Map of the observed surface temperature change from 1901 to 2012 derived from temperature trends determined by linear regression from one dataset (orange line in panel a). Trends have been calculated where data availability permits a robust estimate (i.e., only for grid boxes with greater than 70% complete records and more than 20% data availability in the first and last 10% of the time period). Other areas are white. Grid boxes where the trend is significant at the 10% level are indicated by a + sign. (Graphic from the The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) less ...
Smith P, Bustamante M, Ahammad H, et al. Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU). In: Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change . Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.; 2014:811-922. Available at: https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg3/agriculture-forestry-and-other-land-use-afolu/. ...
Smith P, Bustamante M, Ahammad H, et al. Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU). In: Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change . Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.; 2014:811-922. Available at: https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg3/agriculture-forestry-and-other-land-use-afolu/. ...
Anthropogenic climate change results from economic activities increasing the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane, which increase the heat-trapping capacity of the lower atmosphere, resulting in global warming with surface temperatures and the annual number of dry days and hot nights increasing over time. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC),1 a scientific intergovernmental body established in 1988 and tasked with evaluating the risks of anthropogenic climate change, predicts increased frequency and intensity of extreme events (extreme heat, severe storms, droughts, and floods). The global average sea level rose by 1.8±0.5 mm per year between 1961 and 1990 and 3.1±0.7 mm per year from 1993 to 2003 as a result of thermal expansion of ocean water and melting land-based glaciers and icesheets. Precipitation has increased in some regions while decreasing in others.. Mitigation or primary prevention focuses on reduction of GHG emissions and ...
The typical Western diet is associated with high levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and with obesity and other diet-related diseases. This study aims to determine the impact of adjustments to the current diet at specific moments of food consumption, to lower GHG emissions and improve diet quality. Food consumption in the Netherlands was assessed by two non-consecutive 24-h recalls for adults aged 19-69 years (n = 2102). GHG emission of food consumption was evaluated with the use of life cycle assessments. The population was stratified by gender and according to tertiles of dietary GHG emission. Scenarios were developed to lower GHG emissions of people in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emission; 1) reducing red and processed meat consumed during dinner by 50% and 75%, 2) replacing 50% and 100% of alcoholic and soft drinks (including fruit and vegetable juice and mineral water) by tap water, 3) replacing cheese consumed in between meals by plant-based alternatives and 4) two combinations of
Feared Trout Drop-off Signals Climate Shift in Montana Warmer temperatures and a longer summer drought season in Montana are expected to have significant impacts on the states trout fishing industry and ecosystem. In a special report, Heidi Cullen of Climate Central examines how climate-related changes are affecting Montana.. ...
Many studies have documented the gender imbalance in science and have explored the reasons that women are not included or represented, especially at more senior levels of research (8⇓⇓⇓⇓-13). A 2013 special report in the journal Nature concludes that, despite some improvements, female scientists continue to face discrimination, unequal pay, and funding disparities and notes that, internationally, 70% of men and women view science as a male pursuit (14). Women face barriers associated with their family responsibilities and are poorly represented in journals and citations (15⇓⇓-18). Including women in research teams enhances innovation and discovery (19⇓-21). Claims about data and explanations of womens underrepresentation in science can be controversial with some suggesting women choose to not pursue a career in science and others recognizing more structural causes (17, 22⇓-24). In our own discipline of geography, several studies have identified barriers facing women in physical ...
Growing food could become harder which could lead to a food crisis says the latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The apex body on climate change science released its report on March 31, 2014 in Yokohama Japan. It paints a very disturbing picture for the years to come. This report-Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability-has been prepared by the Working Group II of the IPCC and details the impacts of climate change that have already occurred, the future risks from a changing climate, and scope of reducing these risks ...
To study the sensitivity of Earths ecological systems to climate change, the scientists used a computer model that predicts the type of plant community that is uniquely adapted to any climate on Earth. This model was used to simulate the future state of Earths natural vegetation in harmony with climate projections from 10 different global climate simulations. These simulations are based on the intermediate greenhouse gas scenario in the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report. That scenario assumes greenhouse gas levels will double by 2100 and then level off. The U.N. reports climate simulations predict a warmer and wetter Earth, with global temperature increases of 3.6 to 7.2 degrees Fahrenheit (2 to 4 degrees Celsius) by 2100, about the same warming that occurred following the Last Glacial Maximum almost 20,000 years ago, except about 100 times faster. Under the scenario, some regions become wetter because of enhanced evaporation, while others ...
May 11th, 2015 - The GCC Option 1 Project Profiles, including the emissions reductions calculators, have been updated to fall in line with the Global Warming Potentials (GWP) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 4th Assessment Report. Notable changes include increasing the GWP of methane to 25 from 21 and decreasing the GWP of nitrous oxide from 310 to 298.. April 21st, 2015 - The GCC Option 1 Organics Waste Composting Profile has been updated with clarifying language on industrial, commercial and institutional (ICI) organics. Please note ICI organics are eligible under this project profile as long as a local government can demonstrate ownership of the GHG emission reductions.. Other recent updates to Version 3.0 of the Organics Waste Composting Project Profile provide guidance on estimating the amount of greenhouse gas emissions that can be reduced from a local governments corporate carbon footprint by diverting household organic waste into a centralized community composting ...
The Greenhouse gas footprint, or GHG footprint, refers to the amount of greenhouse gases that are emitted during the creation of products or services. It is more comprehensive than the commonly used carbon footprint, which measures only carbon dioxide, one of many greenhouse gases. Human activities are one of the main causes of greenhouse gas. These increase the earths temperature and are emitted from fossil fuel usage in electricity and other byproducts of manufacturing. The major effects mainly consist of extreme climate changes, such as extreme precipitation and acidification and warming of oceans. Climate change has been occurring since the start of the Industrial Revolution in the 1820s. Due to humans heavy reliance on fossil fuels, energy usage, and constant deforestation, the amount of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere is increasing, which makes reducing a greenhouse gas footprint harder to achieve. However, there are several ways to reduce ones greenhouse gas footprint, such as using ...
At a workshop discussing what the take homes for Asian countries might be from the latest assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) - AR5 - it was pointed out that there wasnt enough science coming out of developing countries to feed the database on emissions or warming in the larger climate change debate. Local scientists need to conduct more climate change related experiments, write more scientific papers and bolster regional science in order to make a case for these developing countries in the international discourse on climate change.. We also need more authors from the developing world to participate in writing the chapters for the IPCC reports, says Jonathan Lynn, Head of Communication at the IPCC. Lynn says though there is substantial science emanating from India now, some other small Asian countries such as Indonesia lag far behind. The IPCC collates scientific data from across the world to make predictions for future scenarios with the help of ...
The UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has today released the final synthesis report for its Fifth Assessment Report on the current scientific knowledge around our changing climate.
The atmosphere and surface of the system is like a huge glass house so that the surface has always maintained a certain temperature, produced for human and other organisms living environment. In this system, both to solar radiation through the atmosphere and reach the ground, while ground radiation to prevent loss, we have the atmosphere of this effect on the ground called the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Greenhouse gases called greenhouse gases, which allows free passage of solar radiation, while absorbing surface long-wave radiation issue. These gases are carbon dioxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbons, ozone, nitrogen oxides and steam, etc., most notably carbon dioxide. The past century the global climate is gradually warming, with the same time, atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases are rapidly increasing. Many scientists agree that emissions of greenhouse gases caused by a large number of aggravating the greenhouse effect may be the underlying causes of global warming ...
Climate change mitigation requires action in all spheres of society. The role of household consumption is often overlooked. However, 72% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are related to household consumption, while the rest stem from government consumption and investments. The result from a Finnish study is quite similar: households accounted for 68% of the GHG emissions of domestic final consumption in Finland, whereas government consumption and investments were responsible for the other 32% .. The key question in this report is: How much can a typical Finn decrease ones GHG emissions with consumption decisions? To address this question, we took the average GHG emissions from consumption as a starting point. In Finland in 2010, the average per capita GHG emissions from consumption expenditure was 11.5 tonnes of CO2e. Between 2000 and 2013, the average per capita GHG emissions fluctuated from 9.6 tonnes to 11.8 tonnes. The per capita consumption carbon footprint in Finland is on the high ...
The decisions we make every day, such as how we live and move around, (mitigation) have an impact on emissions that contribute to poor air quality and climate change. The effects of climate change, such as significantly more intense storms and flooding will also impact our everyday lives (adaptation). Initiatives to reduce air emissions can also help reduce the greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change, and vice versa. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change stated that human influence on the climate system is clear. The atmospheric concentration of key greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) is unprecedented in the last 800,000 years, with our fossil fuel driven economies and the increase in population to blame.. ...
Climate change adaptation is the ability of a society or a natural system to adjust to the (changing) conditions that support life in a certain climate region, including weather extremes in that region. The current discussion on climate change adaptation began in the 1990s, with the publication of the Assessment Reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Since the beginning of the 21st century, most countries, and many regions and municipalities have started to develop and implement climate change adaptation strategies and plans. But since the implementation of adaptation measures must be planned and conducted at the local level, a major challenge is to actually implement adaptation to climate change in practice. One challenge is that scientific results are mainly published on international or national levels, and political guidelines are written at transnational (e.g., European Union), national, or regional levels-these scientific results must be downscaled, interpreted, ...
The scientific basis for this potentially cataclysmic warming of the Earth s climate is confirmed by reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, an international body of over 1,000 climate scientists from 100 countries that is considered the world s most authoritative source of information on global warming. Emission of greenhouse gases caused by human consumption of fossil fuels, it believes, may lead to a peak in the Earth s temperature to the same level of global warming that it had 35 million years ago, before the appearance of ice sheets in Antarctica.. A recent climate change study commissioned by the U.S. Department of Defense concludes that abrupt climate change and ensuing environmental and social emergencies may accelerate on Earth as soon as the period 2015 to 2020. The collapse of the ocean conveyer climate system is predicted to accelerate abrupt climate change, resulting in food and water shortage, and massive population dislocations.. Unless a global strategy for ...
1] Confidence in estimates of anthropogenic climate change is limited by known issues with air temperature observations from land stations. Station siting, instrument changes, changing observing practices, urban effects, land cover, land use variations, and statistical processing have all been hypothesized as affecting the trends presented by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and others. Any artifacts in the observed decadal and centennial variations associated with these issues could have important consequences for scientific understanding and climate policy. We use a completely different approach to investigate global land warming over the 20th century. We have ignored all air temperature observations and instead inferred them from observations of barometric pressure, sea surface temperature, and sea-ice concentration using a physically-based data assimilation system called the 20th century Reanalysis. This independent dataset reproduces both annual variations and centennial trends ...
Unlike many other greenhouse gases, fluorinated gases have no natural sources and only come from human-related activities. They are emitted through their use as substitutes for ozone-depleting substances (e.g., as refrigerants) and through a variety of industrial processes such as aluminum and semiconductor manufacturing. Many fluorinated gases have very high global warming potentials (GWPs) relative to other greenhouse gases, so small atmospheric concentrations can have disproportionately large effects on global temperatures. They can also have long atmospheric lifetimes-in some cases, lasting thousands of years. Like other long-lived greenhouse gases, most fluorinated gases are well-mixed in the atmosphere, spreading around the world after they are emitted. Many fluorinated gases are removed from the atmosphere only when they are destroyed by sunlight in the far upper atmosphere. In general, fluorinated gases are the most potent and longest lasting type of greenhouse gases emitted by human ...
The UN IPCC scientists who write the reports which guide international energy policy on fossil fuel use operate under the assumption that the climate system has a preferred, natural and constant average state which is only deviated from through the meddling of humans. They construct their climate models so that the models do not produce any warming or cooling unless they are forced to through increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gases, aerosols, or volcanic eruptions. This imposed behavior of their control runs is admittedly necessary because various physical processes in the models are not known well enough from observations and first principles, and so the models must be tinkered with until they produce what might be considered to be the null hypothesis behavior, which in their worldview means no long-term warming or cooling.. What Id like to discuss here is NOT whether there are other external forcing agents of climate change, such as the sun. That is a valuable discussion, but not what ...
The UN IPCC scientists who write the reports which guide international energy policy on fossil fuel use operate under the assumption that the climate system has a preferred, natural and constant average state which is only deviated from through the meddling of humans. They construct their climate models so that the models do not produce any warming or cooling unless they are forced to through increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gases, aerosols, or volcanic eruptions. This imposed behavior of their control runs is admittedly necessary because various physical processes in the models are not known well enough from observations and first principles, and so the models must be tinkered with until they produce what might be considered to be the null hypothesis behavior, which in their worldview means no long-term warming or cooling.. What Id like to discuss here is NOT whether there are other external forcing agents of climate change, such as the sun. That is a valuable discussion, but not what ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Norwegian version of the Juvenile Arthritis Multidimensional Assessment Report (JAMAR). AU - Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation (PRINTO). AU - Flato, Berit. AU - Rygg, Marite. AU - Nordal, Ellen Berit. AU - Røisland, Mona. AU - Ødegård, Hanne Beate. AU - Hoftun, Gry Børmark. AU - Songstad, Nils Thomas. AU - Consolaro, Alessandro. AU - Bovis, Francesca. AU - Ruperto, Nicolino. PY - 2018/4. Y1 - 2018/4. N2 - The Juvenile Arthritis Multidimensional Assessment Report (JAMAR) is a new parent/patient-reported outcome measure that enables a thorough assessment of the disease status in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). We report the results of the cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the parent and patient versions of the JAMAR in the Norwegian language. The reading comprehension of the questionnaire was tested in 10 JIA parents and patients. Each participating centre was asked to collect demographic and clinical data and the JAMAR ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Ukrainian version of the Juvenile Arthritis Multidimensional Assessment Report (JAMAR). AU - Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation (PRINTO). AU - Boyko, Yaryna. AU - Hrytsiuk, Ihor. AU - Consolaro, Alessandro. AU - Bovis, Francesca. AU - Ruperto, Nicolino. PY - 2018/4. Y1 - 2018/4. N2 - The Juvenile Arthritis Multidimensional Assessment Report (JAMAR) is a new parent/patient-reported outcome measure that enables a thorough assessment of the disease status in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). We report the results of the cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the parent and patient versions of the JAMAR in the Ukrainian language. The reading comprehension of the questionnaire was tested in 10 JIA parents and patients. Each participating centre was asked to collect demographic, clinical data and the JAMAR in 100 consecutive JIA patients or all consecutive patients seen in a 6-month period and to administer the JAMAR to 100 healthy ...
Zinc Chloride Market Assessment Report Now Available at Credence Research Credence Research has recently issued a new market assessment report titled
Scientific American also notes that this isnt the first attempt by deniers to pass off fake science by making it look like the real thing. In 1998, a petition questioning the science underlying the Kyoto treaty copied the format and style of a peer-reviewed article in the very real Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, and in 2009 the Heartland Institute (recently notorious for those Derp derp the Unabomber believed in global warming murder billboards) published a fake-science report by the Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC), a denialist group which just happens to sound a hell of a lot like the UNs real science committee, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). ...
The Orange County Transportation Authority (OCTA) reviews greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from our fleets operations on an annual basis to understand our effect on Orange Countys vehicle air emission levels. Additionally, we review how overall emissions levels are affected when drivers shift from private vehicles to public transit. A reduction of congestion on our streets and freeways is expected when public transit is used. To quantify GHG emissions, the OCTA uses guidance from the American Public Transportation Association (APTA). APTA has set standards for Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Transit. These standardized methodologies aid in calculating displaced emissions when people shift from cars to bus and rail.. In 2012, the OCTA produced 83,119 metric tons of CO2e (carbon dioxide equivalent for greenhouse gas emissions) from its day to day activities. Comparatively, 141,407 metric tons of CO2e was displaced by transit activities in Orange County. Total GHG emission from the ...
For decades, estimates of the equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) to doubling of CO2 simulated by global climate models (GCMs) have had a large intermodel spread, with a 5th-95th percentile range of approximately 2-4.5 K [1,2]. Global cloud feedbacks are the largest contributor to this spread [2,3]. Fig. 7.10 from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) [2] showed global cloud feedbacks diagnosed from over 20 GCMs participating in recent rounds of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3 and CMIP5) and Cloud Feedbacks Model Intercomparison Project (CFMIP2). These have an interquartile range of 0.5-0.9 W m−2 K−1, and an overall intermodel spread of 0.2-1.4 W m−2 K−1, including the effects both of warming and of rapid adjustments to increased CO2. Given the CMIP3/5 multi-model mean Planck feedback (−3.2 W m−2 K−1), water vapour/lapse rate feedback (1.0 W m−2 K−1) and snow/ice albedo feedback (0.3 W m−2 K−1), together with ...
Carbon Footprint - explores the mathematics behind carbon footprint measurements. Happy Planet Index - shows how mathematics can raise public awareness of issues. Heptathlon - student use and apply formulae to convert athletes results into points. Old New Year - uses algorithm to establish the day for any given date. Carbon-Dioxide Concentration in the Atmosphere. for each year t n. The factor is the canonical factor for converting carbon emissions (10 9 tonnes/year) to carbon-dioxide concentration (parts per million by volume, ppmv) in the atmosphere. The three exponentials represent the carbon-dioxide residence time.
TY - GEN. T1 - Simulating Carbon Dioxide Sequestration/ECBM Production in Coal Seams. T2 - Effects of Coal Properties and Operational Parameters. AU - Sams, W. Neal. AU - Bromhal, Grant. AU - Odusote, Olufemi. AU - Jikich, Sinisha. AU - Ertekin, Turgay. AU - Smith, Duane H.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Carbon dioxide sequestration is a promising technology for reducing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions while fossil fuels are still being used. The costs associated with CO 2 sequestration are often high; however, in certain circumstances (e.g., enhanced oil recovery) these costs can be more than offset by the benefits of additional incremental hydrocarbon production. Primary production of coalbed methane is a well-developed technology, but secondary production, through the injection of CO 2 or N 2 has undergone relatively little study. Recent research suggests that carbon dioxide preferentially sorbs to coal, displacing methane, making CO 2-enhanced coalbed methane production an ideal ...
In September, the worlds top scientists said the human influence on climate was clear. Last month, they warned of increased risks of a rapidly warming planet to our economies, environment, food supply, and global security. Today, the latest report from the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) describes what we need to do about it. The report, focused on mitigation, says that global greenhouse gas emissions were rising faster in the last decade than in the previously three, despite reduction efforts. Without additional mitigation efforts, we could see a temperature rise of 3.7 to 4.8 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial times by the end of this century. The IPCC says we can still limit that increase to 2 degrees, but that will require substantial technological, economic, institutional, and behavioral change. Lets translate the numbers. For every degree rise, that equates to more risk, especially for the poor and most vulnerable.
Global climate models developed by the UNs Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predict glacial retreat, rises in sea level, and other impacts on human and natural activity, from agriculture to migratory patterns. RAND researchers have studied and are continuing to examine the effects of climate change, particularly how governments and businesses respond to both observed changes and projected scenarios.
In 100 years, summers in Los Angeles may be as scorching as summers in the Mojave Desert. But it doesnt have to be that way, according to a team of 19 scientists that includes Norman Miller and Larry Dale of DOEs Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.. In a study published in the August 16th issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the research team predicted that Californians could experience substantially hotter summers by the end of the century, which may lead to an increase in heat-related deaths and water and energy shortages. Just how hot depends on whats done between now and then. The researchers analyzed two greenhouse gas emission scenarios recently presented by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, a United Nations-formed organization that informs the worlds policymakers on climate change and impacts. One scenario assumes an energy-use trajectory similar to the present course, meaning rapid introduction of new technologies, extensive economic ...
1) IPCC, 2013: Summary for Policy Makers, Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, http://www.climatechange2013.org/images/report/WG1AR5_SPM_FINAL.pdf
On September 23 through 26, representatives of the worlds Environment Ministries will meet in Stockholm to agree on the final draft of a key portion of the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Summary for Policymakers gospel which is expected, once again, to keep the political climate cauldron steaming. This Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) is intended to be used by international ministers working to devise a new global treaty by 2015 to curb climate change.. That goal is certainly no trifle, given that dramatic climate changes have been occurring over many millions of years, although lately…not so much. Therein lies the big rub. How can ministers conjure up a newsworthy sequel to previous knuckle-biting prognostications when all evidence suggests that the prophesies, and the scriptures they were based upon, were proven wrong?. ...
INTERGOV ERNMENTA L PA NEL ON WG II WORKING GROUP II CONTRIBUTION TO THE FIFTH ASSESSMENT REPORT OF THE INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE climate change Summary for Policymakers Drafting Authors:
In several of these studies, the researchers admitted that they actively sought out super-emitters in the Barnett Shale, yet they still found methane emissions to be very low.. EDF also points to a report it did in conjunction with the Rhodium Group, which argued that $30 billion in unburned natural gas is being emitted globally by the oil and gas industry but does not mention that that same study found a very low methane leakage rate in the United States of only 1.3 percent.. The researchers quote the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Changes (IPCC) latest climate assessment, pointing out that it states that nearly a quarter of the warming we are experiencing today is caused by methane and other short term climate pollutants. However, EDF does not include that the IPCC also said its largely thanks to hydraulic fracturing and natural gas that the United States has been able to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions dramatically. As the IPCC put it:. ...
Find helpful learner reviews, feedback, and ratings for Climate Change Mitigation in Developing Countries from University of Cape Town. Read stories and highlights from Coursera learners who completed Climate Change Mitigation in Developing Countries and wanted to share their experience. Super-awesome course that taught me about the super-wicked problem of our time and how to effectivel...
Find helpful learner reviews, feedback, and ratings for Climate Change Mitigation in Developing Countries from University of Cape Town. Read stories and highlights from Coursera learners who completed Climate Change Mitigation in Developing Countries and wanted to share their experience. Super-awesome course that taught me about the super-wicked problem of our time and how to effectivel...
As Deputy Director General for Science Srivastava provides interdisciplinary scientific leadership to the institute to ensure that IIASA research stays at the forefront of scientific endeavor. Srivastava was the Vice Chancellor of the TERI School of Advanced Studies, New Delhi, an interdisciplinary higher education institution focused on sustainable development from 2012 to 2019. Prior to this, she worked for over three decades on research in the areas of energy, environment, and climate change policies at The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI), including almost nine years as Executive Director. She is highly engaged in climate and sustainable development issues through participation on various boards and committees, and in advisory roles in international organizations, research institutions, and the corporate sector. Srivastava was the Coordinating Lead Author of Working Group III of the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the cross-cutting ...
Effect of aeration on greenhouse gas emission from the composting process of swine manure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of aeration condition on the greenhouse gas (GHG) mission from the composting process of swine manure. The swine manure was piled in the composting plant X, Y and Z with 3, 0.5 and 0 min/hr of aeration, respectively. The results of this study showed aeration during the compost process can accelerate the degradation of organic matters, shorten the period of composting, and reduce the production of methane from the compost.. (M. P. Cheng ...
Efforts on climate change, climate change mitigation and associated biofuel topics have led to many speaking and policy outreach contacts. He just completed service as lead author on the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Working Group III Agricultural Mitigation scientific panel. He has presented information to meetings or policy groups at NSF, DOE, EPA, USDA, Council of Economic Advisors, European Union, Chinese Government, Taiwanese government, Seed Association, Pest Management Society, Renewable fuels groups, Harvard, Stanford, MIT, Duke, Illinois, and Ohio State just to mention a few recent involvements. He regularly interacts with policy makers in EPA, USDA and the Canadian government. This has contributed to changes in policy thinking on these issues.. ...
CFA plays an active and often leading role in environmental issues including waste and climate change-related matters. For several years we have been closely involved in numerous sustainability activities and initiatives including running workshops with Defra on issues relating to its Food Industry Sustainability Strategy (FISS) and pursuing research which would facilitate carbon footprint reductions. CFA was also a member of Defras FISS Champions Group on Waste, which was chaired by a CFA member.. Climate change is increasingly recognised as a major challenge and it is widely accepted that the greenhouse gas emissions caused by humans are having a negative impact on the environment.. Carbon footprint labelling is a recent development whereby a product label will show how many grammes of greenhouse gases were emitted during production, from sourcing raw materials, to manufacturing, transporting to the stores and to the end of life.. For the chilled food sector, we believe that carbon footprint ...
In 2010, Finlands greenhouse gas emissions amounted to 74.6 million tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2 eq.). They rose by a total of 8.5 million carbon dioxide tonnes from the year before, exceeding the commitment level of the Kyoto Protocol by around five per cent. The data are based on the preliminary estimate to be submitted by Statistics Finland to the European Commission on 15 January 2012 concerning emissions in 2010.. In the energy sector, emissions increased by 15 per cent from the previous year. Emissions from industrial processes rose by eight per cent. Emissions from agriculture and use of solvents and other products also increased slightly. Emissions in the waste sector remained unchanged. Net sinks in the Land use, Land-use Change and Forestry sector (LULUCF) dropped by 40 per cent mainly because of increased fellings.. Development of greenhouse gas emissions by sector in Finland 1990-2010. ...
Clouds play a key role in Earths radiation budget, and aerosols serve as the seeds upon which cloud droplets form. Anthropogenic activity has led to an increase in aerosol particle concentrations globally and an increase in those particles that act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nucleating particles (INP). The effect of an increase in aerosols on cloud optical properties, and associated radiative forcing, is the most uncertain component of historical radiative forcing of Earths climate caused by greenhouse gases (GHGs) and aerosols. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) AR5 assessment of climate forcing factors (Fig. S1) ascribes high confidence to the estimate of direct aerosol radiative forcing (mean. ...
Regional temperature change projections for the twenty-first century are generated using a multimodel ensemble of atmosphere - ocean general circulation models. The models are assigned coefficients jointly, using a Bayesian linear model fitted to regional observations and simulations of the climate of the twentieth century. Probability models with varying degrees of complexity are explored, and a selection is made based on Bayesian deviance statistics, coefficient properties, and a classical cross-validation measure utilizing temporally averaged data. The model selected is shown to be superior in predictive skill to a naive model consisting of the unweighted mean of the underlying atmosphere - ocean GCM (AOGCM) simulations, although the skill differential varies regionally. Temperature projections for the A2 and B1 scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios are presented.. ...
Category Five Cyclone Pam, which recently devastated Vanuatu, was one of the most intense tropical storms on record. The latest estimates suggest that up to 24 people have died, however the damage and casualties in outlying areas of Vanuatu are yet to be properly assessed. While the destruction caused by Cyclone Pam is clearly a humanitarian tragedy that will set back development in this small island nation, the surrounding region - including Kiribati, Tuvalu and the Solomon Islands - were also battered by the Category Five storm.. While there are many factors that trigger these seasonal storms, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report points out (with high confidence) that tropical cyclones are one of the current and future climate-related drivers of risk for small islands through the 21st Century.. The people of the Pacific Islands are not strangers to the ravages of anthropogenic climate change. While the Pacific Islands contribute only .06% to global ...
Agriculture is one of the economic sectors that affect climate change contributing to greenhouse gas emissions directly and indirectly. There is a trend of agricultural greenhouse gas emissions reduction, but any practice in this direction should not affect negatively farm productivity and economics because this would limit its implementation, due to the high global food and feed demand and the competitive environment in this sector. Precision agriculture practices using high-tech equipment has the ability to reduce agricultural inputs by site-specific applications, as it better target inputs to spatial and temporal needs of the fields, which can result in lower greenhouse gas emissions. Precision agriculture can also have a positive impact on farm productivity and economics, as it provides higher or equal yields with lower production cost than conventional practices. In this work, precision agriculture technologies that have the potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions are presented providing a
This report provides information about potential climate change impacts in central New Mexico and their possible implications for the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Rio Puerco Field Office (RPFO) transportation network. The report considers existing global and regional climate change projections and analyzes the results of locally downscaled climate change projections corresponding to different RPFO ecoregions; identifies BLMs options for adapting the transportation system to climate change impacts, as well as how RPFO can incorporate climate change adaptation and resilience into its TTMP; and considers opportunities for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction, or climate change mitigation, at Rio Puerco ...
The results of the work by Ko et al,1 combined with past such studies, also have potentially critical relevance to the challenge of climate change that faces all nations of the world. The most recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report5 has concluded, in the most definitive terms yet, that global climate change is occurring, stating that: Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global average sea level. The fact that the man-made contribution to the climate change pollutants is largely caused by the same activity that causes the air pollution discussed by Ko et al indicates that, if a city, state, or nation acts to reduce the combustion of fossil fuels and the air pollution caused by them, it will reap not only the climate change benefits but also the localised health benefits associated with that reduction in air pollution. ...
One of the most challenging tasks of climate science is to determine climate sensitivity. It is often defined as the equilibrium response of the global mean surface temperature to the doubling of atmospheric CO2. Unfortunately, currently available models have sensitivities that vary across a wide range. According to the report of the fourth Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment (1), about two-thirds of the current climate models have sensitivities that range between 2 °C and 4.5 °C. Although this range is itself large, the sensitivities of one-third of the models lie outside of this range. The need to reduce this sizable uncertainty is one of the important reasons it is urgent to understand and reliably quantify the mechanisms that determine climate sensitivity.. Climate sensitivity is inversely proportional to the strength of the radiative feedback that operates on the global-scale perturbation of surface temperature. Here, we describe our attempt to estimate the ...
Delaware Bay Shorebird-Horseshoe Crab Assessment Report and Peer Review Prepared for the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Shorebird Technical Committee Peer Review Panel June 2003 Information in the report was compiled by Brad A. Andres and available from U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Division of Migratory Bird Management, 4401 N. Fairfax Dr., MBSP 4107, Arlington, VA, 22203, USA or at http://migratorybirds.fws.gov/reports/reports.html Report authors are listed in the Literature Cited. Some sections were drafted by Nellie Tsipoura (Rutgers University), Joanna Burger (Rutgers University), Gregory Breese (U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service), and Kimberly Cole (Delaware Coastal Management Programs). Shorebird Technical Committee members provided review. Suggested citation: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2003. Delaware Bay Shorebird-Horseshoe Crab Assessment Report and Peer Review. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Migratory Bird Publication R9-03/02. ...
SAN JOSÉ, Apr 9 2014 (IPS) - There are few experiences more frustrating than a delay in travel plans caused by bad weather. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), this may be something we will have to get used to in the future.. In March 2014, the IPCC released the 5th assessment of the impacts, adaptation strategies, and vulnerabilities related to global climate change. The report makes it clear that travelling in the future will become more of an ordeal.. Extreme weather events related to climate change, such as heat waves, storms and coastal flooding, are predicted to increase in frequency with only a 1°C increase in average global temperature - and current trends indicate even higher rises in average temperature. Besides the more serious effects, this is a recipe for more travel delays, larger numbers of travellers stranded and a greater overall risk associated with travelling.. And the news gets worse if your destination involves beaches or coral reefs.. As ...
Guest Opinion by Dr. Tim Ball. Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.. George Santayana (Original quote from his book The Life of Reason, much paraphrased.). The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and its supporters urge action because the planet and humans are threatened by global warming. We must modify our behavior, mitigate the warming, or die by the millions. In the centuries prior to the First World War (WWI) these reactions were classified as climatic determinism, the idea that human behavior is dictated by climate. As one research group explains.. Climatic determinism has a very long and checkered history. It gave a framework for thinking about the relationship between the human and natural environments by making the climate a demiurge of social universe.. Later, they explain why they are discussing the concept.. While most of such thinking has been discredited, in recent years, the omnipresence of anthropogenic climate change has caused a resurgence ...
US and Swiss researchers have, for the first time, modelled a climate system with extremely high carbon emissions in an attempt to test the boundaries of the current computer simulation programs that inform us.. Published today, Tuesday 5 July, in IOP Publishings journal Environmental Research Letters, the study has revealed the potentially devastating effects that high carbon emissions could have on our climate.. Little attention has previously been paid to the upper bound range of future emissions which, as the researchers state, is imperative when testing the outcomes of climate change simulations.. The A1FI scenario, considered in the most recent report from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), represents the upper bound of predicted carbon emissions.. The researchers, from the National Centre for Atmospheric Research, Colorado, and the Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science, Zurich, created two hypothetical high carbon emission scenarios and compared their effects ...
The urban sewer system is an important component of urban water infrastructure for sewage collection and transportation, and in-sewer transportation of sewage can cause multitudinous contaminant degradations which lead to formation of gaseous products. Although the greenhouse gases of methane and carbon dioxide have been confirmed to consist in the gaseous products, the mechanisms of greenhouse gas generation were unclear and the significances of greenhouse gases emission from sewers were generally underestimated. In this study, 3 years of monitoring was conducted to evaluate the greenhouse gases emission in 37-km-long urban sewer systems covering 13 km2. The results showed that the emission of carbon dioxide and methane was extensively existing in sewers, and especially, exhibited a characteristic of regional difference. In order to reveal the formation mechanism of carbon dioxide and methane in sewers, the metagenomic approach was utilized to analyze the annotated pathways and homologous bio-enzymes,
Those of us who have hoped for a magical, Big Bang, or global agreement on Climate Change, may feel disappointed at Christiana Figueress (Executive Secretary, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change) conclusion that we cannot have one. Certainly, the past attempts at Climate Change negotiations among the world powers have been dismal. So much so that were happy countries are still talking to each other about Climate Change at all-regardless of what they say. Progress on Climate Change, according to Figueres, will be incremental. (From Global Meltdown: Christiana Figueres, Climate One.) Incremental progress, a rate comfortable to nations around the world, sounds comforting, until you realize the intractability of this issue. That once-in-a-thousand-year heat wave that hit France in 2003 and killed 15,000 people is predicted by climate models to occur every other year by the 2040s. (Read The Weather of the Future: Heat Waves, Extreme Storms, and Other Scenes from a ...
Posted on 03/22/2014 9:47:13 AM PDT by Oldeconomybuyer. Junk Science: Climate change deniers, as global warm-mongers call those who think empirical evidence is more reliable than computer models, may soon count among their number a 50,000-strong body of physicists. At the risk of being accused of embracing what alarmists call the flat-earth view of climate change, the American Physical Society has appointed a balanced, six-person committee to review its stance on so-called climate change that includes three distinguished skeptics: Judith Curry, John Christy and Richard Lindzen. Their credentials are impressive. Christy is director of the Earth System Science Center at the University of Alabama, Huntsville, and was a lead author of the 2001 report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Curry is a professor and chairwoman of the School of Earth & Atmospheric Sciences at the Georgia Institute of Technology. Lindzen, an Alfred P. Sloan professor of meteorology at MIT from 1983 to 2013, ...
With our MSc Global Environmental Change, youll develop the knowledge and skills to address some of the worlds major challenges. Your study topics include climate change, environmental law and policy, meteorology and sustainability. This wide-ranging programme reflects the strength of unique expertise held within our prizewinning Natural Resources Institute (NRI).. Our recent interdisciplinary research ranges from practical areas with a direct relevance to climate adaptation - such as agricultural practices - to issues of equity and environmental economics. NRI academics who run modules for the MSc Global Environmental Change have contributed to global initiatives such as the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) assessment reports.. This course is now closed for international applicants for September 2021. Applications are still open for UK applicants for September 2021.. ...
The potential withdrawal of the United States from the Paris climate agreement has broad implications for society and the environment. While much attention has concentrated upon melting glaciers, rising sea levels and conflicts over scarce resources, another area represents a major cause for concern: human health. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), global climate change has direct health impacts tied to changes in the frequency of extreme weather events including heat, drought and intense rain. Additionally, increasing temperatures alter ecosystem dynamics, making it easier for mosquitoes and other organisms to come into contact with human populations and spread infectious disease (Smith et al. 2014).
Dear colleagues The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has just released a new report about climate changes Impacts, Vulnerability and Adaptation IPCCs WGII report. The report finds that climate change has detrimental effects on every continent, it warns about food and water shortages, rising sea levels, and serious impacts on human health and shows that current emission trends mean that the world will start exceeding limits to adaptation in both natural and human systems. For the first time the IPCC health chapter has a dedicated section to gender and covers the co-benefits of mitigating against climate change and improving health. These co-benefits include reducing local pollution and emissions of climate altering pollutants from energy production through shifting to renewables, better combustion and energy efficiency, shifting diets in rich countries to less animal products, redesigning communities to promote active transport and providing access to reproductive health ...
New paper finds climate sensitivity to CO2 is only 0.43C, about 7 times less than the IPCC claims. http://hockeyschtick.blogspot.com/2014/10/new-paper-finds-climate-sensitivity-to.html. A new paper published in the Open Journal of Atmospheric and Climate Change by renowned professor of physics and expert on spectroscopy Dr. Hermann Harde finds that climate sensitivity to a doubling of CO2 levels is only about 0.43C, about 7 times less than the IPCC claims, but in line with many other published low estimates of climate sensitivity. The paper further establishes that climate sensitivity to tiny changes in solar activity is comparable to that of CO2 and by no means insignificant as the IPCC prefers to claim. The following is a Google translation from the German EIKE site with an overview of the main findings of the paper, followed by a link to the full paper [in English]. Assessment of global warming due to CO2 and solar influence Currently climate sensitivity (eg (is again called times much about ...
Two well-known examples of global environmental problems are the ozone depletion and the enhanced greenhouse effect. The importance and the complexity of these questions generate a demand for improved atmospheric observations, and microwave radiometry is an approach which is increasingly important for measurements of the middle atmosphere (10-100 km). This technique is suitable for the detection of e.g. O|sub>3|/sub>, H|sub>2|/sub>O, ClO, HCl, N|sub>2|/sub>O and HNO|sub>3|/sub>, all of which are species with key roles for ozone chemistry and/or the greenhouse effect. An important step in the development of microwave radiometry will be taken by the Odin satellite, as it will carry the first sub-mm instrument for atmospheric observations from space.|p /> Microwave radiometry needs an inversion process to convert measured emission spectra to vertical distributions of the gases studied. The inversion forms an ill-posed problem, and requires that atmospheric radiative transfer and sensor characteristics can
To the editor: Stanford political scientist Jon A. Krosnick is puzzled that legislators ignore popular opinion on climate change. Years of polling data, he says, show a majority of people acknowledge climate change and that government needs to control greenhouse gas emissions. Krosnick wishes that polls played a more prominent role in governance. (Stanfords Jon Krosnick: On climate change, most Americans want action, op-ed, May 5). ...
Insurance Journal: ... 2007 marked a turning point on climate change. In February, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change issued the first of three reports. It confirmed: 1) the temperature in the atmosphere and the oceans has grown warmer and can be expected to continue to do so. 2) The amount of greenhouse gasses, mainly CO2 and some methane, has increased markedly since 1750. 3) These gasses are the most significant cause for the temperature increase. 4) Human activity is primarily responsible for their production. Examinations of the likely impact and the remedial steps needed to slow or reverse it followed. Al Gore also played a major role in this debate, going from politician to Oscar winning filmmaker - for An Inconvenient Truth - to Nobel Peace Prize winner (shared with the IPCC). But his political stances have alienated a lot of people, particularly in the United States. The insurance industry, however, has taken a leading role in documenting climate change and in attempting to ...
Successful regulation of greenhouse gas emissions requires knowledge of current methane emission sources. Existing state regulations in California and Massachusetts require ∼15% greenhouse gas emissions reductions from current levels by 2020. However, government estimates for total US methane emissions may be biased by 50%, and estimates of individual source sectors are even more uncertain. This study uses atmospheric methane observations to reduce this level of uncertainty. We find greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture and fossil fuel extraction and processing (i.e., oil and/or natural gas) are likely a factor of two or greater than cited in existing studies. Effective national and state greenhouse gas reduction strategies may be difficult to develop without appropriate estimates of methane emissions from these source sectors.. ...
Due to the increasing global population, the demand for energy resources is also growing quickly. As early as 2012, researchers reported that a large portion of the worldwide energy requirement (80%) is still fulfilled by fossil fuels, including petroleum, nature gases, and coal.1 However, the use of such resources results in an increased concentration of greenhouse gases (GHS) and many associated environmental problems, including climate change, acid rain, depletion of the ozone layer, sea level rises, and global warming.2,3 According to the studies of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the CO2 gas emitted by the burning of fossils fuel among all other anthropogenic gases is supposed to be the chief source of climate change and global warming.4,5 Thus in an ideal scenario, there should be a balance between CO2 production and consumption, but unfortunately this has been disrupted.6 It has been reported that the atmospheric level of CO2 reached up to ∼403.95 ppm by July 2017 ...
The National Center for Science Education (NCSE), in response to the proposed textbooks, released a report in September titled, Analysis of Climate Change in Proposed Social Studies Textbooks for Texas Public Schools. In this report they cite multiple instances where the textbooks were misleading or blatantly false in regards to climate change.. Several of the textbooks say that scientists disagree on what is causing climate change. The NCSE responds that, Scientists do not disagree about what is causing climate change, the vast majority (97% of climate papers and actively publishing climatologists (again 97%) agree that human activity is responsible.. In one instance the position of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) that climate change is due to human activities is contrasted with the opposing opinion of two employees of The Heartland Institute, neither of whom are scientists, who claim that scientists disagree on the cause. The Heartland Institute is a conservative ...
Recently, EPA Administrator Scott Pruitt and Energy Secretary Rick Perry have called for the establishment of an adversarial Red Team/Blue Team (RT/BT) process to assess the credibility of key findings of climate science. These highly publicized requests echo earlier calls for an RT/BT process by New York University physicist Steven Koonin. The underlying premise is that previous assessments of climate science are untrustworthy, self-serving, underestimate key uncertainties, and lack participation from critical voices. The implicit message in RT/BT requests is simple: only the current administration can conduct a fair and unbiased assessment of climate science.. Both the underlying premise and the implicit message are wrong. Climate science has been reviewed for decades, by the national academies of dozens of countries, relevant professional societies, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, and many other entities with real domain expertise. Review processes are arduous. They typically ...
COVID-19 has been the focus of a majority of countries around the world this year and rightfully so. The virus has already claimed over a million lives worldwide and infected over 34 million people. In Indonesia, there have been over 300,000 cases and over 11,000 deaths. A majority of the world went into lockdown in March and eased restrictions in July or August. These lockdowns took a toll on every economy as industrial production stopped and other industries, such as entertainment and leisure industries had no choice but to halt operations.. An imperative aspect of every nations COVID recovery plan is the revival of the economy, as many have lost their jobs, and several industries are expected to remain unprofitable. Indonesia has geared its focus towards this feat. The government previously allocated 90 trillion rupiahs towards climate change mitigation efforts, however, that figure has recently been reduced to 80 trillion rupiahs. Additionally, the Indonesian government has introduced a ...
In a new UN report released Monday morning (Japan time) scientists come to a stark conclusion: Unless the world changes course immediately and dramatically, the fundamental systems that support human civilization are at risk.. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Changes new report - seven years in the making - draws on widespread evidence of substantial climate change impacts on all continents and across the oceans. For the first time, the IPCC has scientifically linked the changing climate with the destabilization of nation states. It is also increasingly confident of serious effects on food crops, water supplies and human health, plus global species loss.. This is a follow-up to another major report issued last September, which concluded the scientific evidence for climate change was unequivocal, with human activity extremely likely to be the dominant cause. If Septembers report answered one question - Whats happening to the climate and why? - this one tackled a more ...
Solve a big problem and get a big reward. Thats how our market economy works. The granddaddy of problems in the 21st century is climate disruption. Our increasingly unstable climate brings unacceptable economic and social risks. Solving that problem means massive global investment in low-carbon energy technologies and infrastructure. The potential rewards are massive.. The threat of climate disruption is clear. The IPCCs (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) recent report - their Fifth Assessment - is but the latest in a series of increasingly urgent warnings from our most august institutions. The Royal Society, the US National Academies of Science, the International Energy Agency, NASA, the Pentagon - all confirm business as usual takes us to a dangerous place. We can no longer stop climate disruption, but we can slow it down - reducing the costs of adaptation: more extreme weather; increasing frequency of floods and droughts; rising ocean levels; food scarcity. The solution is to ...
The last glaciation centered on the huge ice sheets of North America and Eurasia. Considerable areas in the Alps, the Himalaya and the Andes were ice-covered, and Antarctica remained glaciated. The most intense part of the last glacial period was the last glacial maximum, which ran from 26,500 years ago to 20,000 years ago. According to Blue Marble 3000 (a video by the Zurich University of Applied Sciences), the average global temperature around 19,000 BC (about 21,000 years ago) was 9.0 °C (48.2 °F).[6] This is about 6.0 °C (10.8°F) colder than the 2013-2017 average. The figures given by the Intergovernmental Panel On Climate Change (IPCC) estimate a slightly lower global temperature than the figures given by the Zurich University of Applied Sciences. However, these figures arent exact figures and are open more to interpretation. According to the IPCC, average global temperatures increased by 5.5 ± 1.5 °C (9.9 ± 2.7 °F) since the last glacial maximum, and the rate of warming was about ...
Science forms the core of our understanding of the rapidly unfolding climate crisis, as well as the foundation upon which the world can and must build solutions.. Since 2012, the UN Foundation has supported the premiere global climate science body-the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)-to build and execute a communications strategy capable of breaking into the mainstream conversation. The IPCCs reports, and our work to communicate them to the public, are indispensable in informing both broad public understanding of the risks we face as well as the decisions that policymakers and elected officials need to make around the world. As we saw with the 2018 Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5°C, the IPCC has the power to permanently shift the global climate conversation through science.. ...
Faced with the ecological crisis, the cultural sector must question its ways of dealing with the challenges of sustainability. The international mobility of artists and other professionals involved in cultural events is constantly increasing, with the average carbon footprint of an exhibition proving enormous, including project design but also their transportation, installation and outlook. Is it therefore possible to attempt eco-design of cultural events? What tools and practices can be developed to improve the viability of a cultural initiative? More about Ocean Archive. Initiated by the TBA21-Academy, Ocean Archive is being developed by User Group in collaboration with Across the Cloud and Lucid.. Climate Justice for a Living Ocean is prompted by the release of the forthcoming Special Report on the Oceans and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate, to be issued by the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The event at the Ocean Space in Venice, Italy, convenes a network of ...
Average global temperatures have ticked up by about 0.8 degrees Celsius since 1880, and two-thirds of that increase has taken place since 1975, according to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. A variety of studies have concluded that current rates of fossil fuel emissions could push global temperatures up by as much as 6 degrees Celsius by 2100. To put that in context: A 2007 report by the U.N. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predicts that an increase of just 3.5 degrees would drive into extinction 40 to 70 percent of the species for which the impact of global warming has been studied. Terra incognitaWithout drastic changes to fossil fuel emissions, the impacts of global warming will land on the Bay Area with a brute force that pays no regard to our relatively liberal politics, farsighted state climate regulations or fondness for hybrid vehicles. By 2050, rising sea levels could put land around the bay equivalent in area to six San Franciscos at risk of serious flooding,
Emma Gattey. Scorchers: A climate fiction anthology, edited by Paul Mountfort and Rosslyn Prosser (Eunoia Publishing, 2020), 280pp., $29. At the time of writing, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has just released its report on the physical science basis of climate change, including the role of human influence and the state of knowledge about possible climate futures. The findings are terrifying, sobering, devastating. They are also entirely unsurprising. Beyond the realms of climate research and science communication (although often with considerable overlap), fiction writers are among those who have long been grappling with eco-anxiety, futility and the overwhelming question of how on earth to compel people to care, and to act.. Art as call to action, as science communication, as therapy, as igniting a fire under yourself and others: a call to witness … and to face the future as staunchly as we are able. This is Scorchers, to a tee. A wide-ranging anthology from sixteen ...
Greenhouse gas impacts of oil substitutes. *Brandt, A.R. (2011). Variability and uncertainty in life cycle assessment models for greenhouse gas emissions from Canadian oil sands production. In review: Environmental Science & Technology. *Brandt, A.R. (2011). Upstream greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from Canadian oil sands as a feedstock for European refineries. Prepared for European Commission. *Mulchandani, H, A. Brandt (2011). Oil shale as an energy resource in a CO2 constrainted world: The concept of electricity production with in situ carbon capture. Energy & Fuels. DOI: 10.1021/ef101714x. *Brandt, A.R., S. Unnasch (2010). Energy intensity and greenhouse gas emissions from thermal enhanced oil recovery. Energy & Fuels. DOI: 10.1021/ef100410f. *Yeh, S., S.M. Jordaan, A.R. Brandt, M. Turetsky, S. Spatari (2010). Land use greenhouse gas emissions from conventional and unconventional oil production. Environmental Science & Technology. DOI: 10.1021/es1013278. *Lemoine, D.M., R.J. Plevin, A.S.Cohn, ...
11 August 2021 Toronto, August 11, 2021 - The financial sector should move quickly to seize opportunities opening up to finance the economy of a greener tomorrow, the Global Risk Institute says in response to the report Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis, published August 9 by the United Nations working group Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).. In a short opinion article entitled, We Are on the Bell Lap: Top 5 Takeaways from the IPCCs New Climate Science Report, Canadas premier agency on risk management offers five key takeaways for financial institutions in response to the IPCCs latest report which sent a shot across the bow for humanity on the state of the climate.. Now is the time for Canada to come together across government, industry and academia and punch above our weight, says Sonia Baxendale, President and CEO, Global Risk Institute.. Industry must pick up the pace. We have an obligation to our stakeholders, shareholders and future generations to face ...
Agriculture accounts for 10 to 12% of the Worlds total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Manure management alone is responsible for 13% of GHG emissions from the agricultural sector. During the last decade, Québecs egg production systems have shifted from deep-pit housing systems to manure belt housing systems. The objective of this study was to measure and compare carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from three different cage layer housing systems: a deep liquid manure pit and a manure belt with natural or forced air drying. Deep liquid manure pit housing systems consist of
Meteorologists have determined exactly how much carbon dioxide humans can emit into the atmosphere while ensuring that the earth does not heat up by more than two degrees. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) calculated projected temperature changes for various scenarios in 2007 and researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg have now gone one step further: they have developed a new model that specifies the maximum volumes of carbon dioxide that humans may emit to remain below the critical threshold for climate warming of two degrees Celsius. To do this, the scientists incorporated into their calculations data relating to the carbon cycle, namely the volume of carbon dioxide absorbed and released by the oceans and forests. The aim of the international ENSEMBLES project is to simulate future changes in the global climate and carbon dioxide emissions and thereby to obtain more reliable threshold values on this basis. (Climatic Change, July 21, 2010). The ...
...Regional climate changes can be very rapid. A German-British team of g...The team around Christine Lane (Oxford University) and Achim Brauer fr...But how did the researcher revealed such a accurate time marking? 12 ...Furthermore lake sediments are very accurate climate archives especi...,Rapid,climate,changes,,but,with,a,120,year,time,lag,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Field experiments were conducted to examine the effect of rate, timing and history of urea-ammonium nitrate application on soil greenhouse gas (N2O, CO2 and CH4) emissions, and NUE (agronomic efficiency, AE, and recovery efficiency, RE) in corn at Elora, ON, Canada. Gas emissions were quantified at three rates (30, 145 and 218 kg N ha-1), two timings (N injected in mid-row at planting and at around the V8 growth stage), and two histories (short-term: applying the N rate treatments on plots that had received 145 kg N ha-1 in the previous year, and long-term: applying the same N rate to a given plot over the duration of the trial) of N application for two years (2011 and 2012). NUE was examined over four years (2009 to 2012) using the same treatments as for gas emissions as well as two additional N rates (58 and 87 kg N ha-1). In 2011 and 2012, cumulative N2O emissions during the growing season and corn yields increased significantly with increasing N application rates. Cumulative N2O emissions in ...
The global issue of climate change and an increasing interest in the reduction of fossil fuel carbon dioxide emissions by using forest biomass for energy production has increased the importance of forest biomass quantification in recent years. Different national and international reports have presented the amount of carbon sequestered by forest ecosystems. For example, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports that forests contain about 80% of aboveground and 40% of belowground carbon stock (IPCC 2007). Additionally, it is reported that the amount of carbon stored in dry wood is approximately 50% by weight (Brown 1986; Paladinic et al. 2009; Sedjo and Sohngen 2012).. Biomass, in general, includes both above and below ground living and dead mass of trees, shrubs, vines, and roots. However, most of the researches on biomass estimation have focused on aboveground biomass because of the difficulty in collecting belowground data (Lu 2006). The amount of biomass in a forest is influenced ...
Heat is the most direct route from climate change to human health. The links between high temperatures and increased mortality and morbidity have been described in great detail in many settings around the world,1 and the physiological mechanisms are well understood.2 The effects are frequently magnified when there are consecutive days of very high temperatures (heat waves). Indeed extreme events such as the European heat wave of 2003 may provide some of the first evidence of impacts of climate change on human health. (The probability that the 2003 heat wave was caused by human modification of the global climate is more than 75%, according to one recent estimate3: it is more likely than not that the heat wave, and the accompanying tens of thousands of excess deaths, can be attributed to climate change.). It is virtually certain, according to the most recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate (IPCC) assessment of the science of climate change, that there will be warmer and/or more frequent hot ...
14 November 2002 CIESIN is pleased to announce the availability of a new set of disaggregated population and income projections derived from the scenarios developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). These national-level estimates of population and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) density for 1990-2100 and gridded population and GDP estimates for 1990 and 2025 were developed under the guidance of the IPCC Task Group on Scenarios for Climate Impact Assessment (TGCIA). The data are accessible through the IPCC Socioeconomic Data Distribution Centre hosted by SEDAC. The site also contains a draft guidance paper and other supporting documentation. see: http://sres.ciesin.columbia.edu/tgcia/ ...
The Motion proposed by Councillor Glover that was passed.. Pursuant to Procedure Rule 12, the Corporate Director of Governance and Regulatory Services to report the receipt of the following motion submitted on notice by Councillor Glover:. Extreme weather events over the last few years have presented severe challenges to property, transport, agriculture and other services in the Carlisle area and have led to the deaths and displacement of thousands of people worldwide. The MET Office clearly states that these kind of extreme weather events are significantly more likely on a planet with human-caused climate change.. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 1.5C report, published in October 2018, humanity has 11 years for ambitious action from national and sub-national authorities, civil society, the private sector, indigenous peoples and local communities to deliver the rapid and far-reaching transitions in land, energy, industry, buildings, transport, and cities needed to ...
Guest essay by Dr. Tim Ball. Liberty cannot be preserved without a general knowledge among the people, who have a right, from the frame of their nature, to knowledge, as their great Creator, who does nothing in vain, has given them understandings, and a desire to know; but besides this, they have a right, an indisputable, unalienable, indefeasible, divine right to that most dreaded and envied kind of knowledge; I mean, of the characters and conduct of their rulers. - John Adams, Dissertation on Canon and Feudal Law, 1765. The 2001 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Report included evidence in the form of a hockey stick graph, showing that the Medieval Warm Period (MWP) did not exist. Less prominent, but just as wrong, was erasure of the Little Ice Age (LIA). Proponents of the IPCC hypothesis that human CO2 is causing global warming were mainly connected with the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) at the University of East Anglia. Leaked CRU emails, beginning with 1000 in late 2009, ...
Greenhouse Gas Emissions Regulations:. Nova Scotia has implemented a mandatory declining cap on GHG emissions from electricity generation facilities. From a baseline of 10.2 MT (2007) the decreases are scheduled in progressive steps so the emissions will decline to 7,500 kt or below by 2020 and further to 4,500 kt or below by 2030. As outlined in An Agreement on the Equivalency of Federal and Nova Scotia Regulations for the Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Producers in Nova Scotia, the provisions of the Government of Canadas Reduction of Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-Fired Generation of Electricity Regulations do not apply in Nova Scotia because the Nova Scotia Greenhouse Gas Emissions Regulations achieve an equivalent outcome.. Renewable Electricity Regulations:. These Regulations require 25% of electricity supply to be generated from renewable sources by 2015 and 40% by 2020. This will involve the adoption of a diverse mix of energy sources including wind, tidal, ...
Carbon dioxide equivalent. Carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) is a measure used to convert the masses of each of the greenhouse gases to a mass of CO2 that would give the equivalent global warming potential generally over a 100 year timeframe. Carbon dioxide equivalency thus reflects the time-integrated radiative forcing of a quantity of emissions or rate of greenhouse gas emission. For example, methane has a CO2-e 25 times that of CO2, and nitrous oxide 298 times. Carbon dioxide intensity and carbon dioxide per capita Alternatives to total emissions for measuring a nation?s greenhouse gas emissions. Carbon intensity measures emissions per unit of gross domestic product. Carbon dioxide per capita measures emissions per person. Both measures can be used to look at emission differences between nations. For example, while China has recently taken the lead in total greenhouse gas emissions, its per capita emissions level is far lower than that in most industrial countries. ...
A series of international meetings on climate policy were held starting in 1990 and culminating in the Kyoto Protocol of 1997, which called for significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Since then substantial differences have developed between the American and European Union approaches to Kyoto. Dr. Thorning will discuss the economic, political and cultural fctors leading to the differences in climate change policies favored by the U.S. and the E.U. She will also discuss recent changes in the E.U. climate change policy and explore options for a global solution to the potential threat of climate change.. Dr. Thorning is Senior Vice President and Chief Economist of the American Council for Capital Formation. She also serves as Senior Vice President and Director of Research for the ACFF Center for Policy Research, which focues on tax and environmental policies. Previously she served at the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. Department of Commerce and the Federal Trade Commission. Dr. ...
Oklahoma State System of Higher Education Annual Student Assessment Report June 23, 2011 OKLAHOMA STATE REGENTS FOR HIGHER EDUCATION Joseph L. Parker Chairman Tulsa William Stuart Price Marlin Ike Glass, Jr. Tulsa Secretary Newkirk Michael C. Turpin James D. Jimmy Harrel Oklahoma City Assistant Secretary Leedy Julie Carson Don Davis Vice Chair Lawton Claremore Ronald H. White John Massey Oklahoma City Durant Glen D. Johnson Chancellor The Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education in compliance with Titles VI and VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Executive Order 11236 as amended, Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 and other federal laws do not discriminate on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, age, religion, handicap, or status as a veteran in any of its policies, practices, or procedures. This includes but is not limited to admissions, employment, financial aid, and educational services. This publication is issued by the ...
Oklahoma State System of Higher Education Annual Student Assessment Report June 23, 2011 OKLAHOMA STATE REGENTS FOR HIGHER EDUCATION Joseph L. Parker Chairman Tulsa William Stuart Price Marlin Ike Glass, Jr. Tulsa Secretary Newkirk Michael C. Turpin James D. Jimmy Harrel Oklahoma City Assistant Secretary Leedy Julie Carson Don Davis Vice Chair Lawton Claremore Ronald H. White John Massey Oklahoma City Durant Glen D. Johnson Chancellor The Oklahoma State Regents for Higher Education in compliance with Titles VI and VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, Executive Order 11236 as amended, Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 and other federal laws do not discriminate on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex, age, religion, handicap, or status as a veteran in any of its policies, practices, or procedures. This includes but is not limited to admissions, employment, financial aid, and educational services. This publication is issued by the ...