One of the fundamental questions for someone interested in the impact of doubled CO2 is exactly how (1) the greenhouse effect works; and (2) how the enhanced greenhouse effect works. AR4 FAQ 3.1 poses the question: Im going to show their answer to this question in full because the answer does not rise about a…
Although the bulk of photovoltaic devices today are used for purely practical and economic reasons, a potential benefit of photovoltaics is that PV is one of the most environmentally benign of any electricity generating source. The environmental impact of electricity generation, particularly the greenhouse effect, adds an important reason for examining photovoltaics. A brief overview of the greenhouse effect is given below.. The Earths temperature is a result of an equilibrium established between the incoming radiation from the sun and the energy radiated into space by the Earth. The outgoing radiation emitted by the Earth is strongly affected by the presence and composition of the Earths atmosphere. If we had no atmosphere, as on the moon, the average temperature on the Earths surface would be about -18°C. However, a natural background level of 270 ppm carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmosphere absorbs outgoing radiation, thereby keeping this energy in the atmosphere and warming the Earth. The ...
How the Greenhouse Effect Occurs. While the greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon by which planet earth sustains its life, some people think of it as being synonymous with climate...
Greenhouses allow gardeners to grow plants in cold weather. This is because the air inside the greenhouse stays warmer than the outside air. Short wavelength radiation from the sun passes through the glass, warming the interior of the greenhouse. The longer-wavelength radiation emitted does not pass through glass and is trapped in the greenhouse. This, along with the lack of mixing between the inside and outside air, keeps the greenhouse consistently warm.. On a larger scale, the greenhouse effect helps keep our planet warm. Short wavelength radiation from the sun passes through the atmosphere, warming the Earth. The longer wavelength energy is then trapped by certain gases called greenhouse gases. The greenhouse gases most responsible are water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide.. In this experiment, you will use two Temperature Probes to measure and compare the temperatures in model greenhouses under various conditions. In Part I, you will investigate the role of a plastic ...
This 877 word essay is about Greenhouse gases, Climate change, Climate forcing, Atmospheric thermodynamics, Atmosphere, Greenhouse effect. Read the full essay now!
The third assessment report (TAR) prominently featured[124] a graph labeled Millennial Northern Hemisphere temperature reconstruction based on a 1999 paper by Michael E. Mann, Raymond S. Bradley and Malcolm K. Hughes (MBH99), which has been referred to as the hockey stick graph. This graph extended the similar graph in Figure 3.20 from the IPCC Second Assessment Report of 1995, and differed from a schematic in the first assessment report that lacked temperature units, but appeared to depict larger global temperature variations over the past 1000 years, and higher temperatures during the Medieval Warm Period than the mid 20th century. The schematic was not an actual plot of data, and was based on a diagram of temperatures in central England, with temperatures increased on the basis of documentary evidence of Medieval vineyards in England. Even with this increase, the maximum it showed for the Medieval Warm Period did not reach temperatures recorded in central England in 2007.[123] The MBH99 ...
Greenhouse Effect 1The Greenhouse EffectGreenhouse Effect 2When one starts a car or burns wood, the last thought on their mind is the consequences to these actions. Unfortunately, the daily dangers to earth are not widely know. Due to the constant chan...
The greenhouse effect is fundamental physics. People who cant accept that fact, make it more difficult for skeptics to get their message out. Dont do that.
The greenhouse effect is fundamental physics. People who cant accept that fact, make it more difficult for skeptics to get their message out. Dont do that.
Factory Dairy Farms Have Excessive Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Carcinogen Emissions Due to Long Trucking Distances for Forage Crop and Waste Transport Factory dairy farms have extremely high greenhouse gas emissions and carcinogen emissions due to several energy use factors. The magnitude of these emissions are such that any greenhouse gas emissions reductions that might…
The anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Brazil were until recently dominated by those derived from deforestation (LULUCF), principally biomass burning in the Amazon region. However, since 2004 such emissions have been greatly reduced such that at the 2010 inventory compared to that of 2005 estimates of total GHG emissions were reduced from 2,730 Tg to 1,260 Tg CO2eq, a reduction of 54% in 5 years. This reduction in the LULUCF sector has brought into focus the large emissions in the agriculture sector, which is now the largest, somewhat more than those from LULUCF and the energy generation/transport sectors. Within the agriculture sector, only emissions of nitrous oxide and methane are counted. The largest single emission, which constitutes approximately 60% of all the agriculture sector emissions, is enteric methane from Brazils national herd of approximately 200 million cattle. There is an ongoing effort in Brazil to estimate these emissions more accurately as in contrast to almost ...
The outcome of the summit was an agreement adopted by the states parties that called for a large Green Climate Fund, and a Climate Technology Centre and network. It looked forward to a second commitment period for the Kyoto Protocol. The agreement recognizes that climate change represents an urgent and potentially irreversible threat to human societies and the planet, which needs to be urgently addressed by all parties. It affirms that climate change is one of the greatest challenges of our time and that all parties must share a vision for long-term cooperative action in order to achieve the objective of the Convention, including the achievement of a global goal. It recognizes that warming of the climate system is scientifically verified and that most of the observed increase in global average temperatures since the mid twentieth century are very likely due to the observed increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gas concentrations, as assessed by the IPCC in its Fourth Assessment Report. The ...
Arrhenius was referring to a potential modification of what we now call the greenhouse effect. Shortwave solar radiation can pass through the clear atmosphere relatively unimpeded, but longwave infrared radiation emitted by the warm surface of the Earth is absorbed partially and then re-emitted by a number of trace gases-particularly water vapor and carbon dioxide-in the cooler atmosphere above. Because, on average, the outgoing infrared radiation balances the incoming solar radiation, both the atmosphere and the surface will be warmer than they would be without the greenhouse gases. One should distinguish between the natural and a possible enhanced greenhouse effect. The natural greenhouse effect causes the mean temperature of the Earths surface to be about 33 degrees C warmer than it would be if natural greenhouse gases were not present. ...
The title here should strike a familiar theme for most readers. Climate forcings do not just include CO2 (other greenhouse gases, aerosols, land use, the sun, the orbit and volcanoes all contribute), and the impact of human emissions often has non-climatic effects on biology and ecosystems. First up last week was a call from Michael Prather and colleagues that the production of a previously neglected greenhouse gas (NF3) was increasing and could become a significant radiative forcing. This paper was basically an update of calculations done for the IPCC combined with new information about the production of this non-Kyoto gas.. Most of the media stories that picked this up focused on the use of this gas in a particular manufacturing process - flat screen TVs. Thus the headlines almost all read something like Flat-screen TVs cause global warming! (see here, here, here etc.). Unfortunately, very few of the headline writers read the small print.. NF3 is indeed a more powerful greenhouse gas than ...
Define greenhouse gases. greenhouse gases synonyms, greenhouse gases pronunciation, greenhouse gases translation, English dictionary definition of greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbons, nitrous oxide and low-level ozone. See greenhouse effect. Dictionary of Unfamiliar Words by Diagram Group...
We see a dip in the emission curve in a band around 15 mu m emitted at a temperature 220 K from a height of a bit less than 20 km, while outside the band the radiation is emitted from the Earth surface at about 270 K. The dip comes from the greenhouse gases (mainly water vapour and some CO2) which absorb radiation from the Earth surface emitted at 270 say and and re-emitting less radiation at 220 K and thus acting as a warming blanket causing the radiative forcing of the greenhouse effect. The idea is that the greenhouse effect corresponds to the area of the dip shows the greenhouse effect as a combined effect of water vapor and ...
Scientists who research thermal radiation in the Earths atmosphere are confident that we have a very detailed and accurate understanding of the nature of the greenhouse effect of carbon dioxide (CO2), including the impact of rising CO2 levels. Recently I participated in a study that provided the first direct observation at the surface of the Earths increased greenhouse effect due to rising CO2 levels. This represents an important milestone in the detection of the increased greenhouse effect due to fossil fuel emissions.. ...
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION This invention relates to a method for the reduction of global warming resulting from the greenhouse effect, and in particular to a method which involves the seeding of the earths stratosphere with Welsbach-like materials. Global warming has been a great concern of many environmental scientists. Scientists believe that the greenhouse effect is responsible for global warming. Greatly increased amounts of heat-trapping gases have been generated since the Industrial Revolution. These gases, such as CO.sub.2, CFC, and methane, accumulate in the atmosphere and allow sunlight to stream in freely but block heat from escaping (greenhouse effect). These gases are relatively transparent to sunshine but absorb strongly the long-wavelength infrared radiation released by the earth. Most current approaches to reduce global warming are to restrict the release of various greenhouse gases, such as CO.sub.2, CFC, and methane. These imply the need to establish new regulations and the ...
A natural system known as the greenhouse effect regulates the temperature on Earth. Human activities have the potential to disrupt the balance of this system by increasing the amount of heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere which enhances the warming capability of the natural greenhouse effect. It is the human-induced enhanced greenhouse effect that causes environmental concern. It has the potential to warm the planet at a rate that has never been experienced in human history ...
Nevertheless, we can provide some information on the time-scale for detection by using the unprecedented change concept mentioned briefly in Section 8.14. This should provide an upper bound to the time of detection since more sophisticated methods should produce earlier results. We take a conservative view as a starting point namely that the magnitude of natural variability is such that all of the warming of the past century could be attributed to this cause. (Note that this is not the same as denying the existence of an enhanced greenhouse effect. With such a noise level the past warming could be explained as a 1°C greenhouse effect offset by 0.5°C natural variability.) We then assume, again somewhat arbitrarily that a further 0.5°C warming (i.e., a total warming of 1°C since the late nineteenth century) is required before we could say with high confidence, that the only possible explanation would be that the enhanced greenhouse effect was as strong as predicted by climate models. Given the ...
Carbon dioxide, the famous and vital to life gas, is also an important greenhouse gas. Since the combustion of fuels leads to the production of carbon dioxide it had to be expected that since the industrial revolution the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere was to be rapidly increased.. When the consequences and the causes of the greenhouse effect were understood, serious efforts were made by the global community to reduce the greenhouse gases production and CO2 among them. The Kyoto Protocol, an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, commits State Parties, also EU among them, to reduce the greenhouse gases by setting internationally binding emission reduction targets. The first commitment period started in 2008 and ended in 2012 and had as goal an average 5% reduction of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, whereas during the second commitment period (2013-2020) the parties committed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions at ...
The EPA, politicians, news media and other opinion makers rely heavily on the assertions by the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) that increased CO2 emissions cause global warming. The United Nations established the IPCC not to investigate global warming but to find a human cause for global warming. IPCC rules require all assertions in its assessment reports to be based on published papers in refereed scientific journals. That procedure was flagrantly violated in its Fourth Assessment Report. That report listed the World Wildlife Fund as the source for sixteen of its assertions, including that Himalayan glaciers would disappear by 2035. The WWF is an environmental advocacy group with no refereed journal but a well-deserved reputation for exaggerated, unsupported claims. The IPCC Fourth Assessment Report also cited a Greenpeace report, a mountaineering magazine and a student paper as sources. Obviously, the IPCC would not be using these unscientific sources if it ...
Despite the addition of West Campus, the University is still on track to meet its greenhouse gas emissions reduction goals for 2020. Over the past […]
Climate change refers to the fluctuation of the climate system caused by the energy entering and leaving Earth. The greenhouse effect, which refers to how greenhouse gases (GHGs) act like a blanket and prevent the loss of Earths heat to space, has occurred naturally throughout Earths history. However, since the Industrial Revolution, human activities have increased the greenhouse effect with various activities, causing a steady increase in the Earths temperature.. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the primary GHG produced by human activities, such as the combustion of fossil fuels (coal, natural gas, and oil) for energy and transportation. Although CO2 is naturally present in Earths atmosphere, it is thought that the human activities are responsible for the increase in atmospheric CO2. Since the pre-Industrial times (before around 1750), the atmospheric CO2 has increased by 40%. In the United States alone, CO2 emission has increased 9% between 1990 and 2014.. Currently, people are encouraged to fight ...
It is tempting, in the face of rising temperatures, to draw comparisons between the warming at the end of glacial periods and the projected melting of the remaining ice sheets on Greenland and Antarctica. The underlying causes of the deglaciation - subtle changes in incoming solar radiation as the Earths orbit around the Sun evolved - were far slower than the changes in radiative forcing that are attributable to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, and direct comparisons cannot be made. But in view of the climatic complications during the last deglaciation, the response to future climate change might be far from gradual. ...
Gas emissions from human activity are threating our health and environment. For instance, motor vehicles are a significant source of urban air pollutions (e.g. NOx, CO and SO2) and are increasingly important contributors of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs, e.g. CO2, and NO2). From livestock sector in rural area, the emission of CH4 in particular is also one of the largest sources of GHGs globally. A novel technology, which combines solar up-drafting devices and photocatalysis was proposed recently by Dr de Richter et al to transform those air pollutions and GHGs into benign atmospheric gases. The figure illustrates the principle and some examples. This studentship will involve building a rig, and aim to investigate and optimise the choice of catalysts and their operating conditions for the elimination of different target gases in urban and rural environments.. Collaborators: Pilkington Technology Management Ltd., Dr Renaud de Richter (University of Montpellier, France), Prof Philip Davies ...
The present study focused on the East Asia, especially China for the past few decades to investigate (1) relationship between the change in human activities such as economy and industry and the change in emissions of a anthropogenic gasses and aerosols, and (2) the influence of the emitted gases and aerosols on the climate change and air pollution.. The macroanalysis of economy was performed as planned. The economic development in the East Asian countries led by the industrialization brought increases in energy consumption and emissions of CO2, SO2 and others. However, SO2 emission has not increased so much as expected. The emission density of CO2 has not increased or has decreased due to an improvement of energy efficiency.. The emission inventory was developed according to the initial plan, which includes anthropogenic greenhouse gases, aerosols, and precursors of aerosols for the period, 1980-2003. Figure 1, for example, shows the changes in the amount of the emission of SO2, NOx, and Black ...
At the end of November, governments will come together in Paris to hammer out agreements for a successor to the Kyoto Protocol. Under the KP, there are two greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions offsetting
Fifth Assessment Report - Mitigation of Climate Change assesses the options for mitigating climate change and their underlying technological, economic and institutional requirements. It transparently lays out risks, uncertainty and ethical foundations of climate change mitigation policies on the global, national and sub-national level, investigates mitigation measures for all major sectors and assesses investment and finance issues.
By the end of this century, natural methane (CH4) emissions from wetlands are projected to increase by up to 80%, compared with the beginning of the century, if no concrete actions are taken to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, a JRC led study finds.
Why? Because plant-based proteins take fewer resources-energy, water, fuel-to produce than animal-based proteins. Its no secret that conventional (factory farmed) dairy production is not easy on the environment. The global dairy sector contributes 4% to the total global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions.4 Whey is a byproduct of the dairy industry, which uses more water, energy and fuel to produce than plant-based proteins-while emitting more greenhouse gases.. Because Vega Sport Performance Protein is more than just a protein (hello performance ingredients!), has a very comparable amino acid profile to whey, is clean, plant-based and more sustainable to whey, why not give it a try? Try Vega Sport Performance Protein now to recover faster, train again sooner and perform better.. Try this! A protein-packed taste of the tropics, this Vega Sport Pineapple Mango Smoothie is the perfect recovery after a hot run or bike ride.. ...
IPCC (2007). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Solomon S., Qin D., Manning M., Chen Z., Marquis M., Averyt K.B., Tignor M., and Miller H.L. (eds.). http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_ipcc_fourth_assessment_report_synthesis_report.htm ...
IPCC (2007). Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Solomon S., Qin D., Manning M., Chen Z., Marquis M., Averyt K.B., Tignor M., and Miller H.L. (eds.). http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_ipcc_fourth_assessment_report_synthesis_report.htm ...
Map of the observed surface temperature change from 1901 to 2012 derived from temperature trends determined by linear regression from one dataset (orange line in panel a). Trends have been calculated where data availability permits a robust estimate (i.e., only for grid boxes with greater than 70% complete records and more than 20% data availability in the first and last 10% of the time period). Other areas are white. Grid boxes where the trend is significant at the 10% level are indicated by a + sign. (Graphic from the The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) less ...
Smith P, Bustamante M, Ahammad H, et al. Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU). In: Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change . Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.; 2014:811-922. Available at: https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg3/agriculture-forestry-and-other-land-use-afolu/. ...
Smith P, Bustamante M, Ahammad H, et al. Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU). In: Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change . Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.; 2014:811-922. Available at: https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar5/wg3/agriculture-forestry-and-other-land-use-afolu/. ...
Anthropogenic climate change results from economic activities increasing the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane, which increase the heat-trapping capacity of the lower atmosphere, resulting in global warming with surface temperatures and the annual number of dry days and hot nights increasing over time. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC),1 a scientific intergovernmental body established in 1988 and tasked with evaluating the risks of anthropogenic climate change, predicts increased frequency and intensity of extreme events (extreme heat, severe storms, droughts, and floods). The global average sea level rose by 1.8±0.5 mm per year between 1961 and 1990 and 3.1±0.7 mm per year from 1993 to 2003 as a result of thermal expansion of ocean water and melting land-based glaciers and icesheets. Precipitation has increased in some regions while decreasing in others.. Mitigation or primary prevention focuses on reduction of GHG emissions and ...
The typical Western diet is associated with high levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and with obesity and other diet-related diseases. This study aims to determine the impact of adjustments to the current diet at specific moments of food consumption, to lower GHG emissions and improve diet quality. Food consumption in the Netherlands was assessed by two non-consecutive 24-h recalls for adults aged 19-69 years (n = 2102). GHG emission of food consumption was evaluated with the use of life cycle assessments. The population was stratified by gender and according to tertiles of dietary GHG emission. Scenarios were developed to lower GHG emissions of people in the highest tertile of dietary GHG emission; 1) reducing red and processed meat consumed during dinner by 50% and 75%, 2) replacing 50% and 100% of alcoholic and soft drinks (including fruit and vegetable juice and mineral water) by tap water, 3) replacing cheese consumed in between meals by plant-based alternatives and 4) two combinations of
Feared Trout Drop-off Signals Climate Shift in Montana Warmer temperatures and a longer summer drought season in Montana are expected to have significant impacts on the states trout fishing industry and ecosystem. In a special report, Heidi Cullen of Climate Central examines how climate-related changes are affecting Montana.. ...
Many studies have documented the gender imbalance in science and have explored the reasons that women are not included or represented, especially at more senior levels of research (8⇓⇓⇓⇓-13). A 2013 special report in the journal Nature concludes that, despite some improvements, female scientists continue to face discrimination, unequal pay, and funding disparities and notes that, internationally, 70% of men and women view science as a male pursuit (14). Women face barriers associated with their family responsibilities and are poorly represented in journals and citations (15⇓⇓-18). Including women in research teams enhances innovation and discovery (19⇓-21). Claims about data and explanations of womens underrepresentation in science can be controversial with some suggesting women choose to not pursue a career in science and others recognizing more structural causes (17, 22⇓-24). In our own discipline of geography, several studies have identified barriers facing women in physical ...
Growing food could become harder which could lead to a food crisis says the latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The apex body on climate change science released its report on March 31, 2014 in Yokohama Japan. It paints a very disturbing picture for the years to come. This report-Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability-has been prepared by the Working Group II of the IPCC and details the impacts of climate change that have already occurred, the future risks from a changing climate, and scope of reducing these risks ...
To study the sensitivity of Earths ecological systems to climate change, the scientists used a computer model that predicts the type of plant community that is uniquely adapted to any climate on Earth. This model was used to simulate the future state of Earths natural vegetation in harmony with climate projections from 10 different global climate simulations. These simulations are based on the intermediate greenhouse gas scenario in the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report. That scenario assumes greenhouse gas levels will double by 2100 and then level off. The U.N. reports climate simulations predict a warmer and wetter Earth, with global temperature increases of 3.6 to 7.2 degrees Fahrenheit (2 to 4 degrees Celsius) by 2100, about the same warming that occurred following the Last Glacial Maximum almost 20,000 years ago, except about 100 times faster. Under the scenario, some regions become wetter because of enhanced evaporation, while others ...
May 11th, 2015 - The GCC Option 1 Project Profiles, including the emissions reductions calculators, have been updated to fall in line with the Global Warming Potentials (GWP) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) 4th Assessment Report. Notable changes include increasing the GWP of methane to 25 from 21 and decreasing the GWP of nitrous oxide from 310 to 298.. April 21st, 2015 - The GCC Option 1 Organics Waste Composting Profile has been updated with clarifying language on industrial, commercial and institutional (ICI) organics. Please note ICI organics are eligible under this project profile as long as a local government can demonstrate ownership of the GHG emission reductions.. Other recent updates to Version 3.0 of the Organics Waste Composting Project Profile provide guidance on estimating the amount of greenhouse gas emissions that can be reduced from a local governments corporate carbon footprint by diverting household organic waste into a centralized community composting ...
The Greenhouse gas footprint, or GHG footprint, refers to the amount of greenhouse gases that are emitted during the creation of products or services. It is more comprehensive than the commonly used carbon footprint, which measures only carbon dioxide, one of many greenhouse gases. Human activities are one of the main causes of greenhouse gas. These increase the earths temperature and are emitted from fossil fuel usage in electricity and other byproducts of manufacturing. The major effects mainly consist of extreme climate changes, such as extreme precipitation and acidification and warming of oceans. Climate change has been occurring since the start of the Industrial Revolution in the 1820s. Due to humans heavy reliance on fossil fuels, energy usage, and constant deforestation, the amount of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere is increasing, which makes reducing a greenhouse gas footprint harder to achieve. However, there are several ways to reduce ones greenhouse gas footprint, such as using ...
At a workshop discussing what the take homes for Asian countries might be from the latest assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) - AR5 - it was pointed out that there wasnt enough science coming out of developing countries to feed the database on emissions or warming in the larger climate change debate. Local scientists need to conduct more climate change related experiments, write more scientific papers and bolster regional science in order to make a case for these developing countries in the international discourse on climate change.. We also need more authors from the developing world to participate in writing the chapters for the IPCC reports, says Jonathan Lynn, Head of Communication at the IPCC. Lynn says though there is substantial science emanating from India now, some other small Asian countries such as Indonesia lag far behind. The IPCC collates scientific data from across the world to make predictions for future scenarios with the help of ...
The UN's Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has today released the final synthesis report for its Fifth Assessment Report on the current scientific knowledge around our changing climate.
The atmosphere and surface of the system is like a huge glass house so that the surface has always maintained a certain temperature, produced for human and other organisms living environment. In this system, both to solar radiation through the atmosphere and reach the ground, while ground radiation to prevent loss, we have the atmosphere of this effect on the ground called the atmospheric greenhouse effect. Greenhouse gases called greenhouse gases, which allows free passage of solar radiation, while absorbing surface long-wave radiation issue. These gases are carbon dioxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbons, ozone, nitrogen oxides and steam, etc., most notably carbon dioxide. The past century the global climate is gradually warming, with the same time, atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases are rapidly increasing. Many scientists agree that emissions of greenhouse gases caused by a large number of aggravating the greenhouse effect may be the underlying causes of global warming ...
Climate change mitigation requires action in all spheres of society. The role of household consumption is often overlooked. However, 72% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are related to household consumption, while the rest stem from government consumption and investments. The result from a Finnish study is quite similar: households accounted for 68% of the GHG emissions of domestic final consumption in Finland, whereas government consumption and investments were responsible for the other 32% .. The key question in this report is: How much can a typical Finn decrease ones GHG emissions with consumption decisions? To address this question, we took the average GHG emissions from consumption as a starting point. In Finland in 2010, the average per capita GHG emissions from consumption expenditure was 11.5 tonnes of CO2e. Between 2000 and 2013, the average per capita GHG emissions fluctuated from 9.6 tonnes to 11.8 tonnes. The per capita consumption carbon footprint in Finland is on the high ...
The decisions we make every day, such as how we live and move around, (mitigation) have an impact on emissions that contribute to poor air quality and climate change. The effects of climate change, such as significantly more intense storms and flooding will also impact our everyday lives (adaptation). Initiatives to reduce air emissions can also help reduce the greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change, and vice versa. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change stated that human influence on the climate system is clear. The atmospheric concentration of key greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) is unprecedented in the last 800,000 years, with our fossil fuel driven economies and the increase in population to blame.. ...
Climate change adaptation is the ability of a society or a natural system to adjust to the (changing) conditions that support life in a certain climate region, including weather extremes in that region. The current discussion on climate change adaptation began in the 1990s, with the publication of the Assessment Reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Since the beginning of the 21st century, most countries, and many regions and municipalities have started to develop and implement climate change adaptation strategies and plans. But since the implementation of adaptation measures must be planned and conducted at the local level, a major challenge is to actually implement adaptation to climate change in practice. One challenge is that scientific results are mainly published on international or national levels, and political guidelines are written at transnational (e.g., European Union), national, or regional levels-these scientific results must be downscaled, interpreted, ...
The scientific basis for this potentially cataclysmic warming of the Earth s climate is confirmed by reports of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, an international body of over 1,000 climate scientists from 100 countries that is considered the world s most authoritative source of information on global warming. Emission of greenhouse gases caused by human consumption of fossil fuels, it believes, may lead to a peak in the Earth s temperature to the same level of global warming that it had 35 million years ago, before the appearance of ice sheets in Antarctica.. A recent climate change study commissioned by the U.S. Department of Defense concludes that abrupt climate change and ensuing environmental and social emergencies may accelerate on Earth as soon as the period 2015 to 2020. The collapse of the ocean conveyer climate system is predicted to accelerate abrupt climate change, resulting in food and water shortage, and massive population dislocations.. Unless a global strategy for ...
1] Confidence in estimates of anthropogenic climate change is limited by known issues with air temperature observations from land stations. Station siting, instrument changes, changing observing practices, urban effects, land cover, land use variations, and statistical processing have all been hypothesized as affecting the trends presented by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and others. Any artifacts in the observed decadal and centennial variations associated with these issues could have important consequences for scientific understanding and climate policy. We use a completely different approach to investigate global land warming over the 20th century. We have ignored all air temperature observations and instead inferred them from observations of barometric pressure, sea surface temperature, and sea-ice concentration using a physically-based data assimilation system called the 20th century Reanalysis. This independent dataset reproduces both annual variations and centennial trends ...
Unlike many other greenhouse gases, fluorinated gases have no natural sources and only come from human-related activities. They are emitted through their use as substitutes for ozone-depleting substances (e.g., as refrigerants) and through a variety of industrial processes such as aluminum and semiconductor manufacturing. Many fluorinated gases have very high global warming potentials (GWPs) relative to other greenhouse gases, so small atmospheric concentrations can have disproportionately large effects on global temperatures. They can also have long atmospheric lifetimes-in some cases, lasting thousands of years. Like other long-lived greenhouse gases, most fluorinated gases are well-mixed in the atmosphere, spreading around the world after they are emitted. Many fluorinated gases are removed from the atmosphere only when they are destroyed by sunlight in the far upper atmosphere. In general, fluorinated gases are the most potent and longest lasting type of greenhouse gases emitted by human ...
The UN IPCC scientists who write the reports which guide international energy policy on fossil fuel use operate under the assumption that the climate system has a preferred, natural and constant average state which is only deviated from through the meddling of humans. They construct their climate models so that the models do not produce any warming or cooling unless they are forced to through increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gases, aerosols, or volcanic eruptions. This imposed behavior of their control runs is admittedly necessary because various physical processes in the models are not known well enough from observations and first principles, and so the models must be tinkered with until they produce what might be considered to be the null hypothesis behavior, which in their worldview means no long-term warming or cooling.. What Id like to discuss here is NOT whether there are other external forcing agents of climate change, such as the sun. That is a valuable discussion, but not what ...
The UN IPCC scientists who write the reports which guide international energy policy on fossil fuel use operate under the assumption that the climate system has a preferred, natural and constant average state which is only deviated from through the meddling of humans. They construct their climate models so that the models do not produce any warming or cooling unless they are forced to through increasing anthropogenic greenhouse gases, aerosols, or volcanic eruptions. This imposed behavior of their control runs is admittedly necessary because various physical processes in the models are not known well enough from observations and first principles, and so the models must be tinkered with until they produce what might be considered to be the null hypothesis behavior, which in their worldview means no long-term warming or cooling.. What Id like to discuss here is NOT whether there are other external forcing agents of climate change, such as the sun. That is a valuable discussion, but not what ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Norwegian version of the Juvenile Arthritis Multidimensional Assessment Report (JAMAR). AU - Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation (PRINTO). AU - Flato, Berit. AU - Rygg, Marite. AU - Nordal, Ellen Berit. AU - Røisland, Mona. AU - Ødegård, Hanne Beate. AU - Hoftun, Gry Børmark. AU - Songstad, Nils Thomas. AU - Consolaro, Alessandro. AU - Bovis, Francesca. AU - Ruperto, Nicolino. PY - 2018/4. Y1 - 2018/4. N2 - The Juvenile Arthritis Multidimensional Assessment Report (JAMAR) is a new parent/patient-reported outcome measure that enables a thorough assessment of the disease status in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). We report the results of the cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the parent and patient versions of the JAMAR in the Norwegian language. The reading comprehension of the questionnaire was tested in 10 JIA parents and patients. Each participating centre was asked to collect demographic and clinical data and the JAMAR ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Ukrainian version of the Juvenile Arthritis Multidimensional Assessment Report (JAMAR). AU - Paediatric Rheumatology International Trials Organisation (PRINTO). AU - Boyko, Yaryna. AU - Hrytsiuk, Ihor. AU - Consolaro, Alessandro. AU - Bovis, Francesca. AU - Ruperto, Nicolino. PY - 2018/4. Y1 - 2018/4. N2 - The Juvenile Arthritis Multidimensional Assessment Report (JAMAR) is a new parent/patient-reported outcome measure that enables a thorough assessment of the disease status in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). We report the results of the cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the parent and patient versions of the JAMAR in the Ukrainian language. The reading comprehension of the questionnaire was tested in 10 JIA parents and patients. Each participating centre was asked to collect demographic, clinical data and the JAMAR in 100 consecutive JIA patients or all consecutive patients seen in a 6-month period and to administer the JAMAR to 100 healthy ...
Zinc Chloride Market Assessment Report Now Available at Credence Research Credence Research has recently issued a new market assessment report titled
The Orange County Transportation Authority (OCTA) reviews greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from our fleets operations on an annual basis to understand our effect on Orange Countys vehicle air emission levels. Additionally, we review how overall emissions levels are affected when drivers shift from private vehicles to public transit. A reduction of congestion on our streets and freeways is expected when public transit is used. To quantify GHG emissions, the OCTA uses guidance from the American Public Transportation Association (APTA). APTA has set standards for Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Transit. These standardized methodologies aid in calculating displaced emissions when people shift from cars to bus and rail.. In 2012, the OCTA produced 83,119 metric tons of CO2e (carbon dioxide equivalent for greenhouse gas emissions) from its day to day activities. Comparatively, 141,407 metric tons of CO2e was displaced by transit activities in Orange County. Total GHG emission from the ...
For decades, estimates of the equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) to doubling of CO2 simulated by global climate models (GCMs) have had a large intermodel spread, with a 5th-95th percentile range of approximately 2-4.5 K [1,2]. Global cloud feedbacks are the largest contributor to this spread [2,3]. Fig. 7.10 from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) [2] showed global cloud feedbacks diagnosed from over 20 GCMs participating in recent rounds of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3 and CMIP5) and Cloud Feedbacks Model Intercomparison Project (CFMIP2). These have an interquartile range of 0.5-0.9 W m−2 K−1, and an overall intermodel spread of 0.2-1.4 W m−2 K−1, including the effects both of warming and of rapid adjustments to increased CO2. Given the CMIP3/5 multi-model mean Planck feedback (−3.2 W m−2 K−1), water vapour/lapse rate feedback (1.0 W m−2 K−1) and snow/ice albedo feedback (0.3 W m−2 K−1), together with ...
Carbon Footprint - explores the mathematics behind carbon footprint measurements. Happy Planet Index - shows how mathematics can raise public awareness of issues. Heptathlon - student use and apply formulae to convert athletes results into points. Old New Year - uses algorithm to establish the day for any given date. Carbon-Dioxide Concentration in the Atmosphere. for each year t n. The factor is the canonical factor for converting carbon emissions (10 9 tonnes/year) to carbon-dioxide concentration (parts per million by volume, ppmv) in the atmosphere. The three exponentials represent the carbon-dioxide residence time.
TY - GEN. T1 - Simulating Carbon Dioxide Sequestration/ECBM Production in Coal Seams. T2 - Effects of Coal Properties and Operational Parameters. AU - Sams, W. Neal. AU - Bromhal, Grant. AU - Odusote, Olufemi. AU - Jikich, Sinisha. AU - Ertekin, Turgay. AU - Smith, Duane H.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - Carbon dioxide sequestration is a promising technology for reducing anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions while fossil fuels are still being used. The costs associated with CO 2 sequestration are often high; however, in certain circumstances (e.g., enhanced oil recovery) these costs can be more than offset by the benefits of additional incremental hydrocarbon production. Primary production of coalbed methane is a well-developed technology, but secondary production, through the injection of CO 2 or N 2 has undergone relatively little study. Recent research suggests that carbon dioxide preferentially sorbs to coal, displacing methane, making CO 2-enhanced coalbed methane production an ideal ...
In September, the worlds top scientists said the human influence on climate was clear. Last month, they warned of increased risks of a rapidly warming planet to our economies, environment, food supply, and global security. Today, the latest report from the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) describes what we need to do about it. The report, focused on mitigation, says that global greenhouse gas emissions were rising faster in the last decade than in the previously three, despite reduction efforts. Without additional mitigation efforts, we could see a temperature rise of 3.7 to 4.8 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial times by the end of this century. The IPCC says we can still limit that increase to 2 degrees, but that will require substantial technological, economic, institutional, and behavioral change. Lets translate the numbers. For every degree rise, that equates to more risk, especially for the poor and most vulnerable.
Global climate models developed by the UNs Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change predict glacial retreat, rises in sea level, and other impacts on human and natural activity, from agriculture to migratory patterns. RAND researchers have studied and are continuing to examine the effects of climate change, particularly how governments and businesses respond to both observed changes and projected scenarios.
In 100 years, summers in Los Angeles may be as scorching as summers in the Mojave Desert. But it doesnt have to be that way, according to a team of 19 scientists that includes Norman Miller and Larry Dale of DOEs Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.. In a study published in the August 16th issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the research team predicted that Californians could experience substantially hotter summers by the end of the century, which may lead to an increase in heat-related deaths and water and energy shortages. Just how hot depends on whats done between now and then. The researchers analyzed two greenhouse gas emission scenarios recently presented by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, a United Nations-formed organization that informs the worlds policymakers on climate change and impacts. One scenario assumes an energy-use trajectory similar to the present course, meaning rapid introduction of new technologies, extensive economic ...
On September 23 through 26, representatives of the worlds Environment Ministries will meet in Stockholm to agree on the final draft of a key portion of the latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Summary for Policymakers gospel which is expected, once again, to keep the political climate cauldron steaming. This Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) is intended to be used by international ministers working to devise a new global treaty by 2015 to curb climate change.. That goal is certainly no trifle, given that dramatic climate changes have been occurring over many millions of years, although lately…not so much. Therein lies the big rub. How can ministers conjure up a newsworthy sequel to previous knuckle-biting prognostications when all evidence suggests that the prophesies, and the scriptures they were based upon, were proven wrong?. ...
INTERGOV ERNMENTA L PA NEL ON WG II WORKING GROUP II CONTRIBUTION TO THE FIFTH ASSESSMENT REPORT OF THE INTERGOVERNMENTAL PANEL ON CLIMATE CHANGE climate change Summary for Policymakers Drafting Authors:
In several of these studies, the researchers admitted that they actively sought out super-emitters in the Barnett Shale, yet they still found methane emissions to be very low.. EDF also points to a report it did in conjunction with the Rhodium Group, which argued that $30 billion in unburned natural gas is being emitted globally by the oil and gas industry but does not mention that that same study found a very low methane leakage rate in the United States of only 1.3 percent.. The researchers quote the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Changes (IPCC) latest climate assessment, pointing out that it states that nearly a quarter of the warming we are experiencing today is caused by methane and other short term climate pollutants. However, EDF does not include that the IPCC also said its largely thanks to hydraulic fracturing and natural gas that the United States has been able to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions dramatically. As the IPCC put it:. ...
Find helpful learner reviews, feedback, and ratings for Climate Change Mitigation in Developing Countries from University of Cape Town. Read stories and highlights from Coursera learners who completed Climate Change Mitigation in Developing Countries and wanted to share their experience. Super-awesome course that taught me about the super-wicked problem of our time and how to effectivel...
Find helpful learner reviews, feedback, and ratings for Climate Change Mitigation in Developing Countries from University of Cape Town. Read stories and highlights from Coursera learners who completed Climate Change Mitigation in Developing Countries and wanted to share their experience. Super-awesome course that taught me about the super-wicked problem of our time and how to effectivel...
Effect of aeration on greenhouse gas emission from the composting process of swine manure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of aeration condition on the greenhouse gas (GHG) mission from the composting process of swine manure. The swine manure was piled in the composting plant X, Y and Z with 3, 0.5 and 0 min/hr of aeration, respectively. The results of this study showed aeration during the compost process can accelerate the degradation of organic matters, shorten the period of composting, and reduce the production of methane from the compost.. (M. P. Cheng ...
Efforts on climate change, climate change mitigation and associated biofuel topics have led to many speaking and policy outreach contacts. He just completed service as lead author on the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Working Group III Agricultural Mitigation scientific panel. He has presented information to meetings or policy groups at NSF, DOE, EPA, USDA, Council of Economic Advisors, European Union, Chinese Government, Taiwanese government, Seed Association, Pest Management Society, Renewable fuels groups, Harvard, Stanford, MIT, Duke, Illinois, and Ohio State just to mention a few recent involvements. He regularly interacts with policy makers in EPA, USDA and the Canadian government. This has contributed to changes in policy thinking on these issues.. ...
CFA plays an active and often leading role in environmental issues including waste and climate change-related matters. For several years we have been closely involved in numerous sustainability activities and initiatives including running workshops with Defra on issues relating to its Food Industry Sustainability Strategy (FISS) and pursuing research which would facilitate carbon footprint reductions. CFA was also a member of Defras FISS Champions Group on Waste, which was chaired by a CFA member.. Climate change is increasingly recognised as a major challenge and it is widely accepted that the greenhouse gas emissions caused by humans are having a negative impact on the environment.. Carbon footprint labelling is a recent development whereby a product label will show how many grammes of greenhouse gases were emitted during production, from sourcing raw materials, to manufacturing, transporting to the stores and to the end of life.. For the chilled food sector, we believe that carbon footprint ...
In 2010, Finlands greenhouse gas emissions amounted to 74.6 million tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO2 eq.). They rose by a total of 8.5 million carbon dioxide tonnes from the year before, exceeding the commitment level of the Kyoto Protocol by around five per cent. The data are based on the preliminary estimate to be submitted by Statistics Finland to the European Commission on 15 January 2012 concerning emissions in 2010.. In the energy sector, emissions increased by 15 per cent from the previous year. Emissions from industrial processes rose by eight per cent. Emissions from agriculture and use of solvents and other products also increased slightly. Emissions in the waste sector remained unchanged. Net sinks in the Land use, Land-use Change and Forestry sector (LULUCF) dropped by 40 per cent mainly because of increased fellings.. Development of greenhouse gas emissions by sector in Finland 1990-2010. ...
Clouds play a key role in Earths radiation budget, and aerosols serve as the seeds upon which cloud droplets form. Anthropogenic activity has led to an increase in aerosol particle concentrations globally and an increase in those particles that act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nucleating particles (INP). The effect of an increase in aerosols on cloud optical properties, and associated radiative forcing, is the most uncertain component of historical radiative forcing of Earths climate caused by greenhouse gases (GHGs) and aerosols. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) AR5 assessment of climate forcing factors (Fig. S1) ascribes high confidence to the estimate of direct aerosol radiative forcing (mean. ...
Regional temperature change projections for the twenty-first century are generated using a multimodel ensemble of atmosphere - ocean general circulation models. The models are assigned coefficients jointly, using a Bayesian linear model fitted to regional observations and simulations of the climate of the twentieth century. Probability models with varying degrees of complexity are explored, and a selection is made based on Bayesian deviance statistics, coefficient properties, and a classical cross-validation measure utilizing temporally averaged data. The model selected is shown to be superior in predictive skill to a naive model consisting of the unweighted mean of the underlying atmosphere - ocean GCM (AOGCM) simulations, although the skill differential varies regionally. Temperature projections for the A2 and B1 scenarios from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenarios are presented.. ...
The Global Population Projection Grids Based on Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs), 2010-2100 consists of global spatial population projections at a resolution of one-eighth degree (7.5 arc-minutes) for urban, rural, and total population, consistent both quantitatively and qualitatively, with the SSPs at ten-year intervals for 2010-2100. Spatial demographic projections are key inputs for the analysis of land use, energy use, and emissions, as well as for the assessment of climate change vulnerability, impacts, and adaptation. The SSPs are developed to support future climate and global change research and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Sixth Assessment Report (AR6). This data set is produced based on a clear need for plausible alternative projections of spatial distribution of the population that can represent patterns of development consistent with the SSPs ...
Has the once-respected professor gone emeritus? Richard Lindzen has long been the skeptic communitys scientific poster boy. In a world stuffed with deniers for hire such as S. Fred Singer and Tim Ball, who lecture on the topic of climate change regardless that they bring little or no relevant expertise to the subject, Lindzen is the Alfred P. Sloan Professor of Meteorology, Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences at MIT and has served (many years ago) as a lead author on a chapter in the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. But increasingly, his trenchant denial that climate change is a concern is casting him further from the ranks of people who can be taken seriously - particularly as he shows increasing willingness to say things that are simply and demonstrably not true. Take as an example this recent radio interview, in which Lindzen tells Australian commentator Chris Smith that his countrys effort to tackle climate change by implementing