ...
Destructive effects of conventional insecticides on environment have created a necessity to introduce bio-rational products in pest control programs. Effectiveness of bio-pesticide (Beauvaria bassiana), natural oil (anti-insect), a botanical extract (nimbecidine) and malathion insecticide was evaluated against Thrips spp. and Bemisia tabaci attacking tomato in Kafr El Sheik, Egypt. The trial was conducted during two successive seasons; 2017-18 in a total area of 4912 m2 cultivated with tomato cultivar zero 42. The experiment was set up in a randomized complete block design with five replications for each treatment. Yellow sticky traps were used to monitor population of both pests before and after spraying, in addition, their numbers on plants were counted. Results revealed that highest control rates of both pests were recorded after the fourth day of each spraying. Long inter-applications periods decreased effectiveness and the greatest control resulted when three consecutive
It is interesting to contrast the heathen idea, that the shadow goes to Hades while the self is identified with the body, with the Christian belief, that the self lives while the body is buried e.g. Homer (Il. i. 4) says that while the famous "wrath" sent many heroes souls to Hades, it made "them" a prey to dogs and birds. cf. xxiii. 72. "ψυχαὶ εἰδωλα καμόντων.". 223Eran.-True. Orth.-And when we read in the Acts how Herod slew James the brother of John with a sword,14451445 Acts xii. 2 we are not likely to hold that his soul died. Eran.-No; how could we? We remember the Lords warning "Fear not them which kill the body but are not able to kill the soul."14461446 Matt. x. 28. Orth.-But does it not seem to you impious and monstrous in the case of mere men to avoid the invariable connexion of soul and body, and in the case of scriptural references to death and burial, to distinguish in thought the soul from the body and connect them only with the body, while in trust in the ...
Watch the video, get the download or listen to Thee Oh Sees - Carrion Crawler for free. Carrion Crawler appears on the album Carrion Crawler / The Dream. Discover more music, gig and concert tickets, videos, lyrics, free downloads and MP3s, and photos with the largest catalogue online at Last.fm.