The Rac proteins, Rac1 and Rac2, are essential components of the NADPH oxidase system of phagocytes and regulate the actin assembly associated with membrane ruffling. These functions are controlled by the GTP-bound form of Rac. The biochemical interaction between Rac and its only known GDP-dissociation stimulator (termed smgGDS) was characterized. SmgGDS was able to stimulate the incorporation of guanosine 5′-[gamma-thio]-triphosphate GTP[gamma S] into the RhoA, Rac2, Rac1, Rap1A and CDC42Hs GTP-binding proteins, but the activity was greatest toward RhoA and Rac2. Isoprenoid modification of these proteins was not absolutely required for the interaction with smgGDS. Interestingly, the activity of smgGDS toward Rac1 could not be observed in a [3H]GDP/GTP exchange assay under conditions where it stimulated incorporation of GTP[gamma S] into Rac1. We determined that smgGDS prevented the loss of Rac1 activity during the [3H]GDP/GTP exchange assay by demonstrating the ability of smgGDS to inhibit ...
ARHGAP25 GTPase activator for the Rho-type GTPases by converting them to an inactive GDP-bound state. 4 isoforms of the human protein are produced by alternative splicing. Note: This description may include information from UniProtKB ...
泰国公共债务管理办事处负责人朱拉乐女士日前表示,今年7月分公债总额为5兆2111亿9401万铢,在国内生产总值(GDP)占比约44.11%,与今年6月相比,公债规模减少127亿1700万铢。
首尔-近几年来,中国和印度都成长为全球经济超级大国,其中中国更为领先。但是,随着中国增长减速以及结构调整需要日益尖锐,印度新总理莫迪的经济改革措施能让印度赶超中国吗?. 自20世纪80年代以来,中国经历了前所未有的经济增长,其动力来自充足的低成本劳动力、高储蓄和投资率、重大市场改革、外向型政策以及审慎的宏观管理。中国领导人现在希望通过发展技术更先进的产业让中国迈入高收入国家行列。. 印度经济表现没有中国那么引人注目。印度经济增长自20世纪90年代初开始大幅加速,动力来自贸易自由化和其他经济改革。接着,印度的改革出现了停滞,财政和经常项目赤字飙升,年GDP增长回落到4-5%。 ...
Downloadable! We analyse the Granger causal relationships between foreign direct investment (FDI) and GDP in a sample of 31 developing countries covering 31 years. Using estimators for heterogeneous panel data we find bi-directional causality between the FDI-to-GDP ratio and the level of GDP. FDI has a lasting impact on GDP, while GDP has no long-run impact on the FDI-to-GDP ratio. In that sense FDI causes growth. Furthermore, in a model for GDP and FDI as a fraction of gross capital formation (GCF) we also find long-run effects from FDI to GDP. This finding may be interpreted as evidence in favour of the hypotheses that FDI has an impact on GDP via knowledge transfers and adoption of new technology. Copyright United Nations University 2006.

(This abstract was borrowed from another version of this item.)

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Background GTPase activator for the Rho-type GTPases by converting them to an inactive GDP-bound state. Has strong activity toward RHOA, and weaker activity toward RAC1 and CDC42. May act as a specific effector of RAP2A to...
THE GDP DEFLATOR IN NIGERIA WAS REPORTED AT 254.42 IN 2009, ACCORDING TO THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (IMF). IN 2015, NIGERIA'S GDP DEFLATOR IS EXPECTED TO BE 444.22 INDEX. THE GDP DEFLATOR IS DERIVED BY DIVIDING CURRENT PRICE GDP BY CONSTANT PRICE GDP AND IS CONSIDERED TO BE AN ALTERNATE MEASURE OF INFLATION. PLEASE NOTE: DATA ARE EXPRESSED IN THE BASE YEAR OF EACH COUNTRY'S NATIONAL ACCOUNTS. IN 2009, NIGERIA'S ECONOMY SHARE OF WORLD TOTAL GDP, ADJUSTED BY PURCHASING POWER PARITY, WAS 0.48 PERCENT. IN 2015, NIGERIA'S SHARE OF WORLD TOTAL GDP IS FORECASTED TO BE 0.53 PERCENT. THIS PAGE INCLUDES A CHART, HISTORICAL DATA AND FORECAST FOR NIGERIA'S GDP DEFLATOR.
1A4R: Nucleotide binding to the G12V-mutant of Cdc42 investigated by X-ray diffraction and fluorescence spectroscopy: two different nucleotide states in one crystal.
1A4R: Nucleotide binding to the G12V-mutant of Cdc42 investigated by X-ray diffraction and fluorescence spectroscopy: two different nucleotide states in one crystal.
IN all eukaryotic cells, Rab family small GTPases (Rabs) form the largest branch of the small GTPase superfamily (Takai et al. 2001). In mammals, Rabs define a family of almost 70 proteins that play critical roles in the trafficking of vesicles that mediate transport between compartments of the exocytic and endocytic pathways (Pfeffer 2001, 2005). Like Ras, Rabs act as molecular switches, cycling between an active GTP-bound state and an inactive GDP-bound state. Thus, transport vesicles bear Rabs with bound GTP; concomitant with or after membrane fusion, Rabs are converted into their GDP-bound states. In this manner, target membranes acquire vesicle-derived Rabs in their GDP-bound conformations (Pfeffer et al. 1995).. We have previously identified two Rab family small GTPases, Ypt3/Its5 and Ryh1/Its6, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe through a genetic screen using the immunosuppressant drug FK506, a specific inhibitor of calcineurin (Cheng et al. 2002; He et al. 2006). In the same ...
Rab proteins are present in the cytosol in the GDP-bound conformation complexed to Rab-GDI (Rab GDP dissociation inhibitor). The complex Rab-GDI represents a pool of active Rab that delivers Rabs to the membranes of specific compartments. Upon membrane association, GDI is released via the interaction with a GDI displacement factor (Dirac-Svejstrup et al., 1997) and the Rab protein interacts with the exchange factor followed by GDP/GTP exchange. Therefore, prenylated Rab proteins first associate with membranes in their GDP-bound conformation and subsequently they bind GTP (Soldati et al., 1994; Ullrich et al., 1994). In this report we present evidence that upon induction of autophagy, either by amino acid starvation or by treatment with rapamycin, the dominant negative mutant of Rab7 was targeted to the membranes of autophagic MDC-labeled vacuoles. Our results strongly suggest that this protein was not present on autophagic vacuoles as a result of fusion events since neither vinblastine nor ...
Ras-homologous GTPases constitute a large family of signal transducers that alternate between an activated, GTP-binding state and an inactivated, GDP-binding state. These proteins represent cellular switches that are operated by GTP-exchange factors and factors that stimulate their intrinsic GTPase activity. All GTPases of the Ras superfamily have in common the presence of six conserved motifs involved in GTP/GDP binding, three of which are phosphate-/magnesium-binding sites (PM1-PM3) and three of which are guanine nucleotide-binding sites (G1-G3). Transcript variants encoding distinct isoforms have been identified. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Background: Ras is a nucleotide-dependent switch that converts from an inactive GDP-bound state to an active GTP-bound state when activated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors, such as SOS. Active RasGTP then binds to and activates downstream signaling effectors. Ras is the most frequently mutated oncogene and hyperactive mutant Ras constitutively signals to effectors to promote cell survival, proliferation and metastasis. Thus, Ras oncoprotein has been considered by the cancer community to be one of the most important oncology drug targets. Despite the enormous interest and extensive exploratory efforts in industry and academia, small molecules that bind to Ras in a well-defined manner and exert inhibitory effects have not been uncovered to date. We describe in this abstract the identification and characterization of small-molecule inhibitors of the Ras oncoprotein. Materials and Methods: To explore a new means of directly targeting Ras, we used a fragment-based lead discovery approach via ...
Background Regulates the GDP/GTP exchange reaction of most Rab proteins by inhibiting the dissociation of GDP from them, and the subsequent binding of GTP to them. Description GDI2 Polyclonal Antibody, Biotin Conjugated....
GDP dissociation inhibitors are proteins that regulate the GDP-GTP exchange reaction of members of the rab family, small GTP-binding proteins of the…
A structurally diverse repertoire of ligands, from photons to large peptides, activates GPCRs to elicit their physiological functions. Ligand-bound GPCRs, in turn, function as guanine nucleotide exchange factors catalyzing the exchange of GDP bound on the Gα subunit with GTP in the presence of Gβγ, causing the dissociation of the Gα subunit from the Gβγ dimer to form two functional units (Gα and Gβγ). Both Gα and Gβγ subunits signal to various cellular signaling pathways. Based on the sequence and functional homologies, G proteins are grouped into four families: Gs, Gi, Gq, and G12. As increasing numbers of effectors and interacting proteins for these G proteins have been identified, the physiological processes in which G proteins participate are multiplying.. ...
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The GDP per capita in Paraguay is $6,800 while in Estonia it is $22,400. This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year. A nations GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Banks PPP project that ...
Reactome is pathway database which provides intuitive bioinformatics tools for the visualisation, interpretation and analysis of pathway knowledge.
THE GDP BASED ON PURCHASING POWER PARITY (PPP) VALUATION OF COUNTRY GDP IN NIGER WAS REPORTED AT 10.21 BILLIONS U.S. DOLLARS IN 2009, ACCORDING TO THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (IMF). IN 2015, NIGER'S GDP BASED ON PURCHASING POWER PARITY (PPP) VALUATION OF COUNTRY GDP IS EXPECTED TO BE 15.51 BILLIONS U.S. DOLLARS. IN 2009, NIGER'S ECONOMY SHARE OF WORLD TOTAL GDP, ADJUSTED BY PURCHASING POWER PARITY, WAS 0.02 PERCENT. IN 2015, NIGER'S SHARE OF WORLD TOTAL GDP IS FORECASTED TO BE 0.02 PERCENT. THIS PAGE INCLUDES A CHART, HISTORICAL DATA AND FORECAST FOR NIGER'S GDP BASED ON PURCHASING POWER PARITY (PPP) VALUATION OF COUNTRY GDP.
This gene encodes the catalytic subunit of a Rab GTPase activating protein. The encoded protein forms a heterodimer with a non-catalytic subunit to specifically regulate the activity of members of the Rab3 subfamily of small G proteins. This protein mediates the hydrolysis of GTP bound Rab3 to the GDP bound form. Mutations in this gene are associated with Warburg micro syndrome. Alternate splicing results in multiple transcript variants ...
3- General Methodology. The updating of the national accounts series is done side by side with improvement of the estimation techniques and source data, while maintaining the consistency of the whole series. Updates of the data series used in previous estimation rounds, as well as new data series, are used in each estimation round.. The estimates are expressed in current and constant prices for all years. Estimates at constant prices refer to the values for the current year valued at base year prices. Currently the base year for prices is 2000. The general methodology adopted for the estimation of GDP at constant 2000 prices is the deflation technique. Current price estimates are deflated using price indices.. GDP is estimated using two approaches. One is GDP by economic activity (production measure) and the other is GDP by expenditure share. GDP levels estimated using the expenditure approach are used to crosscheck the GDP levels estimated using the production approach (GDP economic activity). ...
Sir Tim Garden) My first rejoinder would be that it does not come from defence. We are now spending 2.5 per cent of GDP on defence, when in the whole of the Cold War we thought we could afford five per cent, or thereabouts. We are scratching round with half of the proportion of GDP and doing more, a lot more. I would not accept the question to start with but if forced, as inevitably happens in these things and I worry about the word rebalancing which was in Mr Hoons statement, adding a chapter and rebalancing, which to me is MoD speak for zero sum games in terms of resources. The SDR really needs money put into it just to keep it at the level we were all talking about in 1998. There are big problems. What are you going to do? I can give you the list of the equipment programme, you know it as well as me. You can then argue whether particular aspects of it are so important that you are prepared to put at risk, if that is the only place you can get the money from, your ability to respond to real ...
Inhibition of full-length human KRas4B (amino acids 1 to 188)-SOS interaction assessed as inhibition of SOS-mediated nucleotide release ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Signal transduction by guanine nucleotide binding proteins. AU - Spiegel, Allen M.. PY - 1987/1. Y1 - 1987/1. N2 - High affinity binding of guanine nucleotides and the ability to hydrolyze bound GTP to GDP are characteristics of an extended family of intracellular proteins. Subsets of this family include cytosolic initiation and elongation factors involved in protein synthesis, and cytoskeletal proteins such as tubulin (Hughes S.M. (1981) FEBS Lett. 164, 1-8). A distinct subset of guanine nucleotide binding proteins is membrane-associated; members of this subset include the ras gene products (Ellis R.W. et al. (1981) Nature 292, 506-511) and the heterotrimeric G-proteins (also termed N-proteins) (Gilman A.G. (1984) Cell 36, 577-579). Substantial evidence indicates that G-proteins act as signal transducers by coupling receptors (R) to effectors (E). A similar function has been suggested but not proven for the ras gene products. Known G-proteins include Gs and Gi, the G-proteins ...
Small GTP-binding proteins of the Rho family orchestrate the cytoskeleton remodeling events required for cell division. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) promote cycling of Rho GTPases between the active GTP-bound and the inactive GDP-bound conformations. We report that ARHGAP19, a previously uncharacterized protein, is predominantly expressed in hematopoietic cells and is a critical actor of T lymphocyte division. Overexpression of ARHGAP19 in lymphocytes delays cell elongation and cytokinesis. Conversely, silencing of ARHGAP19 or expression of a GAP-deficient mutant induces precocious mitotic cell elongation and cleavage furrow ingression, as well as excessive blebbing. In relation with these phenotypes, we show that ARHGAP19 acts as a GAP for RhoA, and controls Citron and Myosin II recruitment to the plasma membrane of mitotic lymphocytes as well as Rock2-mediated phosphorylation of Vimentin, a critical determinant in stiffness and shape of ...
G proteins, also known as guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, are a family of proteins that act as molecular switches inside cells, and are involved in transmitting signals from a variety of stimuli outside a cell to its interior. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze guanosine triphosphate (GTP) to guanosine diphosphate (GDP). When they are bound to GTP, they are on, and, when they are bound to GDP, they are off. G proteins belong to the larger group of enzymes called GTPases.. There are two classes of G proteins. The first function as monomeric small GTPases, while the second function as heterotrimeric G protein complexes. The latter class of complexes is made up of alpha (α), beta (β) and gamma (γ) subunits.[1] In addition, the beta and gamma subunits can form a stable dimeric complex referred to as the beta-gamma complex.. G proteins located within the cell are activated by G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that span the cell ...
Common mechanisms of secondary messenger systems. There are several different secondary messenger systems (cAMP system,phosphoinositol system, and arachidonic acid system), but they all are quite similar in overall mechanism, though the substances involved in those mechanisms and effects are different.. In all of these cases a neurotransmitter binds to a membrane-spanning receptor proteinmolecule. The binding of the neurotransmitter to the receptor changes the receptor and causes it to expose a binding site for a G-protein. The G-protein (named for the GDPand GTP molecules that binds to it) is bound to the inner membrane of the cell and consists of three subunits: alpha, beta and gamma. The G-protein is known as the "transducer.". When the G-protein binds to the receptor, it becomes able to exchange a GDP (guanosine diphosphate) molecule on its alpha subunit for a GTP (guanosine triphosphate) molecule. Once this exchange takes place, the alpha subunit of the G-protein transducer breaks free from ...
A structurally diverse repertoire of ligands, from photons to large peptides, activates G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to elicit their physiological functions. Ligand-bound GPCRs, in turn, function as guanine nucleotide exchange factors catalyzing the exchange of GDP bound on the Ga subunit with GTP in the presence of Gβγ, causing the dissociation of the Ga subunit from the Gβγ dimer to form two functional units (Ga and Gβγ). Both Ga and Gβγ subunits signal to various cellular signaling pathways. Based on the sequence and functional homologies, G proteins are grouped into four families: Gs, Gi, Gq, and G12.. ...
The GDP per capita in Bermuda is $86,000 while in Bangladesh it is $2,100. This entry shows GDP on a purchasing power parity basis divided by population as of 1 July for the same year. A nations GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) exchange rates is the sum value of all goods and services produced in the country valued at prices prevailing in the United States. This is the measure most economists prefer when looking at per-capita welfare and when comparing living conditions or use of resources across countries. The measure is difficult to compute, as a US dollar value has to be assigned to all goods and services in the country regardless of whether these goods and services have a direct equivalent in the United States (for example, the value of an ox-cart or non-US military equipment); as a result, PPP estimates for some countries are based on a small and sometimes different set of goods and services. In addition, many countries do not formally participate in the World Banks PPP project that ...
can be an opportunistic human being pathogenic fungus causing severe infections in immunocompromised individuals. corresponding transmission via the cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling cascade perform an essential part in the virulence of a variety of human being and flower pathogenic fungi, including (1, 9, 19). They enable the fungus to adapt to changing environmental conditions, 156722-18-8 e.g., after invasion of the sponsor cells, by activation of factors which protect the pathogen against defense mechanisms of the sponsor immune system. In eukaryotes, exogenous signals are sensed by defined transmembrane receptors on the NGFR surface of the cell, resulting in activation of receptor-bound heterotrimeric G proteins. In their inactive state, these G proteins consist of three subunits, designated G, G, and G. The G subunit binds GDP. After binding of a signal molecule to the receptor, GDP is definitely exchanged with GTP. Subsequently, the G protein dissociates from your receptor and the G subunit is ...
Molecular model of G protein bound to guanine triphosphate (GTP). G proteins, or guanine nucleotide binding proteins, are molecular switches involved in signal transduction. - Stock Image C025/1605
GNG12 overexpression lysate, 0.1 mg. Transient overexpression lysate of guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 12 (GNG12)
pep:known chromosome:VEGA66:3:146499807:146505572:1 gene:OTTMUSG00000029572 transcript:OTTMUST00000073335 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Gng5 description:guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 5 subunit ...
Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ78228 complete cds, highly similar to Homo sapiens guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta 5(GNB5), transcript variant 1, mRNA ...
Public social spending has increased to 22% of GDP on average across the OECD in 2012, up from 19% in 2007. Rising spending-to-GDP ratios are due to a combination of governments increasing expenditure on social supports as unemployment and income support benefits but also because of GDP stagnating or declining in many countries. ...
Real Investment for Netherlands from Statistics Netherlands for the GDP release. This page provides forecast and historical data, charts, statistics, news and updates for Netherlands Real Investment.
Data & statistics on Carbon Dioxide Emissions per Unit of GDP: CO2 Emissions per Unit of GDP in 2020, EU-25 CO2 Emissions per Unit of GDP - Scenario Comparison, Development of CO2 emissions per unit of GDP in the period 2000-2050...
India currently spends about 1% of GDP on healthcare. China spends about 3% and the US about 8.3%. That is about to change. If things go as per plan,...
* Taiwan raises GDP growth outlook to 2.58 pct from 2.11 pct* Raises GDP growth forecast to 2.29 pct for 2018* Says private consumption helpi
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have a slow GDP growth while their population growth is higher than their GDP. This in-turn provides a low per capita GDP, further depressing their living
Japans economy grew even more slowly than initially calculated in the final three months of last year and posted another record current account deficit in January, poor figures that suggest the economy could be in for a rocky period.
U.S. stock index futures rose sharply on Friday after data showed the economy grew at a faster-than-expected 5.7 percent pace in the fourth quarter, the quickest rate in more than six years.
巴黎--. 欧美支持政府进一步刺激政策的人士和财政紧缩的支持者之间的争议很像一场关于经济历史的辩论。双方都回顾了20世纪30年代的大萧条以及几百年历史的政府债务危机。这场辩论与传统的经济政策辩论几乎没有相似点。. 支持刺激政策的阵营常常指出1937年美国财政收缩所造成的危害,那是在富兰克林·罗斯福当选为美国总统并推行新政4年后进行的。根据经济学家保尔·冯·登·努尔德的计算,1937年预算中被削减的财政开支约占GDP的3%,这绝对不是个小数目。经济增长率从1936年的13%下跌至1937年的6%。GDP在1938年收缩了4.5%,而失业率从14%上升至20%左右。虽然财政政策不是造成双谷衰退的唯一原因,但不合时宜的财政收缩确实是其中一个原因。 ...
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Looking for online definition of guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 4 in the Medical Dictionary? guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 4 explanation free. What is guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 4? Meaning of guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 4 medical term. What does guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 4 mean?
Guanine nucleotide exchange factor that catalyzes guanine nucleotide exchange on RHOA and CDC42, and thereby contributes to the regulation of RHOA and CDC42 signaling pathways. Seems to lack activity with RAC1. Becomes activated and highly tumorigenic by truncation of the N-terminus.
Controls Rho proteins homeostasis. Regulates the GDP/GTP exchange reaction of the Rho proteins by inhibiting the dissociation of GDP from them, and the subsequent binding of GTP to them. Retains Rho proteins such as CDC42, RAC1 and RHOA in an inactive cytosolic pool, regulating their stability and protecting them from degradation. Actively involved in the recycling and distribution of activated Rho GTPases in the cell, mediates extraction from membranes of both inactive and activated molecules due its exceptionally high affinity for prenylated forms. Through the modulation of Rho proteins, may play a role in cell motility regulation. In glioma cells, inhibits cell migration and invasion by mediating the signals of SEMA5A and PLXNB3 that lead to inactivation of RAC1.