Heme oxygenase-1 is an inducible enzyme that catalyzes heme degradation and has been proposed to play a role in protecting cells against oxidative stress-related injury. We investigated the induction of heme oxygenase-1 by the tumor promoter arsenite in a chicken hepatoma cell line, LMH. We identified a heme oxygenase-1 promoter-driven luciferase reporter construct that was highly and reproducibly expressed in response to sodium arsenite treatment. This construct was used to investigate the role of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases in arsenite-mediated heme oxygenase-1 gene expression. In LMH cells, sodium arsenite, cadmium, and heat shock, but not heme, induced activity of the MAP kinases extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38. To examine whether these MAP kinases were involved in mediating heme oxygenase-1 gene expression, we utilized constitutively activated and dominant negative components of the ERK, JNK, and p38 MAP kinase signaling pathways. Involvement
Hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation induces pulmonary inflammation that leads to acute lung injury. Biliverdin, a metabolite of heme catabolism, has been shown to have potent cytoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant effects. This study aimed to examine the effects of intravenous biliverdin administration on lung injury induced by hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in rats. Biliverdin or vehicle was administered to the rats 1 h before sham or hemorrhagic shock-inducing surgery. The sham-operated rats underwent all surgical procedures except bleeding. To induce hemorrhagic shock, rats were bled to achieve a mean arterial pressure of 30 mmHg that was maintained for 60 min, followed by resuscitation with shed blood. Histopathological changes in the lungs were evaluated by histopathological scoring analysis. Inflammatory gene expression was determined by Northern blot analysis, and oxidative DNA damage was assessed by measuring 8-hydroxy-2 deoxyguanosine levels in the lungs. Hemorrhagic ...
Ann Arbor, MI, April 8, 2014 /3BL Media/ - While preventable, carbon monoxide poisoning is a serious and sometimes fatal condition. Large weather events, such as snowstorms and heavy storms that cause power outages, can lead to an increase in the number of reported carbon monoxide exposures. Researchers from Hartford Hospital in Hartford, Connecticut explored the link between these major storms and the rise in carbon monoxide exposure cases. They found that portable generators were the most common source of carbon monoxide exposure after storms which resulted in power losses; car exhaust was the most frequent source of exposure after heavy snowstorms. Their findings are published in the May issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine.. In 2011, 12,136 unintentional exposures were reported to U.S. Poison Control Centers. Carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless, and tasteless gas that can build up to dangerous levels in unventilated areas. Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning include ...
The ADT® monitored carbon monoxide detector continually senses carbon monoxide in the air with a range of 35-5,000 parts per million (PPM). When the carbon monoxide detector senses 70 PPM or more, the sensors alarm is triggered. By contrast, the first symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning, generally slight headaches or flu-like symptoms come on at 100 PPM. The carbon monoxide detector with ADT® monitoring, when used properly, allows for early detection before carbon monoxide poisoning sets in.. This state of the art carbon monoxide detector is equipped with an 85 decibel alarm at 10 feet. The loud alert is used to notify anyone in your home of carbon monoxide buildup. The ADT® monitored carbon monoxide detector is different from the competition because it communicates with the home security panel and alerts ADT® monitoring of increased level of carbon monoxide. ADT® then follows up on the issue and will contact emergency services, as desired. This means that your familys safety isnt ...
Zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) is a compound found in red blood cells when heme production is inhibited by lead and/or by lack of iron. Instead of incorporating a ferrous ion, to form heme, protoporphyrin IX, the immediate precursor of heme, incorporates a zinc ion, forming ZPP. The reaction to insert a ferrous ion into protoporphyrin IX is catalyzed by the enzyme ferrochelatase. Measurement of zinc protoporphyrin in red cells has been used as a screening test for lead poisoning. and for iron deficiency. There are a number of specific clinical situations in which this measurement has been found to be useful. Zinc protoporphyrin levels can be elevated as the result of a number of conditions, for instance: lead poisoning iron deficiency sickle cell anemia sideroblastic anemia anemia of chronic disease vanadium exposure erythropoietic protoporphyria Varying types of cancer The virtue of elevated ZPP testing as a screen is that all of these conditions can be considered worth discovering. The fluorescent ...
Heme oxygenase or haem oxygenase (HO) is an enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of heme. This produces biliverdin, ferrous iron, and carbon monoxide. There is limited evidence that levels of heme oxygenase are positive predictors of metabolic disease, insulin resistance, and metaflammation. Heme oxygenase cleaves the heme ring at the alpha-methene bridge to form either biliverdin or, if the heme is still attached to a globin, verdoglobin. Biliverdin is subsequently converted to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. The reaction comprises three steps, which may be: Heme b3+ + O 2 + NADPH + H+ → α-meso-hydroxyheme3+ + NADP+ + H 2O α-meso-hydroxyheme3+ + H+ + O 2 → verdoheme4+ + CO + H2O verdoheme4+ + 7/2 NADPH + O 2+ 3/2 H+ → biliverdin + Fe2+ + 7/2 NADP+ + H 2O The sum of these reactions is: Heme b3+ + 3O 2 + 9/2 NADPH + 7/2 H+ → biliverdin + Fe2+ + CO + 9/2 NADP+ + 3H 2O If the iron is initially in the +2 state, the reaction could be: Heme b2+ + 3O2 + 4 NADPH + 4 H+ → biliverdin + ...
The heme chaperone CcmE is a novel protein that binds heme covalently via a histidine residue as part of its essential function in the process of cytochrome c biogenesis in many bacteria as well as plant mitochondria. In the continued absence of a structure of the holoform of CcmE, identification of the heme ligands is an important step in understanding the molecular function of this protein and the role of covalent heme binding to CcmE during the maturation of c-type cytochromes. In this work, we present spectroscopic data that provide insight into the ligation of the heme iron in the soluble domain of CcmE from Escherichia coli. Resonance Raman spectra demonstrated that one of the heme axial ligands is a histidine residue and that the other is likely to be Tyr134. In addition, the properties of the heme resonances of the holo-protein as compared with those of a form of CcmE with non-covalently bound heme provide evidence for the modification of one of the heme vinyl side chains by the protein, most
Endotoxin was administered to rats at a dose shown previously to stimulate hepatic haem oxygenase activity and to block induction of delta-aminolaevulinate synthase, apparently by causing redistribution of haem from cytochrome P-450 to a regulatory haem pool in the liver. Within 5h of the administration of endotoxin (at a time when the effect of the compound on cytochrome P-450 is maximal) the relative saturation of tryptophan pyrrolase with intrinsic haem rose, from a basal value of 50% to 90%, indicating that free haem had become available. Concurrently, the activity of delta-aminolaevulinate synthase was decreased to 25% of its basal value. Haem oxygenase reached peak activity 13h after endotoxin administration. These findings provide new evidence for the existence of an unassigned hepatic haem fraction, which exchanges with cytochrome P-450 haem and regulates these three enzyme functions. ...
HMOX1 (heme oxygenase (decycling) 1) is a human gene that encodes for the enzyme heme oxygenase 1 (EC 1.14.99.3). Heme oxygenase mediates the first step of heme catabolism, it cleaves heme to form biliverdin. Heme oxygenase, an essential enzyme in heme catabolism, cleaves heme to form biliverdin, carbon monoxide, and ferrous iron. The biliverdin is subsequently converted to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. Heme oxygenase activity is induced by its substrate heme and by various nonheme substances. Heme oxygenase occurs as 2 isozymes, an inducible heme oxygenase-1 and a constitutive heme oxygenase-2. HMOX1 and HMOX2 belong to the heme oxygenase family. The HMOX gene is located on the long (q) arm of chromosome 22 at position 12.3, from base pair 34,101,636 to base pair 34,114,748. Heme oxygenase-1 deficiency The ability of oxygenase 1 to catabolize free heme and produce carbon monoxide (CO) gives its anti-inflammatory properties by up-regulation of interleukin 10 (IL-10) and interleukin 1 ...
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Goh, B.J.,Khoo, H.E.,Tan, B.T.,Lee, K.H.,Hon, W.M. (2006). Nitric oxide synthase and heme oxygenase expressions in human liver cirrhosis. World Journal of Gastroenterology 12 (4) : 588-594. [email protected] Repository ...
In acute attacks of acute intermittent porphyria, the mainstay of treatment is glucose and heme arginate administration. We present the case of a 58-year-old patient with acute liver failure requiring urgent liver transplantation after erroneous 6-fold overdose of heme arginate during an acute attack. As recommended in the product information, albumin and charcoal were administered and hemodiafiltration was started, which could not prevent acute liver failure, requiring super-urgent liver transplantation after 6 days. The explanted liver showed no preexisting liver cirrhosis, but signs of subacute liver injury and starting regeneration. The patient recovered within a short time. A literature review revealed four poorly documented cases of potential hepatic and/or renal toxicity of hematin or heme arginate. This is the first published case report of acute liver failure requiring super-urgent liver transplantation after accidental heme arginate overdose. The literature and recommendations in case ...
Looking for online definition of Protoporphyrin IX in the Medical Dictionary? Protoporphyrin IX explanation free. What is Protoporphyrin IX? Meaning of Protoporphyrin IX medical term. What does Protoporphyrin IX mean?
During power outages after hurricanes, survivors can be at risk for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning if they use portable generators improperly (1). On September 13, 2008, Hurricane Ike struck the coast of Texas, leaving approximately 2.3 million households in the southeastern portion of the state without electricity (2). Six days later, 1.3 million homes were still without electrical power (2). To assess the impact of storm-related CO exposures and to enhance prevention efforts, CDC analyzed data from five disparate surveillance sources on CO exposures reported during September 13--26 in counties of southeast Texas that were declared disaster areas by the federal government. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that one data source, Texas poison centers, received reports of 54 persons with storm-related CO exposures during the surveillance period. Another data source, the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society (UHMS) hyperbaric oxygen treatment database, reported ...
The antioxidant properties of protoporphyrin IX and related tetrapyrroles are poorly characterized. Therefore, eight tetrapyrroles, five of which are produced in vivo, were tested to assess their antioxidant capacities in the Salmonella reverse mutation, TEAC, FRAP and ORAC assays. Tertiary-butyl hydroperoxide (tert-BOOH) in the presence or absence of metabolic activation (ᓹ) was added to Salmonella strain TA102 together with the test compounds. In the absence of metabolic activation, the order of effectiveness was protoporphyrin , biliverdin , bilirubin ditaurate , bilirubin , biliverdin dimethyl ester , stercobilin , bilirubin dimethyl ester , urobilin. In the presence of S9, the effectiveness was reversed, with urobilin , biliverdin dimethyl ester , bilirubin dimethyl ester , stercobilin , biliverdin , bilirubin , bilirubin ditaurate , protoporphyrin. In the antioxidant capacity assays FRAP, TEAC and ORAC, mainly bilirubin, bilirubin ditaurate, biliverdin and protoporphyrin showed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reaction intermediates in the heme degradation reaction by HutZ from. T2 - Vibrio cholerae. AU - Uchida, Takeshi. AU - Sekine, Yukari. AU - Dojun, Nobuhiko. AU - Lewis-Ballester, Ariel. AU - Ishigami, Izumi. AU - Matsui, Toshitaka. AU - Yeh, Syun Ru. AU - Ishimori, Koichiro. PY - 2017/1/1. Y1 - 2017/1/1. N2 - HutZ is a heme-degrading enzyme in Vibrio cholerae. It converts heme to biliverdin via verdoheme, suggesting that it follows the same reaction mechanism as that of mammalian heme oxygenase. However, none of the key intermediates have been identified. In this study, we applied steady-state and time-resolved UV-vis absorption and resonance Raman spectroscopy to study the reaction of the heme-HutZ complex with H2O2 or ascorbic acid. We characterized three intermediates: oxyferrous heme, meso-hydroxyheme, and verdoheme complexes. Our data support the view that HutZ degrades heme in a manner similar to mammalian heme oxygenase, despite their low sequence and structural ...
Fire officials say crews went to the Hickory Hollow Cooperative apartment complex Friday evening after getting a report of two unconscious people.
Experiments are described in which the individual properties of the two 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) binding sites, the A-site and the P-site, of 5-aminolaevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) have been investigated. The ALA binding affinity at the A-site is greatly enhanced (at least 10-fold) on the binding of the catalytic metal ion (bound at the alpha-site). The nature of the catalytic metal ion, Mg2+ or Zn2+, also gave major variations in the substrate Km, P-site affinity for ALA, the effect of potassium and phosphate ions and the pH-dependence of substrate binding. Modification of the P-site by reaction of the enzyme-substrate Schiff base with NaBH4 and analysis of the reduced adduct by electro-spray mass spectrometry indicated a maximum of 1 mol of substrate incorporated/mol of subunit, correlating with a linear loss of enzyme activity. The reduced Schiff-base adduct was used to investigate substrate binding at the A-site by using rate-of-dialysis analysis. The affinity for ALA at the A-site of ...
To study the role of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) in collagen metabolism during hypoxic pulmonary vascular remodeling, a total of 18 Wistar rats were used in the study and they were randomly divided into three groups: hypoxia group (n=6), hypoxia with zinc protoporphyrin-IX (ZnPP-IX) group (n=6) and control group (n=6). The measurement of mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) formation in lung tissue homogenates was measured. A morphometric analysis of pulmonary vessels was performed, in which the percentage of muscularized arteries (MA); partially muscularized arteries (PMA) and nonmuscularized arteries (NMV) in small and median pulmonary vessels, relative medial thickness (RMT) and relative medial area (RMA) of pulmonary arteries were analyzed. Collagen type I and III and transforming growth factor-beta(3) (TGF-beta(3)) expressions were detected by immunohistochemical assay. The expressions of procollagen type I and III and TGF-beta(3) mRNA were detected by in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Induction of heme oxygenase is a rapid, protective response in rhabdomyolysis in the rat. AU - Nath, Karl A. AU - Balla, Gyorgy. AU - Vercellotti, Gregory M.. AU - Balla, Jozsef. AU - Jacob, Harry S.. AU - Levin, Michael D.. AU - Rosenberg, Mark E.. PY - 1992. Y1 - 1992. N2 - Heme proteins such as myoglobin or hemoglobin, when released into the extracellular space, can instigate tissue toxicity. Myoglobin is directly implicated in the pathogenesis of renal failure in rhabdomyolysis. In the glycerol model of this syndrome, we demonstrate that the kidney responds to such inordinte amounts of heme proteins by inducing the heme-degradative enzyme, heme oxygenase, as well as increasing the synthesis of ferritin, the major cellular repository for iron. Prior recruitment of this response with a single preinfusion of hemoglobin prevents kidney failure and drastically reduces mortality (from 100% to 14%). Conversely, ablating this response with a competitive inhibitor of heme oxygenase ...
On-Orbit Status Report. Biomolecule Sequencer WIFI Reconnection and Sample Sequence Completion: Over the weekend the crew completed the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequencing process that began last week and transferred the screenshots to the Surface Pro 3 tablet for downlink. The Biomolecule Sequencer investigation seeks to demonstrate for the first time that DNA sequencing is feasible in an orbiting spacecraft. A space-based DNA sequencer could identify microbes, diagnose diseases and understand crew member health, and potentially help detect DNA-based life elsewhere in the solar system.. Marrow Blood, Breath, and Ambient Air Sample Collection: Over the weekend the crew set up the Marrow air sample collection hardware in the crew quarters and today upon waking the crew took breath and ambient air samples to measure carbon monoxide concentration for the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) Marrow experiment. Marrow investigates the effect of microgravity on human bone marrow. It is believed that ...
Biliverdin reductase (BVR) is an enzyme (EC 1.3.1.24) found in all tissues under normal conditions, but especially in reticulo-macrophages of the liver and spleen. BVR facilitates the conversion of biliverdin to bilirubin via the reduction of a double-bond between the second and third pyrrole ring into a single-bond. There are two isozymes, in humans, each encoded by its own gene, biliverdin reductase A (BLVRA) and biliverdin reductase B (BLVRB). BVR acts on biliverdin by reducing its double-bond between the pyrrole rings into a single-bond. It accomplishes this using NADPH + H+ as an electron donor, forming bilirubin and NADP+ as products. BVR catalyzes this reaction through an overlapping binding site including Lys18, Lys22, Lys179, Arg183, and Arg185 as key residues. This binding site attaches to biliverdin, and causes its dissociation from heme oxygenase (HO) (which catalyzes reaction of ferric heme biliverdin), causing the subsequent reduction to bilirubin. BVR is composed of two ...
This study examines the possibility that abnormal expression of the gene mitoferrin-1, which codes for the protein that transports iron in the mitochondria of cells, is a contributing factor to the phenotype in individuals with EPP.. Erythropoietic protoporphyria (EPP) is a human genetic/metabolic disorder in which accumulation of the compound protoporphyrin causes skin sensitivity to sunlight. Some individuals with the disorder also have mild anemia, and a few have hepatobiliary disease. Iron is joined to protoporphyrin to form heme in the mitochondria of cells, under control of the enzyme ferrochelatase. Defects in this process cause the accumulation of protoporphyrin, leading to the biochemical and clinical features of EPP. Abnormalities in the ferrochelatase gene are the major cause of the defect, but do not satisfactorily explain the severity of the phenotype in all subjects. Mitoferrin-1 transports iron to ferrochelatase in the mitochondria of cells for heme formation, and also transports ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - TonB-dependent systems of uropathogenic escherichia coli. T2 - Aerobactin and heme transport and TonB are required for virulence in the mouse. AU - Torres, Alfredo. AU - Redford, P.. AU - Welch, R. A.. AU - Payne, S. M.. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - The uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain CFT073 has multiple iron acquisition systems, including heme and siderophore transporters. A tonB mutant derivative of CFT073 failed to use heme as an iron source or to utilize the siderophores enterobactin and aerobactin, indicating that transport of these compounds in CFT073 is TonB dependent. The TonB- derivative showed reduced virulence in a mouse model of urinary tract infection. Virulence was restored when the tonB gene was introduced on a plasmid. To determine the importance of the individual TonB-dependent iron transport systems during urinary tract infections, mutants defective in each of the CFT073 high-affinity iron transport systems were constructed and tested in the mouse model. ...
Definition : Clinical chemistry reagents intended to perform qualitative and/or quantitative chemical analysis of body fluids (typically urine) to measure the total level of porphyrin. Analysis may include a profile of porphyrin components (e.g., uroporphyrin, coproporphyrin). Measurement of the total level of porphyrins is used in the diagnosis and management of one of a group of metabolic disorders, either inherited or acquired, usually known as porphyrias; measurement of the porphyrin-level profile in urine is used to characterize several specific diseases, such as porphyria cutanea tarda, that are associated with the presence of isocoproporphyrin. Some specific porphyrin analyses in whole blood are performed for screening purposes, such as zinc protoporphyrin for iron-deficiency anemia and free erythrocyteporphyrin determination for lead poisoning.. Entry Terms : "ZPP (Zinc Protoporphyrin) Determination Reagents" , "Zinc Protoporphyrin (ZPP) Determination Reagents" , "Porphyrin Determination ...
CO fire detectors are electronic detectors used to indicate the outbreak of fire by sensing the level of carbon monoxide in the air. Carbon monoxide, usually known by its chemical formula CO, is a poisonous gas produced by combustion. They are not the same as CO detectors used for home safety which are used to protect residents against carbon monoxide produced by incomplete combustion in appliances such as gas fires or boilers.. CO fire detectors use the same type of sensor but are more sensitive and respond more quickly.CO detectors have an electrochemical cell, which senses carbon monoxide, but not smoke or any other combustion products. The cells do not require much power, so the detectors can be made electrically compatible with ordinary smoke and heat detectors. As fire detectors they are effective but only for certain types of fire. Deep-seated, smouldering fires produce carbon monoxide, which can be detected some distance from the seat of the fire. For this type of fire a CO fire detector ...
Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is the inducible isoform of the heme-degrading enzyme HO, which is upregulated by multiple stress stimuli. HO-1 has major immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects via its cell-type-specific functions in mononuclear cells. Contradictory findings have been reported on HO-1 regulation by the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS) ... read more in these cells. Therefore, we reinvestigated the effects of LPS on HO-1 gene expression in human and murine mononuclear cells in vitro and in vivo. Remarkably, LPS downregulated HO-1 in primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), CD14(+) monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, and granulocytes, but upregulated this enzyme in primary murine macrophages and human monocytic leukemia cell lines. Furthermore, experiments with human CD14(+) monocytes revealed that activation of other TLRs including TLR1, -2, -5, -6, -8, and -9 decreased HO-1 mRNA expression. LPS-dependent downregulation of HO-1 was ...
Since ZnDPBG and ZnPP inhibit heme oxygenase-mediated conversion of heme to carbon monoxide and biliverdin,9 10 11 12 the effects of these inhibitors on hemodynamics may provide insights into the physiological influence of heme oxygenase products on BP regulation. ZnDPBG and ZnPP administration produces pressor responses that are maximal within 5 minutes and maintained for approximately 1 hour. ZnDPBG-induced increases in arterial pressure are paralleled by increases in total peripheral resistance, establishing systemic vasoconstriction as the major hemodynamic determinant of the increase in BP. Importantly, nonmetallic DPBG, which does not inhibit heme oxygenase activity, does not affect hemodynamics. This strengthens the argument that the pressor effect of ZnDPBG is a consequence of decreased heme oxygenase activity. If so, these findings imply that heme oxygenase activity is subserving a vasodepressor function by promoting vasodilation.. Elevation of BP after pretreatment with an inhibitor of ...
Metal insulator silicon carbide field-effect transistor sensors, metal-oxide sensors, and a linear Lambda sensor in an electronic nose was used to measure on-line in hot flue gases from a boiler. Flue gas from a 100-MW pellets-fuelled boiler has been used to feed the experimental setup. Several reference instruments, which measure the flue gases in parallel to the sensor array, are connected to the electronic nose. Data was collected during six weeks and then evaluated. Using principal component analysis as the data evaluation method, different operating modes for the boiler have been identified in the data set. The different modes could be described in terms of high or low O 2 and CO concentration. Furthermore, we have shown that it seems possible to use a sensor array to determine the operating mode of the boiler and, by partial least-squares models, measure the CO concentration when the boiler operates in its optimum mode.. ...
Biliverdin definition, a dark-green bile pigment, C 33 H 34 O 6 N 4 , formed as a breakdown product of hemoglobin and converted in humans to bilirubin. See more.
Introduction: The inhalation of tobacco smoke can substantially raise the level of carboxyhemoglobin in the blood. Determination of the level of carboxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin can identify patients with increased risk for development of postoperative pulmonary complications. Material and Methods: Thirty patients scheduled for elective urologic surgery under general endotracheal anesthesia were allocated in two groups (n = 15 each). The study group comprised patients who were smoking cigarettes or tobacco pipe, while the control group included non-smokers. In both groups carboxyhemoglobin and methemoglobin levels were determined preoperatively, after preoxygenation, and one hour after completing the anesthesia. Postoperative pulmonary complications were assessed and recorded during the period of hospitalization.Results: The average values of carboxyhemoglobin between the two groups were statistically significantly different. Postoperative carboxyhemoglobin was higher in smokers compared to
To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report suggesting a molecular mechanism by which heme regulates humoral immunity. Together with our recent report,15 our present results provide strong evidence that heme augments plasma cell differentiation by inhibiting Bach2, and thus increasing the population of Blimp-1-expressing cells. Because Blimp-1 is the master regulator of plasma cell differentiation,19,41 its derepression by heme through Bach2 inactivation may fine-tune the response of humoral immunity. In addition, heme may regulate the B-cell responses by inducing the expression of HO-1, which possesses antioxidant and immunomodulatory functions.9. In the spectral analyses, the 432-nm absorption band (6-coordinate heme-binding mode) and the 366-nm absorption band (5-coordinate heme-binding mode) both became apparent on addition of heme (Figure 1B). These results suggested that Bach2 bound to heme directly and had at least 2 distinct binding modes. Moreover, the spectral changes ...
Background Carbon monoxide (CO) synthesized by heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) exerts antinociceptive effects during inflammation but its role during neuropathic pain remains unknown. Our objective is to investigate the exact contribution of CO derived from HO-1 in the modulation of neuropathic pain and the mechanisms implicated. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects of CO following sciatic nerve injury in wild type (WT) or inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout (NOS2-KO) mice using two carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CORM-2 and CORM-3) and an HO-1 inducer (cobalt protoporphyrin IX, CoPP) daily administered from days 10 to 20 after injury. The effects of CORM-2 and CoPP on the expression of HO-1, heme oxygenase 2 (HO-2), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) and NOS2 as well as a microglial marker (CD11b/c) were also assessed at day 20 after surgery in WT and NOS2-KO mice. In WT mice, the main neuropathic pain symptoms induced by nerve injury were
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nitric oxide binding to the ferri- and ferroheme states of nitrophorin 1, a reversible NO-binding heme protein from the saliva of the blood-sucking insect, Rhodnius prolixus. AU - Ding, Xiao D.. AU - Weichsel, Andrzej. AU - Andersen, John F.. AU - Shokhireva, Tatjana Kh. AU - Balfour, Celia. AU - Pierik, Antonio J.. AU - Averill, Bruce A.. AU - Montfort, William R.. AU - Walker, F. Ann. PY - 1999/1/13. Y1 - 1999/1/13. N2 - The recombinant NO-binding heme protein, nitrophorin 1 (NP1) from the saliva of the bloodsucking insect, Rhodnius prolixus, has been studied by spectroelectrochemistry, EPR, NMR, and FTIR spectroscopies and X-ray crystallography. It is found that NP1 readily binds NO in solution and in the crystalline state, but the protein is not readily autoreduced by excess NO. Likewise, dithionite is not a very effective reductant of NP1. However, the protein can be photoreduced by illumination with visible light in the presence of excess NO, deazaflavin, and EDTA. Optical ...
Aminolevulinic acid synthase (ALA synthase, ALAS, or delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase) is an enzyme (EC 2.3.1.37) that catalyzes the synthesis of D-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) the first common precursor in the biosynthesis of all tetrapyrroles such as hemes, cobalamins and chlorophylls. The reaction is as follows: succinyl-CoA + glycine ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } δ-aminolevulinic acid + CoA + CO2 This enzyme is expressed in all non-plant eukaryotes and the α-class of proteobacteria. Other organisms produce ALA through a three enzyme pathway known as the Shemin pathway. ALA is synthesized through the condensation of glycine and succinyl-CoA. In humans, transcription of ALA synthase is tightly controlled by the presence of Fe2+-binding elements, to prevent accumulation of porphyrin intermediates in the absence of iron. There are two forms of ALA synthase in the body. One form is expressed in red blood cell precursor cells (ALAS2), whereas the other (ALAS1) is ubiquitously expressed ...
Using recently developed molecular-shape description algorithms, we searched the Available Chemical Directory for known compounds similar in shape to the potent HIV-1 protease inhibitor Merck L-700,417; 15 compounds most similar in shape to the inhibitor were selected for testing in vitro. Four of these inhibited the protease at 100 µM or less and the most active of the four were the naturally occurring pigments biliverdin and bilirubin. Biliverdin and bilirubin inhibited recombinant HIV-1 protease in vitro at pH 7.8 with Ki values of approx. 1 µM, and also inhibited HIV-2 and simian immunodeficiency virus proteases. The related pyrrolic pigments stercobilin, urobilin, biliverdin dimethyl ester and xanthobilirubic acid showed similar inhibitory activity at low micromolar concentrations. Biliverdin, bilirubin and xanthobilirubic acid did not inhibit viral polyprotein processing in cultured cells, but they reduced viral infectivity significantly. At 100 µM, xanthobilirubic acid affected viral ...
The fine structure of Cyanidium caldarium, as seen in thin sections of KMnO4-fixed cells examined with the electron microscope, is described. This organism, whose taxonomic position among algae is undetermined, contains a single well defined chloroplast, a nucleus, and mitochondria. Studies, with the electron microscope, of Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Nostoc are also reported. Structural differences within cells of Cyanidium, chlorella, and Nostoc are discussed. It is concluded that if Nostoc can be taken as a typical Cyanophyte and Chlorella as a representative Chlorophyte and if the items of fine structure examined are diagnostic, then Cyanidium is certainly not a Cyanophyte and, while it has numerous features in common with Chlorella, is not a green alga similar to Chlorella. Comparisons are also made between Cyanidium and other algae whose fine structure has been described by others.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Inhibition of porphyrin biosynthesis by exogenous 5-aminolevulinic acid in an aerobic photosynthetic bacterium, Erythrobacter sp. OCh 114. AU - Shioi, Yuzo. AU - Doi, Michio. AU - Tanabe, Kimiko. AU - Shimokawa, Keishi. PY - 1988/11/1. Y1 - 1988/11/1. N2 - Exogenously administrated 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) inhibited the formation of bacteriochlorophyll a (Bchl a) in a dose-dependent manner in the aerobic photosynthetic bacterium, Erythrobacter sp. strain OCh 114, under dark growth conditions. The ALA concentration required for half-inhibition after 24-h growth was estimated to be about 3.0 mm. Porphyrin and Bchl precursors were not found in either the cells or the growth medium. The same inhibition was also observed with cytochrome c formation. When ALA was incubated with intact cells, a large amount of ALA was converted to an unknown metabolite. The pH optimum of the conversion was 7.8. The metabolite did not react with Ehrlichs reagent, but did so with ninhydrin, giving a ...
Diabetes is intimately associated with cardiovascular complications. Much evidence highlighted the complex interplay between Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) stress and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction was shown to protect against oxidative stress in diabetes; however the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated. We aim in this project to test the hypothesis that HO-1 induction will protect against high glucose-mediated ER stress and oxidative stress in endothelial cells and will enhance cell survival. Endothelial cells were cultured in physiological or high concentrations of glucose in the presence of cobalt protoporphyrin 1X (CoPP, HO-1 inducer), 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA, chemical chaperone to inhibit ER stress) or vehicle. Then, ER stress response was assessed (PCR, western blot). The productions of ROS (flow cytometer) and NO (Griess assay) were analysed. Also, apoptosis and caspase 3/7 activity were assessed. High glucose treatment
In this study, we evaluate the effect of HO-1 upregulation on blood pressure and cardiac function in the new model of infarct spontaneous hypertensive rats (ISHR). Male spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) at 13 weeks (n = 40) and age-matched male Wistar (WT) rats (n = 20) were divided into six groups: WT (sham + normal saline (NS)), WT (sham + Co(III) Protoporphyrin IX Chloride (CoPP)), SHR (myocardial infarction (MI) + NS), SHR (MI + CoPP), SHR (MI + CoPP + Tin Mesoporphyrin IX Dichloride (SnMP)), SHR (sham + NS); CoPP 4.5 mg/kg, SnMP 15 mg/kg, for six weeks, one/week, i.p., n = 10/group. At the sixth week, echocardiography (UCG) and hemodynamics were performed. Then, blood samples and heart tissue were collected. Copp treatment in the SHR (MI + CoPP) group lowered blood pressure, decreased infarcted area, restored cardiac function (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular fraction shortening (LVFS), +dp/dtmax, (−dp/dtmax)/left ventricular systolic pressure (LVSP)), inhibited
Household air pollution (HAP) contributes to the global burden of disease. Our primary purpose was to determine whether HAP exposure was associated with reduced lung function and respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms in Belizean adults and children. Our secondary purpose was to investigate whether lifestyle (physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable consumption (FV)) is associated with reported symptoms. Belizean adults (n = 67, 19 Male) and children (n = 23, 6 Male) from San Ignacio Belize and surrounding areas participated in this cross-sectional study. Data collection took place at free walk-in clinics. Investigators performed initial screenings and administered questionnaires on (1) sources of HAP exposure; (2) reported respiratory and non-respiratory symptoms and (3) validated lifestyle questionnaires. Participants then performed pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and exhaled breath carbon monoxide (CO). There were no significant associations between HAP exposure and pulmonary function in
The surface distribution of CH4, photoproduction capacity of seawater for CO, and CH4 and CO microbial oxidation rates and turnover times were determined for the surface waters of the southeastern Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Paria as affected by the Orinoco River. Measurements were made during the spring (low river flow) and the fall (high river flow) in order to determine the influence of Orinoco River discharge on these parameters. Methane concentrations were generally lower in the fall than in the spring. Low CH4 oxidation rates and similar surface distributions were observed during both seasons. Methane oxidation in the river plume was significantly higher in the fall. Potential CO photoproduction and CO oxidation rates were generally higher during the fall. Possible effects of the Orinoco River on potential CO photoproduction capacity were observed as far as Puerto Rico. Turnover times for CH4 were in the order of years, whereas CO turnover times were in the order of hours. The Orinoco River ...
The whole purpose of this biochemical pathway is to produce haem for the bodys needs. The porphyrins are indicated in the centre in yellow. You can see how each intermediate compound is converted to the next under the influence of an enzyme, named on the left in blue. The porphyria resulting from a defect in that enzyme is shown on the right in green. The step between uroporphyrinogen and coproporphyrinogen includes three intermediates: hepta-, hexa- and pentacarboxylic porphyrinogens (abbreviate here as C7-, C6- and C5-): accumulation of these intermediates is a feature of porphyria cutanea tarda. The laboratory analyses the pattern of porphyrins which accumulate in the urine, plasma and sometimes the stool or red blood cells of a patient to determine just what type of porphyria they have: the process is known as chromatography, and this is the basis of the biochemical tests employed in diagnosis.. If you came here from a page other than via the Gallery, return to previous page.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Association between promoter polymorphisms of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 gene and peptic ulcer diseases. AU - Arisawa, Tomiyasu. AU - Tahara, Tomomitsu. AU - Shibata, Tomoyuki. AU - Nagasaka, Mitsuo. AU - Nakamura, Masakatsu. AU - Kamiya, Yoshio. AU - Fujita, Hiroshi. AU - Yoshioka, Daisuke. AU - Arima, Yuko. AU - Okubo, Masaaki. AU - Hirata, Ichiro. AU - Nakano, Hiroshi. PY - 2007/12/1. Y1 - 2007/12/1. N2 - Transcription factor Nrf2 regulates the expression of detoxifying and antioxidant genes. Three promoter polymorphisms of this gene have been identified. We attempted to clarify the association of these polymorphisms with the development of peptic ulcer diseases. The study was performed with 384 stocked DNAs obtained from subjects with no evidence of gastric malignancy. In all 384 DNAs, 77 and 48 were obtained from gastric and duodenal ulcer patients, respectively. By an unadjusted analysis, infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), male gender and the ...
Iron porphyrins with the intermediate spin S = 3/2 or admixed with S = 5/2 or 1/2 are models for a number of heme protein systems, including cytochromes c. The (57)Fe Mossbauer quadrupole splittings and (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts have been found to be useful probes of their electronic states. We present the results of the first successful quantum chemical calculations of the Mossbauer and NMR properties in various S = 3/2 iron porphyrin complexes, covering four-, five-, and six-coordinate states and three commonly seen porphyrin conformations: planar, ruffled, and saddled. Several interesting correlations among these useful experimental spectroscopic probes and geometric and electronic properties were discovered. These results should facilitate future investigations of related heme proteins and model systems.
Owing to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory functions of hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1), HO-1-expressing canine adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-MSCs) could be efficacious in treating spinal cord injury (SCI). Further, frozen thawed HO-1 Ad-MSCs could be instantly available as an emergency treatment for SCI. We compared the effects of intravenous treatment with freshly cultured HO-1 Ad-MSCs (HO-1 MSCs), only green fluorescent protein-expressing Ad-MSCs (GFP MSCs), and frozen thawed HO-1 Ad-MSCs (FT-HO-1 MSCs) in dogs with acute SCI. For four weeks, dogs were evaluated for improvement in hind limb locomotion using a canine Basso Beattie Bresnahan (cBBB) score. Upon completion of the study, injured spinal cord segments were harvested and used for western blot and histopathological analyses. All cell types had migrated to the injured spinal cord segment. The group that received HO-1 MSCs showed significant improvement in the cBBB score within four weeks. This group also showed significantly higher
Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a microsomal enzyme that degrades heme, a prosthetic group of the heme protein family (e.g., hemoglobin), into the bile pigment biliverdin. Biliverdin is subsequently converted to bilirubin, carbon monoxide, and reduced iron. Bilirubin has an anti-inflammatory effect and is part of the oxidative stress response due to its strong free radical scavenging activity, whereas carbon monoxide has a vasodilatory effect on organ blood flow ...
Background & Aims Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is an antioxidant defense and key cytoprotective enzyme, which is repressed by Bach1. MicroRNA-122 (miR-122) is specifically expressed and highly abundant in human liver and required for replication of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA. This study was to assess whether a specific miR-122 antagomir down-regulates HCV protein replication and up-regulates HO-1. Methods We transfected antagomir of miR-122, 2′-O-methyl-mimic miR-122, or non-specific-control antagomir (NSCA) into wild type Huh-7 cells or Huh-7 stably replicating HCV subgenomic core-NS3 (CNS3 replicon cells), or NS3-5B (9-13 replicon cells). Results Antagomir of miR-122 reduced the abundance of HCV-RNA by 64% in CNS3, and by 84% in 9-13 cells. In contrast, transfection with 2′-O-methlyl-mimic miR-122 increased HCV levels up to 2.5-fold; transfection with NSCA did not change the level of HCV. Antagomir of miR-122 also decreased Bach1 and increased HO-1 mRNA levels in CNS3, 9-13, and WT
Plays a role in phycoerythrobilin biosynthesis, the red pigment chromophore photosynthetically active biliproteins of the host cyanobacteria. Uses a four-electron reduction to carry out the reactions catalyzed by two enzymes (EC 1.3.7.2 and EC 1.3.7.3) in host.
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