Nanoindentation is a variety of indentation hardness tests applied to small volumes. Indentation is perhaps the most commonly applied means of testing the mechanical properties of materials. The nanoindentation technique was developed in the mid-1970s to measure the hardness of small volumes of material. In a traditional indentation test (macro or micro indentation), a hard tip whose mechanical properties are known (frequently made of a very hard material like diamond) is pressed into a sample whose properties are unknown. The load placed on the indenter tip is increased as the tip penetrates further into the specimen and soon reaches a user-defined value. At this point, the load may be held constant for a period or removed. The area of the residual indentation in the sample is measured and the hardness, H {\displaystyle H} , is defined as the maximum load, P m a x {\displaystyle P_{max}} , divided by the residual indentation area, A r {\displaystyle A_{r}} : H = P max A r . {\displaystyle ...
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Investigating and modelling the mechanical properties of materials is important for many applications. The most common technique used for mechanical characterization of materials is called nanoindentation. The currently available tools utilized in order to perform nanoindentation have their limitations in terms of sensitivities of force and displacement or limitations due to the hardware for a broad range of material properties. When it comes to investigation of soft materials, these limitations might be more detrimental. In Multi Agent Bio Robotics Laboratory (MABL), we have been working on development of novel nanoindentation techniques with a multi-probe atomic force microcopy (AFM) system in order to ease the major problems encountered with standard AFM or nanoindentation systems. Tuning forks are used as probes during nanoindentation. For quasi-static nanoindentation experiments, our approach extracts the force information through the displacement of the indenter probe measured by a second ...
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The nanoindentation of a columnar grain boundary (GB) network in nanocrystalline Al has been examined by atomistic simulation. Our intent was to gain fundamental understanding on the relationship between structure evolution at GBs and incipient plasticity for indenter tips significantly larger than the average grain size. The nanoindentation simulations were performed by quasicontinuum method at zero temperature. A GB network made of vicinal and high-angle |110| tilt GBs was produced by generating randomly-oriented 5-nm grains at the surface of a 200 nm-thick film. The major findings of this investigation are that (1) nanocrystalline GB networks profoundly impact on the nanoindentation response and cause significant softening effects at the tip/surface interface; (2) GB movement and deformation twins are found to be the predominant deformation modes in columnar Al, in association with shear band formation by GB sliding and intragranular slip, and crystal growth by grain rotation and coalescence; and (3)
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Hello All, I have been lurking for a month now and I very much appreciate the site, science, and all the tips. I moved from northern CA to western AZ and of course we have a pool again. Im told that a pool is more of a challenge here due to very high temps during the very long summer, and bad water to start with from Lake Havasu City, so Im trying to get in front of it. I have my Taylor K-2006 test kit and am unable to perform the calcium hardness test. Even while trying to test my fill
illustrated support ring (126) forms with the seal (24) and the pressure generator (5) the upstream boundary of the high-pressure chamber (100). As well as the central part (123), the support ring (126) can be constructed of different material areas, which are firmly connected to each other in an analogous manner: a strength-determining body (126a) and a directly connected, with the liquid chemically compatible second material region (126b). As with the central part (123) in the form of the support ring (126) is the connection to at least one other Component, here to the central part (123), given: The support ring (126) contains in its strength-determining base body (126a) connecting elements (126c) projecting in the direction of the component to be joined and the form-fitting by a forming process with the appropriate connection forms on Central part (123) are connected. The projecting connecting elements may have different shapes: webs of different thickness, width and length in different ...
Bugs item #960709, was opened at 2004-05-26 12:28 Message generated for change (Comment added) made by egonw You can respond by visiting: https://sourceforge.net/tracker/?func=detail&atid=120024&aid=960709&group_id=20024 ,Category: org.openscience.cdk.renderer Group: None ,Status: Closed ,Resolution: Fixed Priority: 5 Submitted By: cpudney (cpudney) ,Assigned to: Egon Willighagen (egonw) Summary: Rings poorly rendered Initial Comment: Gday, Renderer2D.paintRingRing() can produce poor results particularly when the dimensions of the Renderer2D are small. The inner oval is not properly aligned with the outer oval so the ring has different thickness (sometimes zero) at different points along its circumference. The paintRingRing() method must ensure that the centre of the inner oval is the same as that of the outer oval. The can be done by offseting the upper-left coordinate of the inner oval by a whole number of pixels (relative to the outer oval), and the width and height of the inner oval reduced ...
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H. Kim, A. Ghimire, S. Jamali, T. K. Djidjou, J. M. Gerton, and A. Rogachev. Effect of magnetic Gd impurities on the superconducting state of amorphous Mo-Ge thin films with different thickness and morphology. Phys. Rev. B 86: 024518 (2012). [ABSTRACT] [PDF] ...
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In the present study the hardness of individual alpha ( )-Ti grains in Ti-6Al-4V was measured by nanoindentation using Berkovich tip indenter. Additionally, alpha-case layer was induced by performing isothermal heat ...
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trength) Fracture Toughness 10,6-12,3 MPa-mЅ KIC for hot-pressed structural grades Shear Modulus 135 GPa Shear Strength 345 MPa hot-pressed block Shear Strength 480 MPa cross-rolled sheet Boron (Crystalline) Knoop Microhardness 99,9% pure is 3300 (100 g load) 9,3 Mohs Tensile Strength, Ultimate 2,6-
Our Meter range works by measuring the amount of water used and then regenerating accordingly. This ensures supply always meets demand. If you have guests or your requirements increase, then the softener will regenerate more frequently. (Self-Protect Programme.) Alternatively, if you go away, you can set the machine to default setting to regenerate when you return. As our meter models regenerate only when necessary, they are ideal for applications with varying demand. The amount of salt and water can be reduced by as much as 50% compared to timer models.. ...
D2134 - 93(2007) Standard Test Method for Determining the Hardness of Organic Coatings with a Sward-Type Hardness Rocker , hardness, hardness tests-,Sward hardness, surface hardness, Hardness tests--organic coatings, Organic coatings, Surface hardening/hardness, Sward hardness rocker,
In one aspect the present invention provides indented structures that each include (a) a body defining a plurality of indentations, substantially all of the plurality of indentations including a surface layer including a biologically active substance; and (b) a body surface, wherein each of the plurality of indentations opens onto the body surface through a plurality of openings, and wherein the biologically active substance is not substantially present on the body surface. Examples of structures of the present invention include medical devices, such as medical devices that are completely or partially implantable into a living body. The surface layer of the indentations (or at least some of the indentations) of the medical devices of the invention may include biologically active molecules, such as proteins, that promote the growth of cells into and/or within the indentations, thereby promoting the acceptance of the implanted device by the living body. In another aspect, the present invention provides
[Image above] Thin (left) and thick films made of porous nanoparticles of calcium and silicate reacted differently under pressure as tested in a Rice University lab. Credit: Multiscale Materials Labo
What is a grain per gallon (gpg)?. One grain is equivalent to 64.799 milligrams. Its a historic unit of weight once used for barleycorn. A grain per gallon is the weight of a substance in one gallon of water, similar to a milligram per liter.. Whats the formula for converting grains per gallon (gpg) to milligrams per liter (mg/L)?. Multiply gpg by 17.1 to get mg/L (1 gpg = 17.1 mg/L). For example, a hardness test result of 3 gpg as CaCO3 is equivalent to 51 mg/L as CaCO3. Whats the formula for converting grains per gallon to milligrams per liter? 1 grain = 64.799 milligrams 1 gallon = 3.785 liters 64.799 divided by 3.785 liters = 17.1 1 gpg = 17.1 mg/L. One of our favorite websites, Wolfram Alpha does online dynamic computations based on a vast collection of built-in data, algorithms, and methods.. ...
Addresses: Engqvist H, Uppsala Univ, Angstrom Lab, Dept Mat Sci, Tribomat Grp, Uppsala, Sweden. Uppsala Univ, Angstrom Lab, Dept Mat Sci, Tribomat Grp, Uppsala, Sweden.Available from: 2008-10-17 Created: 2008-10-17 Last updated: 2010-06-22Bibliographically approved ...
We prepared nanostructured films in different thicknesses of fullerenes C60 by assembling 1 to 3 monolayers by means of Langmuir-Schaefer technique. We obtained the stock..
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Two hundred twenty-two patients (168 women, 54 men) were included. The mean age was 52.2 ± 19.3 years (range 18-84 years). The mean follow-up was 28.8 ± 8.2 months (range 24-62 months). There was a significant correlation between PI − LL and PI (r = 0.441, p , 0.001), threatening the use of PI − LL to quantify spinopelvic mismatch for different PI values. RLL was not correlated with PI (r = −0.093, p , 0.05); therefore, it was able to quantify divergence from ideal lordosis for all PI values. Compared with PI − LL, RLL had stronger correlations with HRQOL scores (p , 0.05). Discrimination performance was better for the model with RLL than for PI − LL. The agreement between RLL and PI − LL was high (κ = 0.943, p , 0.001), moderate (κ = 0.455, p , 0.001), and poor (κ = −0.154, p = 0.343), respectively, for large, average, and small PI sizes. When analyzed by RLL, each PI − LL category was further divided into distinct groups of patients who had different mechanical ...
Two hundred twenty-two patients (168 women, 54 men) were included. The mean age was 52.2 ± 19.3 years (range 18-84 years). The mean follow-up was 28.8 ± 8.2 months (range 24-62 months). There was a significant correlation between PI − LL and PI (r = 0.441, p , 0.001), threatening the use of PI − LL to quantify spinopelvic mismatch for different PI values. RLL was not correlated with PI (r = −0.093, p , 0.05); therefore, it was able to quantify divergence from ideal lordosis for all PI values. Compared with PI − LL, RLL had stronger correlations with HRQOL scores (p , 0.05). Discrimination performance was better for the model with RLL than for PI − LL. The agreement between RLL and PI − LL was high (κ = 0.943, p , 0.001), moderate (κ = 0.455, p , 0.001), and poor (κ = −0.154, p = 0.343), respectively, for large, average, and small PI sizes. When analyzed by RLL, each PI − LL category was further divided into distinct groups of patients who had different mechanical ...
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Bertinetti, L.; Hangen, U. D.; Eder, M.; Leibner, P.; Fratzl, P.; Zlotnikov, I.: Characterizing moisture-dependent mechanical properties of organic materials: humidity-controlled static and dynamic nanoindentation of wood cell walls. Philosophical Magazine 95 (16-18), 920544, S. 1992 - 1998 (2015 ...
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The objective of this study was to determine whether dietary boron (B) affects the strength, density and mineral composition of teeth and mineral density of alveolar bone in rabbits with apparent obesity induced by a high-energy diet. Sixty female, 8-month-old, New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned for 7 months into five groups as follows: (1) control 1, fed alfalfa hay only (5.91 MJ/kg and 57.5 mg B/kg); (2) control 2, high energy diet (11.76 MJ and 3.88 mg B/kg); (3) B10, high energy diet + 10 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h; (4) B30, high energy diet + 30 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h; (5) B50, high energy diet + 50 mg B gavage/kg body weight/96 h. Maxillary incisor teeth of the rabbits were evaluated for compression strength, mineral composition, and micro-hardness. Enamel, dentin, cementum and pulp tissue were examined histologically. Mineral densities of the incisor teeth and surrounding alveolar bone were determined by using micro-CT. When compared to controls, the different boron ...
Article Nanoindentation characterisation of GaN films and Se nanotubes. Mechanical properties of GaN films and Se nanotubes were measured by nanoindentation tests. The GaN films were grown epitaxially on cplane sapphire substrate by MOCVD technique, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Biofilm formation affects surface properties of novel bioactive glass-containing composites. AU - Hyun, Hong Keun. AU - Salehi, Satin. AU - Ferracane, Jack. PY - 2015/12/1. Y1 - 2015/12/1. N2 - Objectives This study investigated the effects of bacterial biofilm on the surface properties of novel bioactive glass (BAG)-containing composites of different initial surface roughness. Methods BAG (65 mol% Si; 4% P; 31% Ca) and BAG-F (61% Si; 31% Ca; 4% P; 3% F; 1% B) were synthesized by the sol-gel method and micronized (size ∼0.1-10 μm). Composites with 72 wt% total filler load were prepared by replacing 15% of the silanized Sr glass with BAG, BAG-F, or silanized silica. Specimens (n = 10/group) were light-cured and divided into 4 subgroups of different surface roughness by wet polishing with 600 and then up to 1200, 2400, or 4000 grit SiC. Surface roughness (SR), gloss, and Knoop microhardness were measured before and after incubating in media with or without a Streptococcus mutans ...
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One of the most serious limitations to Vickers hardness testing in the micro-load range (10-1000 gf or 0.098-9.81 N) has been the variability in measured hardness with loads ≤ 100 gf (≤ 0.98 N). In the literature four HV-load trends have been reported for this range. In the order of most common to least common, the trends are: the hardness decreases with decreasing load; the hardness increases slightly and then decreases; the hardness increases with decreasing load; and, the hardness is constant. Many publications have concentrated on the most common trend and attributed it to material factors. Samuels [1] stated, however, that these problems were due to microscope limitations, such as limited contrast and resolution, and visual perception limitations. At the same symposium, Westrich [2] showed that the SEM could be used to measure small Vickers indents and yield virtually constant hardness as a function of load.. An ASTM inter-laboratory "round robin" test program was conducted in the ...
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