In a process for hydrocracking heavy polynuclear carbonaceous feedstocks to produce lighter hydrocarbon fuels by contacting the heavy feedstocks with hydrogen in the presence of a molten metal halide catalyst in a hydrocracking zone, thereafter separating at least a major portion of the lighter hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten metal halide and thereafter regenerating the spent molten metal halide by incinerating the spent molten metal halide by combustion of carbon and sulfur compounds in the spent molten metal halide in an incineration zone, the improvement comprising: (a) contacting the heavy feedstocks and hydrogen in the presence of the molten metal halide in the hydrocracking zone at reaction conditions effective to convert from about 60 to about 90 weight percent of the feedstock to lighter hydrocarbon fuels; (b) separating at least a major portion of the lighter hydrocarbon fuels from the spent molten metal halide; (c) contacting the
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A metal halide lamp of the present invention comprises a luminous tube alone without any outer bulb, the luminous tube containing metal halides such as neodymium halides (NdX3), dysprosium halides (DyX3) and cesium halides (CsX) in a total amount by mole of 1 10-6 to 8 10-6 mol/cc and the following molar ratios: ##EQU1## as well as rare gas serving as starting auxiliary gas and mercury serving as buffer gas. This structure permits a predetermined vapor pressure of the metal halides sealed in the luminous tube to be obtained without increasing the wall load, as well as the formation of a metal halide lamp having a long life and good color characteristics.
Over the years, weve grown accustomed to living and working under certain models of overhead lighting, metal halide and high-pressure sodium lamps among them. Known for their bright light and their ability to withstand cool temperatures, metal halide and high-pressure sodium lights have been used in a variety of lighting applications for decades.. But with declining efficiency and a high cost to operate, this lighting no longer makes sense.. While you may still see metal halide and high-pressure sodium lamps in commercial and industrial facilities and in public spaces such as parking garages and large sports arenas, LED technology now outperforms high-intensity discharges lamps in every way.. For that reason, BC Hydro has made 1500-2000W HID categories for metal halide and high-pressure sodium lamps eligible for upgrade to LED. The HID category has been added to the e.Catalog that lists the configurations and products eligible for our energy-saving incentives for businesses.. ...
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Wheat is generally used for a food after converting grain components into different degrees of flour. The perfect milling operation needs to get enough knowledge about kernel mechanical properties and mainly hardness, to estimate correctly its effect on grinding performance. This study determined the influence of wheat hardness on milling energy and efficiency. The results showed great effect of wheat hardness on milling performance. The lowest values of specific energy were recorded in the case of cultivar Katoda. This cultivar is characterised by the lowest value of hardness index. The study indicates that, it is possible to select cultivars with low specific energy and high efficiency during milling, which in effect will cause a reduction of production costs ...
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TIME5432C Shore Hardness Tester for Microporous Materials-BEIJING TIME HIGH TECHNOLOGY Ltd.-TIME5432C is a derivative of TIME5432 Shore AO Durometer. It also adopts the AO type indenter, but has a rectangular press foot. It is designed to test microporous materials for shoes made of rubber and plastic when the compression is 50% and the stress is 0.049 MPa or more.
One of the most serious limitations to Vickers hardness testing in the micro-load range (10-1000 gf or 0.098-9.81 N) has been the variability in measured hardness with loads ≤ 100 gf (≤ 0.98 N). In the literature four HV-load trends have been reported for this range. In the order of most common to least common, the trends are: the hardness decreases with decreasing load; the hardness increases slightly and then decreases; the hardness increases with decreasing load; and, the hardness is constant. Many publications have concentrated on the most common trend and attributed it to material factors. Samuels [1] stated, however, that these problems were due to microscope limitations, such as limited contrast and resolution, and visual perception limitations. At the same symposium, Westrich [2] showed that the SEM could be used to measure small Vickers indents and yield virtually constant hardness as a function of load.. An ASTM inter-laboratory "round robin" test program was conducted in the ...
Yarn Package Hardness Tester is used to evaluate the hardness of yarn packages, cones, top rollers of Draw Frame, Roving Frame &Ring Frame etc
The device works with both ultrasonic contact impedance (UCI) and dynamic (Leeb) probes. User get the benefits of two methods of measurement - it is the maximum that can be obtained from a portable hardness tester.
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Lights & Heaters Hi Bob and or Crew: A couple quick questions in regard to lights and heaters. First with heaters I currently have two Visitherm 300 Watt heaters in a 110G reef tank which I would like to move to the sump. Is mounting horizontally a problem with these heaters? ,I have never had a problem mounting them this way., Is this too much wattage for a 110? ,maybe slightly more than needed, but they are thermostatically controlled and will not overheat your water. They merely have extra capacity to heat your water if need be., Would I be better off with two Jager-Jager 200 or 250 Watt (I like the 2MM thickness especially in a sump)? ,They are a better product., Now on to lighting, I am about to buy a Giesemann 2x250 watt metal halide with actinic PCs which I will hang about a foot above the water surface. This light uses the double ended metal halide bulbs which create a very brilliant light but also seem to throw more heat than the common socket metal halide. Any info in regard to these ...
The photos of indentations by the Vickers pyramid i n a sodium chlorate c r y s t a l are presented i n Figure 2 and give an idea of r e s u l t i n g cracks and l i f t - o f f s . 6 N). In the case of potassium n i t r a t e the Vickers hardness indentat i o n s have not a quadratic shape. This i s due t o a d i r e c t i o n dependent hardness i n the c r y s t a l l a t t i c e of t h i s material. ch004 46 CRYSTALLIZATION AS A SEPARATIONS PROCESS 4. ch004 t i c e . The force-dependency o f the Vickers hardness isshown i n the p l o t i n Figure 3. The force-dependency o f the Vickers hardness isshown i n the p l o t i n Figure 3. In the diagram there are two curves of the Vickers hardness r e s u l t i n g always from the same indentation image. The hardness values d i f f e r by a f a c t o r of two. The one curve r e s u l t s from the data o f the longer and the other from the shorter diagonal o f each intendation. This d i r e c t i o n dependency was so f a r only observed for the case ...
Hi, Just started our new pool last week. Parameters are like this: FC: 7 (slowly going down from shock condition, targeting 3) CC: 0 PH: 7.5 TA: 70 CH: 500 CYA: untested, will do this week-end
Since joining the Old School Pico Contest Ive been feeling nostalgic and looking to set up a bigger reef system like it was 1999. Metal halides, T5s, Kalkwasser you get the picture. Ive been thinking about an upgrade tank for sometime now, but had a hard time picking a system that I will be happy with for sometime thats inexpensive, bigger but not huge and easy to manage. I wanted the same ease of use that I get from my EVO 13.5 but with more space for corals,fish, and more room in the rear chambers. Most of the AIOs out there didnt quite check all the boxes or out of the budget. I will be keeping this build on a tight budget, but also try and make it as nice as possible in the process. That being said I will be using most of the equipment I already have or in use. My vision for this build will be lots of flow, light, and mainly sps dominant. I think it will be cool to have a nano still running metal halide/t5/led. It will be interesting to see colors and growth from all three lighting ...
Commercial purity aluminium (99.5%) has been cold rolled to a true strain of 5.5 (99.6% reduction in thickness). The material is very strong but low temperature recovery may be a limiting factor. This has been investigated by isothermal annealing treatments in the temperature range 5-100C. Hardness tests, microstructural investigations by electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were carried out to identify and characterise possible recovery mechanisms. Annihilation of zigzagged dislocations, positioned between deformationinduced lamellar boundaries of medium-to-high angles, and annihilation of dislocations in boundaries were found to be important recovery mechanisms, whereas other mechanisms, such as triple junction motion, subgrain coalescence, and boundary migration, were less important or negligible. The recovery kinetics was analysed based on hardness data, showing that the apparent activation energy for recovery at low temperatures was 60-86 kJ ...
The Newage 7000 Series automatic production tester. A high accuracy instrument ideal for high volume Brinell hardness testing applications.
Imada E2 Durometer now feature an environmentally friendly magnesium alloy housing. E2 durometers are quick and easy to operate with a high degree of repeatability. Optional peak indicators are available on each model.
1) закалка 2) упрочнение 3) твердение • - case hardening - electrodischarge hardening - flame hardening - high-speed continuous laser hardening - induction hardening - isothermal hardening - laser hardening - laser shock hardening - laser transformation hardening - local hardening - localized hardening - precipitation age.
Chart mohs scale of hardness fire mountain gems and beadshe mohs hardness scale measures the relative hardness of gemstones, as determined by their scratch hardness the resistance of a mineral when scratched with a pointed testing objectthe diamond is the hardest natural gemstone in the world and measures a ten on the hardness scale.
A flexible piston rod includes a piston and a row of elements, each having top, bottom, and lateral surfaces, the top surface of one element being connected to the bottom surface of an adjacent element by a hinge that allows the two adjacent elements to pivot from a first position, where a portion of the top surface of one element abuts a corresponding portion of the bottom surface of the adjacent element and corresponding to a rectilinear, relatively stiff configuration of the piston rod, to a second position wherein the top surface of one element is spaced from the bottom surface of the adjacent element and corresponding to a curved configuration of the piston rod. The lateral surface of each element has first and second mutually-opposed cylindrical surface portions incorporating a thread for meshing with a corresponding thread of an actuator for displacing the piston rod longitudinally.
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An accumulative swaging and bundling technique is used to prepare composite wires made of Ti and an Al alloy. These wires show reasonable higher yield stresses than expected from the pure material flow curves. The additional strengthening in the composite is analyzed using nanoindentation measurements, tensile testings and investigations of the microstructure. In addition, these properties are analyzed in relation to the fracture surface of the mechanically tested wires. Additional strengthening due to the presence of phase boundaries could be verified. Indications for residual stresses are found that cause a global hardness gradient from the center to the wire rim. Finally, the yield stress of the wires are calculated based on local hardness measurements.
J-Integral fracture toughness tests were conducted on tritium-exposed-and-aged Types 304L and 21-6-9 stainless steel weldments in order to measure the combined effects of tritium and its decay product, helium-3 on the fracture toughness properties. Initially, weldments have fracture toughness values about three times higher than base-metal values. Delta-ferrite phase in the weld microstructure improved toughness provided no tritium was present in the microstructure. After a tritium-exposure-and-aging treatment that resulted in ~1400 atomic parts per million (appm) dissolved tritium, both weldments and base metals had their fracture toughness values reduced to about the same level. The tritium effect was greater in weldments (67 % reduction vs. 37% reduction) largely because the ductile discontinuous delta-ferrite phase was embrittled by tritium and decay helium. For both base metals and weldments, fracture toughness values decreased with increasing decay helium content in the range tested ...
A conforming heat sink assembly for removing heat from heat generating components, having respective top surfaces defining different heights is provided with a flexible thermally conductive base member with a top surface and a bottom surface. The bottom surface is adapted to be positioned in flush thermal communication with the top surfaces of each of the components. The bottom portions of a heat dissipating element are embedded in a flexible thermally conductive base member. The heat dissipating member is corrugated to define a number of lower contact points and upstanding fin members. The lower contact points are movable relative to one another in accordance with the top surface of the flexible thermally conductive base member. The heat dissipating element is affixed to the flexible thermally conductive base member at its lower contact points to form a conforming heat sink assembly.
The lens embraces a bulk-shaped lens body identified by a top surface, a bottom surface and a contour surface, and a well-shaped concavity is implemented in the inside of the lens body, aligned from the bottom surface toward the top surface. The lens body has geometry such as bullet-shape or egg-shape. A ceiling surface of concavity implemented in the lens body serves as a first lens surface, the top surface of the lens body serves as the second lens surface, and inside of the concavity serves as a storing cavity of a light source or a photodetector.
A desk comprising: a writing board, the writing board defining a top surface and a substantially opposed bottom surface; at least three sleeves, each of the at least three sleeves extending substantially away from the bottom surface, each of the at least three sleeves defining a respective free end substantially opposed to the bottom surface; at least three legs, each of the at least three legs being removably insertable into and securable to a respective one of the at least three sleeves; a first one of the at least three sleeves defining a ridge extending substantially longitudinally therefrom at the free end of the first one of the at least three sleeves and a second one of the at least three sleeves defining a recess extending substantially longitudinally thereinto at the free end of the second one of the at least three sleeves, the recess being configured and sized for substantially snugly receiving the ridge. Two of the desks are stackable on top of each other with legs detached therefrom by
1) закалка. 2) упрочнение. 3) твердение. •. - case hardening. - electrodischarge hardening. - flame hardening. - high-speed continuous laser hardening. - induction hardening. - isothermal hardening. - laser hardening. - laser.
A surface foam diffuser system having a first nozzle disposed above a top surface of the at least partially liquid contents, a splash plate positioned adjacent to the first nozzle outlet, and a second nozzle disposed below the top surface of the at least partially liquid contents is disclosed for suppressing foaming in large processing tanks. The system nozzles each have an inlet for receiving pressurized liquid and an outlet for ejecting a liquid stream into the tank, the depth of the second nozzle and the direction of the liquid stream there from being such that rotation of the top surface is facilitated. The spray of the first nozzle, as dispersed by the splash plate, reduces foam on at least a portion of the top surface, with the rotation of the top surface allowing each portion of the top surface to eventually fall within the reducing spray.
My wife suffers SAD and I promised her that I would build her one (or more) lights to combat it. I toyed with using metal halide but the ballast requirements and the potential for bulb explosion all but nixed that idea. So Im going to use an array of high-CRI Bridgelux LED COBs. The trick, though, is achieving the necessary 5000 lux-hour rating. Im not sure if lux-hour is an established unit of measurement but Im going to use it. Various papers seem to have established empirically that you need 10000 lux *at the eye* for 30 minutes or 5000 lux for an hour, etc. My and my wifes plan was for her to use this light for 30-45 minutes in the morning before work so we need to be on the higher end of the lux-time scale (since her job involves lots of meetings, it wouldnt be practical to set up a lower-lumen light at the office so that she could hit 5000 lux-hours over a period of hours). Okay. Since lux follows an inverse square relationship, 10000 lux requires an a lot of lumens if A) the light ...
Halco Lighting Technologies C156/20E/MV/BE 55504 electronic metal halide ballast operates one lamp with 120/277 voltage and a power factor of 0.96. It has a bottom exit. READ MORE ...
Originally Posted by sdellin So would it be best to transition over to metal halides for variety of coral and color? I never liked the predominately brown tank. Im always looking for color. yes, and
Greetings! I have never had nitrate problems in the many years I have had a 75G reef tank. However I am now thinking that with a new metal halide light and older live rock, that I might have a nitrate
Hey Everybody! Weve been lurking for a couple months and decided it was about time we started a journal. Background - We had a 75G mixed reef about 15 years ago. It was a ReefReady Oceanic with a refugium/sump, skimmer, and metal halides. It was a lot of fun but eventually the maintenance didnt...
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Test #1 In our initial test, we found the following: Retention Knob Manufacturer Inspection Results Lyndex *Heads are soft (possible shallow case) *Experienced breakage Retention Knob Supply *Undersized major diameter (65% thread) *Undersized pitch diameter *Un-even heat treat *Soft surface hardness US Shop Tools *Soft surface hardness *Thread relief too wide resulting in thread length…