Bitte bestätigen Sie mit einem Klick auf OK, dass der "Gefällt mir" Button eingeblendet werden soll, und Sie damit einer Verbindung zu Facebook zustimmen. Anschließend nochmal auf den Facebook-Button drücken, um den gewünschten Inhalt zu teilen.. OkAbbrechen ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Signal transduction by guanine nucleotide binding proteins. AU - Spiegel, Allen M.. PY - 1987/1. Y1 - 1987/1. N2 - High affinity binding of guanine nucleotides and the ability to hydrolyze bound GTP to GDP are characteristics of an extended family of intracellular proteins. Subsets of this family include cytosolic initiation and elongation factors involved in protein synthesis, and cytoskeletal proteins such as tubulin (Hughes S.M. (1981) FEBS Lett. 164, 1-8). A distinct subset of guanine nucleotide binding proteins is membrane-associated; members of this subset include the ras gene products (Ellis R.W. et al. (1981) Nature 292, 506-511) and the heterotrimeric G-proteins (also termed N-proteins) (Gilman A.G. (1984) Cell 36, 577-579). Substantial evidence indicates that G-proteins act as signal transducers by coupling receptors (R) to effectors (E). A similar function has been suggested but not proven for the ras gene products. Known G-proteins include Gs and Gi, the G-proteins ...
The guanine nucleotide binding properties of rap1 protein purified from human neutrophils were examined using both the protein kinase A-phosphorylated and the non-phosphorylated forms of the protein. Binding of GTP[S] (guanosine 5′-[gamma-thio]triphosphate) or GDP was found to be slow in the presence of free Mg2+, but very rapid in the absence of Mg2+. The binding of guanine nucleotides was found to correlate with the loss of endogenous nucleotide from the rap1 protein, which was rapid in the absence of Mg2+. The relative affinities of GTP and GDP for the binding site on rap1 were modulated by the presence of Mg2+, with a preferential affinity (approx. 15-fold) for GTP observed only in the absence of this bivalent cation. The dissociation of GDP from rap1 was not affected by the G-protein beta/gamma-subunit complex. Phosphorylation of rap1 in vitro by protein kinase A did not modify any of the observed nucleotide-binding parameters. Furthermore, the ability of a cytosolic rap1 ...
Guanosine 5-diphosphate 2(3)-diphosphate. A guanine nucleotide containing four phosphate groups. Two phosphate groups are esterified to the sugar moiety in the 5 position and the other two in the 2 or 3 position. This nucleotide serves as a messenger to turn off the synthesis of ribosomal RNA when amino acids are not available for protein synthesis. Synonym: magic spot I ...
Molecular model of G protein bound to guanine triphosphate (GTP). G proteins, or guanine nucleotide binding proteins, are molecular switches involved in signal transduction. - Stock Image C025/1605
GNG12 overexpression lysate, 0.1 mg. Transient overexpression lysate of guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 12 (GNG12)
pep:known chromosome:VEGA66:3:146499807:146505572:1 gene:OTTMUSG00000029572 transcript:OTTMUST00000073335 gene_biotype:protein_coding transcript_biotype:protein_coding gene_symbol:Gng5 description:guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), gamma 5 subunit ...
Homo sapiens cDNA FLJ78228 complete cds, highly similar to Homo sapiens guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta 5(GNB5), transcript variant 1, mRNA ...
गुवानिन के रूपों के अतिसूक्ष्म मात्रा, अम्मोनियम सायनाइड (NH4CN) के पॉलीमराइज़ेशन से बनते हैं। लेवी एत. एल. द्वारा किए गए दो प्रयोगों से ज्ञात हुआ कि 10 mol•L−1 NH4CN को 80 °C पर चौबीस घंटे तक गर्म करने पर 0.0007% मिलता है, जबकि 0.1 mol•L−1 NH4CN को -20 °C पर पच्चीस वर्षों तक प्रशितन में रखने पर 0.0035% उपज मिलती है। इन परिणामों से ज्ञात होता है, कि गुवानिन प्राचीन काल में पृथ्वी पर उत्पादित हो पाई होगी। In 1984, Yuasa reported a 0.00017% yield of guanine after ...
Generated by fontinfo 2020121, fontconfig 2.13.1, libpng 1.6.37, freetype 2.10.1, harfbuzz 2.6.4 on 2020-01-21. Contact pgajdos at suse in case of any issues or proposals. ...
Looking for online definition of guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 4 in the Medical Dictionary? guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 4 explanation free. What is guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 4? Meaning of guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 4 medical term. What does guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), beta polypeptide 4 mean?
The T24N mutant does not efficiently bind guanine nucleotides and so mimics the apo-Ran transition state in the nucleotide exchange reaction. For this reason, it binds RCC1 with an affinity ∼10-fold higher than that of GDP- or GTP-bound Ran (Klebe et al., 1995). Therefore, to further confirm that the Ran(T24N)-induced FRET decrease was caused by binding of Ran to the RCC1, emission spectra were measured in the presence of Ran(Q69L), a Ran mutant deficient in nucleotide hydrolysis that binds to RCC1 weakly. In the absence of GTP and Mg2+, Ran(Q69L) behaved like Ran(T24N), decreasing the FRET efficiency of the biosensor (Fig. 3, C and D). However, in the presence of GTP and Mg2+, Ran(Q69L) did not change the FRET efficiency, even at high concentrations (Fig. 3, C and D). These results confirm that the effect of Ran(T24N) is mediated by its binding to RCC1.. Because Ran binds to one side of the RCC1 body and chromatin is believed to bind to the other, we were also interested in whether histones ...
Expression of the pyrC gene, which encodes the pyrimidine biosynthetic enzyme dihydroorotase, is negatively regulated by pyrimidine availability in Escherichia coli. To define the mechanism of this regulation, an essential regulatory region between the pyrC promoter and the initial codons of the pyrC structural gene was identified. Mutational analysis of this regulatory region showed that the formation of a hairpin at the 5 end of the pyrC transcript, which overlaps the pyrC ribosome binding site, is required for repression of pyrC expression. Formation of the hairpin appears to be controlled by nucleotide-sensitive selection of the site of pyrC transcriptional initiation. When the CTP level is high, the major pyrC transcript is initiated with this nucleotide at a position seven bases downstream of the pyrC -10 region. This transcript is capable of forming a stable hairpin at its 5 end. When the CTP level is low and the GTP level is high, conditions found in cells limited for pyrimidines, the ...
Guanine nucleotides regulate binding of opiate agonists to membrane receptors by increasing agonist dissociation rates. The current study demonstrates that the ability of guanosine 5-triphosphate (GTP) and its nonhydrolyzable analogue guanylyl-5-imidodiphosphate (Gpp(NH)p) to inhibit opiate agonist binding to rat brain membranes can be altered by two methods: by preincubating with EDTA, and by preincubating at pH 4.5. EDTA pretreatment increased the potency of Gpp(NH)p in inhibiting [3H]morphine binding by 4-fold, with little apparent change in the maximum effect of Gpp(NH)p or on levels of binding itself. The effect of EDTA pretreatment was blocked by prior incubation of membranes with excess calcium or manganese but could not be reversed by any divalent cation if the EDTA incubation was longer than 10 min. EDTA pretreatment increased the effects of GTP on dissociation rates of agonists. Pretreatment of membranes at pH 4.5 increased the ability of guanine nucleotides to regulate agonist binding by
Amino Acid SequenceMGSSHHHHHH SSGLVPRGSH MGSMPALHIE DLPEKEKLKM EVEQLRKEVK LQRQQVSKCS EEIKNYIEER SGEDPLVKGI PEDKNPFKEK GSC.DescriptionGNG11 Human Recombinant produced in E. coli is. a single polypeptide chain containing 93 amino acids (1-70) and having a molecular mass of 10.6kDa. GNG11 is fused to a 23 amino acid His-tag at N-terminus & purified by proprietary chromatographic techniques.FormulationThe GNG11 solution (1mg/ml) contains 20mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 8.0), 0.15M NaCl, 10% glycerol and 1mM DTT.Physical AppearanceSterile Filtered clear solution.PurityGreater than 90% as determined by SDS-PAGE.SourceEscherichia Coli.StabilityStore at 4°C if entire vial will be used within 2-4 weeks. Store frozen at -20°C for longer periods of time. For long term storage it is recommended to add a carrier protein (0.1% HSA or BSA).Avoid multiple freeze-thaw cycles.SynonymsGNGT11, Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-11, GNG11.Linkhttp://www.prospecbio.com/GNG11_Human_10
TY - JOUR. T1 - Participation of guanine nucleotides in nucleation and elongation steps of microtubule assembly.. AU - Karr, T. L.. AU - Podrasky, A. E.. AU - Purich, D. L.. PY - 1979/11. Y1 - 1979/11. N2 - Critical concentrations for formation of microtubules from subunits with GTP and its beta, gamma-imido and beta, gamma-methylene analogs are similar when adequate time is given for equilibration. Dilution of microtubules into GTP and GDP yielded values of 0.1 and 0.19 mg/ml for the critical concentration, results similar to those reported by Carlier and Pantaloni [Carlier, M. & Pantaloni, D. (1978) Biochemistry 17, 1908-1915]. GDP is capable of supporting elongation of preformed microtubules, but it efficiently poisons the nucleation events. Reported experiments also demonstrate that the critical tubulin concentration of the tubulin-GDP complex can be accurately measured in both the assembly and disassembly directions. Evidence is presented that GTP is involved in early nucleation events but ...
Guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha 13 (GNA13) has been implicated as an oncogenic protein in several human cancers. In this study, GNA13 was characterized for its role in gastric cancer (GC) progression and underlying molecular mechanisms. The expression dynamics of GNA13 were examined by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in two independent cohorts of GC samples. A series of in-vivo and in-vitro assays was performed to elucidate the function of GNA13 in GC and its underlying mechanisms. In both two cohorts of GC samples, we observed that GNA13 was markedly overexpressed in GC tissues and associated closely with aggressive magnitude of GC progression and poor patients survival ...
Effects of 6-thioguanine on PTHrP content in the media of cultured MDA-MB-231 cells plated onto 48-well plates and grown to near confluence. Cells were washed and treated with serum-free media containing 6-thioguanine in the indicated concentrations for 48 hours. PTHrP concentrations in conditioned media were corrected for cell number. The detection limit of the assay is ∼0.5 pM/L ...
Nucleostemin antibody [2C8D5] (guanine nucleotide binding protein-like 3 (nucleolar)) for ELISA, WB. Anti-Nucleostemin mAb (GTX60697) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
GNL3 - GNL3 (untagged)-Human guanine nucleotide binding protein-like 3 (nucleolar) (GNL3), transcript variant 2 available for purchase from OriGene - Your Gene Company.
Get an answer for DNA MoleculeUnder normal circumctances, it is not possible for adenine to pair up with guanine or cytosine, or for any other mismatches to occur. Describe the two factors that prevent a mismatch from occcuring. and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes
Current peaks related to guanine oxidation of the probe-modified-PGE after (a) and before hybridization with DENV-3 (b); in the presence of non-complementary se
Creative-Proteomics offer cas 73-40-5 GUANINE (15N5, 98%). We are specialized in manufacturing Stabel Isotope Labeled Analytical Standard products.
泰国公共债务管理办事处负责人朱拉乐女士日前表示,今年7月分公债总额为5兆2111亿9401万铢,在国内生产总值(GDP)占比约44.11%,与今年6月相比,公债规模减少127亿1700万铢。
Glucose metabolism in pancreatic B-cells leads to an increase in the ATP/ADP ratio that might participate in the regulation of insulin secretion. Good correlations have also been observed between guanine nucleotide levels in isolated pancreatic islets and insulin secretion. To assess whether guanine nucleotides have a specific role in stimulus-secretion coupling, their concentration should be modified selectively. This was attempted by culturing mouse islets overnight in the presence of mycophenolic acid (MPA), an inhibitor of GMP synthesis at the level of IMP dehydrogenase. The drug (25-50 μg/ml) did not affect the insulin content but decreased the GTP content of the islets and inhibited insulin secretion during subsequent incubation in the presence of 15 mM glucose. However, MPA also decreased the ATP/ADP ratio in the islets. The addition of guanine to the culture medium (to stimulate the salvage pathway of GTP synthesis) restored normal GTP levels, corrected the ATP/ADP ratio and partly ...
Guanine nucleotide exchange factor that catalyzes guanine nucleotide exchange on RHOA and CDC42, and thereby contributes to the regulation of RHOA and CDC42 signaling pathways. Seems to lack activity with RAC1. Becomes activated and highly tumorigenic by truncation of the N-terminus.
Guanyl nucleotide binding-proteins, or G-proteins, are ubiquitous molecules that are involved in cellular signal transduction mechanisms. Because a role has been established for cAMP in meiosis and G-proteins participate in cAMP-generating systems by stimulating or inhibiting adenylate cyclase, the present study was conducted to examine the possible involvement of G-proteins in the resumption of meiotic maturation. Cumulus cell-free mouse oocytes (denuded oocytes) were maintained in meiotic arrest in a transient and dose-dependent manner when microinjected with the nonhydrolyzable GTP analog, GTP gamma S. This effect was specific for GTP gamma S, because GppNHp, GTP, and ATP gamma S were without effect. Three compounds, known to interact with G-proteins, were tested for their ability to modulate meiotic maturation: pertussis toxin, cholera toxin, and aluminum fluoride (AlF4-). Pertussis toxin had little effect on maturation in either cumulus cell-enclosed oocytes or denuded oocytes when
Our results suggest that Ang II activates RhoA in cardiac myocytes. RhoA mediates Ang II-induced formation of nonstriated sarcomeric actin fibers (premyofibrils), which are distinct from stress fibers, in cardiac myocytes. Considering the existence of multiple downstream target molecules and the pleiotropic functions of Rho as reported in other cell types (References 30, 39, and 4030 39 40 ; see Reference 22 for review), RhoA may play an important role in remodeling processes of the heart caused by Ang II.. Since Rho is a member of the small GTP-binding proteins, activation of Rho could be shown by its increased binding of GTP. However, the guanine nucleotide binding assay or determination of the guanine nucleotide exchange activity for Rho has been technically difficult because the available antibody is not suitable for immunoprecipitating the native form of Rho41 in the presence of Mg2+ (authors unpublished data, 1997). Since Mg2+ is essential for preserving the guanine nucleotide binding of ...
Guanine is among the five nucleobases that is found in DNA and RNA. The formula of guanine is C5H5N5O, and is a planar and bicyclic molecule. Guanine has two forms, keto and enol forms. The keto form is the major form. Guanine, like adenine, is a derivative of purine and binds to cytosine through 3 hydrogen bonds. The amino group in the cytosine is the hydrogen donor and the C2 carbonyl and the N3 amine are the hydrogen-bond acceptors. In Guanine, the group at C6 acts as the hydrogen accepter, and the group at N1 and the amino group at C2 act as the hydrogen donors. The related nucleoside containing guanine and ribose is called guanosine and guanine bound to deoxyribose sugar is called deoxyguanosine. Guanine is capable of being hydrolyzed by strong acids to form ammonia, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and glycine. Guanine oxidizes more readily than adenine, another purine-derivative nitrogenous base in nucleic acids. Guanine has a high melting point of 350°C due to the intermolecular ...
In this new work, Fang and his colleagues instead used fragment-based lead discovery. They screened highly soluble fragments of small molecules at high concentrations and used nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to identify fragments that bind with RAS. "We use this approach to probe the RAS protein structure for a binding pocket," said Fang. "RAS has a smooth surface topology, so its hard to find a pocket.". Of 3,300 screened fragment compounds, 25 bound to RAS. These 25 fragment compounds all bound in the same pocket, a site very close to the place where RAS binds with SOS, a co-factor that switches RAS from off to on. "Our compounds interrupt the RAS-SOS interaction and block the nucleotide exchange reaction that activates RAS," says Fang. Further, when Fang and colleagues applied these compounds to a cellular model, RAS activity dropped by 50%.. The team confirmed that their compounds bind with K-Ras and H-Ras, 2 of the 3 Ras isoforms. "The 3 isoforms are very similar in structure, so I ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
The rates of different types of nucleotide substitutions are known to depend on factors such as methylation status and nearest-neighbor nucleotide effects. However, until recently, in eukaryotes, the rates have not been considered to be strand specific ...
T cell-mediated adaptive immunity requires naive, unstimulated T cells to transition from a quiescent metabolic state into a highly proliferative state upon T cell receptor engagement. This complex process depends on transcriptional changes mediated by calcium-dependent NFAT signaling, mTOR-mediated signaling and increased activity of the guanine nucleotide biosynthetic enzyme inosine-5-monophosphate (IMP) dehydrogenase (IMPDH). Inhibitors of these pathways serve as potent immunosuppressants. Unexpectedly, we discovered that all three pathways converge to promote the assembly of IMPDH protein into micron-scale macromolecular filamentous structures in response to T cell activation. Assembly is post-transcriptionally controlled by mTOR and the calcium influx regulator STIM1. Furthermore, IMPDH assembly and catalytic activity were negatively regulated by guanine nucleotide levels, suggesting a negative feedback loop that limits biosynthesis of guanine nucleotides. Filamentous IMPDH may be more ...
View mouse Rabgef1 Chr5:130171798-130214342 with: phenotypes, sequences, polymorphisms, proteins, references, function, expression
The alarmones guanosine tetraphosphate and guanosine pentaphosphate (collectively referred to as (p)ppGpp) are involved in regulating growth and several different stress responses in bacteria. In recent years, substantial progress has been made in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of (p) …
Stimulates the exchange of guanyl nucleotides associated with the GTPase ARF. Under normal cellular physiological conditions, the concentration of GTP is higher than that of GDP, favoring the replacement of GDP by GTP in association with the GTPase ...
Nucleotides may help maintain the optimum rate of cell replacement and help support the immune system. Quality Nucleotide supplements plus free UK delivery.
Guan has just learnt the four nucleobases in DNA: Adenine, Thymine, Cytosine and Guanine. Wait, GUANine. Guan is incredibly intrigued by this based named GUANine. "Was it named after me?" he thought to himself. "Surely it must be, I am so smart." After countless hours of searching Google for the origins of Guanine, his search turned out futile. There was no results found for "Wu Guanquns brilliant discovery of new nucleobase Guanine." Devastated, he turns back to his lego DNA play set and starts constructing DNA sequences. "ATTGCCGATTGACT," Guan made, "hmm, gene for awkwardness." "GCTAGCTAGCGCGTAT," Guan made another gene sequence, "hmm, gene for being weird." Guan starts off with an empty DNA string. He can then choose any one of four operations to do ...
THE GDP DEFLATOR IN NIGERIA WAS REPORTED AT 254.42 IN 2009, ACCORDING TO THE INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND (IMF). IN 2015, NIGERIA'S GDP DEFLATOR IS EXPECTED TO BE 444.22 INDEX. THE GDP DEFLATOR IS DERIVED BY DIVIDING CURRENT PRICE GDP BY CONSTANT PRICE GDP AND IS CONSIDERED TO BE AN ALTERNATE MEASURE OF INFLATION. PLEASE NOTE: DATA ARE EXPRESSED IN THE BASE YEAR OF EACH COUNTRY'S NATIONAL ACCOUNTS. IN 2009, NIGERIA'S ECONOMY SHARE OF WORLD TOTAL GDP, ADJUSTED BY PURCHASING POWER PARITY, WAS 0.48 PERCENT. IN 2015, NIGERIA'S SHARE OF WORLD TOTAL GDP IS FORECASTED TO BE 0.53 PERCENT. THIS PAGE INCLUDES A CHART, HISTORICAL DATA AND FORECAST FOR NIGERIA'S GDP DEFLATOR.
Treatment of intact Rat-1 fibroblasts with epidermal growth factor (EGF) leads to rapid activation of cellular ras-encoded proteins. By using the bacterial toxin streptolysin O to permeabilize these cells, it was shown that the low basal rate at which guanine nucleotides bind to, and dissociate from, ras-encoded protein in quiescent fibroblasts was greatly accelerated by EGF treatment. Nucleotide binding to other proteins was not affected. Stimulation of nucleotide exchange on ras-encoded protein required tyrosine kinase but not phospholipase activity. EGF had no effect on total GTPase-activating protein activity. Regulation of ras-encoded protein in Rat-1 fibroblasts is therefore mediated by stimulation, either directly or indirectly, of ras-encoded protein-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors by the EGF receptor tyrosine kinase. ...
casSAR Dugability of A3NLC8 | bopE | Guanine nucleotide exchange factor BopE - Also known as BOPE_BURP6, bopE. Activator for both CDC42 and RAC1 by directly interacting with these Rho GTPases and acting as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). This activation results in actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and stimulates membrane ruffling, thus promoting bacterial entry into non-phagocytic cells (By similarity). Monomer. Interacts with human CDC42 (By similarity).
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptors were solubilized from rat cerebellum membranes in an active, stable, and guanine nucleotide-sensitive form by using digitonin. Nearly 90% of membrane CGRP receptors and 50% of membrane protein were solubilized by digitonin treatment of cerebellum membranes. Binding of 125ICGRP to soluble receptors was specific, saturable, of high affinity, and reversible. Scatchard analysis of the saturation binding data revealed a homogeneous population of binding sites with a Kd of 178 +/- 42 pM and a Bmax of 201 +/- 17 fmol/mg of protein. Binding of 125ICGRP to soluble receptors was inhibited nearly 60% by guanosine-5-O-(3-thio)triphosphate (GTP gamma S) (100 microM), suggesting coupling of receptors with guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) to form high affinity binding sites. Antiserum against the amino-terminal region of Gs alpha immunoprecipitated a significant portion of soluble CGRP receptors, indicating association of receptors with Gs ...
Development of metastasis in breast cancer is a multi-step process comprising changes in cytoskeletal structure and gene expression of tumour cells leading to changes in cell adhesion and motility. The Rho GTPase proteins, which function as guanine nucleotide regulated binary switches, govern a variety of cellular processes including cell motility and migration, changes in cell adhesion as well as actin cytoskeletal reorganisation and gene expression/transcription. One group of activators which regulate the Rho-GTPases is the guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), and this study looked at three such GEFs, Trio, Vav1 and TIAM-1. The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of these GEFs, in human breast cancer and assess the affect on clinical outcome. Specimens of fresh, frozen breast tumour tissue (n = 113) and normal background tissue (n = 30) were processed for quantitative PCR analysis. The expression and levels of expression of Trio, Vav1 and TIAM-1 were analysed using RT-PCR
Dual inhibitory and stimulatory actions of guanine nucleotides on luteinizing-hormone (LH) exocytosis were observed in primary sheep gonadotropes permeabilized with staphylococcal alpha-toxin. At resting cytosolic [Ca2+]free (pCa 7), 5-[gamma-thio]triphosphate (GTP[S]) and guanosine 5-[beta
This gene encodes a member of the guanylate-binding protein (GBP) family. GBPs specifically bind guanine nucleotides (GMP, GDP, and GTP) and contain two of the three consensus motifs found in typical GTP-binding proteins. The encoded protein interacts with a member of the germinal center kinase family. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Jan 2016 ...
Decreased activity of the guanine nucleotide regulatory protein (N) of the adenylate cyclase system is present in cell membranes of some patients with pseudohypoparathyrodism (PHP-Ia) whereas others have normal activity ...
Decreased activity of the guanine nucleotide regulatory protein (N) of the adenylate cyclase system is present in cell membranes of some patients with pseudohypoparathyrodism (PHP-Ia) whereas others have normal activity ...
Calcium, Membrane, Calcium Channel, Plasma, Plasma Membrane, Endoplasmic Reticulum, Mice, Reticulum, Concentration, GTP, Guanine, Gtpases, Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor, and Cytochrome B
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] DEF6, or IBP, is a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for RAC (MIM 602048) and CDC42 (MIM 116952) that is highly expressed in B and T cells (Gupta et al., 2003 [PubMed 12923183]).[supplied by OMIM, Mar 2008 ...
BACKGROUND:: The value of azathioprine metabolites (6-thioguanine nucleotides [6-TGN]) in monitoring clinical treatment response is still controversially discussed. Data regarding thiopurine metabolite levels and endoscopic improvement are lacking. METHODS:: Data were analyzed post hoc from a 1-year, multicenter, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized trial comparing azathioprine 2.0 to 2.5 mg/kg per day ...