Affinity Labels; Animals; Binding, Competitive; Cell Membrane; Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel; GTP-Binding Proteins; Guanosine 5-O-(3-Thiotriphosphate); Guanylyl Imidodiphosphate; Kinetics; Molecular Weight; Rats; Rats, Inbred Strains; Receptors, Neurokinin-1; Receptors, Neurotransmitter; purification; Submandibular Gland. ...
Ahnert-Hilger, G.; Wegenhorst, U.; Stecher, B.; Spicher, K.; Rosenthal, W.; Gratzl, Manfred (1992): Exocytosis from permeabilized bovine adrenal chromaffin cells is differently modulated by guanosine 5-[gamma-thio]triphosphate and guanosine 5-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate. Evidence for the involvement of various guanine nucleotide-binding proteins. In: Biochemical Journal, Vol. 284: pp. 321-326 [PDF, 3MB] ...
Hoyer, D.; Engel, G. (1983). „Binding of 125I-cyanopindolol to beta-1-adrenoceptors in a high and low affinity state". Journal of Receptor Research. 3 (1-2): 45-59 ...
Permeabilization of amoebae of Dictyostelium discoideum with saponin was found not to uncouple the chemotactic cell surface cyclic AMP receptors from inositol trisphosphate (IP3) formation, and stimulation of permeabilized amoebae with 50 nM-cyclic AMP produced peaks of IP3 at 5, 15 and 30 s in a manner comparable to that seen previously in non-permeabilized cells. The possible involvement of a GTP-binding protein (G-protein) in this IP3 signal transduction pathway was investigated by studying the effects on such permeabilized amoebae of added GTP and non-hydrolysable GTP analogues. While GDP produced only very minor effects, stimulation of the amoebae (in the absence of added cyclic AMP) with GTP or the non-hydrolysable GTP analogues GTP gamma S (guanosine 5′-O-(3-thio-triphosphate] and Gpp(NH)p (5′-guanylylimidodiphosphate) induced transient formation of IP3 in an oscillatory manner, with peaks similar in magnitude and timing to those elicited by cyclic AMP. A dose-response curve for GTP ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Multiple forms of brain adenylate cyclase. T2 - Stimulation by Mn2+. AU - Malamuda, Daniel F.. AU - DiRusso, Concetta C.. AU - Aprille, June R.. PY - 1977/11/23. Y1 - 1977/11/23. N2 - Mn2+-stimulated adenylate cyclase (ATP pyrophosphate-lyase-(cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1) activity in detergent solubilized preparations from mouse brain. While NaF-stimulated activity was decreased by both solubilization and storage at 0-4°C, the ability of the enzyme to be stimulated by Mn2+ was maintained for up to one week. By including Mn+ in the assay of adenylate cyclase in gel fractions after isoelectric focusing, two distinct peaks of enzyme activity (pI1 = 5.8, pI2 = 6.4) were detected, suggesting the existence of more than one type of catalytic subunit in mouse brain cell membranes.. AB - Mn2+-stimulated adenylate cyclase (ATP pyrophosphate-lyase-(cyclizing), EC 4.6.1.1) activity in detergent solubilized preparations from mouse brain. While NaF-stimulated activity was decreased by both ...
Expression of the pyrC gene, which encodes the pyrimidine biosynthetic enzyme dihydroorotase, is negatively regulated by pyrimidine availability in Escherichia coli. To define the mechanism of this regulation, an essential regulatory region between the pyrC promoter and the initial codons of the pyrC structural gene was identified. Mutational analysis of this regulatory region showed that the formation of a hairpin at the 5 end of the pyrC transcript, which overlaps the pyrC ribosome binding site, is required for repression of pyrC expression. Formation of the hairpin appears to be controlled by nucleotide-sensitive selection of the site of pyrC transcriptional initiation. When the CTP level is high, the major pyrC transcript is initiated with this nucleotide at a position seven bases downstream of the pyrC -10 region. This transcript is capable of forming a stable hairpin at its 5 end. When the CTP level is low and the GTP level is high, conditions found in cells limited for pyrimidines, the ...
Guanine nucleotides regulate binding of opiate agonists to membrane receptors by increasing agonist dissociation rates. The current study demonstrates that the ability of guanosine 5-triphosphate (GTP) and its nonhydrolyzable analogue guanylyl-5-imidodiphosphate (Gpp(NH)p) to inhibit opiate agonist binding to rat brain membranes can be altered by two methods: by preincubating with EDTA, and by preincubating at pH 4.5. EDTA pretreatment increased the potency of Gpp(NH)p in inhibiting [3H]morphine binding by 4-fold, with little apparent change in the maximum effect of Gpp(NH)p or on levels of binding itself. The effect of EDTA pretreatment was blocked by prior incubation of membranes with excess calcium or manganese but could not be reversed by any divalent cation if the EDTA incubation was longer than 10 min. EDTA pretreatment increased the effects of GTP on dissociation rates of agonists. Pretreatment of membranes at pH 4.5 increased the ability of guanine nucleotides to regulate agonist binding by
Separation of the catalytic and stimulatory regulatory subunits of rat brain adenylate cyclase.: The catalytic subunit of rat brain adenylate cyclase was separa
LS from ITU-T SG 16: Reply LS to ETSI TC STQ and 3GPP SA, TC TISPAN, ITU-T SG 12 on procedures for the identification and selection of common modes of de-jitter buffers and echo ...
Thanks to thousands of color ringed birds, and more than thirty thousand resightings of these birds, the ecologists were able to calculate the annual, as well as the seasonal survival of the three species between 2006 and 2013. The production of eggs and fledglings was no issue in that period. Also, the survival in their Australian wintering grounds was normal. However, from 2010 onwards, the survival showed a sharp decline in a period that included the spring and fall migration, as well as the breeding period. Because the snow melted relatively early on the breeding grounds in those years, there was no reason to believe that the survival was any different during that period. That left only one culprit: the conditions during migration along the Yellow Sea, where significant loss of habitat was going on because of land claim by the Chinese government ...
Guanyl nucleotide binding-proteins, or G-proteins, are ubiquitous molecules that are involved in cellular signal transduction mechanisms. Because a role has been established for cAMP in meiosis and G-proteins participate in cAMP-generating systems by stimulating or inhibiting adenylate cyclase, the present study was conducted to examine the possible involvement of G-proteins in the resumption of meiotic maturation. Cumulus cell-free mouse oocytes (denuded oocytes) were maintained in meiotic arrest in a transient and dose-dependent manner when microinjected with the nonhydrolyzable GTP analog, GTP gamma S. This effect was specific for GTP gamma S, because GppNHp, GTP, and ATP gamma S were without effect. Three compounds, known to interact with G-proteins, were tested for their ability to modulate meiotic maturation: pertussis toxin, cholera toxin, and aluminum fluoride (AlF4-). Pertussis toxin had little effect on maturation in either cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes or denuded oocytes when
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors were solubilized from rat cerebellum membranes in an active, stable, and guanine nucleotide-sensitive form by using digitonin. Nearly 90% of membrane CGRP receptors and 50% of membrane protein were solubilized by digitonin treatment of cerebellum membranes. Binding of 125ICGRP to soluble receptors was specific, saturable, of high affinity, and reversible. Scatchard analysis of the saturation binding data revealed a homogeneous population of binding sites with a Kd of 178 +/- 42 pM and a Bmax of 201 +/- 17 fmol/mg of protein. Binding of 125ICGRP to soluble receptors was inhibited nearly 60% by guanosine-5-O-(3-thio)triphosphate (GTP gamma S) (100 microM), suggesting coupling of receptors with guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) to form high affinity binding sites. Antiserum against the amino-terminal region of Gs alpha immunoprecipitated a significant portion of soluble CGRP receptors, indicating association of receptors with Gs ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modulation of forskolin binding to rat brain membranes. AU - Seamon, K. B.. AU - Vaillancourt, Richard. AU - Daly, J. W.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. N2 - High affinity binding sites for [3H]forskolin have been identified in rat brain membranes. These sites have a K(d) of 15 nM and a B(max) of about 200 fmol/mg protein. The binding of [3H]forskolin to those high affinity sites in rat brain membranes is increased about two-fold by addition of MgCl2 or MnCl2. Smaller increases are observed in the presence of calcium, sodium, or potassium. The binding of [3H]forskolin is also increased in the presence of NaF or GppNHp, agents that are known to activate adenylate cyclase through the stimulatory guanine nucleotide regulatory protein (N(s)). The increase in [3H]forskolin binding in the presence of NaF or GppNHp is due to an increase in the number of binding sites with no change in the apparent K(d) for the binding sites. The NaF- and GppNHp-stimulated binding requires the presence of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Modulation of forskolin binding to rat brain membranes. AU - Seamon, K. B.. AU - Vaillancourt, R.. AU - Daly, J. W.. PY - 1985/12/1. Y1 - 1985/12/1. N2 - High affinity binding sites for [3H]forskolin have been identified in rat brain membranes. These sites have a K(d) of 15 nM and a B(max) of about 200 fmol/mg protein. The binding of [3H]forskolin to those high affinity sites in rat brain membranes is increased about two-fold by addition of MgCl2 or MnCl2. Smaller increases are observed in the presence of calcium, sodium, or potassium. The binding of [3H]forskolin is also increased in the presence of NaF or GppNHp, agents that are known to activate adenylate cyclase through the stimulatory guanine nucleotide regulatory protein (N(s)). The increase in [3H]forskolin binding in the presence of NaF or GppNHp is due to an increase in the number of binding sites with no change in the apparent K(d) for the binding sites. The NaF- and GppNHp-stimulated binding requires the presence of ...
The time course of cAMP production by S49 cell membranes in the presence of forskolin and a nonhydrolyzable GTP analog can yield information about the regulation of adenylate cyclase by both the inhibitory and stimulatory GTP-binding proteins (Gi and Gs). The time courses are complex and interpretation in terms of the activities of G1 and Gs requires a quantitative hypothesis. We present a general quantitative hypothesis that defines adenylate cyclase as existing in a distribution of two states, active and inactive. Gi and Gs, in their active states, alter the equilibrium of this distribution. Two distinct models are derived based on this hypothesis to accommodate two different proposed mechanisms for the action of Gi to inhibit adenylate cyclase: 1) a direct interaction between Gi and the catalytic subunit of adenylate cyclase and 2) a direct interaction between Gi and Gs. Perturbations of the regulation of adenylate cyclase by pertussis toxin and phorbol ester are simulated and interpreted ...
d)The SS counts the number of blocks transmitted with current coding scheme and the number of these blocks not acknowledged based on the content of the Ack/Nack Description information element (see 3GPP TS 04.60, subclause 12.3) in the Packet ...
Royal DSM, a global science-based company active in health, nutrition and materials, is adding hydrolysis-resistant grades of polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) to its Arnite® family of thermoplastic polyesters. - tworzywa.org
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3,5-cyclic-AMP phosphodiesterases, 3,5-cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterases, animals, cyclic GMP, cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, type 1, cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, type 5, enzyme activation, GTP-binding proteins, guanylyl imidodiphosphate, isoenzymes, lung, muscle, smooth, phosphoric diester hydrolases, phosphorylation, protein kinases, signal transduction, Pharmacy and materia medica, ...
Glucocorticoids are known to increase the cyclic AMP response to parathyroid hormone (PTH) in cultured bone organs or bone cells. Using the osteoblast-like cell line ROS 17/2.8, which possesses receptors for both PTH and glucocorticoids, we investigated which component of the complex hormone receptor-guanine nucleotide regulatory unit-adenylate cyclase was affected by dexamethasone treatment. In response to PTH, isoproterenol or forskolin, a compound that is supposed to act directly on the catalytic unit, cyclic AMP production by intact cells and adenylate cyclase activity in purified plasma membrane were markedly increased by dexamethasone. Whereas NaF, guanosine 5′-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate and Mn/ stimulated adenylate cyclase activity were similarly enhanced in membranes isolated from glucocorticoid-treated cells, the activity of the stimulatory guanine nucleotide regulatory unit, as assessed by reconstitution into membranes from the CYC- clone, which is genetically devoid of this ...
This study was undertaken to determine whether receptor and non-receptor components of the adenylate cyclase (AC) cascade were altered in brown adipose tissue (BAT) of 14-day-old pre-obese (fa/fa) rats, before endocrine status is strongly modified by fa gene expression. Activity of the AC catalytic subunit did not differ between the two genotypes. In fa/fa rats compared with control Fa/fa rats, there was a 50% decrease in the activity of alpha Gs (stimulated by NaF or guanosine 5′-[gamma-thio]triphosphate) but no change in protein content (Western blotting). alpha Gi function, assessed by the inhibitory action of low concentrations of guanosine 5′-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate upon 10(-4) M forskolin-stimulated AC activity, was equally low in both genotypes. Analysis of dose-response curves for different beta-agonists revealed that (i) both the basal and the maximally stimulated activity of AC were 2-fold lower in fa/fa rats than in Fa/fa rats; (ii) BRL37344 and CGP12177 (beta 3 agonists) ...
A factor [the feedback regulator (FR)] formed by adipocytes after the stimulation of a cAMP raising hormone has been found to be a potent inhibitor of membrane-bound adenylate cyclase [EC 4.6.1.1.; ATP pyrophosphate-lyase (cyclizing)]. In a standard assay system using rat adipocyte plasma membrane as the source of adenylate cyclase, the FR inhibited adenylate cyclase by lowering the Vmax without affecting the apparent Km for ATP (0.3-0.6 mM). The apparent Ka for epinephrine (5-6 muM) was also not affected by FR. The inhibitory action of FR was partially countered by Mg2+ ions. An increase in phosphorylation of plasma membrane was observed when FR was present in the incubation system. The concentration required for a 50% inhibition was four times higher when adenosine 5-(beta,gamma-imino) triphosphate [AMP-P(NH)P] replaced ATP as the substrate for adenylate cyclase, implying that adenylate cyclase was inactivated by phosphorylation caused by FR. Increase in FR inhibition obtained by adding low ...
The phorbol ester 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) was shown to mimic luteinizing hormone (LH; lutropin) in causing desensitization of LH-mediated cyclic AMP production in tumour Leydig cells. However, there were differences between LH- and TPA-induced desensitization: (1) TPA induced a more rapid effect than LH; (2) adenosine did not inhibit TPA-induced desensitization, whereas it completely inhibited the LH-induced desensitization; (3) adenylate cyclase activity in plasma membranes from TPA-desensitized cells was not decreased, whereas similar preparations from LH-desensitized cells lost their response to LH and to LH plus guanosine 5′-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate; TPA-, but not LH-, treated cells had a decreased capacity to respond to cholera toxin and forskolin. These results indicate that LH and phorbol esters induce desensitization of adenylate cyclase in rat tumour Leydig cells by different mechanisms. ...
RecName: Full=Adenylate cyclase type 3; EC=4.6.1.1;AltName: Full=Adenylate cyclase type III; Short=AC-III;AltName: Full=ATP pyrophosphate-lyase 3;AltName: Full=Adenylyl cyclase 3; Short=AC3;AltName: Full=Adenylate cyclase, olfactive type ...
Adenylate cyclase type 5 (EC 4.6.1.1) (ATP pyrophosphate-lyase 5) (Adenylate cyclase type V) (Adenylyl cyclase 5) (Ca(2+)-inhibitable adenylyl cyclase ...
RecName: Full=Adenylate cyclase type 6; EC=4.6.1.1;AltName: Full=Adenylate cyclase type VI;AltName: Full=ATP pyrophosphate-lyase 6;AltName: Full=Adenylyl cyclase 6;AltName: Full=Ca(2+)-inhibitable adenylyl ...
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Human CRISPR lentiviral genome-wide inhibition pooled libraries (Dolcetto) from the Broad GPP group of David Root and John Doench.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Differential unmasking of adenylate cyclase activity (AC) in cardiac membrane sheets and vesicles. AU - Fleming, J. W.. AU - Besch, H. R.. AU - Jones, L. R.. AU - Watanabe, A. M.. PY - 1978/1/1. Y1 - 1978/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0017841068&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0017841068&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0017841068. VL - 20. JO - Pharmacologist. JF - Pharmacologist. SN - 0031-7004. IS - 3. ER - ...
Decreased activity of the guanine nucleotide regulatory protein (N) of the adenylate cyclase system is present in cell membranes of some patients with pseudohypoparathyrodism (PHP-Ia) whereas others have normal activity ...
Decreased activity of the guanine nucleotide regulatory protein (N) of the adenylate cyclase system is present in cell membranes of some patients with pseudohypoparathyrodism (PHP-Ia) whereas others have normal activity ...
Adenylate Cyclase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the formation of CYCLIC AMP and pyrophosphate from ATP. EC 4.6.1.1.
Stimulates the exchange of guanyl nucleotides associated with the GTPase ARF. Under normal cellular physiological conditions, the concentration of GTP is higher than that of GDP, favoring the replacement of GDP by GTP in association with the GTPase ...
1 3 5-Triisopropylbenzene price cas 717-74-8 Product Description: 1 3 5-Triisopropylbenzene, Colorless transparent liquid, It is the melting point of - 14 ° C - 11 The boiling point is 232-236 ° C (lit.) Density is 0.845 g/mL at 25 ° C (lit.) The refractive index is n20/D 1.488(lit.). Flash point is 188 ° F Storage ...
PPG Industries (NYSE: PPG) outlines its progress toward the companys 2020 sustainability goals in its 2013 Corporate Sustainability Report, which is
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We have recently described the affinity chromatography purification of the turkey erythrocyte beta-adrenergic receptor. The minute amounts obtained initially precluded extensive biochemical characterization. To improve the yield of the receptor, the erythrocyte membranes have been prepared by a new method. This procedure resulted in a 10-fold higher receptor density in comparison with the membrane preparation used previously. The new membranes also contained a catecholamine-sensitive guanine triphosphatase and an adenylate cyclase sensitive to Gpp(NH)p and l-epinephrine. Solubilization by a double digitonin extraction resulted in a preparation containing 4-6 pmoles of 3H-dihydroalprenolol binding sites per mg of membrane protein. A single step of affinity chromatography on alprenolol-sepharose of the soluble digitonin extract resulted in an additional 1,000-fold purification of the receptor. The overall purification factor was 20,000 relative to the binding activity of the crude membrane ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Demonstration and Characterization of Opiate Inhibition of the Striatal Adenylate Cyclase. AU - Law, P. Y.. AU - Wu, J.. AU - Koehler, J. E.. AU - Loh, H. H.. PY - 1981/5. Y1 - 1981/5. N2 - Abstract: The conditions in which Leu5‐enkephalin inhibition of striatal adenylate cyclase was observed were defined. It was determined that enkephalin inhibition was dependent on GTP. The apparent Km for GTP in opiate inhibition was determined to be 0.5 and 2 μM when 0.1 mM‐ and 0.5 mM‐ATP were used as substrate. ITP, but not CTP or UTP, could substitute for GTP in the reaction. Though the addition of monovalent cations-Na+,K+, Li+, Cs+, and choline+-stimulated striatal adenylate cyclase activity, enkephalin inhibition of striatal adenylate cyclase did not require Na+ when theophylline was used as the phosphodiesterase inhibitor. Under optimal conditions, i.e., 20 μM‐GTP and 100 mM‐Na+, Leu5‐enkephalin inhibited the striatal adenylate cyclase activity by 23-27%. When the ...
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PPG (NYSE:PPG) today issued the following statement in connection with its proposal to AkzoNobel (AKZA.AS:AKZOY) to form a combined company: PPG is disappointed that AkzoNobel has once again refused to enter into a negotiation regarding a combination of the two companies, ignoring the best interests of its stakeholders, including long-term shareholders who overwhelmingly support engagement. PPG can confirm that its Chairman and CEO Michael McGarry and its lead independent director Hugh Grant met May 6 with Antony Burgmans, Chairman of the Supervisory Board of AkzoNobel, and Ton Büchner, CEO and Chairman of the Board of Management of AkzoNobel. Following no feedback since PPG provided its revised proposal April 24, PPG made yet another attempt to discuss the proposal on May 4, which Akzo responded to on May 5 at 15.30 CET, stipulating to meet PPG only in Rotterdam the followi
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An important eukaryotic signal transduction pathway involves the regulation of the effector enzyme adenylate cyclase, which produces the second messenger, cAMP. Previous genetic analyses demonstrated that glucose repression of transcription of the Schizosaccharomyces pombe fbp1 gene requires the function of adenylate cyclase, encoded by the git2 gene. As mutations in git2 and in six additional git genes are suppressed by exogenous cAMP, these upstream git genes were proposed to act to produce a glucose-induced cAMP signal. We report here that assays of cAMP levels in wild-type and various mutant S. pombe cells, before and after exposure to glucose, show that this is the case. The data suggest that the cAMP signal results from the activation of adenylate cyclase. Therefore these upstream git genes appear to encode a glucose-induced adenylate cyclase activation pathway. Assays of cAMP on a strain carrying a mutation in the git6 gene, which acts downstream of adenylate cyclase, indicate that ...
This study investigates the hypothesis that inflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1alpha IL-1beta, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF), influence cardiac function by affecting calcium homeostasis and that this effect is mediated by the beta-adrenergic-adenylate cyclase system. After 4 days in culture, neonatal rat ventricular myocytes were treated with cytokines (10 ng/ml) for short (2 h) or longer (18 h) times. Myocyte calcium, contractility, and adenylate cyclase were measured under each condition. Anticipated stepwise increases in adenylate cyclase and intracellular calcium were found in controls (non-cytokine-treated) with 10(-7) M isoproterenol, 10(-7) M isoproterenol + 0.1 mM guanosine triphosphate, and 10(-9) M forskolin. Cells in the presence of cytokine for 2 h show increased basal calcium levels but no changes in adenylate cyclase activities, and isoproterenol fails to elevate adenylate cyclase levels or affect contractile shortening. After long-term treatment with IL-1beta or TNF, but ...
The myocardial potassium uptake during intracoronary isoproterenol stimulation was characterized in 12 anesthetized pigs. The beta-receptor subtype specificity and the effect of adenylate cyclase activation were determined. Potassium concentrations were continuously recorded by PVC-valinomycin minielectrodes in the left atrial cavity and in coronary sinus blood diverted through a shunt to the right atrium. The difference in potassium concentration between the left atrial cavity and coronary sinus, and the accumulated myocardial potassium uptake were calculated after computerized data sampling. By intracoronary drug infusion, changes in heart rate and systemic effects were minimized. Isoproterenol (0.6-0.8 microgram/min), a nonspecific beta-agonist, reduced coronary sinus potassium concentration transiently to a nadir of 0.28 (0.15-0.43) mM (median and 95% confidence interval) below control values (n = 12). The potassium uptake, which amounted to 140 (79-202) mumol/100 g tissue, corresponding to ...
Abstract: : Purpose: To investigate the mechanism for light regulation of phosducin (pdc) phosphorylation. Methods: Intact bovine retinal rod outer segments (IROS) were incubated under varied illumination conditions, with or without regulators for protein kinases and/or protein phosphatases. The steady state levels and the signal patterns of total pdc and the Serine73-phosphorylated pdc (pdc-pS73) after 1 and 2D gel electrophoreses were monitored by Western blot analyses with anti-pdc-pan and anti-pdc-pS73, respectively. Results: The immunochemical signals for total pdc and pdc-pS73 in dark-adapted IROS were detected as multiple bands/spots. Semi-quantitative Western blot showed that pdc-pS73 constitutes 15-35% of total pdc. At 0ºC, the pdc-pS73 spots were localized mostly to 33-34 kDa and pH 4.7-4.9, a region for mono- and diphosphorylated pdc. At 30ºC these spots showed time-dependent migration to 34.5-35 kDa and pH 4.5-4.7, a region for pdc with 2 to 4 phosphates. Exposure to light at 30ºC ...
GNG12 overexpression lysate, 0.1 mg. Transient overexpression lysate of guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 12 (GNG12)