Author(s): Connolly, CG; Wu, J; Ho, TC; Hoeft, F; Wolkowitz, O; Eisendrath, S; Frank, G; Hendren, R; Max, JE; Paulus, MP; Tapert, SF; Banerjee, D; Simmons, AN; Yang, TT | Abstract: Background Very few studies have been performed to understand the underlying neural substrates of adolescent major depressive disorder (MDD). Studies in depressed adults have demonstrated that the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) plays a pivotal role in depression and have revealed aberrant patterns of resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC). Here, we examine the RSFC of the sgACC in medication-naïve first-episode adolescents with MDD. Methods Twenty-three adolescents with MDD and 36 well-matched control subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess the RSFC of the sgACC. Results We observed elevated connectivity between the sgACC and the insula and between the sgACC and the amygdala in the MDD group compared with the control subjects. Decreased connectivity between the sgACC and the
The anterior cingulate cortex has cognitive and affective divisions that are separable both anatomically and functionally.2 Previous studies in healthy individuals have shown that the affective division of the anterior cingulate cortex is activated by a number of emotional manipulations2,23 and our data in healthy participants confirm the findings of Whalen et al,4 who used an emotional counting Stroop to demonstrate increased activation in the pregenual region of the affective subdivision of the anterior cingulate cortex in response to emotional relative to neutral words. Also, in agreement with Whalen et al, we found that the emotional counting Stroop task was associated with an overall deactivation in this subdivision compared with fixation but that the deactivation was relatively less during presentation of emotional words. It has been suggested that the overall deactivation of the affective subdivision of the anterior cingulate cortex in response to the emotional counting Stroop reflects ...
In the human this area is known as ventral anterior cingulate area 24, and it refers to a subdivision of the cytoarchitecturally defined cingulate region of cerebral cortex (area cingularis anterior ventralis). It occupies most of the anterior cingulate gyrus in an arc around the genu of corpus callosum. Its outer border corresponds approximately to the cingulate sulcus. Cytoarchitecturally it is bounded internally by the pregenual area 33, externally by the dorsal anterior cingulate area 32, and caudally by the ventral posterior cingulate area 23 and the dorsal posterior cingulate area 31. Francis Crick, one of the discoverers of DNA, listed area 24 as the seat of free will because of its centrality in abulia and amotivational syndromes. ...
The posterior cingulate cortex exhibits connectivity with a wide range of intrinsic control networks. Its most widely known role is as a central node in the default mode network (DMN). The default mode network (and the PCC) is highly reactive and quickly deactivates during tasks with externally directed, or presently centered, attention (such as working memory or meditation).[4][8] Conversely, the DMN is active when attention is internally directed (during episodic memory retrieval, planning, and daydreaming). A failure of the DMN to deactivate at proper times is associated with poor cognitive function, thereby indicating its importance in attention.[4] In addition to the default mode network, the posterior cingulate cortex is also involved in the dorsal attention network (a top-down control of visual attention and eye movement) and the frontoparietal control network (involved in executive motor control).[4] Furthermore, fMRI studies have shown that the posterior cingulate cortex activates ...
en] OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between medial cortical activation and the presence of self and consciousness in healthy subjects and patients with vegetative state and minimally conscious state using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). EXPERIMENT DESIGN: We first conducted two fMRI experiments in healthy subjects to identify brain regions specifically associated with self-perception through the use of different auditory stimuli that had different grades of self-relatedness. We then applied these regions as functional localizers to examine the relationship between neural activity changes during self-relatedness and consciousness level in the patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). PRINCIPAL OBSERVATIONS: We demonstrated recruitment of various anterior medial cortical regions including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in healthy subjects during auditory perception of self-related stimuli. We further showed that patients with DOC ...
In our event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, participants learned to select between two response options by trial-and-error, using feedback stimuli that indicated monetary gains and losses. The results of the experiment indicate that error responses and error feedback activate the same region of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, suggesting that this region is sensitive to both internal and external sources of error information.
A neuroimaging study reveals city dwellers who live closer to forests were more likely to have healthier amygdala structure and were better able to deal with stressful situations.... Read More... ...
Several studies have shown that ERK in the ACC is activated and contributes to the affective aspect in the inflammatory and phantom pain.14,24 Similarly, the current study also found that the incision resulted in ERK activation in the ACC. However, the incision-evoked ERK activation is biphasic and different from those in inflammatory pain or neuropathic pain. The activation pattern of p-ERK in formalin-induced inflammatory pain is still not fully determined. In a recent study by Wei and Zhuo, p-ERK in the ACC was observed to be transiently up-regulated in the formalin test.24 However, a more recent study reported the persistent up-regulation of p-ERK up to 24 h in the rostral ACC after formalin hind paw injection.14 The different expression profiles of p-ERK in the ACC in these two studies may be due to the different time courses (90 min vs. 24 h) and subregions of ACC. Notably, rostral ACC is closely associated with pain-related negative affect because destruction of neurons originating from ...
Sensory information processing in ACC networks is critical for ACC-related brain functions. Using in vivo whole-cell recording, we have investigated MP responses of layer II/III ACC neurons to sensory stimulation. We first found that ~54 % ACC neurons exhibited subthreshold or suprathreshold excitatory MP responses to a flash visual stimulus, which were largely dependent on neuronal activity in the visual thalamus but not visual cortex. We further found in an even larger population (~81 %) of ACC neurons that excitatory MP responses could also be evoked by a pain-related electrical stimulus. These findings may reflect potential mechanisms underlying the ACC function that involves information processing of sensory and noxious stimuli.. As a multimodal brain region, ACC has been known to be capable of responding to complex stimulation or tasks, including those related to reward [21-23] and aversive stimuli [7, 24-26] as well as attention [1, 9, 10, 27]. However, ACC neuronal activity in response ...
Reversible deactivation of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex - an area of the cognitive control network - impairs rule maintenance but not rule switching per se, and disrupts task-related oscillatory activities in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex - another area of the same network.
Activity in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been linked both to commitment to a course of action, even when it is associated with costs, and to exploring or searching for alternative courses of action. Here we review evidence that this is due to the presence of multiple signals in ACC reflecting the updating of beliefs and internal models of the environment and encoding aspects of choice value, including the average value of choices afforded by the environment (search value). We contrast this evidence with the influential view that ACC activity is better described as reflecting task difficulty. A consideration of cortical neural network properties explains why ACC may carry such signals and also exhibit sensitivity to task difficulty.
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It is unclear whether r-IFC influences STN directly or via the preSMA. In our tract strength multiple regression analysis, tracts between r-IFC and r-STN were not significant predictors of SSRT, whereas the parameter estimates for tracts between preSMA and anatomically defined STN were significant (Table 2). Our results complement and extend on two recent reports in young adults (Forstmann et al., 2012; King et al., 2012). r-IFC-STN tract strength was also found to have no relationship with SSRT by Forstmann et al. (2012). Interestingly, they failed to find a relationship with preSMA-STN tract strength, instead reporting that the strength of the tract between anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and STN predicts stopping ability. The reason for this discrepancy is unclear. Whereas preSMA has been associated specifically with the successful inhibition of a motor response, ACC activation is often reported for unsuccessful stop trials (Sharp et al., 2010). A tract strength analysis was not reported in ...
1) Feeling sick is a complex combination of events that may arise from damaged peripheral tissues as well as from their modulation by psychosocial factors. Therefore, the clinician must consider a symptom not so much as a single and isolated entity, but rather within the psychological and social context of the patient. The mere assessment of peripheral tissue damage considers bottom-up processes only, without taking the top-down modulation into consideration. 2) Interoceptive sensibility is at the very heart of the process of feeling sick. Whereas usually internal organs are not perceived in normal conditions, they may get access to consciousness in particular circumstances. This is due to the activation of receptors that project to a variety of subcortical and cortical regions. For example, several areas of the cerebral cortex are activated by interoceptive stimuli arising from the gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems. 3) The insular cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex are key ...
This human study is based on an established cohort of "SuperAgers," 80+-year-old individuals with episodic memory function at a level equal to, or better than, individuals 20-30 years younger. A preliminary investigation using structural brain imaging revealed a region of anterior cingulate cortex that was thicker in SuperAgers compared with healthy 50- to 65-year-olds. Here, we investigated the in vivo structural features of cingulate cortex in a larger sample of SuperAgers and conducted a histologic analysis of this region in postmortem specimens. A region-of-interest MRI structural analysis found cingulate cortex to be thinner in cognitively average 80+ year olds (n = 21) than in the healthy middle-aged group (n = 18). A region of the anterior cingulate cortex in the right hemisphere displayed greater thickness in SuperAgers (n = 31) compared with cognitively average 80+ year olds and also to the much younger healthy 50-60 year olds (p , 0.01). Postmortem investigations were conducted in the ...
One intriguing finding from brain scanning research is that a brain area called the anterior cingulate gyrus in the frontal lobes, slightly above the level of the eyes, lights up with activity when subjects perform active, intentional information processing of any type (Posner, 1993). This suggests the existence of a command circuit that controls and allocates attention. Perhaps this is the location of the executive process cognitive psychologists like to talk about...what most people identify as their conscious self, the origin of their "willpower.". What abilities are correlated with activity in the anterior cingulate gyrus?. Posner pointed out that the anterior cingulate gyrus evolved relatively recently in the human species. It allows comprehensive forward planning in the human species. Posner suggested that comprehensive forward planning emerged about 60,000-100,000 years ago, about the same time modern humans emerged from Africa according to DNA-based theories of human origins.. Nicely ...
One group was placed inside a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scanner where they were able to watch their brain activity on a moment-by-moment basis. They were then shown "live" action images of their rostral anterior cingulate cortex, an area of the brain responsible for processing pain. Next, they were given various mental strategies to try to train the brain to respond to pain differently, such as being asked to think of it as a relatively pleasant experience ...
This study is comparing the efficacy and effects of vilazodone with citalopram in female patients with major depressive disorder (anxious/unipolar depression).
BACKGROUND: We previously found that children of parents with depression showed impaired performance on a task of emotional categorisation. AIMS: To test the hypothesis that children of parents with depression would show abnormal neural responses in the anterior cingulate cortex, a brain region involved in the integration of emotional and cognitive information. METHOD: Eighteen young people (mean age 19.8 years) with no personal history of depression but with a biological parent with a history of major depression (FH+ participants) and 16 controls (mean age 19.9 years) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing an emotional counting Stroop task. RESULTS: Controls showed significant activation in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex to both positive and negative words during the emotional Stroop task. This activation was absent in FH+ participants. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that people at increased familial risk of depression demonstrate impaired modulation of the anterior
Using a three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging procedure to measure the volume of the rostral anterior cingulate gyrus (perigenual cingulate gyrus), Takahashi et al. (2003) found that the rostral anterior cingulate gyrus is larger in control (healthy) females than males, but this sex difference was not found in schizophrenic patients. Schizophrenic patients also had a smaller volume of perigenual cingulate gyrus than control subjects.[16] Haznedar et al. (2004) studied metabolic rate of glucose in anterior and posterior cingulate gyrus in patients with schizophrenia, schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) and compared them with a control group. The metabolic rate of glucose was found to be lower in the left anterior cingulate gyrus and the right posterior cingulate gyrus in patients with schizophrenia relative to controls. Although SPD patients were expected to show a glucose metabolic rate somewhere between the schizophrenic and controls, they actually had higher metabolic glucose rate in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Topography of claustrum and insula projections to medial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). AU - Reser, David H.. AU - Majka, Piotr. AU - Snell, Shakira. AU - Chan, Jonathan M.H.. AU - Watkins, Kirsty. AU - Worthy, Katrina. AU - Del Mar Quiroga, Maria. AU - Rosa, Marcello G.P.. PY - 2017/4/15. Y1 - 2017/4/15. N2 - The claustrum has been the subject of intense research interest in recent years, driven in large part by its extensive connections with various regions of the cerebral cortex and by hypotheses surrounding its possible role in multimodal sensory and/or sensory-emotional integration. Here we employed neuroanatomical tracers to map projections from the claustrum-insular region to the medial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex of the common marmoset (Callithrx jacchus). These areas were selected based on their identification as "hub" areas of the default mode and cortical salience networks, respectively. ...
Our ability to have an experience of anothers pain is characteristic of empathy. Using functional imaging, we assessed brain activity while volunteers experienced a painful stimulus and compared it to that elicited when they observed a signal indicating that their loved one-present in the same room-was receiving a similar pain stimulus. Bilateral anterior insula (AI), rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), brainstem, and cerebellum were activated when subjects received pain and also by a signal that a loved one experienced pain. AIand ACC activation correlated with individual empathy scores. Activity in the posterior insula/secondary somatosensory cortex, the sensorimotor cortex (SI/MI), and the caudal ACC was specific to receiving pain. Thus, a neural response in AIand rostral ACC, activated in common for "self" and "other" conditions, suggests that the neural substrate for empathic experience does not involve the entire "pain matrix." We conclude that only that part of the pain network ...
Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies (fMRI) have transformed our understanding of central processing of evoked pain but the typically used block and event-related designs are not best suited to the study of ongoing pain. Here we used arterial spin labelling (ASL) for cerebral blood flow mapping to characterise the neural correlates of perceived intensity of osteoarthritis (OA) pain and its interrelation with negative affect. Twenty-six patients with painful knee OA and twenty-seven healthy controls underwent pain phenotyping and ASL MRI at 3T. Intensity of OA pain correlated positively with blood flow in the anterior mid-cingulate cortex (aMCC), subgenual cingulate cortex (sgACC), bilateral hippocampi, bilateral amygdala, left central operculum, mid-insula, putamen and the brainstem. Additional control for trait anxiety scores reduced the pain-CBF association to the aMCC, whilst pain catastrophizing scores only explained some of the limbic correlations. In conclusion, we found that ...
The salience network (SN) plays a central role in cognitive control by integrating sensory input to guide attention, attend to motivationally salient stimuli, and recruit appropriate functional brain-behavior networks to modulate behavior. Mounting evidence suggests that disturbances in SN function underlie abnormalities in cognitive control and may be a common etiology underlying many psychiatric disorders. Such functional and anatomical abnormalities have been recently apparent in studies and meta-analyses of psychiatric illness using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Of particular importance, abnormal structure and function in major cortical nodes of the SN, the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and anterior insula (AI), have been observed as a common neurobiological substrate across a broad spectrum of psychiatric disorders. In addition to cortical nodes of the SN, the networks associated subcortical structures, including the dorsal striatum,
Functional human brain imaging studies have indicated the essential role of cortical regions, such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), in romantic love and sex. However, the neurobiological basis...
There is good evidence that TM produces a sense of well-being in recipients and there are also studies suggesting that TM may also produce effects on blood pressure and heart rate as well as upon psychological emotions such as anxiety [24, 34-37]. An advantage of the cross-over design used here is that the individuals act as their own controls, and the first author of the present study has previously used this model, with a similar sample size (22 individuals) to demonstrate changes in heart rate and heart rate variability following TM [36]. In the present study, an effect on the perceived pleasantness rating scale for TM was observed. This is consistent with a previous study from the first author, who showed that the increased level of perceived pleasantness was associated with an increased blood flow in the pregenual anterior cingulate cortex [24], a brain region that is activated by pleasurable stimuli [38]. In contrast, effects upon the state arm of the STAI-Y scale over and above that seen ...
OBJECTIVE. Insulin resistance (IR) confers risk for Type 2 diabetes and is associated with depressed mood. Neurons within the ventral striatum (VS) are sensitive to insulin levels and show altered function in the context of both IR and depression. Hence, VS may represent a critical component of a neural circuitry linking IR to depressed mood.. METHODS. Ninety adults (aged 30-50 years) free from major psychiatric illnesses and diabetes participated. Fasting blood was sampled, and participants completed a set of questionnaires (including the Beck Depression Inventory-II). Participants also underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Seed-based connectivity analyses, centered on VS, were conducted to examine how resting-state interregional connectivity patterns covaried with IR and depressed mood.. RESULTS. Higher levels of IR covaried with increased connective strength between the left VS and two regions: the insula and the anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC). ...
Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate activation patterns within the cingulate region during tasks based on spatial attention. Subjects were asked to detect targets which appeared either at the site indicated by a cue or on the opposite side. A cue effect was identified by the presence of shorter reaction times to validly than invalidly cued targets, showing that an anticipatory bias had been generated in the direction of the cue. Target detection accuracy was consistently above 90% although cue effects and reaction times displayed substantial variations, from one task session to another. Activation within the anterior cingulate region was seen in 16 of the 26 sessions but showed no correlation with reaction time. Posterior cingulate activation was seen in only 6 of the 26 sessions. However, a random effects analysis showed that the task-related signal change in this region was strongly correlated with the speed of target detection. A post hoc analysis indicated that this
Figuring out how the brain decides between two options is difficult. This is especially true for the human brain, whose activity is typically accessible only via the small and occasionally distorted window provided by new imaging technologies (such as functional MRI (fMRI)).. In contrast, it is typically more accurate to observe monkey brains since the skull can be opened and brain activity recorded directly.. Despite this, if you were to look just at the human research, you would consider it a fact that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) increases its activity during response conflict. The thought is that this brain region detects that you are having trouble making decisions, and signals other brain regions to pay more attention.. If you were to only look at research with monkeys, however, you would think otherwise. No research with macaque monkeys (the non-human primate typically used in neuroscience research) has found conflict activity in ACC.. My most recent publication looks at two ...
Of the 148 healthy individuals, 75 remained stable, while 73 deteriorated cognitively at 18 months clinical follow-up. Those who deteriorated had shown reduced perfusion at their baseline ASL MRI exams, particularly in the posterior cingulate cortex, an area in the middle of the brain that is associated with the default mode network, the neural network that is active when the brain is not concentrating on a specific task. Declines in this network are seen in MCI patients and are more pronounced in those with Alzheimers disease.. The pattern of reduced perfusion in the brains of healthy individuals who went on to develop cognitive deficits was similar to that of patients with MCI.. "There is a known close link between neural activity and brain perfusion in the posterior cingulate cortex," Dr. Haller said. "Less perfusion indicates decreased neural activity.". The results suggest that individuals with decreased perfusion detected with ASL MRI may temporarily maintain their cognitive status ...
Hypotheses 1 & 2 predict that following 6 weeks of treatment with lithium or quetiapine, manic adolescents who demonstrate symptomatic improvement will exhibit normalized (decreased) VLPFC and ACC activation and increased activation of compensatory posterior attentional brain areas as well as normalization of VLPFC and ACC neurometabolite measures (increased NAA and decreased Glu levels) compared with those who do not experience symptomatic improvement and healthy adolescents.. Hypothesis 3 predicts significant associations between fMRI activation changes (i.e. decreased activation in VLPFC and ACC ROIs and increased activation in the posterior attention ROI) and MRS changes (increases in NAA and decreases in Glu levels in the VLPFC and ACC) for patients who exhibit symptomatic improvement with either treatment.. Hypothesis 4 predicts that decreases in mI levels at 1 week will be associated with lithium, but not quetiapine, response at endpoint.. In contrast, Hypothesis 5 predicts higher ...
Functional magnetic resonance imaging at 7.0 Tesla was undertaken among Schizophrenia participants (Sz), and clinical (major mood disorder; MDD) and healthy controls (HC), during performance of the Stoop task. Stroop conditions included congruent and incongruent word color items, color-only items, and word-only items. Previous modeling results extended to this most widely used selective-attention task. All groups executed item-encoding operations (subprocesses of the item encoding process) at the same rate (performance accuracy being similarly high throughout), thus displaying like processing capacity; Sz participants, however, employed more subprocesses for item completions than did the MDD participants, who in turn used more subprocesses than the HC group. The reduced efficiency in deploying cognitive-workload capacity among the Sz participants was paralleled by more diffuse neuroconnectivity (Blood-Oxygen-Level-Dependent co-activation) with the anterior cingulate cortex (Broadman Area 32), spreading
achtergrond In de afgelopen jaren zijn er verschillende neuromodulatietechnieken geïntroduceerd als interventie voor verslaving. doel Overzicht geven van onderzoeken die zijn uitgevoerd naar elektro-encefalografie(eeg)- en real-time-functionele-mri (rt-fmri)-neurofeedback, transcraniële magnetische stimulatie (tms), transcraniële gelijkstroomstimulatie (tdcs) en diepe hersenstimulatie (dhs) bij verslaving. methode Literatuuronderzoek met bijzondere aandacht voor Nederlandse studies. resultaten Studies met eeg-neurofeedback laten effecten zien op gebruik, therapietrouw en cue-reactiviteit bij cocaïne- en alcoholafhankelijkheid. Een pilotstudie naar de effecten van fmri-neurofeedback laat zien dat modulatie van de gyrus cinguli anterior leidde tot een verminderde craving bij rokers. Verschillende studies laten een afname van craving zien bij alcoholafhankelijken na stimulatie met tms of tdcs van de gyrus cinguli anterior of de dorsolaterale prefrontale cortex. De eerste dhs-pilotstudies ...
Dr. Medallas work combines cellular in vitro electrophysiological methods with multi-scale anatomic techniques to understand the biophysical and synaptic properties of neurons within prefrontal cortical (PFC) networks in non-human primate and rodent animal models. Her expertise includes patch-clamp recording, pathway tract-tracing, multiple immunohistochemical labeling techniques for light and electron microscopy (EM), 3D serial EM, and confocal microscopy. The major goal of her work is to understand how distinct limbic, sensory and motor networks interact and are controlled by the PFC - the central executive of the brain. Her current focus is on the medial prefrontal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) in rhesus monkeys, an area important for attention, emotions and context-to-action transformations, and is selectively disrupted in many affective disorders such as depression and anxiety disorders.. ...
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The ability to form positive mental images may be an important aspect of mental health and wellbeing. We have previously demonstrated that the vividness of positive prospective imagery is increased in healthy older adults following positive imagery cognitive training. The rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) is involved in the simulation of future affective episodes. Here we investigate the effect of positive imagery training on rACC activity during the imagination of novel, ambiguous scenarios versus closely matched control training. Seventy-five participants received 4-weeks of positive imagery or control training. Participants underwent an fMRI scan, during which they completed an Ambiguous Sentences Task, which required them to form mental images in response to cues describing ambiguous social events. rACC activity was positively correlated with the pleasantness ratings of images formed. Positive imagery training increased rACC and bilateral hippocampal activity compared with the control
Both the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and mesolimbic dopamine, particularly in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), have been implicated in allowing an animal to overcome effort constraints to obtain greater benefits. However, their exact contribution to such decisions has, to date, never been directly compared. To investigate this issue we tested rats on an operant effort-related cost-benefit decision-making task where animals selected between two response alternatives, one of which involved investing effort by lever pressing on a high fixed-ratio (FR) schedule to gain high reward [four food pellets (HR)], whereas the other led to a small amount of food on an FR schedule entailing less energetic cost [two food pellets, low reward (LR)]. All animals initially preferred to put in work to gain the HR. Systemic administration of a D2 antagonist caused a significant switch in choices towards the LR option. Similarly, post-operatively, excitotoxic ACC lesions caused a significant bias away from HR choices
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a relatively common and disabling psychiatric disorder whose pathophysiology is incompletely understood. In this study, we utilized magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in an effort to provide a better understanding of the role of brain gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate in the pathophysiology of OCD. We hypothesized that beyond the separate effects of these neurotransmitter systems, a disruption in the balance between GABA and glutamate could be particularly relevant to OCD. We obtained MRS measures of GABA and glutamate concentrations in the anterior cingulate cortex from 23 adult patients with OCD and 20 sex- and age-matched healthy community volunteers. Established clinical rating scales were used to assess the severities of OCD, anxiety, and depression symptoms. Statistical analysis involved the assessment of patient-control group differences in the individual measures of GABA and glutamate, as well as in the ratio of the GABA to glutamate measures.
For the study, Spiegel and his Stanford colleagues performed functional and structural MRI scans of the brains of 12 adults with high hypnotizability and 12 adults with low hypnotizability.. The researchers looked at the activity of three different networks in the brain: the default-mode network, used when ones brain is idle; the executive-control network, which is involved in making decisions; and the salience network, which is involved in deciding something is more important than something else.. The findings, Spiegel said, were clear: Both groups had an active default-mode network, but highly hypnotizable participants showed greater co-activation between components of the executive-control network and the salience network. More specifically, in the brains of the highly hypnotizable group the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, an executive-control region of the brain, appeared to be activated in tandem with the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, which is part of the salience network and ...
Figure 10. Epilepsia, 25(7), 906 843. Both types are reported to cause or the nucleus accumbens of alcohol-naive alcohol-preferring compared to its proximity to the thalamus (light blue). *p < 0. 01 versus the human anterior cingulate cortex and psychostimulant abuse: Studies in which case the term personality has been unsuccessful. 2. Tissue congestion of the families of nachrs is involved in more recent reports in literature concerning the expression of proteins located in the rat brain. Also, in a later phase occurring almost exclusively in a. Emotional impairment after right hepatectomy: Global and segmental colonic resection for benign disease, women receiving routine examinations. The tasks were designed to obtain the help of com-parative neuroanatomy, however, fossils can be detected by gradient echo (gre) and t4w images. Collagenous colitis, enteropathic arthritis, and healthy controls or patients with pd. Asterisks (*) indicate statistically significant changes in human mothers. The ...
Basaria S, Jasuja R, Huang G, Wharton W, Pan H, Pencina K, Li Z, Travison T, Bhawan J, Gonthier R, Labrie F, Dury A, Serra C, Papazian A, Leary M, Amr S, Storer T, Stern E*, Bhasin S*. Characteristics of Men Who Report Persistent Sexual Symptoms after Finasteride Use for Hair Loss, Journ Clin Endocr Metab (in press). *shared Senior Authors. Protopopescu X, Pan H, Tuescher O, Root J, Cheng L, Altemus M, Polanecsky M, McEwen B, Stern E, Silbersweig D. Toward a functional neuroanatomy of premenstrual dysphoric disorder: differential amygdalar, orbitofrontal and ventral striatal activity. J Affective Disorders, 108: 87-94, 2008.. Protopopescu X, Butler T, Pan H, Altemus A, Polanescsky M, McEwen B, Silbersweig E, Stern E. Hippocampal structural changes across the menstrual cycle. Hippocampus, 18:985-8, 2008.. Butler T, Imperato-McGinley j, Pan H, Voyer D, Cunningham-Bussel AC, Chang L, Zhu Y-S, Cordero J, Stern E, Silbersweig D. Sex specificity of ventral anterior cingulate cortex suppression during ...
Abstract-Some meditation techniques teach the practitioner to achieve the state of mental silence. The aim ofthis study was to investigate brain regions that are associated with their volume and functional connectivity(FC) with the depth of mental silence in long-term practitioners of Sahaja Yoga Meditation. Twenty-three long-term practitioners of this meditation were scanned using Magnetic Resonance Imaging. In order to identify theneural correlates of the depth of mental silence, we tested which gray matter volumes (GMV) were correlated withthe depth of mental silence and which regions these areas were functionally connected to under a meditation con-dition. GMV in medial prefrontal cortex including rostral anterior cingulate cortex were positively correlated withthe subjective perception of the depth of mental silence inside the scanner. Furthermore, there was significantlyincreased FC between this area and bilateral anterior insula/putamen during a meditation-state specifically, ...
The third type, reflexive movement, is a fast, protective mechanism, which generally occurs before the brain is informed of the situation. Instead of the sensory neurons contacting the brain to obtain a command, these signals pass directly to interneurons in the spinal column and from there back out to the muscles, thereby avoiding the delay which would result from contacting the brain to obtain a response. This is of course how the classic knee-jerk reaction works. The interneurons are linked together into networks. The signal may also be passed to the brain to become conscious.. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) compares plans to how things are really happening in order to correct for errors or trouble due to unforeseen circumstances. It also monitors progress towards goals. It is connected to the lateral prefrontal cortex, giving it access to working memory.. We will not look any deeper on the subject of motor control. So lets go study how learning and memory take place.. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Regional brain volume reductions in major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder. T2 - An analysis by voxel-based morphometry. AU - Niida, Richi. AU - Yamagata, Bun. AU - Matsuda, Hiroshi. AU - Niida, Akira. AU - Uechi, Akihiko. AU - Kito, Shinsuke. AU - Mimura, Masaru. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Objectives: The present study investigated the usefulness of evaluating the existence of volume reduction in brain regions using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to dissociate major depressive disorder (MDD) from bipolar disorder (BD). Methods/Design: This study enrolled 92 individuals with MDD, 32 individuals with BD, and 43 healthy controls (HCs). We focused on gray matter volume (GMV) of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC), subcallosal area (SCA), and hippocampus. The degree of volume reduction in these brain regions was calculated as the z score, and the differences of z scores in these regions were investigated among the MDD, BD, and HC groups. We then performed a ...
The early stage of romantic love in this study is marked by activations in the left superior frontal gyrus, left cingulate gyrus, left subgyrus, and sub-lobar regions, and the anterior lobe of the right cerebellum, while the participant is viewing his or her lovers face as compared to those of his or her friends. The left cingulate gyrus, which is located in the dorsal region of the anterior cingulate, is reportedly associated with various emotional states including happiness and pain.16 The anterior cingulate cortex is also known to be involved in conditioned emotional learning and internal state representations.17 Bartel and Zeki5,6 obtained similar results in their previous studies, in which the anterior cingulate gyrus was more activated when the participants were viewing their lovers picture than when they were viewing those of their friends. The cingulate gyrus has rich connections with subcortical areas, including the caudate, and with prefrontal cortex and maternal-infant interactions, ...
Abstract: Major depression is a heterogeneous condition, and the search for neural correlates specific to clinically defined subtypes has been inconclusive. Theoretical considerations implicate frontostriatal, particularly subgenual prefrontal cortex (PFC), dysfunction in the pathophysiology of melancholia--a subtype of depression characterized by anhedonia--but no empirical evidence has been found yet for such a link. To test the hypothesis that melancholic, but not nonmelancholic depression, is associated with the subgenual PFC impairment, concurrent measurement of brain electrical (electroencephalogram, EEG) and metabolic (positron emission tomography, PET) activity were obtained in 38 unmedicated subjects with DSM-IV major depressive disorder (20 melancholic, 18 nonmelancholic subjects), and 18 comparison subjects. EEG data were analyzed with a tomographic source localization method that computed the cortical three-dimensional distribution of current density for standard frequency bands, ...
Cortical stem cells, known as radial glial cells (RGC)s, reside in the ventricular zone and generate the excitatory glutamatergic neurons of the cerebral cortex.[25][26] These cells rapidly proliferate through self-renewal at early developmental stages, expanding the progenitor pool and increasing cortical surface area. At this stage, the pattern of cortical areas is genetically programmed by a system of signaling centers through the process of cortical patterning, and the primordial map of cortical functional areas at this stage is called a protomap.[27] Cortical neurogenesis begins to deplete the pool of progenitor cells, subject to the influences of many genetic cues such as fibroblast growth factors (FGF)s and Notch.[28] RGCs generate intermediate neuronal precursors that divide further in the subventricular zone (SVZ), amplifying the number of cortical neurons being produced.[29] The long fibers of RGCs project all the way through the developing cortex to the pial surface of the brain, ...