Hagfishes are known for their ability to rapidly produce vast quantities of slime when provoked. The slime is formed via the interaction between seawater and two components released by the slime glands: mucin vesicles from gland mucous cells, which swell and rupture in seawater to form a network of mucus strands, and intermediate filament-rich threads, which are produced within gland thread cells as tightly coiled bundles called skeins. A previous study showed that the unraveling of skeins from Atlantic hagfish (Myxine glutinosa) requires both the presence of mucins and hydrodynamic mixing. In contrast, skeins from Pacific hagfish (Eptatretus stoutii) unravel in the absence of both mucins and mixing. We tested the hypothesis that spontaneous unraveling of E. stoutii skeins is triggered by the dissolution of a seawater-soluble protein adhesive and the release of stored strain energy within the coiled thread. Here we show that, as predicted by this hypothesis, unraveling can be initiated by a ...
Hagfish dont score high on the fish charisma scale. They are very unattractive, have a reputation for devouring victims from the inside out and, if attacked, they instantly release litres of repulsive slime. However, despite their repelling habits, Douglas Fudge from the University of Guelph is intrigued by hagfish slime. He says Its like nothing else in biology because they produce it so quickly and in such large quantities and its reinforced with fibres. Fudge has been working on the material properties of hagfish slime ever since his PhD and explains that the creatures exude a viscous milky white secretion - pre-slime - packed full of microscopic packets (vesicles) carrying a highly absorbent glycoprotein called mucin. These vesicles suddenly explode upon contact with seawater, releasing the mucin and producing mature slime. But how do hagfish prevent the mucin vesicles from exploding inside their slime glands before the vesicles contact seawater? Fudge wondered if something in the ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-contacting neurons are sensory-type cells sending ciliated dendritic process into the CSF. Some of the prosencephalic CSF-contacting neurons of higher vertebrates were...
Principal Investigator:MORISAWA Sachiko, Project Period (FY):1996 - 1998, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:海洋生物学
Bigelow, H.B. and Schroeder, W.B. 1952. A new species of the cyclostome genus Paramyxine from the Gulf of Mexico. Breviora 8: 1-10.. Fernholm, B. and Hubbs, C.L. 1981. Western Atlantic hagfishes of the genus Eptatretus (Myxinidae) with description of two new species. Fishery Bulletin 79(1): 69-83.. IUCN. 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2011.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 30 June 2017).. McEachran, J.D. and Fechhelm, J.D. 1998. Fishes of the Gulf of Mexico. Volume 1: Myxiniformes to Gasterosteiformes. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas.. Patzner, R.A. 1998. Gonads and reproduction in hagfishes. In: J.M. Jørgensen, J.P. Lomholt, R.E. Weber, and H. Malte (eds), The biology of hagfishes, pp. 378-395. Chapman & Hall, London.. Stiles, M.L., Harrould-Kolieb, E., Faure, P., Ylitalo-Ward, H. and Hirshfield, M.F. 2007. Deep-sea trawl fisheries of the southeast US and Gulf of Mexico: Rock shrimp, Royal red shrimp, Calico scallops. OCEANA: 18.. ...
The copulatory organ is absent in this species. The gonads of hagfishes are situated in the peritoneal cavity. The ovary is found in the anterior portion of the gonad, and the testis is found in the posterior part. The animal becomes female if the cranial part of the gonad develops or male if the caudal part undergoes differentiation. If none develops, then the animal becomes sterile. If both anterior and posterior parts develop, then the animal becomes a functional hermaphrodite. However, hermaphroditism being characterised as functional needs to be validated by more reproduction studies (Patzner 1998 ...
Do you think other animals might be intimidated by the beauty that is hagfish? JD: Many animals are intimidated by hagfish! Their slime alone is enough to deter all but the most voracious predators!. What do you want kids to know about hagfish?. JD: Hagfish may be ugly but they represent the ancestors of all of todays fishes and other vertebrates!. How does something like the oil spill catastrophe in the Gulf affect hagfish (and other deep-sea animals)? JD: We still arent sure how the Gulf oil spill will affect the deep sea, but scientists are currently trying to find out. Several spots on the deep-sea floor near the Horizon rig were long term study sites for scientists. These places held cold-seep communities where natural gas was slowly seeping out of the mud and fueling bacterial growth which then provided food for many strange creatures like tube worms, clams, white squat lobsters, and many others. These communities may now be smothered in heavy tar or poisoned by oil dispersants. Only ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Characterization of novel RFamide peptides in the central nervous system of the brown hagfish. T2 - Isolation, localization, and functional analysis. AU - Osugi, Tomohiro. AU - Uchida, Katsuhisa. AU - Nozaki, Masumi. AU - Tsutsui, Kazuyoshi. PY - 2011/11. Y1 - 2011/11. N2 - RFamide (RFa) peptides play various important roles in the central nervous system in both invertebrates and vertebrates. However, there is no evidence of the existence of any RFamide peptide in the brain of hagfish, one of the oldest lineages of vertebrates. In this study,wesought to identify novel RFamide peptides from the brains of hagfish (Paramyxine atami). We identified four novel RFamide peptides, which had the C-terminal Pro-Gln-Arg-Phe-NH 2 structure. cDNA cloning revealed that the identified RFamide peptides are encoded in two types of cDNA. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the two precursors indicated that the hagfish RFamide peptides belong to the PQRFamide peptide group that includes mammalian ...
While polychaete marine worms on or near the sea floor are a major food source, hagfish can feed upon and often even enter and eviscerate the bodies of dead and dying/injured sea creatures much larger than themselves. They are known to devour their prey from the inside.[44] Hagfish have the ability to absorb dissolved organic matter across the skin and gill, which may be an adaptation to a scavenging lifestyle, allowing them to maximize sporadic opportunities for feeding. From an evolutionary perspective, hagfish represent a transitory state between the generalized nutrient absorption pathways of aquatic invertebrates and the more specialized digestive systems of aquatic vertebrates.[45]. Like leeches, they have a sluggish metabolism and can survive months between feedings;[46][47] their feeding behavior, however, appears quite vigorous. Analysis of the stomach content of several species has revealed a large variety of prey, including polychaetes, shrimp, hermit crabs, cephalopods, brittlestars, ...
We have shown that VLRA and VLRB are assembled and transcribed in a mutually exclusive manner in hagfish, indicating that VLRA+ and VLRB+ cells belong to distinct lymphocyte populations, as reported for the sea lamprey (Guo et al, 2009). VLR assembly was primarily monoallelic, but diallelic assembly was observed in some cases. In the case of the Ig and TCR genes, V(D)J recombination is regulated tightly at many levels (Schlissel, 2003; Jung & Alt, 2004; Jung et al, 2006; Krangel, 2009). V(D)J recombination activates the transcription of an antigen‐receptor gene by placing the promoter and enhancer elements in close proximity. In hagfish, however, transcription was not linked with the assembled allele of the VLR gene; detection of assembled and germline transcripts in a single lymphocyte was common. It seems that VLRA and VLRB gene loci are activated in a mutually exclusive way regarding transcription and gene assembly, the latter of which is regulated primarily by monoallelic assembly. The ...
October is dedicated to He-man, and under-appreciated uglies. The 15th October is Hagfish Day! Life is tough for the hagfish. Generally regarded by many to be one of the more…... ...
Fibers are ubiquitous in biology, and include tensile materials produced by specialized glands (such as silks), extracellular fibrils that reinforce exoskeletons and connective tissues (such as chitin and collagen), as well as intracellular filaments that make up the metazoan cytoskeleton (such as F-actin, microtubules, and intermediate filaments). Hagfish gland thread cells are unique in that they produce a high aspect ratio fiber from cytoskeletal building blocks within the confines of their cytoplasm. These threads are elaborately coiled into structures that readily unravel when they are ejected into seawater from the slime glands. In this review we summarize what is currently known about the structure and function of gland thread cells and we speculate about the mechanism that these cells use to produce a mechanically robust fiber that is almost one hundred thousand times longer than it is wide. We propose that a key feature of this mechanism involves the unidirectional rotation of the cells
Copulatory organ absent. The gonads of hagfishes are situated in the peritoneal cavity. The ovary is found in the anterior portion of the gonad, and the testis is found in the posterior part. The animal becomes female if the cranial part of the gonad develops or male if the caudal part undergoes differentiation. If none develops, then the animal becomes sterile. If both anterior and posterior parts develop, then the animal becomes a functional hermaphrodite. However, hermaphroditism being characterised as functional needs to be validated by more reproduction studies (Ref. 51361 ). ...
Scientists recently discovered an important clue about hagfish origins, in a fossil dating to 100 million years ago, that includes traces of preserved slime.
Tsujii, T., Naito, I., Ukita, S., Ono, T. and Seno, S. (1984), The anionic barrier system on the mesonephric renal glomerulus of the brown hagfish, Paramyxine atami Dean (cylostomi). Anat. Rec., 208: 337-347. doi: 10.1002/ar.1092080304 ...
Extant cyclostomes are jawless vertebrates and include hagfishes and lampreys. They are the closest extant relatives to jawed vertebrates (often called gnathostomes, which also include jawless...
A group of French and Swedish researchers believe they have evidence that could explain the origins of the human face. Using special imaging techniques, the team have conducted a thorough investigation of fossilized specimen that belonged to armored fish, called Romundina, that swam the oceans some 410 million years ago. The latest study was published in the Feb. 12 issue of the journal Nature, entitled A Primitive Placoderm Sheds Light on the Origin of the Jawed Vertebrate Face.. Vertebrates are either jawed or jawless. Most vertebrates possess jaws that are bony or cartilaginous, comprising of an upper and a lower jaw and, today, the only jawless vertebrates include lampreys (a.k.a lamprey eels) and hagfish. Lampreys have a toothed sucking mouth, capable of tearing into the flesh of other fish before sucking their blood; generally, however, lampreys are not parasitic and behave as filter feeders. Hagfish are eel-shaped, just like lampreys, and paddle through water using their long tails. ...
The Lampreys Tale further develops the genes eye view of ancestry and pedigree that earlier tales, The Eves Tale and The Gibbons Tale, alluded to. In human, four haemoglobin genes are known to be cousin genes of each other. An ancestor globin gene from an ancient vertebrate split into two genes, alpha and beta, which ended up in two different chromosomes and continued to evolve independently. Both alpha and beta further split into more independently evolving genes. All jawed fish show such alpha/beta split as predicated by evolution. However, lampreys and hagfish are ancient enough that they predate this gene split. In fact, jawless fishes, whenever investigated, do not possess split globin genes. As Dawkins explained in the chapter All Africa and her progenies in his book River out of Eden, there are two ways to trace ancestry: via animals and via individual genes. The two mechanisms produce very different results. Ancestry of animals form a family tree (more correctly, a graph because ...
Invertebrates to Fish Pikaia -- extremely primitive notocord Conodont-- ray fins and a notocord Haikouichthys -- A notochord with separate vertebral elements Arandaspis -- Well armoured jawless fish Birkenia -- primitive, jawless fish or fishlike vertebrate Guiyu -- The oldest known bony fish Jawless fish to shark Cladoselache -- intermediate between jawless fishes to sharks Tristychius -- another sharklike fish. Ctenacanthus -- first primitive shark. Paleospinax -- sharklike jaw, primitive teeth. Spathobatis -- First ray-like fish. Protospinax -- Ancestral to both sharks and skates. Jawless fish to bony fish Acanthodians -- similar to early bony fishes, possibly a transitional form. Palaeoniscoids -- primitive bony fishes. Canobius, Aeduella -- more advanced jaws. Parasemionotus -- combination of modern cheeks with more primitive features, like lungs Oreochima -- first teleost fish Leptolepids -- ancestor of modern teleost fish. Lung transformed into swim bladder.
The evidence is now conclusive that the most primitive living vertebrates, the cyclostomes hagfish and lampreys, make antibodies comparable to those of higher vertebrates in charge dispersity and in consisting of two types of polypeptide chains (light and heavy) that can associate covalently by disulfide bonds. These molecules are serologically cross-reactive with those of elasmobranchs, but their protein and gene structure remain elusive at this time. The question of the origin of the rearranging immunoglobulin system likewise is a challenging contemporary problem. It is likely that this system arose in the deuterostome ancestors of vertebrates. Consistent with this hypothesis, molecules found in some protochordate species (tunicates) are anti-genically related to heavy chains of sharks and lampreys and have sufficient mass (25-30 kDa) to contain the product of V and C gene segments. Whether these molecules prove to be the protoimmunoglobu-lin missing links remains to be determined, but the ...
Vertebrates /ˈvɜːrtɪbrɪts/ comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata /-eɪ/ (chordates with backbones). Vertebrates represent the overwhelming majority of the phylum Chordata, with currently about 66,000 species described. Vertebrates include the jawless fish and the jawed vertebrates, which include the cartilaginous fish (sharks, rays, and ratfish) and the bony fish. A bony fish clade known as the lobe-finned fishes is included with tetrapods, which are further divided into amphibians, reptiles, mammals, and birds. Extant vertebrates range in size from the frog species Paedophryne amauensis, at as little as 7.7 mm (0.30 in), to the blue whale, at up to 33 m (108 ft). Vertebrates make up less than five percent of all described animal species; the rest are invertebrates, which lack vertebral columns. The vertebrates traditionally include the hagfish, which do not have proper vertebrae due to their loss in evolution, though their closest living relatives, the lampreys, ...
Patricia C. Adshead; Similarities between dental microstructures of scutellid echinoids and primitive vertebrates. AAPG Bulletin ; 54 (5): 833. doi: Download citation file:. ...
... is the representation of evolutionary relationships, often displayed as a "tree" (i.e., branching diagram) where the most closely related organisms are connected by a node and more distantly related organisms have multiple steps back in the tree before they are connected. Nodes are often characterized by biogeographic events and evolutionary innovations.. In fishes, jawless fishes (such as hagfish and lampreys) are the most primitive, cartilaginous, and without paired fins; sharks and rays are cartilaginous with jaws and placoid denticles; and bony fish are the most diverse and derived fishes, with scales (see cycloid and ctenoid), swim bladders, and bony skeletons.. ...
Craniata (sometimes Craniota) is a proponed clade o chordate ainimals that conteens the Myxini (hagfish), Petromyzontida (includin lampreys), an Gnathostomata (jawed vertebrates)[2][3] as livin representatives. As the name suggests, Craniata is ainimals wi a (hard bane or cartilage) skull in Chordata. ...
Fish is a member of paraphyletic group of organisms. This consists of gill-bearing aquatic craniates animals with limbs and digits. Most of the fishes are hagfish, cartilaginous, bony fish and lampreys. Fishes are ectothermic which means cold-blooded. Fish are abundant in most of the bodies of water. Fishes are important resource for human in worldwide…
This is the hagfish, a bizarre, eel-like critter that asphyxiates the fish and sharks foolish enough to attack it by clogging up their gills with massive releases of goo. But this is no simple snot. Its a deceptively complex substance that could one day gift us the supermaterial of our dreams.
Although the precise shape and size of the stomach varies widely among different vertebrates, the relative positions of the oesophageal and duodenal openings remain relatively constant. As a result, the organ always curves somewhat to the left before curving back to meet the pyloric sphincter. However, lampreys, hagfishes, chimaeras, lungfishes, and some teleost fish have no stomach at all, with the oesophagus opening directly into the anus. These animals all consume diets that either require little storage of food, or no pre-digestion with gastric juices, or both.[42]. The gastric lining is usually divided into two regions, an anterior portion lined by fundic glands, and a posterior with pyloric glands. Cardiac glands are unique to mammals, and even then are absent in a number of species. The distributions of these glands vary between species, and do not always correspond with the same regions as in humans. Furthermore, in many non-human mammals, a portion of the stomach anterior to the cardiac ...
You can kind of see in the photo a hank of yarn sticking out. I got some Malabrigo Sock from Sandra Singh because it was on sale. Its lovely and smooshy! It was my first time ordering yarn online from anywhere. I ordered two skeins of Malabrigo in Eggplant for me and a friend wanted a skein of yarn too (I cant remember what it was called because I already gave it to him). The shipping was great ($6, and there were 3 skeins of yarn, the total cost came to around $53 including shipping and everything). I really wish I could buy locally but to get Malabrigo here its close to $25 a skein, but I paid ~$15 each from Sandra Singh. The order shipped really fast too. I dont remember exactly how long it took but it was definitely less than two weeks. Im definitely going to buy from there again, but hopefully I can resist building my stash for a bit (being a poor student and all... youd think my two jobs would give me enough money for yarn but noooo ...
This summer I visited a spinning mill called Solkusten (sunshine coast). I bought one skein of gray wool from the farms own sheep and a pattern for a knitted cap, knitted in the round. I am pleased by the fact that I only bought one skein, that I now have used that skein and produced something useful. I use this every day right now, because its still freezing cold in Sweden. It will be a while until the snow piles melts and the icy patches, in some places very thick, disappears. I long for that day right now, Im so through with winter. But until then, I really like how my knitted cap turned out, with the ombre colour and the soft fleece. ...
This is a very very soft, but sturdy merino lace yarn, perfect for our many shawls patterns.. Whisper lace was available in 3 different put-ups for your knitting pleasure: 1700 yards, 800 yards or 400 yards, but is now only available in 850 yd. skeins.. As these yarns are individually dyed, color lots can differ from skein to skein.. Handwash in tepid water.. ...
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Your body is a big place, with lots of nooks and crannies in which to hide. Where in that skein of nerves and blood vessels and muscle fibers does the ...
Recent advances in invertebrate immunology have led to a paradigm shift in our understanding of the ways in which animals respond to immunological challenges. Previously, it was assumed that invertebrate immune response proteins were germ-line encoded and were selected over evolutionary time scales for broad recognition of conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). This was originally based on the assumption that immune diversification only occurred in jawed vertebrates through somatic recombination of the immunoglobulin (Ig) gene family that employed recombination activating gene (RAG)-mediated rearrangements of gene segments. However, recent studies on invertebrates, jawless vertebrates and higher plants have suggested that diversification of immunological responses may occur in all organisms through a variety of mechanisms. Lampreys and hagfish monoallelically express somatically diversified variable lymphocyte receptors (VLRs) that contain different numbers and sequences of ...
The skull also encloses the brain, always comprising five parts referred to as the rhombencephalon, metencephalon, mesencephalon, diencephalon, and telencephalon. The metencephalon is developed into a cerebellum in the Gnathostomata and some fossil jawless vertebrates. The nerve fibres are primitively non-myelinated and become myelinated only in the gnathostomes. The brain is continued posteriorly by the spinal cord, which is ribbon-shaped but becomes thicker in the gnathostomes. As in cephalochordates, the dorsal (sensory) and ventral (motor) spinal nerves are initially separate, but unite in the gnathostomes. In all craniates, the olfactory (I), optic (II), trigeminal (V), facial (VII), acoustic (VIII), glossopharyngeal (IX) and vagus (X) cranial nerves are present. Additional cranial nerves, the oculomotor (III), trochlear (IV) and abducent (VI) nerves occur only in the Vertebrata. Some consider that the latter have been secondarily lost in hagfishes.. The olfactory organ opens into a median ...
Although lymphocyte-like cells secreting somatically-recombining receptors have been identified in the jawless fishes (hagfish and lamprey), the cartilaginous fishes (sharks, skates, rays and chimaera) are the most phylogenetically distant group relative to mammals in which bona fide immunoglobulins (Igs) have been found. Studies of the antibodies and humoral immune responses of cartilaginous fishes and other cold-blooded vertebrates (bony fishes, amphibians and reptiles) are not only revealing information about the emergence and roles of the different Ig heavy and light chain isotypes, but also the evolution of specialised adaptive features such as isotype switching, somatic hypermutation and affinity maturation. It is becoming increasingly apparent that while the adaptive immune response in these vertebrate lineages arose a long time ago, it is most definitely not primitive and has evolved to become complex and sophisticated. This review will summarise what is currently known about the
Madelinetosh Prairie Short Skeins Yarn - Graphite - Reviews. Madelinetosh Prairie Short Skeins Yarn - Graphite is available now at Jimmy Beans Wool with Free U.S. Flat Rate shipping for orders over $75, $4 U.S. Flat Rate shipping on all other orders!
Madelinetosh Prairie Short Skeins Yarn - Graphite - Reviews. Madelinetosh Prairie Short Skeins Yarn - Graphite is available now at Jimmy Beans Wool with Free U.S. Flat Rate shipping for orders over $75, $4 U.S. Flat Rate shipping on all other orders!
In the most primitive living vertebrates, the hagfishes and lampreys, the cerebrum is a relatively simple structure receiving nerve impulses from the olfactory bulb. In cartilaginous and lobe-finned fishes, and also in amphibians, a more complex structure is present, with the cerebrum being divided into three distinct regions. The lowermost (or ventral) region forms the basal nuclei, and contains fibres connecting the rest of the cerebrum to the thalamus. Above this, and forming the lateral part of the cerebrum, is the paleopallium, while the uppermost (or dorsal) part is referred to as the archipallium. The cerebrum remains largely devoted to olfactory sensation in these animals, despite its much wider range of functions in amniotes.[2]. In ray-finned fishes, the structure is somewhat different. The inner surfaces of the lateral and ventral regions of the cerebrum bulge up into the ventricles; these include both the basal nuclei and the various parts of the pallium, and may be complex in ...
o Vertebrata Lamarck, 1801 (vertebrates; selk rankaiset) ,?- †Myllokunmingia fengjiaoa Shu, Zhang & Han, 1999 [=? Haikouichthys ercaicunensis sensu Zhang & Hou, 2004] ,?- †Haikouichthys ercaicunensis Luo, Hu & Shu, 1999 sensu Shu et al., 2003 ,--o Cyclostomata Dum ril, 1806 ("round mouths"; ympyr suiset) , ,?- †Conodonta Eichenberg, 1930 sensu Sweet & Donoghue, 2001 [Conodontia, Euconodonta, Conodontophorida] (conodonts; konodontit) , `--+--o Hyperotreti , , `-- Myxini (hagfishes; limaajat, limanahkiaiset) , `-- Hyperoartii Müller, 1844 [Hyperoartia] (lampreys; nahkiaiskalat) `--o "Gnathostomatomorpha" [paraphyletic Osteodermata] ,-- †Pteraspidomorphi Goodrich, 1909 [Diplorhina] ("kaksisieraimiset") `--+-- †Anaspida Traquair, 1899 `--+?= †Thelodonti Jaekel, 1911 [Thelodontomorphi Jaekel, 1911] [paraphyletic??] ,?- †Furcacaudiformes Wilson & Caldwell, 1998 ("fork-tailed thelodonts") `--+-- †Galeaspida Liu, 1965 [non Tarlo, 1967] `--+--o †Pituriaspida , ,-- †Pituriaspis doylei ...
Andrew David Thaler • evolution, History of Science, Natural Science, Ocean of Pseudoscience Week, Science • Horseshoe Crabs, Coelacanths, Seven-gilled sharks, hagfish. Throughout the oceans there are creatures whose primitive bodies hearken back to earlier days in our evolutionary history. They possess basal characteristics that are more akin to those of the ancestors of our contemporary phyla. Because we can look into these organisms and learn something about our own deep past, we […]. ...
But, in any case, its clear to me that you lack the knowledge in comparative anatomy to understand any evolutionary description here that I could give. For example, if I mention something that youve not heard of (e.g., haemal arches in larval hagfish), you make the immediate assumption that I must be mistaken because you know nothing about this ---- rather than realise that youre talking to somebody who keeps up with the current scientific literature, and who is an expert in vertebrate comparative anatomy. Youre simply not equipped for a debate about this topic, as all you know about (or, at least, can copy and paste about) is the human condition ...
Meet the Ophryotrocha craigsmithi, a newly discovered species of bristleworm that eats only dead whale bones. But theres a plus side to eating a carcass of an animal that large: a single whale can provide food for 20 years, to be eaten by generations of worms!Once flesh-eaters like hagfish and sharks have picked clean a whales skeleton, the 0.8-inch-long (2-centimeter-long) worms go to work, said zoologist Helena Wiklund, a member of the University of Gothenburg team behind the study.Generations of wor...
The Fair Isle Box of Itty-Bitties captured my heart. If youve ever done Fair Isle knitting you know that you use about a yard of each color and it makes no financial sense to buy 10 different skeins of yarn and use a quarter of each to make a hat. This beautiful box of teensy skeins of sport weight yarn in 8 colors will turn into a beautiful Fair Isle hat in your talented hands. Three different colorways give lots of options.. More options await you in the Wonderland Yarns "Mad Hatter" kits. Included in each kit is a large skein (344 yards) and 5 smaller skeins (86 yards each) for a total of 774 yards of lovely sport weight yarn. Thats plenty to make the "Which Way" shawl that is free with the purchase of one of the 6 color options.. Artyarns has also conspired to seduce fiberlovers with Gradient Kits. These are colors in the same family that range from light to dark, perfect for shawls and scarves in ombre or gradient designs. WEBS carries several different color palettes including 3 that are ...
Handcraft equipment Store with Wool yarn skeins Instagram Story 1080x1920px graphics template. Edit online and download for free.
Because I know that there are sometimes unexpected surprises with Noro, Ive begun winding my Kureyon skeins into center pull balls before I begin a project. In this case, its kind of critical that one uses a ball winder (rather than winding it by hand) so you can see the progression of colors. This is also a great way to find out if there are any knots in the skein. Dont be afraid to cut out undesirable colors! Im happy to report that out of 12 skeins, only two had knots. I was able to spit-splice one and the other I had just enough yarn before the knot to make the next color change.. ...
Anyway, my method was the following: I measured 50 grams turmeric powder, dissolved them in warm water and I added 2 spoons of salt (no iodine type). I then added 100 gram wool that I already left to sit in water for around 2 hours. I put the pot on the fire, slowly raised the temperature to around 70- 80 Celsius degrees and left to simmer for around 40 minutes. I left the dye bath to cool with the wool still in. When it was cool, I removed the wool and added the next skein, this time 100 grams of wool pre-treated with alum. I repeated the procedure as before. When the dye bath was cool I removed the second skein and saw that there was still lots of color. I thought I might as well see how much more wool can I dye with the exhaust bath so I added another 200 grams wool and repeated as before ...
Anyway, my method was the following: I measured 50 grams turmeric powder, dissolved them in warm water and I added 2 spoons of salt (no iodine type). I then added 100 gram wool that I already left to sit in water for around 2 hours. I put the pot on the fire, slowly raised the temperature to around 70- 80 Celsius degrees and left to simmer for around 40 minutes. I left the dye bath to cool with the wool still in. When it was cool, I removed the wool and added the next skein, this time 100 grams of wool pre-treated with alum. I repeated the procedure as before. When the dye bath was cool I removed the second skein and saw that there was still lots of color. I thought I might as well see how much more wool can I dye with the exhaust bath so I added another 200 grams wool and repeated as before ...
August 2007, I went to my family reunion at Rainbow Beach Resort. I had these horrible stomach pains and this hard lump in my abdomen. I asked my sister-in-law what she thought the lump was, and she said, "its poop." I started thinking about my body, and what used to be normal compared to what was normal for that last year. I looked up bowel blockage online, and realized what I was doing to my body. I thought about all of the comments my family and friends had been making, wondering if I had cancer or some other illness. I was so ashamed for lying to them, to Jero, to myself for so long. All of the nights Jero spent at the ER with me, when it was all my fault. But I was scared. I was scared to stop getting those positive comments from my acquaintances. I was scared the Tribe would never see ME if I stopped. I was scared Id get "fat" again ...