[38 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E Basic Helix Loop Helix Protein 39 or MYC) - Pipeline Review, H2 2017 report by Global Markets Direct. Myc Proto Oncogene Protein (Transcription Factor p64 or Class E...
Members of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family of transcription factors play important roles in a wide range of developmental processes. In this study, we conducted a genome-wide survey using the chicken (|i|Gallus gallus|/i|) genomic database, and identified 104 bHLH sequences belonging to 42 gene families in an effort to characterize the chicken bHLH transcription factor family. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that chicken has 50, 21, 15, 4, 8, and 3 bHLH members in groups A, B, C, D, E, and F, respectively, while three members belonging to none of these groups were classified as orphans. A comparison between chicken and human bHLH repertoires suggested that both organisms have a number of lineage-specific bHLH members in the proteomes. Chromosome distribution patterns and phylogenetic analyses strongly suggest that the bHLH members should have arisen through gene duplication at an early date. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment statistics showed 51 top GO annotations of biological processes counted
This gene encodes a member of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor family. Members of this family contain two highly conserved and functionally distinct domains: the basic domain targets sequence-specific DNA binding, while the helix-loop-helix domain facilitates protein interaction. Studies of a related gene in mouse suggest that the encoded protein may function as a transcriptional repressor in the pancreas and brain, and that it is required for normal retinal function. [provided by RefSeq, May 2013 ...
Helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription factors are key regulators of neurogenesis, myogenesis and osteogenesis. Here the relative contributions of multiple classes of HLH factors to the expression of bone related genes during osteoblast maturation were compared. We examined the expression of a panel of HLH proteins (e.g., Twist1/2, USF1/2, c-Myc, Id1 approximately 4, E12/47, Stra13) and one Zn finger protein (Snail which recognizes a subset of E-boxes), during osteoblast differentiation and their functional contributions to bone phenotypic gene regulation. While expression of Twist1, Stra13, E12/47 and Snail transcripts remains relatively constant, expression of Twist2 as well as the inhibitory factors Id1, Id2, Id3, and Id4 decreases and USF1 is up-regulated during osteoblastic differentiation of MC3T3 cells. Forced expression of selected HLH transcription factors shows that Myc, Snail and USF factors increase expression of the bone markers osteocalcin (OC) and/or alkaline phosphatase (AP), while E12/47,
USF is a family of transcription factors characterized by a highly conserved basic-helix-loop-helix-leucine zipper (bHLH-zip) DNA-binding domain. Two different USF genes, termed USF1 and USF2, are ubiquitously expressed in both humans and mice. The USF1 and USF2 proteins contain highly divergent transcriptional activation domains but share extensive homologies in the bHLH-zip region and recognize the same CACGTG DNA motifs. Although the DNA-binding and transcriptional activities of these proteins have been characterized, the biological function of USF is not well understood. Here, focus- and colony-formation assays were used to investigate the potential involvement of USF in the regulation of cellular transformation and proliferation. Both USF1 and USF2 inhibited the transformation of rat embryo fibroblasts mediated by Ras and c-Myc, a bHLH-zip transcription factor that also binds CACGTG motifs. DNA binding was required but not fully sufficient for inhibition of Myc-dependent transformation by ...
in Developmental Biology (2005), 285(1), 211-23. Pancreas development relies on a network of transcription factors belonging mainly to the Homeodomain and basic Helix-Loop-Helix families. We show in this study that, in zebrafish, sox4, a member of the ... [more ▼]. Pancreas development relies on a network of transcription factors belonging mainly to the Homeodomain and basic Helix-Loop-Helix families. We show in this study that, in zebrafish, sox4, a member of the SRY-like HMG-box (SOX) family, is required for proper endocrine cell differentiation. We found that two genes orthologous to mammalian Sox4 are present in zebrafish and that only one of them, sox4b, is strongly expressed in the pancreatic anlage. Transcripts of sox4b were detected in mid-trunk endoderm from the 5-somite stage, well before the onset of expression of the early pancreatic gene pdx-1. Furthermore, by fluorescent double in situ hybridization, we found that expression of sox4b is mostly restricted to precursors of the ...
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α)是一個轉錄協同活化因子,調控著氧化代謝,並在調控粒線體生合成以及功能上,扮演極其重要的角色。過去我們實驗室的結果顯示,basic helix-loop-helix family, member e40 (Bhlhe40)與PGC-1α在肌肉細胞中具有很強的結合力,並且Bhlhe40會結合在PGC-1α的啟動子上面抑制其表現量,並且會透過招來HDACs來降低PGC-1α的偕同轉錄活性,另外發現短片段的VP16ADBhlhe40(1-135a.a)-flag ...
Inhibitor of DNA binding (Id) proteins function as inhibitors of members of the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors and have been demonstrated to play an important role in regulating lymphopoiesis. However, the role of these proteins in regulation of myelopoiesis is currently unclear. In this study, we have investigated the role of Id1 and Id2 in the regulation of granulopoiesis. Id1 expression was initially up-regulated during early granulopoiesis, which was then followed by a decrease in expression during final maturation. In contrast, Id2 expression was up-regulated in terminally differentiated granulocytes. In order to determine whether Id expression plays a critical role in regulating granulopoiesis, Id1 and Id2 were ectopically expressed in CD34(+) cells by retroviral transduction. Our experiments demonstrate that constitutive expression of Id1 inhibits eosinophil development, whereas in contrast neutrophil differentiation was modestly enhanced. Constitutive Id2 expression
BHLHE41 is a member of the DEC subfamily within the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins gene family.[13][15] BHLHE41 was mapped to human chromosome 12: 26,120,026-26-125-127 reverse strand and has a total length of 5,101 base pairs.[16] The gene is also mapped to 6 G2-G3 on the mouse chromosome, and 4q43 distal-q4 on the rat chromosome respectively.[13] BHLHE41 has 3 known splice variants. BHLHE41-002[17] and BHLHE41-003[18] are retained introns and do not code for a protein. BHLHE41-001 contains 5 coding exons, has a transcript length of 3,837 base pairs, and encodes the 482 amino acid BHLHE41 protein.[19][1] BHLHE40 is the paralogue of BHLHE41.[20] BHLHE41 currently has 165 known orthologs.[21][2]. The BHLHE41 protein has a myc-type, basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain and an orange domain.[22] The orange domain is a 30 residue sequence located on the carboxy-terminal end relative to the BHLH domain of the protein whose function is still unclear.[23] The basic helix-loop-helix domain ...
Metastasis is the final and fatal step in the progression of breast cancer. Currently available therapeutic strategies at this stage of cancer progression are often nonspecific, have only marginal efficacy, and are highly toxic. This is in part due to the lack of knowledge about the molecular mechanisms regulating the development of aggressive cancers. Therapeutic approaches targeting only specific mechanisms involved in the development of aggressive breast cancers are urgently need. The expectation would be that this strategy would reduce unwanted toxicities associated with the therapy itself.. We previously showed that the helix-loop-helix protein Id-1, an inhibitor of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors, plays a crucial role during breast cancer progression (4). Id-1 stimulated proliferation, migration, and invasion in breast cancer cells (13, 16). Moreover, targeting Id-1 expression partially in breast cancer cells reduced invasion in vitro and breast cancer metastasis in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - E2A-BP, A protein binding to E12/E47, inhibits differentiation of myoblasts. AU - Endege, W. O.. AU - Jain, M.. AU - Hsieh, C. M.. AU - Kho, C. J.. AU - Sibinga, N. E.S.. AU - Yoshizumi, M.. AU - Patterson, C.. AU - Lee, W. S.. AU - Perrella, M. A.. AU - Blanar, M. A.. AU - Haber, E.. AU - Lee, M. E.. PY - 1996/12/1. Y1 - 1996/12/1. N2 - The E2A proteins E12 and E47 control cellular growth and differentiation. To identify potential partners that bind E2A proteins in vascular smooth muscle cells, we employed interaction cloning. Using the basic helix-loop-helix domain of E47 to screen for interacting proteins in a human aortic expression library, we isolated several cDNA clones. One clone, termed E2A-BP, was expressed preferentially in aortic smooth muscle cells in adult rats. The E2A-BP message was detected in fetal but not in adult skeletal muscle. Although E2A-BP is a nuclear protein lacking a helix-loop-helix domain, it bound selectively to El 2 and E47 but not MyoD and Id3 in ...
... , Authors: Menno C van Zelm. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
... ,Recognizes NSCL1. The molecular weight of the protein is 14,616 Daltons.,biological,biology supply,biology supplies,biology product
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) correlates with high-grade malignancy including the competence to form metastases. In addition, EMT has recently been linked to cellular self-renewal programmes of cancer stem cells and apoptosis/anoikis resistance, which are all features of therapeutic resistance. The EMT programme is driven by several transcription factors (TFs), such as the transcriptional regulators SNAIL, SLUG, ZEB1 and ZEB2 and the basic helix-loop-helix factors E47 and TWIST. These proteins target and repress the CDH1 gene, which encodes for E-cadherin, an important caretaker of the epithelial state. Expression studies in human pancreatic cancer showed expression of SNAIL in 78% and of SLUG in 50% of cases.1 Although no or low levels of TWIST are expressed in pancreatic cancers, up-regulation of this gene under hypoxic condition may argue for a contribution towards tumour progression.1 2 Expression of the ZEB2 gene was recently found to be silenced by promoter methylation in the ...
This protein belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors. It is a transcriptional repressor;of genes that require a bHLH protein for their transcription. The protein has a particular type of basic domain that;contains a helix interrupting protein that binds to the N-box rather than the canonical E-box.
TCF21 encodes a transcription factor of the basic helix-loop-helix family. The TCF21 product is mesoderm specific, and expressed in embryonic epicardium, mesenchyme-derived tissues of lung, gut, gonad, and both mesenchymal and glomerular epithelial cells in the kidney. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008] ...
This gene encodes a member of the E protein (class I) family of helix-loop-helix transcription factors. E proteins activate transcription by binding to regulatory E-box sequences on target genes as heterodimers or homodimers, and are inhibited by heterodimerization with inhibitor of DNA-binding (class IV) helix-loop-helix proteins. E proteins play a critical role in lymphopoiesis, and the encoded protein is required for B and T lymphocyte development. Deletion of this gene or diminished activity of the encoded protein may play a role in lymphoid malignancies. This gene is also involved in several chromosomal translocations that are associated with lymphoid malignancies including pre-B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (t(1;19), with PBX1), childhood leukemia (t(19;19), with TFPT) and acute leukemia (t(12;19), with ZNF384). Alternatively spliced transcript variants encoding multiple isoforms have been observed for this gene, and a pseudogene of this gene is located on the short arm of chromosome ...
Twist1 and Twist2 are highly conserved people of the Twist subfamily of bHLH proteins responsible for the transcriptional regulation of the developmental programs in mesenchymal cell lineages. regulatory elements made up of the consensus sequence 5′-NCANNTGN-3′ (termed E-box). E-boxes are found in the regulatory regions of many lineage specific genes which account for the numerous pathways regulated by these transcription factors (1-3). The bHLH transcription factors are classified into three major classes: the ubiquitous Class A bHLH factors that include E2-2 HEB and the two isoforms of the E2A gene E12/E47 (also known as E proteins); the tissue-restricted Class B bHLH factors; and the inhibitory HLH proteins constituted by the Id proteins which lack the basic region used Mouse monoclonal to KSHV ORF45 to contact DNA. The Twist proteins form a subfamily of the Class B bHLH factors. These include Paraxis (1) Scleraxis (4) Hand1 (5) Hand2 (6) Twist1 and BTZ044 Twist2. In this family of ...
Rabbit anti MAX (pSer11) antibody recognizes MAX, also known as protein max, class D basic helix-loop-helix protein 4, bHLHd4 or Myc-assoc
HEY bHLH transcription factors have been shown to regulate multiple key steps in cardiovascular development. They can be induced by activated NOTCH receptors, but other upstream stimuli mediated by TGFß and BMP receptors may elicit a similar response. While the basic and helix-loop-helix domains exhibit strong similarity, large parts of the proteins are still unique and may serve divergent functions. The striking overlap of cardiac defects in HEY2 and combined HEY1/HEYL knockout mice suggested that all three HEY genes fulfill overlapping function in target cells. We therefore sought to identify target genes for HEY proteins by microarray expression and ChIPseq analyses in HEK293 cells, cardiomyocytes, and murine hearts. HEY proteins were found to modulate expression of their target gene to a rather limited extent, but with striking functional interchangeability between HEY factors. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed a much greater number of potential binding sites that again largely overlap ...
HEY bHLH transcription factors have been shown to regulate multiple key steps in cardiovascular development. They can be induced by activated NOTCH receptors, but other upstream stimuli mediated by TGFß and BMP receptors may elicit a similar response. While the basic and helix-loop-helix domains exhibit strong similarity, large parts of the proteins are still unique and may serve divergent functions. The striking overlap of cardiac defects in HEY2 and combined HEY1/HEYL knockout mice suggested that all three HEY genes fulfill overlapping function in target cells. We therefore sought to identify target genes for HEY proteins by microarray expression and ChIPseq analyses in HEK293 cells, cardiomyocytes, and murine hearts. HEY proteins were found to modulate expression of their target gene to a rather limited extent, but with striking functional interchangeability between HEY factors. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed a much greater number of potential binding sites that again largely overlap ...
https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/MATH-1267?page=com.atlassian.jira.plugin.system.issuetabpanels:comment-tabpanel&focusedCommentId=14732152#comment-14732152 ] Ole Ersoy commented on MATH-1267: --------------------------------- In NeuronSquareMesh2D the getNeuron(int i, int j) method refers to i and j. I assume this is different from the stuff we are talking about above? , Grid coordinate of "Neuron" that belongs to a "NeuronSquareMesh2D" , ------------------------------------------------------------------ , , Key: MATH-1267 , URL: https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/MATH-1267 , Project: Commons Math , Issue Type: Wish , Reporter: Gilles , Assignee: Gilles , Priority: Minor , Fix For: 4.0, 3.6 , , Attachments: LocationFinder.java , , , When the network layout is a 2D grid, it useful to be able to retrieve the grid coordinate (row, column) of a a neuron. , I propose to define a new class "LocationFinder" (in package "o.a.c.m.ml.neuralnet.twod.util") that will provide the functionality ...
https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/MATH-746?page=com.atlassian.jira.plugin.system.issuetabpanels:all-tabpanel ] Gilles updated MATH-746: ------------------------ Description: This issue is meant to contain a list of tasks to be completed before the release. * Remarks to be added to the *release notes*: ** Experimental code: {{BOBYQAOptimizer}} (cf. MATH-621) *** Many code paths untested *** Looking for volunteers to improve the code readability, robustness and performance *** Looking for volunteers to extend the test suite ** {{FastMath}} is not always faster than {{Math}} (issue MATH-740) ** List of new features * Create a "release branch" * Disable CheckStyle scanning of {{BOBYQAOptimizer}} (/) ({{r1244855}}) * Comment out "print" statements in {{BOBYQAOptimizerTest}} (/) ({{r1244975}}) * Remove unit test class {{BatteryNISTTest}} * Remove class {{PivotingQRDecomposition}} * Comment out "print" statement in {{SymmLQTest}} (/) ({{r1244992}}) (removed in {{r1244996}}) * Findbugs: ** ...
This gene encodes a basic helix-loop-helix protein expressed in various tissues. The encoded protein can interact with ARNTL or compete for E-box binding sites in the promoter of PER1 and repress CLOCK/ARNTLs transactivation of PER1. This gene is believed to be involved in the control of circadian rhythm and cell differentiation. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2014 ...
Anti-BHLHE40 antibody | Application: WB, ELISA | Predicted species reactivity: Human, Mouse | Product type: Polyclonal Antibody | Alias: BHLHE40,Class E basic helix-loop-helix protein 40,BHLHB2; DEC1; SHARP2; STRA13
Groups of genes sharing similar motifs may be used at different steps of a same developmental process. In this review, we discuss the significance of this phenomenon in the case of the basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) proteins that are involved at different steps of the development of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) of Drosophila.
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1. DeloukasP, KanoniS, WillenborgC, FarrallM, AssimesTL, et al. (2012) Large-scale association analysis identifies new risk loci for coronary artery disease. Nat Genet 45: 25-33.. 2. SchunkertH, KonigIR, KathiresanS, ReillyMP, AssimesTL, et al. (2011) Large-scale association analysis identifies 13 new susceptibility loci for coronary artery disease. Nat Genet 43: 333-338.. 3. LuX, WangL, ChenS, HeL, YangX, et al. (2012) Genome-wide association study in Han Chinese identifies four new susceptibility loci for coronary artery disease. Nat Genet 44: 890-894.. 4. HidaiH, BardalesR, GoodwinR, QuertermousT, QuertermousEE (1998) Cloning of capsulin, a basic helix-loop-helix factor expressed in progenitor cells of the pericardium and the coronary arteries. Mech Dev 73: 33-43.. 5. LuJ, RichardsonJA, OlsonEN (1998) Capsulin: a novel bHLH transcription factor expressed in epicardial progenitors and mesenchyme of visceral organs. Mech Dev 73: 23-32.. 6. QuagginSE, Vanden HeuvelGB, IgarashiP (1998) Pod-1, a ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors are required for proper formation of the vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems (Bertrand et al., 2002). The vertebrate neural bHLH transcription factors have been classified into subgroups based on their temporal pattern of expression (Lee, 1997) and on their homology to Drosophila proneural genes (Bertrand et al., 2002). The factors Mash1, a homolog of the Drosophila Achaete-scute genes (Johnson et al., 1990), and Math1, a homolog of the Drosophila atonal gene (Akazawa et al., 1995), both belong to the early expressed sub-group of bHLH factors because of their expression in progenitor cells of the developing neural tube, but they reside in distinct sub-classes based on sequence homology (Bertrand et al., 2002). Gene knockout studies have demonstrated essential roles for these factors in the formation of specific populations of neurons (Ben-Arie et al., 1997; Bermingham et al., 1999; Bermingham et al., 2001; Fode et al., 2000; Gowan et ...
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) and the intracellular dioxin receptor mediate hypoxia and dioxin signalling, respectively. Both proteins are conditionally regulated basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors that, in addition to the bHLH motif, share a Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) region of homology and form heterodimeric complexes with the common bHLH/PAS partner factor Arnt. Here we demonstrate that HIF-1 alpha required Arnt for DNA binding in vitro and functional activity in vivo. Both the bHLH and PAS motifs of Arnt were critical for dimerization with HIF-1 alpha. Strikingly, HIF-1 alpha exhibited very high affinity for Arnt in coimmunoprecipitation assays in vitro, resulting in competition with the ligand-activated dioxin receptor for recruitment of Arnt. Consistent with these observations, activation of HIF-1 alpha function in vivo or overexpression of HIF-1 alpha inhibited ligand-dependent induction of DNA binding activity by the dioxin receptor and dioxin receptor function ...
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) and the intracellular dioxin receptor mediate hypoxia and dioxin signalling, respectively. Both proteins are conditionally regulated basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors that, in addition to the bHLH motif, share a Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) region of homology and form heterodimeric complexes with the common bHLH/PAS partner factor Arnt. Here we demonstrate that HIF-1 alpha required Arnt for DNA binding in vitro and functional activity in vivo. Both the bHLH and PAS motifs of Arnt were critical for dimerization with HIF-1 alpha. Strikingly, HIF-1 alpha exhibited very high affinity for Arnt in coimmunoprecipitation assays in vitro, resulting in competition with the ligand-activated dioxin receptor for recruitment of Arnt. Consistent with these observations, activation of HIF-1 alpha function in vivo or overexpression of HIF-1 alpha inhibited ligand-dependent induction of DNA binding activity by the dioxin receptor and dioxin receptor function ...
The protein encoded by this gene belongs to the inhibitor of DNA binding (ID) family, members of which are transcriptional regulators that contain a helix-loop-helix (HLH) domain but not a basic domain. Members of the ID family inhibit the functions of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors in a dominant-negative manner by suppressing their heterodimerization partners through the HLH domains. This protein may play a role in negatively regulating cell differentiation. A pseudogene has been identified for this gene.[6] A research published by "Nature" in 01/2016, authored by Italian researchers Antonio Iavarone and Anna Lasorella, from Columbia University, states that ID2 protein has a relevant role in the development and resistance to therapies of glioblastoma, the most aggressive of brain cancers.[7] ...
Vertebrate neurogenesis involves sequential actions of transcription factors. neurogenins, encoding Atonal-related bHLH transcription factors, function as neuronal determination genes in Xenopus. neurogenins and antother bHLH factor gene, Mash1, are expressed in distinct subsets or areas of cells giving rise to neurons, suggesting that these genes play important roles to generate distinct populations of neurons. A mammalian homologue of BarH (MBH1) is expressed in a complementary pattern to Mash1 expression in the developing nervous system like neurogenins. Forced expression of MBH1 down-regulates expression of Mash1 and up-regulates neurogenin2/Math4A, a member of neurogenins, in P19 cells during neuronal differentiation. This suggests that MBH1 is a potential regulator of mammalian neural bHLH genes, thereby establishing distinct pathways of neuronal differentiation ...
HEA798Hu, High Sensitive ELISA Kit for Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 Alpha (HIF1a), 低氧诱导因子1α(HIF1a)检测试剂盒(酶联免疫吸附试验法,高敏型), HIF1-A; MOP1; PASD8; Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor; ARNT-interacting protein; Basic-helix-loop-helix-PAS protein MOP1; Class E basic helix-loop-helix protein 78 | 仅供体外研究使用,不用于临床诊断!请索取进口关税税单及报关单!
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is found in mammalian cells cultured under reduced O2 tension and is necessary for transcriptional activation mediated by the erythropoietin gene enhancer in hypoxic cells. We show that both HIF-1 subunits are basic-helix-loop-helix proteins containing a PAS domain, defined by its presence in the Drosophila Per and Sim proteins and in the mammalian ARNT and AHR proteins. HIF-1 alpha is most closely related to Sim. HIF-1 beta is a series of ARNT gene products, which can thus heterodimerize with either HIF-1 alpha or AHR. HIF-1 alpha and HIF-1 beta (ARNT) RNA and protein levels were induced in cells exposed to 1% O2 and decayed rapidly upon return of the cells to 20% O2, consistent with the role of HIF-1 as a mediator of transcriptional responses to hypoxia.. ...
Image via Wikipedia The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, neurogenin-1 is known to regulate neural development and neurite outgrowth. As such, it makes for a particularly interesting point to begin to understand mental illness and its complex developmental origins. The recent paper by Ho et al., Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor NEUROG1 and schizophrenia: Effects on illness…
Upstream Stimulatory Factors: Ubiquitously expressed basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF transcription factors. They bind CANNTG sequences in the promoters of a variety of GENES involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
Introduction: Neuronal PAS4 (nPAS4) -formerly known as LE-PAS- is a helix-loop-helix-PAS (HLH-PAS) transcription factor that has recently been cloned as the vertebrate homologue of the drosophila protein dysfusion (dys). In drosophila, the lack of dys is characterized by impaired midline fusion of tracheal tubes. Forced expression of dys results in aberrant sprouting of tracheal tubes in drosophila. In neurons, nPAS4 plays a role in the formation of GABA-releasing synapses. Based on the morphological similarity between tracheal tube formation and angiogenesis, we aimed to investigate the role of nPAS4 in angiogenesis in vertebrates.. Methods and Results: RT-PCR and Western blotting analyses showed that nPAS4 is expressed at low levels in various endothelial cell lines. The expression of nPAS4 is not upregulated by angiogenic growth factors but is induced by hypoxia. Moreover, membrane depolarization using potassium chloride results in a calcium-dependent upregulation of nPAS4. When nPAS4 ...
Predicted to have DNA-binding transcription repressor activity, RNA polymerase II-specific and RNA polymerase II transcription regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding activity. Involved in negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated; response to cold; and sleep. Predicted to localize to nucleus. Is expressed in several structures, including brain; cardinal system; pleuroperitoneal region; shield; and swim bladder bud. Orthologous to human BHLHE41 (basic helix-loop-helix family member e41 ...
Myf5 is a key basic Helix-Loop-Helix transcription factor capable of converting many non-muscle cells into muscle. Together with MyoD it is essential for initiating the skeletal muscle programme in the embryo. We previously identified unexpected restricted domains of Myf5 transcription in the embryonic mouse brain, first revealed by Myf5-nlacZ(+/)(−) embryos (Tajbakhsh, S. and Buckingham, M. (1995) Development 121, 4077-4083). We have now further characterized these Myf5 expressing neurons. Retrograde labeling with diI, and the use of a transgenic mouse line expressing lacZ under the control of Myf5 regulatory sequences, show that Myf5 transcription provides a novel axonal marker of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (mlf) and the mammillotegmental tract (mtt), the earliest longitudinal tracts to be established in the embryonic mouse brain. Tracts projecting caudally from the developing olfactory system are also labelled. nlacZ and lacZ expression persist in the adult brain, in a few ventral ...
Westerman BA, Breuer RH, Poutsma A, Chhatta A, Noorduyn LA, Koolen MG, Postmus PE, Blankenstein MA, Oudejans CB (2007). "Basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor profiling of lung tumors shows aberrant expression of the proneural gene atonal homolog 1 (ATOH1, HATH1, MATH1) in neuroendocrine tumors". The International Journal of Biological Markers. 22 (2): 114-23. PMID 17549667 ...
The SCL gene encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor with a pivotal role in the development of endothelium and of all hematopoietic lineages. SCL is also expressed in the central nervous system, although its expression pattern has not been examined in detail and its function in neural …
5291 Evasion from oncogene-induced senescence and apoptosis has recently emerged as being crucial for promoting tumorigenesis in vivo. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors Twist1 and Twist2 have been found to abrogate oncogene-induced apoptosis and Twist1 overexpression has been reported in a large variety of human solid cancers including carcinomas, sarcomas, melanomas and neuroblastomas. We show that both Twist proteins also override Ras- and ErbB2-induced senescence in murine and human cells, by simultaneously shutting-down p53- and RB-dependent pathways. In addition, like Twist1, Twist2 has an altered expression in a set of primary tumours and tumour cell lines, indicating that both genes might similarly contribute to tumour progression. Our results suggest the existence of a novel class of proteins whose oncogenic potential specifically derives from their ability to antagonize gatekeepers and which we propose to name "gate-jumpers". ...
basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor belonging to the class A family; acts as a general negative regulator of cell proliferation; binds specifically to oligomers of E-box motifs; forms heterodimers with other bHLH proteins of both class A and class B, e.g. E2A, TAL1, myogenin and MyoD; implicated in myogenesis, hematopoiesis and neurogenesis ...
The EF-hand Ca2+-binding motif plays an essential role in eukaryotic cellular signalling, and the proteins containing this motif constitute a large and functionally diverse family. The EF-hand is defined by its helix-loop-helix secondary structure as well as the ligands presented by the loop to bind the Ca2+ ion. The identity of these ligands is semi-conserved in the most common (the canonical) EF-hand; however, several non-canonical EF-hands exist that bind Ca2+ by a different co-ordination mechanism. EF-hands tend to occur in pairs, which form a discrete domain so that most family members have two, four or six EF-hands. This pairing also enables communication, and many EF-hands display positive co-operativity, thereby minimizing the Ca2+ signal required to reach protein saturation. The conformational effects of Ca2+ binding are varied, function-dependent and, in some cases, minimal, but can lead to the creation of a protein target interaction site or structure formation from a ...
Induction of apoptosis and NF-kB activation by Apaf-1/Nod1 family members and DD proteins (Inohara et al., 2000). The more recent study suggested that IKKgamma binds to the site in C-terminal regulatory region of IKKbeta which is located after the HLH motif. Images ...
ID1 / BHLHB24, 0.4 ml. |div class=value|The protein encoded by this gene is a helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein that can form heterodimers with members of the basic HLH family of transcription factors.