Preferred Name: Recombinant Nematode Anticoagulant Protein c2 Definition: An 85-amino acid recombinant peptide derived from protein c2 of the hemophagocytic hookworm Ancylostoma caninum (a common canine parasite) with anticoagulant activity. Recombinant nematode anticoagulant protein c2 (rNAPc2) binds to circulating activated factor X (FXa) or zymogen factor X (FX) to form a binary complex which subsequently binds to and inhibits membrane-bound activated factor VII/tissue factor complex (FVIIa/TF). When administered prophylactically, this agent may reduce the incidence of deep venous thrombosis without hemostatic compromise. Because rNAPc2 inhibits the formation of the FVIIa/TF protease complex, which may play a role in the cellular signaling of both metastatic and angiogenic processes, it may impede tumor progression. Label: Recombinant Nematode Anticoagulant Protein c2 NCI Thesaurus Code: C69129 (Search for linked caDSR metadata) (search value sets) NCI Metathesaurus Link: CL371851 (see NCI ...
Excretory/secretory proteins (ESPs) play a major role in parasitic infection as they are present at the host-parasite interface and regulate host immune system. In case of parasitic helminths, transcriptomics has been used extensively to understand the molecular basis of parasitism and for developing novel therapeutic strategies against parasitic infections. However, none of transcriptomic studies have extensively covered ES protein prediction for identifying novel therapeutic targets, especially as parasites adopt non-classical secretion pathways. We developed a semi-automated computational approach for prediction and annotation of ES proteins using transcriptomic data from next generation sequencing platforms. For the prediction of non-classically secreted proteins, we have used an improved computational strategy, together with homology matching to a dataset of experimentally determined parasitic helminth ES proteins. We applied this protocol to analyse 454 short reads of parasitic nematode,
Calpains are calcium-dependent cysteine proteases involved in signal transduction in a variety of cellular processes. A functional calpain protein consists of an invariant small subunit and 1 of a family of large subunits. CAPN5 is one of the large subunits. Unlike some of the calpains, CAPN5 and CAPN6 lack a calmodulin-like domain IV. Because of the significant similarity to Caenorhabditis elegans sex determination gene tra-3, CAPN5 is also called as HTRA3. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
By design, sperm cells are small, motile, and transcriptionally inactive. Thus a key step in the developmental program of making a sperm involves prepackaging components that need to be synthesized before the turnoff of transcription and stored for later use. Nematode spermatogenesis provides an extreme example of this process; bulk transcription ceases prior to the meiotic divisions and translation ceases immediately after anaphase II. In particular, spermatocytes must synthesize and prepackage a small filament forming protein called the major sperm protein (MSP). Within mature nematode sperm, MSP serves both as the protein that drives sperm motility and as a signaling protein that triggers oocyte maturation and the physical process of ovulation. Our lab has recently identified several factors involved in both the assembly and sequestration of MSP into large, macromolecular structures called fibrous bodies. Furthermore, in a link to our cell division interests, mutants with defects in MSP ...
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Positioning edgetic residues in CED-9 structures. (a) Positions of edgetic residues in the CED-9 sequence. The portion of CED-9 present in the crystal (PDB ID c
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dephosphorylation of major sperm protein (MSP) fiber protein 3 by protein phosphatase 2A during cell body retraction in the MSP-based amoeboid motility of Ascaris sperm. AU - Yi, Kexi. AU - Wang, Xu. AU - Emmett, Mark. AU - Marshall, Alan G.. AU - Stewart, Murray. AU - Roberts, Thomas M.. PY - 2009/7/15. Y1 - 2009/7/15. N2 - The crawling movement of nematode sperm requires coordination of leading edge protrusion with cell body retraction, both of which are powered by modulation of a cytoskeleton based on major sperm protein (MSP) filaments. We used a cell-free in vitro motility system in which both protrusion and retraction can be reconstituted, to identify two proteins involved in cell body retraction. Pharmacological and depletion-add back assays showed that retraction was triggered by a putative protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A, a Ser/Thr phosphatase activated by tyrosine dephosphorylation). Immunofluorescence showed that PP2A was present in the cell body and was concentrated at ...
The vaccinia-related kinases (VRKs) are highly conserved throughout the animal kingdom and phosphorylate several chromatin proteins and transcription factors. In early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, VRK-1 is required for proper nuclear envelope formation. In this work, we present the first investigation of the developmental role of VRKs by means of a novel C. elegans vrk-1 mutant allele. We found that VRK-1 is essential in hermaphrodites for formation of the vulva, uterus, and utse and for development and maintenance of the somatic gonad and thus the germ line. VRK-1 regulates anchor cell polarity and the timing of anchor cell invasion through the basement membranes separating vulval and somatic gonadal cells during the L3 larval stage. VRK-1 is also required for proper specification and proliferation of uterine cells and sex myoblasts. Expression of the fibroblast growth factor-like protein EGL-17 and its receptor EGL-15 is reduced in vrk-1 mutants, suggesting that VRK-1 might act at least ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synthetic analogues of the parasitic worm product ES-62 reduce disease development in in vivo models of lung fibrosis. AU - Suckling, Colin J.. AU - Mukherjee, Sambuddho. AU - Khalaf, Abedawn I.. AU - Narayan, Ashwini. AU - Scott, Fraser. AU - Khare, Sonal. AU - Dhakshinamoorthy, Saravanakumar. AU - Harnett, Margaret M.. AU - Harnett, William. PY - 2018/9/1. Y1 - 2018/9/1. N2 - Parasitic worms are receiving much attention as a potential new therapeutic approach to treating autoimmune and allergic conditions but concerns remain regarding their safety. As an alternative strategy, we have focused on the use of defined parasitic worm products and recently taken this one step further by designing drug-like small molecule analogues of one such product, ES-62, which is anti-inflammatory by virtue of covalently attached phosphorylcholine moieties. Previously, we have shown that ES-62 mimics are efficacious in protecting against disease in mouse models of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic ...
Because planarians can regenerate a complete body from a tissue fragment they present a powerful system in which to study cell, tissue and organ regeneration, and to look for conserved developmental mechanisms. Peter Reddien and colleagues now describe a regulatory programme for the regeneration of the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea excretory system, the protonephridia (see p. 4387). The S. mediterranea protonephridia consists of tubules, which are dispersed throughout the animals body, two types of tubule-associated cells, and ciliated terminal cells, which drive filtration from the extracellular space into the tubule lumen. The researchers use RNAi screening assays and microarray analyses to show that Six1/2-2, POU2/3, hunchback, Eya, Sal1 and Osr, which encode transcriptional regulators, are involved in protonephridia regeneration. Notably, apart from hunchback, all these genes are also required for vertebrate kidney development. Moreover, the researchers show that planarian and vertebrate ...
You have something in common with a flatworm: more than 100 mucosal proteins. In a recent paper in Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, researchers showed that the freshwater planarian Schmidtea mediterranea has proteins in its mucous coating that are strikingly similar to ones in human mucus and other secretions, such as tear fluid.. The work grew out of a lab rotation project by a graduate student, Donald Bocchinfuso at the University of Toronto, who set up a collaboration between the laboratories of Michael Moran (an expert in mass spectrometry) and Bret Pearson (an expert in planarians) at the Hospital For Sick Children in Toronto, Canada. Bocchinfuso was interested in analyzing the mucous coating on the worms by MS.. "The idea to compare worms before and after removing their mucous coating started out as a simple technical step," says Moran. "However, it grew to become a central part of the study, in part because we are at a childrens hospital and, therefore, have an awareness of the huge ...
Parasitic Flatworms Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Immunology and Physiology by A. G. Maule, N. J. Marks, Aaron G. Maule http://images.barnesandnoble.com/images/28100000/28108734.jpg Pages: 480pp Publisher: CABI Edition: March 2006
Williamson, S. M., Robertson, A. P., Brown, L., Williams, T., Woods, D. J., Martin, R. J., Sattelle, D. B. and Wolstenholme, A., 2009. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the parasitic nematode ascaris suum: formation of two distinct drug targets by varying the relative expression levels of two subunits. PLoS Pathogens ...
A womans stomach pain was caused by a parasitic worm infection, according to a report in NEJM. Doctors found a large number of worms in her stomach.
Parasitic worms may be useful in treating lung disease and healing wounds, according to a study published online today (Jan.15) in Nature Medicine.
C elegans Unc-7 protein: Innexin, required for coordinated locomotion in Caenorhabditis elegans; amino acid sequence given in first source; GenBank Z19122
As for PKC, we found and identified ASIP, atypical PKC-specific interacting protein, as a physiological binding partner of atypical PKJKC isotypes. ASIP is a PDZ domain-containing adaptor-like protein and is the mammalian orthologue of C. elegans PAR-3 and Drosophila Bazooka, both of which are involved in the establishment of cell polarity. ASIP as well as aPKC localize to the tight junctions of vertebrate epithelial cells and are required for the establishment of epithelial cell polarith that include the development of epithelia-specific junctional structures ...
Parasitic worms infect millions of people in the developing world, by following chemical trails to their hosts. Isolating the substances that attract them is the key to finding cheap and practical ways of preventing infection. Throughout the day, our skins are constantly sending out messages that we can neither see nor hear. The message is…
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Author summary Infection with helminth parasites is known to be inversely associated with hyper-inflammatory disorders. While Schistosoma (S.) mansoni has been described to exert its down-modulatory effects on inflammation by inducing a network of regulatory immune cells such as regulatory B (Breg), the mechanisms of Breg cell induction remain unclear. Here, we use in vivo and in vitro approaches to show that antigens from S. mansoni eggs, among which the major glycoprotein IPSE/alpha-1, directly interact with splenic marginal zone B cells of mice which triggers them to produce the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and their capacity to induce regulatory T (Treg) cells. We also found that IPSE/alpha-1 induces IL-10 in human CD1d+ B cells, and that both natural and recombinant IPSE/alpha-1 are equally effective in driving murine and human Breg cells. Our study thus provides insight into the mechanisms of Breg cell induction by schistosomes, and an important step towards the development of helminth-based
Using our Illumina RNAseq approach, we identified hundreds of differentially regulated genes during different stages of head regeneration, and clustered them into groups according to their dynamic expression profiles (Figure 6c).. Among the genes that were strongly upregulated during the first few hours of regeneration were genes encoding putative homologues of mammalian inflammatory response genes. Gene_3164, for instance, encodes a putative tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-associated protein (TRAF). TRAFs interact with numerous members of the TNFR family and have a variety of tissue-specific functions. As TRAFs have been implicated in promoting the immune response after infections and wounding [42, 43], it is possible that similar proteins are also involved in the regulation of immune responses after decapitation in planarians. Reported RNAi phenotypes of putative TRAF-like genes in the planarian species D. japonica are pleiotropic [44]. Thus, the functions of putative planarian TRAFs, as ...
Chitinasen sind wichtigen Moleküle im Lebenszyklus parasitischer Fadenwürmer und bedeutende Medikamenten- und Impfstoffziele. Hier wurden drei Chitinasesequenzen (I, II und III) durch Charakterisierung von 9 Klonen aus einer Genbank von Acanthocheilonema viteae gefunden. Die Anzahl der drei sehr homologen Chitinasegene wurde durch Southern-Blot bestätigt. Die größten Unterschiede sind in den Exons zu finden, die die Serin-Threonin-reiche Domäne der Chitinasen codieren. Diese Domäne ist in Sequenz III ca. 10fach länger als in Sequenz I. Sequenz I und III haben Eigenschaften eines transkribierten Genes: ein Startcodon, ein offener Leserahmen, ein Stopcodon und ein Polyadenylierungssignal. Sequenz II fehlt das erste Exon mit dem Startcodon. Bei Durchmusterung einer cDNA-Bibliothek adulter A. viteae Würmer bzw. L3 Stadien, sowie durch Reverser Transkriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) wurden in den Mikrofilarien, L3 und L4 Transkripte für Gen I gefunden, jedoch nicht für Gen III. Das N-terminale ...
Involved in several cell fate decisions that require cell-cell interactions. It is possible that lin-12 encodes a membrane-bound receptor for a signal that enables expression of the ventral uterine precursor cell fate. Activity in cell fate decisions and tumorigenesis is negatively regulated by sel-10.
During the course of normal embryonic and post-embryonic development, 131 cells in a Caenorhabditis elegans hermaphrodite undergo programmed cell death. Loss of function mutations in either of the genes ced-3 or ced-4 abolish cell deaths, enabling these undead cells to survive and be incorporated into the adult with no obvious deleterious consequences. Ultrastructural reconstructions have shown that undead cells exhibit many differentiated characteristics. Most of the reconstructed cells appeared to be neurons with all the characteristic features associated with such cells, such as processes, synaptic vesicles and presynaptic specializations. However, clear morphological differences were seen among the undead neurons, suggesting a diversity of cell type. One of the reconstructed cells was a rectal epithelial cell, which had displaced its lineal sister that normally functions in this role. Removal of the ability to undergo programmed cell death by mutation therefore reveals a diversity of ...
BACKGROUND: Caenorhabditis elegans has traditionally been used as a model for studying nematode biology, but its small size limits the ability for researchers to perform some experiments such as high-throughput tissue-specific gene expression studies. However, the dissection of individual tissues is possible in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum due to its relatively large size. Here, we take advantage of the recent genome sequencing of Ascaris suum and the ability to physically dissect its separate tissues to produce a wide-scale tissue-specific nematode RNA-seq datasets, including data on three non-reproductive tissues (head, pharynx, and intestine) in both male and female worms, as well as four reproductive tissues (testis, seminal vesicle, ovary, and uterus). We obtained fundamental information about the biology of diverse cell types and potential interactions among tissues within this multicellular organism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Overexpression and functional enrichment analyses ...
Planarians (flatworms) can regenerate from irregularly shaped fragments. During regeneration, new tissue forms at the wound and existing tissues are remodelled to make a complete, symmetrical animal. How is this amazing feat achieved? On p. 4043, Alejandro Sánchez Alvarados group report that BMP signalling regulates several aspects of regeneration in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. The researchers use RNAi knockdown to investigate the role of smedolloid-1 (a BMP1/Tolloid-like gene), smedsmad4-1 (a SMAD4-like gene) and smedbmp4-1 (a BMP2/4/DPP-like gene) in regeneration. These experiments show that BMP signalling is involved in the formation and dorsal-ventral (DV) patterning of new tissues at the reset midline of a regenerating fragment. Additional knockdown experiments indicate that BMP signalling also maintains the DV pattern in undamaged adult tissue. These and other results lead the researchers to propose that BMP signalling regulates the dorsal midline of planarians and that the ...
During the development of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans cell death occurs in a highly reproducible manner, and this is one of the reasons why the worm
C elegans Lin-3 protein: amino acid sequence given in first source; lin-3 encodes an inductive signal for vulval development; from Caenorhabditis elegans
There are two likely explanations for the greater success of the GFP screen. First, nearly half of the mutants isolated in the direct screen were less than 10% Wit or Clr and would have been missed in the Wit and Clr screen. Second, several of the mutants developed slowly. The Wit phenotype is most easily scored in adult animals, while defects visualized by GFP could be scored in younger animals. In the Wit and Clr screen, mutants that are slow to reach adulthood might be lost among the next generation of nonmutant animals.. Three Syc mutants require the presence of kyIs5 to express the Cam phenotype: mutations in the syc genes result in defects in CAN cell migration only when kyIs5 is present (Figure 4). Mutations in each of the Syc genes results in weak (syc-1 and syc-3) or strong (syc-2) Unc phenotypes in the absence of the transgene, suggesting that the mutations disrupt the development or function of additional neurons. The effects on CAN migration are enhanced when the syc-3 mutation is ...
... / Julian, Hopkin; Michael, Gravenor; Stephen, Roberts; Maria, Moller ...
Research conducted at the University of Medicine and Dentistry of the New Jersey Medical School has established that the co-infection of tuberculosis and parasitic worms can complicate TB treatment.
Some commonly used methods of processing larvae of Heterodera rostochiensis for microscopical examination cause changes in body and stylet size, greater than the difference between pathotypes. It is suggested that heat and cold formalin, which caused least change, should be the standard methods of killing and fixing larvae to be measured.
helminthic definition: Of or relating to worms, specially parasitic worms.; Tending to expel worms; anthelmintic.; a real estate agent that expels or destroys parasitic worms; an anthelmintic.; Of or…
Parasitic worms can infest just about any part of the body, and the skin is not immune to these organisms. The idea of a worm living in or under the skin may seem quite scary but these parasites are not the typical worms found in the soil. They are usually tiny organisms that reside in the body, either within an organ or ,, Read More ... ...
An infection by a parasitic worm (a helminth), which can be in the intestines, under the skin, or in the general area of the gut. From the BioTech Dicti...
An acute and chronic disease caused by parasitic worms. According to WHO estimates, at least 206.5 million people required preventive treatment in 2016. Transmission of the NTD has been reported in 78 countries.. ...
parasiticidal definition: with the capacity of destroying parasites, specifically effective at expelling or destroying parasitic worms.; related to or for the nature of a parasiticide.; effective at expelling…
Bayesian length-weight: a=0.00324 (0.00121 - 0.00866), b=3.08 (2.84 - 3.32), in cm Total Length, based on LWR estimates for this (Sub)family-body shape (Ref. 93245 ...
All major crops are thought to be infected by at least one species of plant-parasitic nematode, which causes damage valued at over $80 billion each year [1]. The majority of these economic losses are attributable to the sedentary endoparasitic nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne (root-knot nematodes) and the genera Heterodera and Globodera (cyst nematodes). These sedentary endoparasites have complex biotrophic interactions with their hosts that include induction of specific feeding sites and long residence times within or on their host(s).. Potato cyst nematodes (PCN) are economically important pathogens of potato, with two major species: the white PCN Globodera pallida and the yellow PCN G. rostochiensis. These nematodes originate in South America [2, 3] and have subsequently been introduced into all major potato-growing regions of the world. Europe has acted as a secondary distribution hub for PCN; worldwide populations outside South America reflect subsequent introductions from Europe [4, 5]. ...
A study of peptide hormones in the brain of a seemingly primitive flatworm reveals the surprising complexity of its nervous system and opens up a new approach for combating a major parasitic disease, researchers report.. The study appears in the open-access journal PLoS Biology.. The planarian flatworm, Schmidtea mediterranea, is perhaps best known for its prodigious powers of regeneration. Cut it in half (lengthwise or crosswise) and each fragment will regrow its missing parts, including its brain. The planarian is of interest to those studying reproduction because it exists in sexual and asexual varieties. Asexual planaria reproduce by splitting into two pieces and then regenerating. Sexual planaria are hermaphroditic. Some planaria can even switch between the sexual and asexual forms.. The free-living planarian is also of interest because it is related to several parasitic flatworms. For example, flatworms of the genus Schistosoma parasitize more than 200 million people worldwide. Schistosome ...
Giardia lamblia, a pathogen causing diarrhoeal outbreaks, is interesting how it triggers immune response in the human epithelial cells. This study defined the crucial roles of signalling components involved in G. lamblia-induced cytokine production in human epithelial cells. Incubation of the gastrointestinal cell line HT-29 with G. lamblia GS trophozoites triggered production of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. IL-8 production was not significantly decreased by physically separating the HT-29 cells and G. lamblia GS trophozoites. Indeed, treatment of HT-29 with G. lamblia excretory-secretory products (ESP) induced IL-8 production. Electrophoretic mobility gel shift and transfection assays using mutagenized IL-8 promoter reporter plasmids indicated that IL-8 production by G. lamblia ESP occurs through activation of two transcriptional factors, nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) in HT-29 cells. In addition, activation of two ...
Tapeworm: Tapeworm, any member of the invertebrate class Cestoda (phylum Platyhelminthes), a group of parasitic flatworms containing about 5,000 species. Tapeworms, which occur worldwide and range in size from about 1 mm (0.04 inch) to more than 15 m (50 feet), are internal parasites, affecting certain
A new species of parasitic flatworm infecting turtles in Malaysia was named after outgoing US President Barack Obama. The scientist who discovered the worm says he has already named a number of species after people he
The C. elegans hermaphrodite vulva develops during postembryonic (larval) development from ventral epidermal precursors, and connects the developing uterus to the external environment. In the adult, the vulva is necessary for egg-laying (see Egg-laying) and for copulation with males (see Male mating behavior). Vulval development has attracted general interest for three main reasons. First, it serves as a paradigm for organogenesis. In particular, vulva development represents a well-understood case in which invariant development arises from multiple cell-cell interactions. It is also a striking example of tissue remodeling: the formation of a hole at a precise location in an organism. Second, it has been important for the genetic analyses of signaling and signal transduction by epidermal growth factor (EGF)-receptor LET-23 and RAS LET-60; (see RTKRas/MAP kinase signaling), LIN-12 (see LIN-12/Notch signaling in C. elegans), and WNT (see Wnt signaling), as well as the functions of the SynMuv and ...
The C. elegans hermaphrodite vulva develops during postembryonic (larval) development from ventral epidermal precursors, and connects the developing uterus to the external environment. In the adult, the vulva is necessary for egg-laying (see Egg-laying) and for copulation with males (see Male mating behavior). Vulval development has attracted general interest for three main reasons. First, it serves as a paradigm for organogenesis. In particular, vulva development represents a well-understood case in which invariant development arises from multiple cell-cell interactions. It is also a striking example of tissue remodeling: the formation of a hole at a precise location in an organism. Second, it has been important for the genetic analyses of signaling and signal transduction by epidermal growth factor (EGF)-receptor LET-23 and RAS LET-60; (see RTKRas/MAP kinase signaling), LIN-12 (see LIN-12/Notch signaling in C. elegans), and WNT (see Wnt signaling), as well as the functions of the SynMuv and ...
Looking for online definition of neoblast in the Medical Dictionary? neoblast explanation free. What is neoblast? Meaning of neoblast medical term. What does neoblast mean?
Numerous smedwi-1+ cluster attributes indicate they result from clonal growth. smedwi-1+ clusters were preceded by isolated smedwi-1+ cells present 3 to 4 days after irradiation and typically displayed 3 to 10 cells after one week (Fig. 1, E and F). Based on the low proportion of animals with smedwi-1+ cells in close proximity 3 days post-irradiation with 1750 rad (fig. S2), it is improbable that clusters arose from multiple adjacent smedwi-1+ cells (P = 0.0138, two-tailed Fishers exact test). Cluster size increased dramatically over time, suggesting exponential growth and ultimately yielding hundreds of smedwi-1+ cells 14 to 18 days post-irradiation (Fig. 1, E and F). Consistent with clusters originating from pre-existing smedwi-1+ cells that survived irradiation, a cluster-location scatter plot resembled the normal smedwi-1+ expression pattern (Fig. 1D), and cluster frequency decreased with increasing irradiation doses (see below). Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) delivery labels smedwi-1-expressing ...
Amino Acid Sequence, Animals, Apoptosis/*physiology, Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins, Caenorhabditis/genetics, Caenorhabditis elegans/embryology/genetics/*physiology, Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins/genetics/metabolism/*physiology, DNA/genetics/radiation effects, DNA Damage, Gene Deletion, Gene Expression Regulation; Developmental/radiation effects, Heat-Shock Proteins/genetics, Models; Biological, Molecular Sequence Data, Mutation, Proto-Oncogene Proteins/genetics/metabolism, Repressor Proteins/genetics, Sequence Homology; Amino Acid, Tumor Suppressor Protein p53/genetics/physiology, X-Rays ...
Supplementary MaterialsTable S1: Gene Ontology mappings for clusters. expansin proteins. Introduction Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) have proven to be one of the most rapid routes to gene discovery of any organism for which a cDNA library is available [1]. In addition, large-scale EST analysis can be used to estimate gene expression levels in specific life stages or tissues and are useful tools for annotation of genome sequences [1], [2]. EST analysis has been widely applied to study the biology of nematodes. Over 1.5 million ESTs from more than 63 species, including free-living nematodes, animal-parasitic and plant-parasitic species are available in dbEST (GenBank, 1 October 2012). To date, over 125,000 EST sequences from twenty different plant-parasitic nematodes are in dbEST. This information is of great significance for studying nematode biology, especially for the identification of effectors. Plant-parasitic nematode effectors, defined Maraviroc distributor here as proteins secreted by the ...
INDONESIA:. Tanaman kentang (Solanum tuberosum Linn.) merupakan salah satu pangan utama dunia setelah padi, gandum dan jagung. Kentang juga termasuk salah satu komoditas hortikultura yang mempunyai nilai perdagangan domestik dan potensi ekspor yang cukup baik. Kendala utama dalam budi daya kentang di Indonesia adalah serangan hama dan penyakit. Pada bulan Maret 2003 di Desa Tulung Rejo, Kecamatan Bumiaji, Kota Batu, Malang Jawa Timur tanaman kentang teridentifikasi telah terserang Nematoda Sista Kuning (NSK) atau yang lebih dikenal dengan nama ilmiah Globodera rostochiensis yang membahayakan pertanaman tersebut. Untuk itulah perlu diadakan pengendalian terhadap serangan NSK dengan memanfaatkan bakteri endofit dari akar tanaman kentang sebagai salah satu agensia pengendalian hayati. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah (1) untuk mengetahui jenis-jenis bakteri endofit yang dapat ditemukan pada akar tanaman kentang, (2) untuk mengetahui apakah bakteri endofit dapat menghambat pertumbuhan larva ...