Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists (GnRH antagonists) are a class of medications that antagonize the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRH receptor) and thus the action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Some are similar in structure to natural GnRH (a hormone made by neurons in the hypothalamus) but that have an antagonistic effect. These GnRH antagonists are peptide molecules that are made up multiple, often synthetically produced amino acids. Others are small-molecule, non-peptide compounds. GnRH antagonists compete with natural GnRH for binding to GnRH receptors, thus decreasing or blocking GnRH action in the body. Testosterone promotes growth of many prostate tumors and therefore reducing circulating testosterone to very low (castration) levels is often the treatment goal in the management of men with advanced prostate cancer. GnRH antagonists are used to provide fast suppression of testosterone without the surge in testosterone levels that is seen when treating ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Involvement of headless myosin X in the motility of immortalized gonadotropin-releasing hormone neuronal cells. AU - Wang, Jun Jie. AU - Fu, Xiu Qing. AU - Guo, Yu Guang. AU - Yuan, Lin. AU - Gao, Qian Qian. AU - Yu, Hua Li. AU - Shi, Heng Liang. AU - Wang, Xing Zhi. AU - Xiong, Wen Cheng. AU - Zhu, Xiao Juan. PY - 2009/5/1. Y1 - 2009/5/1. N2 - Myosin X (Myo X), an unconventional myosin with a tail homology 4-band 4.1/ezrin/radixin/moesin (MyTH4-FERM) tail, is expressed ubiquitously in various mammalian tissues. In addition to the full-length Myo X (Myo X FL), a headless form is synthesized in the brain. So far, little is known about the function of this motor-less Myo X. In this study, the role of the headless Myo X was investigated in immortalized gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal cells, NLT. NLT cells overexpressing the headless Myo X formed fewer focal adhesions and spread more slowly than the wild-type NLT cells and GFP-expressing NLT cells. In chemomigration ...
Feedback regulation of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) neurons by estradiol plays important roles in the neuroendocrine control of reproduction. Recently, we found that the majority of LHRH neurons in the rat contain estrogen receptor-beta (ER-beta) mRNA, whereas, they seemed to lack ER …
Although epidemiologic evidence for the ability of combined oral contraception (OC) to reduce the risk of ovarian cancer (OvCa) is convincing, the biological mechanisms underlying this effect are largely unknown. We conducted the present study to determine if OC also influences ovarian carcinogenesis in a genetic mouse model and, if so, to investigate the mechanism underlying the protective effect. LSL-K-rasG12D/+PtenloxP/loxP mice were treated with ethinyl estradiol plus norethindrone, contraceptive hormones commonly used in combined OC, or norethindrone alone, or a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist. The combined OC had a 29% reduction in mean total tumor weight compared with placebo (epithelial tumor weight, −80%). Norethindrone alone reduced mean total tumor weight by 42% (epithelial tumor weight, −46%), and the gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist increased mean total tumor weight by 71% (epithelial tumor weight, +150%). Large variations in tumor size affected the P values for ...
NMDA and nitric oxide act through the cGMP signal transduction pathway to repress hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone gene expression.s profile, publications, research topics, and co-authors
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pituitary self-priming actions of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Kinetics of estradiols potentiating effects on gonadotropin-releasing hormone-facilitated luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone release in healthy postmenopausal women. AU - Veldhuis, Johannes D. AU - Evans, W. S.. AU - Rogol, A. D.. AU - Kolp, L.. AU - Thorner, M. O.. AU - Stumpf, P.. PY - 1986. Y1 - 1986. N2 - We examined the kinetically distinct characteristics of estradiols effects upon pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) release in response to pulses of exogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) in healthy postmenopausal individuals. The putative self-priming actions of GnRH on LH and FSH release were tested by intravenous injections of equal paired doses of GnRH (10 μg) before and after 1, 5, 10, and 30 d of pure estradiol-17β delivery via an intravaginal silastic ring. Self-priming actions of GnRH, as defined by heightened gonadotropin release in ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Activation of A-type γ-aminobutyric acid receptors excites gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons. AU - DeFazio, R. Anthony. AU - Heger, Sabine. AU - Ojeda, Sergio R.. AU - Moenter, Suzanne M.. PY - 2002/12/1. Y1 - 2002/12/1. N2 - γ,-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), acting through GABAA receptors (GABAAR), is hypothesized to suppress reproduction by inhibiting GnRH secretion, but GABA actions directly on GnRH neurons are not well established. In green fluorescent protein-identified adult mouse GnRH neurons in brain slices, gramicidin-perforated-patch-clamp experiments revealed the reversal potential (EGABA) for current through GABAARs was depolarized relative to the resting potential. Furthermore, rapid GABA application elicited action potentials in GnRH neurons but not controls. The consequence of GABAAR activation depends on intracellular chloride levels, which are maintained by homeostatic mechanisms. Membrane proteins that typically extrude chloride (KCC-2 cotransporter, CLC-2 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of some CNS effects of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone and progesterone. AU - Tennent, Barbra J.. AU - Smith, Erla R.. AU - Dorsa, Daniel. PY - 1982. Y1 - 1982. N2 - Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) has been reported to facilitate lordotic behavior in estrogen-primed ovariectomized (OVX) female rats in a manner similar to progesterone (P). This study compared P and LHRH with respect to their behavioral effects and site of action within the brain. The hormones were compared using two different components of sexual behavior, receptivity and proceptivity. To test for receptivity, OVX females were given behaviorally ineffective estradiol benzoate (EB) injections sc 48 hr before testing. They were then treated with either P, LHRH, or vehicle by various routes. Two and/or four hours later, receptivity (LQ) was measured. Treatments for the proceptivity test were similar except that a larger EP-priming dose, which facilitates preceptive behavior, was used. ...
Although both laparoscopic ablation and gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs (GnRHa) are treatments for endometriosis, there are no studies that directly compare these two treatment options. METHODS: This study compares the use of GnRHa therapy and laparoscopic ablation concerning symptom relief, recurrence of symptoms, safety, side effects of treatment and improvement of quality of life in women ages 18-50 with diagnosed endometriosis. The study design is an evidence-based literature review, assessing each study for its research design, inclusion and exclusion criteria, treatment results, adverse affects and conclusions. RESULTS: All but one research study showed that GnRHa are effective at improving quality of life by relieving endometriosis symptoms up to one year post treatment. Side effects were consistent with hypoestrogenemia and were non-life threatening. Laparoscopic ablation was found to successfully treat endometriosis symptoms, but fertility rates were not consistently improved. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Is the postovulatory release of follicle-stimulating hormone in the rabbit mediated by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone?. AU - Mills, T. M.. AU - Copland, J. A.. AU - Coy, D. H.. AU - Schally, A. V.. PY - 1983/9. Y1 - 1983/9. N2 - Studies were performed to determine whether the postovulatory secretion of FSH in the rabbit is an LHRH-mediated event. Does were mated and then injected at 12 and 18 h postcoitum with pentobarbital (30 mg/kg BW), an agent known to block endogenous LHRH release. The injecton of this barbiturate had no measurable effect on the postovulatory FSH secretion pattern. Administration of the LHRH antagomist [Ac-D-p-Cl-Phe1,2, Phe3, D-Arg6, D-Ala10]LHRH (0.5 mg/doe) prevented all gonadotropin release in response to LHRH injection (10 μg/kg BW). When this same dose of the antagonist was injected at 18 h postcoitum, the postovulatory FSH secretion pattern was unaffected. Finally, to prove that the pituitary was sensitive to LHRH at 18-h postcoitum, LHRH (10 ...
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This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Agonist, GnRH agonist, Nafarelin Acetate, Synarel.
Demeestere, Isabelle ; Brice, Pauline ; Peccatori, Fedro A ; Kentos, Alain ; Dupuis, Jehan ; et. al. No Evidence for the Benefit of Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist in Preserving Ovarian Function and Fertility in Lymphoma Survivors Treated With Chemotherapy: Final Long-Term Report of a Prospective Randomized Trial.. In: Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vol. 34, no.22, p. 2568-2574 (2016 ...
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Background: This retrospective study evaluated the effect of profound pituitary suppression with oral contraceptive pill (OCP) pretreatment in gonadotropin-releasing horm..
During the preovulatory surge of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), a very large amount of the peptide is released in the hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal blood for 24-36H00. To study whether this release is linked to a modification of the morphological organization of the GnRH-containing neurons, i.e. morphological plasticity, we conducted experiments in intact ewes at 4 different times of the oestrous cycle (before the expected LH surge, during the LH surge, and on day 8 and day 15 of the subsequent luteal phase). The cycle stage was verified by determination of progesterone and LH concentrations in the peripheral blood samples collected prior to euthanasia. The distribution of GnRH-containing neurons throughout the preoptic area around the vascular organ of the lamina terminalis was studied following visualisation using immunohistochemistry. No difference was observed in the staining intensity for GnRH between the different groups. Clusters of GnRH-containing neurons (defined as 2 or more neurons
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Luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH, GnRH) is a 10-amino acid peptide produced in the brain that regulates the release of LH from the pituitary gland. LH is crucial for initiating the successful ovulation of mature ovarian follicles (Graafian follicles) and transforming the ovulated follicle into a steroid-secreting corpus luteum. In the male, LH causes Leydig cells in the testis to secrete testosterone, a hormone essential for male sexual behavior secretory activity of accessory glands of the reproductive tract, muscle accretion, and spermatogenesis. The focus of this study was to determine the prepubertal ontogeny of LHRH-like immunoreactivity (LHRH-IR) in the male Chinese Meishan pig. The Meishan breed is known for reproductive traits, including increased litter size and precocious puberty, but slow growth and obesity. Brains of animals from gestational day (g) 30, 50, 70, 90, and 110 and postnatal day (pn) 1, 10, 20, and 50 (duration of pregnancy averages 114 days) were processed by a
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone definition is - a hormone secreted by the hypothalamus that stimulates the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland to release gonadotropins (such as luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone) -abbreviation GnRH-called also luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone.
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is considered to stimulate LH secretion from the pituitary. This antibody is raised against an GnRH analog (GnRHa).
Research is lacking to define precisely the mechanism of this relationship. The effects of a particular hormone may be mediated directly by the hormone or indirectly through effects on other systems such as the HPA axis. Thus, sex hormones can exert their positive or negative feedback on gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus and luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the anterior pituitary depending on the levels of these hormones in the blood. The hypothalamic and anterior pituitary hormones affect immune responses directly (Whitacre, 1999). Thus, this bidirectional regulation of the immune response exists - there are sex hormone receptors on the surfaces of immune cells, and cytokine receptors (IL-1R, IL-18R) have been discovered on hormone-producing tissues. Additionally, proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-1B) stimulate the release of glucocorticoids from the HPA axis, which regulates the inflammatory process (Bijlsma, 1999).. The ...
in Regulatory Peptides (2000), 92(1-3), 17-24. Leptin may act as a negative feedback signal to the hypothalamic control of appetite through suppression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) secretion and stimulation of cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript ... [more ▼]. Leptin may act as a negative feedback signal to the hypothalamic control of appetite through suppression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) secretion and stimulation of cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART). We aimed at studying the effects of leptin, CART and NPY on the hypothalamic control of the pituitary-gonadal system. Pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion was studied in vitro using retrochiasmatic hypothalamic explants from adult rats. In the female, GnRH pulse amplitude was significantly increased by leptin (10(-7) M) and CART (10(-6) M) irrespective of the estrus cycle phase while no such effects were seen in the male. The GnRH interpulse interval was not affected in both sexes. Passive ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Stimulation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) by gonadotropin-releasing hormone in pituitary αt3-1 cell line is mediated by protein kinase C, c-Src, and CDC42. AU - Levi, N. L.. AU - Hanoch, T.. AU - Benard, Outhiriaradjou. AU - Rozenblat, M.. AU - Harris, D.. AU - Reiss, N.. AU - Naor, Z.. AU - Seger, R.. PY - 1998. Y1 - 1998. N2 - The signaling of ligands operating via heterotrimeric G proteins is mediated by a complex network that involves sequential phosphorylation events. Signaling by the G protein-coupled receptor GnRH was shown to include elevation of Ca2+ and activation of phospholipases, protein kinase C (PKC) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). In this study, GnRH was shown to activate Jun N-Terminal Kinase (JNK)/SAPK in αT3-1 cells in a PKC- and tyrosine kinase-dependent manner. GnRH as well as tumor-promoting agent (TPA) also increased c-Src activity, which peaked at 2 min after GnRH stimulation and was sensitive both to PKC and to tyrosine kinase ...
gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH): GnRH a neurohormone consisting of 10 amino acids that is produced in the arcuate nuclei of the hypothalamus. GnRH stimulates the synthesis and secretion of the two gonadotropins...
Complementar Deoxyribonucleic Acid Cloning, Gene Expression, and Ligand Selectivity of a Novel Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Receptor Expressed in the Pituitary and Midbrain of ,I,Xenopus Laevis,/I ...
MURATA TAKUYA , TAKIZAWA TOSHIO , FUNABA MASAYUKI , FUJIMURA HISAKO , MURATA ERI , TAKAHASHI MICHIO , TORII KUNIO Endocrine journal 44(1), 35-42, 1997-02-01 参考文献31件 ...
Estradiol (E(2)) acts as a potent feedback molecule between the ovary and hypothalamic GnRH neurons, and exerts both positive and negative regulatory actions on GnRH synthesis and secretion. However, the extent to which these actions are mediated by estrogen receptors (ERs) expressed in GnRH neurons …
Ozarelix (developmental code names D-63153, SPI-153) is a peptide gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRH antagonist) which is under development by AEterna Zentaris Inc. and Spectrum Pharmaceuticals as a long-acting injection formulation for the treatment of prostate cancer. It has also been under investigation for the treatment of endometriosis, but no development has been reported. The drug was previously under investigation for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and Alzheimers disease as well, but development for these indications was discontinued. As of December 2017, it is in phase II clinical trials for prostate cancer. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor § Antagonists List of investigational hormonal agents § GnRH/gonadotropins http://adisinsight.springer.com/drugs/800013299 Festuccia C, Dondi D, Piccolella M, Locatelli A, Gravina GL, Tombolini V, Motta M (2010). "Ozarelix, a fourth generation GnRH antagonist, induces apoptosis in hormone refractory androgen ...
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Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons are the final output neurons of a hypothalamic network controlling fertility in mammals. They release GnRH from axon terminals into the portal blood circulation of the pituitary, where GnRH triggers the secretion of luteinizing and follicle stimulating hormones. GnRH neuron anatomy, morphology and physiology have been studied extensively at the levels of the cell bodies and dendrites in the basal forebrain and axons in the median eminence. However little is known about the subcellular origin of the axon and the physiological role of the dense GnRH fiber innervation of the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT). Using a cell-filling approach in acute brain slices from GnRH-green fluorescent protein mice, GnRH neuron morphology was analyzed with a confocal microscope. The vast majority (83%) of GnRH neurons were found to extend long dendrites in the direction of the median eminence. When these dendrites were analyzed in a novel brain slice ...
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Objective: Is a single dose of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) trigger to induce final oocyte maturation in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles with GnRH antagonist protocol sufficient to provide optimal oocyte maturity? Design: This is a prospective, randomized, double-blind, proof-of-concept study. Setting: This study was carried out at a tertiary care center. Material and Methods: A total of 125 patients diagnosed with PCOS defined as per the ESHRE/ASRM Rotterdam criteria (2003) undergoing IVF in antagonist protocol were randomized into two groups. Group A: single dose of GnRHa 0.2 mg, 35 h prior to oocyte retrieval, and Group B: 0.2 mg GnRHa 35 h prior to oocyte retrieval + repeat dose of 0.1 mg 12 h following the 1st dose. 12 h post-trigger, luteinizing hormone (LH), progesterone (P4), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) values were estimated. Statistical Analysis: Continuous variables were expressed as mean ± standard ...
Wojniusz, Slawomir; Vögele, Claus; Ropstad, Erik; Evans, Neil; Robinson, Jane; Sütterlin, Stefan; Erhard, Hans W.; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Endestad, Tor; Olberg, Dag Erlend & Haraldsen, Ira Hebold (2011). Prepubertal gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog leads to exaggerated behavioral and emotional sex differences in sheep. Hormones and Behavior. ISSN 0018-506X. 59, s 22- 27 . doi: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2010.09.010 Show summary In mammals, sex specialization is reflected by differences in brain anatomy and function. Measurable differences are documented in reproductive behavior, cognition, and emotion. We hypothesized that gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays a crucial role in controlling the extent of the brains sex specificity and that changes in GnRH action during critical periods of brain development, such as puberty, will result in altered sex-specific behavioral and physiological patterns. We blocked puberty in half of the 48 same-sex Scottish mule Texel cross sheep twins with GnRH ...
Wojniusz, Slawomir; Vögele, Claus; Ropstad, Erik; Evans, Neil; Robinson, Jane; Sütterlin, Stefan; Erhard, Hans W.; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Endestad, Tor; Olberg, Dag Erlend & Haraldsen, Ira Hebold (2011). Prepubertal gonadotropin-releasing hormone analog leads to exaggerated behavioral and emotional sex differences in sheep. Hormones and Behavior. ISSN 0018-506X. 59, s 22- 27 . doi: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2010.09.010 Vis sammendrag In mammals, sex specialization is reflected by differences in brain anatomy and function. Measurable differences are documented in reproductive behavior, cognition, and emotion. We hypothesized that gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) plays a crucial role in controlling the extent of the brains sex specificity and that changes in GnRH action during critical periods of brain development, such as puberty, will result in altered sex-specific behavioral and physiological patterns. We blocked puberty in half of the 48 same-sex Scottish mule Texel cross sheep twins with GnRH ...
The origin of GnRH-1 neurons and OECs has been a matter of debate for several decades. Both cell types are associated with the olfactory/nasal placode (Schwanzel-Fukuda and Pfaff, 1989; Wray et al., 1989; Wewetzer et al., 2002; Barnett, 2004; Murdoch et al., 2010). During early development, the nasal placode and cranial neural crest cells share a common border, originating from ectoderm near the neural plate. Mixing of NC and olfactory placode cells has been suggested (Couly and Le Douarin, 1985; Whitlock, 2004; Schlosser, 2010). Thus, we used both NC and ectodermal-specific Cre-lox fate tracing strategies to determine the origin of nasal placode derivates. Here we show that early multipotent cranial NC cells mingle with ectodermally derived cells in the developing nasal placode where they generate (1) unique cell types such as the OECs and (2) neurons with similar features to those of ectodermal origin (Nagoshi et al., 2008, 2009) including a population of GnRH-1-expressing neurons.. The ...
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Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH). GnRH is an injected used to stimulate the production of FSH and LH, which is secreted from the pituitary gland. Factrel and Lutrepulse are name brands of GnRH. Side effects and risks of these drugs include nausea, headaches, multiple births, abdominal pain, and bloating.. GnRH Antagonist. Antagon and Cetrotide are fertility drugs known as gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonists. These medications work against the hormones FSH and LH in the body, which suppresses ovulation. GnRH antagonist will prevent eggs from being lost inside the body before they are retrieved for IVF cycles.. GnRH Agonists. Synarel, Lupron, and Zoladex are fertility drugs known as GnRH agonists. These drugs cause an initial surge in LH and FSH production and then cause the body to stop production of LH and FSH. Used for IVF treatment, GnRH agonist prevent ovulation and limit the amount of estrogen. Potential side effects include headaches, hot flashes, insomnia, mood swings, ...
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) Known as Luteinizing-hormone releasing hormone (LHRH), it is a tropic peptide hormone responsible for the release of FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary. Control of FSH and LH. At the pituitary, GNRH stimulates the synthesis and secretion of the gonadotropins, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). These processes are manipulated by the size and frequency of GNRH pulses, as well as by response from androgens and estrogens. Low frequency GNRH pulses lead to FSH release, whereas high frequency GNRH pulses stimulate LH release. In GNRH discharge between females and males. In males, GNRH is secreted in pulses at a fixed recurrence, but in females the frequency of the pulses varies during the menstrual cycle and there is a large surge of GNRH just before ovulation.. GNRH flow is in all vertebrates, and is all-important for right generating function. a single hormone, GNRH1,command a complex process of follicular growth, ovulation, and ...
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Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is a decapeptide hormone secreted by GnRH neurons located in the hypothalamus. It is responsible for the onset of puberty and the regulation of hormone release from the pituitary. There is a strong evidence suggesting that these GnRH neurons are intrinsically capable of generating pulsatile and episodic neurosecretion of this hormone. However, the underlying mechanism for the GnRH-pulse generator remains obscure. The discovery of GnRH receptors allowing GnRH to exert autocrine regulation on its own release, led several experimentalist in NIH to propose in 2003 a mechanism underlying this effect. We developed in 2006 a mathematical model describing the proposed mechanism, then we extended it to explain synchrony observed in GnRH neurons by incorporating the idea of a common pool of GnRH hormone. In this talk, we shall present this model and analyze several aspects of it, especially robustness. We shall show that the coupling of a heterogeneous family of GnRH ...
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கருவகவூக்கி வெளியிடு இயக்குநீர் (Gonadotropin-releasing hormone; GnRH) என்பது, எந்த திசுக்களின் மீது செயலாற்றுகிறதோ, அவற்றின் வளர்ச்சியைத் தூண்டக்கூடிய, உயிரணுக்களை மிகைப்பெருக்கம் அல்லது மிகை வளர்ச்சிச் செய்யக்கூடிய தூண்டும் இயக்குநீர் (trophic hormone)[1] வகைகளுள் ஒன்றாகும். இது லூட்டினைசிங் இயக்குநீர்- வெளியிடு இயக்குநீர், லூலிபெரின் என்றும் அழைக்கப்படுகின்றது. முற்பகுதி பிட்யூட்டரியிலிருந்து ...
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CAS NO. 33515-09-2 Synonyms Gonadorelin Acetate Molecular Formula C55H7N17O13 Molecular Weight 1182.3 Sequence Pyr-His-Trp-Ser-Tyr-Gly-Leu-Arg-Pro-Gly-NHsub2 Appearance White Powder Purity Varies per specs Source Chemical Synthesis ...
Principal Investigator:OKA Yoshitaka, Project Period (FY):1993 - 1995, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for General Scientific Research (C), Research Field:動物生理・代謝
We report here that levels of c-fos mRNA in GnRH neurons are elevated significantly coincident with the first increase in LH levels at the time of an E- and P-induced LH surge in female rats. Similarly, Fos protein increases in GnRH neurons near the time of the LH surge in rats (Lee et al., 1990a; Hrabovszky et al., 1995; Wang et al., 1995), mice (Wu et al., 1992), hamsters (Berriman et al., 1992;Doan and Urbanski, 1994), and sheep (Moenter et al., 1993). In rats, Fos protein is first detectable in GnRH neurons after the onset of the expected LH surge, and the number of GnRH neurons expressing Fos increases during the ascending phase of the LH surge (Lee et al., 1990a, 1992b). These results agree with those of the present study showing that c-fos gene expression increases in GnRH neurons near the onset of the LH surge. Synaptic blockade with phenobarbital or MK-801 (an NMDA channel blocker) inhibits the LH surge and the induction of Fos in GnRH neurons (Lee et al., 1990a, 1993), suggesting that ...
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