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High-entropy alloys can either be defined as solid solution alloys containing at least five elements in equiatomic or near-equiatomic composition, or as alloys with high configurational entropies (larger than 1.5R), regardless of the number of elements involved. The present study reports on an alloy design route for refractory high-entropy alloys based on equiatomic Mo-Nb-V alloys with additions of W and Ti. In general, the work was motivated by Senkov et al. The aim of the experiments carried out was to produce a refractory high-entropy alloy with a single-phase structure. For this purpose, a systematic alloy design involving four- and five-element compositions was used. Scanning electron microscopy analysis has shown that Mo-Nb-V-xW-yTi (x = 0, 20; y = 5, 10, 15, 20, 25) is in fact a refractory high-entropy alloy with a body-centered cubic dendritic structure. Furthermore, the Ti-concentration of the experimental alloys was varied, to obtain the influence of Titanium on the microstructure development.
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Researchers from TU Wien have discovered a novel way to fabricate pure gold nanostructures using an additive direct-write lithography technique. An electron beam is used to turn an auriferous organic compound into pure gold. This new technique can now be used to create nanostructures, which are needed for many applications in electronics and sensor technology. Just like with a 3-D printer on ...
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Structural Adhesive Joints in Engineering is a concise guide to adhesive joints within structures, especially those capable of bearing high loads. The book covers all aspects of design, materials selection and testing, including the physical properties and cure-chemistry of structural adhesives and how to select adhesives for particular applications; surface preparation by physical or chemical methods (with or without the use of primers and coupling agents); and new sections on surface analysis and water durability. There is also a detailed guide to stresses in adhesive joints and joint design. Thoroughly revised and updated since the first edition, the Second Edition contains new sections on recent topics of importance, such as water durability ...
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Abstract: In the present work, rapidly solidified Al-21Si-0.8Mg-1.5Cu-0.5Mn alloys strips was prepared by melt-spinning method. The microstructures, phase and morphology characteristics of the experimental alloy were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electric microscopy. The results show that the microstructures are changed obviously compared with conventional condition. The nucleation and growth of primary silicon are suppressed and primary silicon can not deposited, meanwhile, α-Al phase is nucleated which prior to eutectic. The microstructures of the rapidly solidified alloys are composed of primary micro-nanostructure α phase and feather-needles-like (α+Si) eutectic which set in the α phase. The mechanism of formation for microstructures of melt-spinning Al-Si alloy have also been discussed ...
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The inner braids, in addition to silk and polyamide yarn, also have layers of colored metals (copper, brass, aluminum) and precious (silver). The outer layer is a profiled and ground tape of precious alloy (chrome, nickel, silver) ...
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Digital precious metals, a relatively new way of transferring value online, enable users to secure cash deposits against precious metals held offshore. A recent report published by US National Drug Intelligence Centre observed that digital gold currencies are the most popular type of digital currency.
SANTA MONICA, Calif., Sept. 08, 2016-- A-Mark Precious Metals, Inc., a full-service precious metals trading company and an official distributor for all the major sovereign mints, has entered into a new three-year employment agreement with Thor Gjerdrum. As part of the agreement, Gjerdrum was promoted to the position of president, succeeding David Madge who was...
A-Mark Precious Metals, Inc. (NASDAQ:AMRK), a full-service precious metals trading company and an official distributor for all the major sovereign mints, has
The effect of microstructure on the susceptibility of a high purity Al-6.8 Zn-2.3 Mg alloy to stress-corrosion cracking in an aqueous salt solution 3.5 wt NaCl was studied. The results of testing a series of specimens having controlled microstructures and the same yield strength of 40, 000 psi indicate that the susceptibility to stress-corrosion is controlled by the type, size, and spacing of the matrix precipitate through the effect of these precipitates on the deformation process. Although the width of the precipitate free zone appears to have no effect on susceptibility, the grain boundary precipitate seems to influence susceptibility in certain cases. Supporting evidence for these observations was obtained by light and electron microscopic examinations of deformed specimens and by fractographic studies. A model is proposed which explains many experimental observations.
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Peter Hug has been involved in precious metals since 1974. He began gaining first-hand investment industry experience at Deak-Perera. He served as SVP at Guardian Trust Company, which became one of the largest international trading houses for precious metals. He developed the first precious metals certificate program and the first margin trading accounts for metals on the cash market. Peter has acquired extensive experience in the wholesale markets and international asset diversification. A frequent speaker at precious metals conferences and in the financial media, he is one of the handful of experts who have succeeded through multiple bull and bear cycles on the strength and skills honed during the dramatic fluctuations of the 1980s. As the Director of Kitcos Precious Metals Division, Peter develops newer and better investment options for Kitco customers. 1 877 963-NEWS. ...
Work was supported by the International Gold Corporation Limited (InterGold) and the American Society for Metals (ASM). Literature searched through 1983. Part of the bibliographic search was provied by ASM. Professor Massalski is the ASM/NBS Data Program Editor-in-Chief for the Binary Program and also Category Editor for binary gold alloys, jointly with Dr. Okamoto. ...
Pure gold is not magnetic under normal circumstances, but it might show slight signs of magnetism if it is subjected to an exceptionally strong magnet. Iron, cobalt and nickel are among the few...
A few days ago, I postulated that despite the seasonal weakness most were anticipating in May and despite the sharp increase in Commercial shorting that was still below 2016 levels, the precious metals would buck conventional wisdom and advance further into even greater degrees of overbought status.
A strong durable goods report Wednesday helped reverse a short-lived rebound in precious metals, which had been gaining early in the day on a downgrade of Japan and worries that economic growth in both the U.S. and Europe was tepid at best.
|p|Mumbai, Apr 16 (PTI) SILVER SPOT (IN RS PER kg): 68286.00 STANDARD GOLD (99.5) : 46729.00 PURE GOLD (99.9) : 46917.00 PTI MUM SVC SHW SHW|/p|
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Having rejected nothingness, I discovered the void. The meaning of the immaterial pictorial zones, extracted from the depth of the void which by that time was of a very material order. Finding it unacceptable to sell these immaterial zones for money, I insisted in exchange for the highest quality of the immaterial, the highest quality of material payment - a bar of pure gold. Incredible as it may seem, I have actually sold a number of these pictorial immaterial states . . . Painting no longer appeared to me to be functionally related to the gaze, since during the blue monochrome period of 1957 I became aware of what I called the pictorial sensibility. This pictorial sensibility exists beyond our being and yet belongs in our sphere. We hold no right of possession over life itself. It is only by the intermediary of our taking possession of sensibility that we are able to purchase life. Sensibility enables us to pursue life to the level of its base material manifestations, in the exchange and ...
The thinnest wire in the world, made from pure gold, is being examined by physicists from the universities of W rzburg and Kassel. Its exceptional electrical conductivity is causing quite a stir: the electrons do not move freely through the wire, but like cars in stop-and-go traffic.
Step 1: If youre trying to lose weight like I was, the best time to drink your Sassy is first thing in the morning before you drink or consume anything else. This gently awakens your beautiful body and gives you a chance to calmly break your fast aka breakfast. This method is pure gold and is exactly what your body craves- whether you know it or not. Note: My first meal is usually around 11-noon. I like to spend my mornings flushing out yesterdays toxins (with lemon water, tea & Sassy-G) and giving my digestive system a chance to rest and to heal ...
Ahhh, secretly l think they are still ours... that is my big girl and my tall boy. My man child, was (is still) sitting in my brand new (mine) armchair with his feet up on the brand new (mine) pooffe, sorry not very pc, my new er foot chair....and hes not budging....he smiled though, as I walked in the house, and that smile is so wide, so light up the room bright and just pure gold. I get the kettle on and walk over to him, Hello, how was your day? I ask, he grunts... and l lean over him... I do not detect any deep sighing or tutting, I guess he is breathing gently in resignation. He is mine, on my chair, my captive... I lean in. I Breathe so deeply and smell him. Drink him in, my baby boy, l could weep. The essence of the baby l carried, is still there, I shoved a big fat red lipsticked smackarooo on the back of his neck and rubbed the lippy right off... that smell,that touch can sustain me for a week... though I admit not much more, but by then l can sneak another or a hug. And Boy can he ...
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The Global Precious Metals Code published in May 2017 sets out the standards and best practice expected from market participants in the global…
This report is a comprehensive research of colloidal precious metals market in United Kingdom. The report starts with giving brief country profile for
This statistic shows the value from EU and non-EU exports of colloidal precious metals in the United Kingdom between 2010 and 2019*.
Two current and one former precious metals traders at JPMorgan Chase have been charged with manipulating futures markets in what prosecutors described as a massive, multi-year conspiracy run out of the bank.
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0060] If Al or an alloy of Al and any one of Nd, Sc, C, Ni, B, Zr, Lu, Cu and Ag is used for the data wiring (62, 65, 66 and 67), the data wiring (62, 65, 66 and 67) may be formed as multiple layers including different types of layers formed on and/or under Al or the Al alloy. In an exemplary embodiment, the data wiring (62, 65, 66 and 67) is a double layer including any one of Mo(Mo alloy)/Al(Al alloy), Ti(Ti alloy)/Al(Al alloy), Ta(Ta alloy)/Al(Al alloy), Ni(Ni alloy)/Al(Al alloy) and Co(Co alloy)/Al(Al alloy) or a triple layer including any one of Ti(Ti alloy)/Al(Al alloy)/Ti(Ti alloy), Ta(Ta alloy)/Al(Al alloy)/Ta(Ta alloy), Ti(Ti alloy)/Al(Al alloy)/TiN, Ta(Ta alloy)/Al(Al alloy)/TaN, Ni(Ni alloy)/Al(Al alloy)/Ni(Ni alloy), Co(Co alloy)/Al(Al alloy)/Co(Co alloy) and Mo(Mo alloy)/Al(Al alloy)/Mo(Mo alloy). The alloy materials may include at least one element selected from the group consisting of Mo, W, Nb, Zr, V, O, and N ...
Page contains details about thiol-terminated polyethylene glycol-coated mesoporous plasmonic Ag/Au alloy nanoshells . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
TY - JOUR. T1 - Thiosulfate-copper-ammonia leaching of pure gold and pressure oxidized concentrate. AU - Porvali, Antti. AU - Rintala, Lotta. AU - Aromaa, Jari. AU - Kaartinen, Tommi. AU - Forsen, Olof. AU - Lundstrom, Mari. PY - 2017. Y1 - 2017. N2 - In this research cyanide-free leaching of pure gold and pressure oxidized refractory gold concentrate by thiosulfate-copper-ammonia solutions were examined. A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) was used to study gold leaching as a factorial series where the best gold leaching rate (2.987 mg/(cm2·h)) was achieved with a solution consisting of 0.2 M (NH4)2S2O3, 1.2 M NH3, 0.01 M CuSO4 and 0.4 M Na2SO4. Temperature had the greatest effect on the gold leaching rate. An increase in thiosulfate concentration (0.1-0.2 M) increased gold dissolution. The combined effect of temperature and ammonia concentration had a statistically significant effect on the gold leaching rate at 0.1 M M2S2O3. Combination of applied potential and NH3:S2O3 ratio had a ...
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In the present paper, the effect of Mg and Cu additions on melting, mechanical and corrosion behavior of Al-9Zn alloy was studied and analyzed. It was found that, addition of Cu and Mg led to form the Al-Cu, Al-Mg and Mg-Zn intermetallic compounds. These compounds tend to increase the hardness values due to the precipitation strengthening hardening mechanism of these compounds. Also corrosion behavior of the Cu and Mg content alloys measured by the weight loss method is better than those of the Al-9Zn alloy. Furthermore, corrosion resistance of the Cu content alloys is superior to that of the Mg content alloys.
It is known that aluminum alloys can be classified as alloys for the production of castings and wrought alloys (rolling, extrusions, forgings and others). Wrought aluminum alloys are subdivided into heat-treatable alloys, those that respond to heat treatment to increase their mechanical strength and non heat-treatable alloys, whose mechanical properties can only be improved by cold working. The use of aluminum alloys has a great advantage due to the strength / weight ratio of Al, it has been used in industrial applications to different solutions, such as in the construction of automobiles, aerial and space vehicles, packaging and in overhead transmission lines. This paper aims to analyze the effect of heat treatment on the microhardness, ultimate tensile strength and in the elongation of the Al-0,18%Zr; Al-0.18%Zr-2.0%Mg and Al-0.18%Zr-6.0%Mg alloys compared to results obtained without heat treatment. The alloys were melted in a muffle furnace and cast in a water-cooled Cu mold. Samples were ...
These properties ensure that the welding process is safe and a good connection is made at the end. Here are some important things you need to know about welding alloys.. Until a few years ago, the solder alloy most commonly used was the eutectic alloy lead tin with a melting point of about 188 ° C. This particular combination of brazing alloys gave place high performance and lower defects. Apart from the joint training of tin whiskers, the only other problem with this combination of alloy was the presence of lead that government legislation is forcing the electronics industry to consider the use of alloys without lead up lead alloys for many applications.. In recent years, due to increasing environmental concerns, there have been new developments of alloys of lead free solder. Typically made of metals such as bismuth, indium and tin, lead-free alloys melt at low temperatures, making a range of new applications in the electronics industry. There is also less energy consumption during the welding ...
B166-19 Standard Specification for Nickel-Chromium-Aluminum Alloy, Nickel-Chromium-Iron Alloys, Nickel-Chromium-Cobalt-Molybdenum Alloy, Nickel-Iron-Chromium-Tungsten Alloy, and Nickel-Chromium-Molybdenum-Copper Alloy Rod, Bar, and Wire nickel alloy bars~ nickel alloy rods~ nickel alloy wires~
Aluminium Pipe, Tubes, Round, Square, Sheet, Plate. Aluminium grade 6082 is a 6000 series aluminium (Magnesium + Silicon) is a heat-treatable alloy in the T6 condition (fully heat treated) suitable for medium strength appliions offering an …. 6000 Series Alloy. When magnesium is added to this alloy, it can be heat-treated to convert it into a 6000-series alloy, which is excellent for standard and custom aluminum extrusion. 5000-Series When magnesium alone is added to aluminum, the strength of the alloy is increased. Aluminium 5083 H111. Aluminium Alloy 5083 H111 Plus Alloy 5083 H111 is known for exceptional performance in extreme environments. It displays high resistance to industrial chemical environments and shows exceptional strength after being welded. It is typically used in ship. V.s. RAJA , PhD , Indian Institute of Technology Boay, …. Stress corrosion cracking of the magnesium alloy Elektron 21 (ASTM-EV31A) and AZ91E was studied using constant load test in 0.1 M NaCl solution ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Computer simulation of spinodal decomposition in Fe-Cr-Ni ternary alloys and Fe-Cr-Mo-Ni quaternary alloys. AU - Yang, Ling Ling. AU - Saito, Yoshiyuki. PY - 2012. Y1 - 2012. N2 - Numerical simulations of phase separation in Fe-Cr-Ni ternary alloys and Fe-Cr-Mo-Ni quaternary alloys similar to ferrite phases in duplex stainless steels were performed with using of the Cahn-Hilliard equations. A new numerical model based on the Gauss-Seidel and Newton-Raphson methods were utilized to obtain efficient and accurate solution. We obtained that small addition of Ni retard phase separation of Cr in Fe-Cr-Ni ternary alloys. The simulation results on behavior of Mo and Ni in Fe-Cr-Mo-Ni ternary alloys were quite similar to Mo in Fe-Cr- Mo and Ni in Fe-Cr-Ni ternary alloys. It is known that behavior of Mo or Ni along the trajectory of the peak tops of Cr concentration is determined by the sign of second derivative of Cr and Mo or which of Cr and Ni. The effect of Ni on the peak height of Cr ...
Alloy wheels are wheels that are made from an alloy of aluminium or magnesium. Alloys are mixtures of a metal and other elements. They generally provide greater strength over pure metals, which are usually much softer and more ductile. Alloys of aluminium or magnesium are typically lighter for the same strength, provide better heat conduction, and often produce improved cosmetic appearance over steel wheels. Although steel, the most common material used in wheel production, is an alloy of iron and carbon, the term alloy wheel is usually reserved for wheels made from nonferrous alloys. The earliest light-alloy wheels were made of magnesium alloys. Although they lost favor on common vehicles, they remained popular through the 1960s, albeit in very limited numbers. In the mid-to-late 1960s, aluminum-casting refinements allowed the manufacture of safer wheels that were not as brittle. Until this time, most aluminum wheels suffered from low ductility, usually ranging from 2-3% elongation. Because ...
abstractNote = {This paper describes an influence of additional elements on the high temperature deformation behavior of Nb-base solid solution alloys. Highly concentrated solid solution single crystals of Nb-Ta and Nb-Mo alloys were prepared. Compression test and strain rate sudden change test were conducted in the vacuum at temperatures ranging from 77 to 1773 K, to determine the strain rate sensitivity index. Yield stress of the Nb-Ta alloy was similar to that of Nb alloy at temperatures over 0.3{times}T{sub M}, where T{sub M} is fusing point of Nb. While, the yield stress increased with increasing the impurity oxygen concentration at temperatures below 0.3{times}T{sub M}. The yield stress became much higher than that of Nb alloy. The strain rate sensitivity index showed positive values in the whole temperature range. On the other hand, the yield stress of Nb-Mo alloy was higher than that of Nb alloy in the whole temperature range, and increased with increasing the Mo concentration. The ...
10. The multilayer alloy film according to claim 1,wherein the inner stabilizing layer and the outer stabilizing layer each comprise:aγ phase having an fcc crystal structure of a Ni-based alloy containing 1 to 18 atom % of Al, 0.1 to 30 atom % of Pt and 0.1 to 25 atom % of Cr;a γ phase having an L1.sub.2 crystal structure of a Ni-based alloy containing 19 to 32 atom % of Al, 0.1 to 30 atom % of Pt and 0.1 to 10 atom % of Cr;a β phase having a bcc crystal structure of a Ni-based alloy containing 35 to 50 atom % of Al, 0.1 to 30 atom % of Pt and 0.1 to 10 atom % of Cr;an α phase having an L1.sub.0 crystal structure of a Ni-based alloy containing 15 to 50 atom % of Al, 30 to 48 atom % of Pt and 0.1 to 10 atom % of Cr;a mixed phase of a γ phase and a γ phase, the γ phase having an L1.sub.2 crystal structure of a Ni-based alloy containing 19 to 32 atom % of Al, 0.1 to 30 atom % of Pt and 0.1 to 10 atom % of Cr, the γ phase having an fcc crystal structure of a Ni-based alloy containing 1 to ...
Dental Gold and Gold Alloys. Gold, the most noble of metals, seldom tarnishes or corrodes in the oral cavity. Because of the softness of pure gold, it is not indicated for use in the mouth except in the form of gold foil. Gold is frequently used in combination with other metals to produce alloys that can be used to fabricate various types of dental restorations where metal is indicated. The basic types of gold alloys used in dentistry are casting gold, gold solder, wrought gold, and gold plate. The principal metals used to combine with gold to form the alloys are silver, copper, platinum, palladium, and zinc. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTROL Controlled items subject to strict accountability and safeguarding are gold solder, platinum foil, and gold, silver, and chromium alloys. In addition, scrap from these controlled items and from amalgam are also subject to the same controls. Certain delegated members of a dental facility control these items. However, all members of the dental care system must be aware ...
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For oxide nanoparticles present in three oxide-dispersion-strengthened (ODS) Fe-12Cr-5Al alloys containing additions of (1) Y 2O 3 (125Y), (2) Y 2O 3 + ZrO 2 (125YZ), and (3) Y 2O 3 + HfO 2 (125YH), were investigated using transmission and scanning transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, in all three alloys nano-sized (,3.5 nm) oxide particles distributed uniformly throughout the microstructure were characterized using advanced electron microscopy techniques. In the 125Y alloy, mainly Al 2O 3 and yttrium-aluminum garnet (YAG) phases (Y 3Al 5O 12) were present, while in the 125YZ alloy, additional Zr(C,N) precipitates were identified. The 125YH alloy had the most complex precipitation sequence whereby in addition to the YAG and Al 2O 3 phases, Hf(C,N), Y 2Hf 2O 7, and HfO 2 precipitates were also found. The presence of HfO 2 was mainly due to the incomplete incorporation of HfO 2 powder during mechanical alloying of the 125YH alloy. The alloy having the highest total number density of the ...
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The recrystallization behavior of an Al-Cu-Mg alloy is investigated in multi-directionally forged over-aged and solution treated alloys, during non-isothermal annealing. Deformation and non-isothermal annealing are performed with a Gleeble 3800 thermo-mechanical simulator. The hardness measurements show that there is a thermal stability in mechanical properties during non-isothermal annealing up to 250 °C with heating rate of 10 K·min− 1. Differential scanning calorimetry curves of deformed over-aged and solution treated alloys describe the related precipitation phenomena. EBSD maps demonstrate that partially recrystallized and fully recrystallized microstructures appear in deformed over-aged and solution treated alloys, respectively. During over ageing, small S′/S particles are formed and increase the critical particle diameter for particle stimulated nucleation (PSN). Evidence is also reported on grain boundary bulging in the over-aged alloy, related to strain induced grain boundary ...
Researches of the last years have allowed to establish that the laws of deformation and fracture of bulk ultrafine-grained (UFG) and coarse-grained (CG) materials are various both in static and in dynamic loading conditions. The influence of average grain size on the yield stress, the tensile strength, and the compression strength was established for metal alloys with a face-centered cubic (FCC), a body-centered cubic (BCC), and a hexagonal close-packed (HCP) structures. The study of the microstructure of the alloys after severe plastic deformation (SPD) by the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique showed the presence of a bimodal grain size distribution in the UFG alloys. Metal alloys with a bimodal grain size distribution possess a negative strain rate sensitivity of the yield stress and higher ductility at quasi-static strain rates. In this chapter, we will discuss the regularities of deformation at high strain rates, damage, and fracture of ultrafine-grained alloys.
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high-alloy steel 高合金钢 High-Alloy Steel Vessel 高合金钢容器 ; 高合金钢容器英语 High Alloy Steel 高质合金钢 ; [材] 高合金钢 high-alloy steel vessels 高合金钢容器 high alloy steel wire [材] 高合金钢丝 High alloy steels 高合金钢 High alloy steel casting 高质合金钢铸造 ; 高合金铸钢件 high-alloy carbon steels 高合金碳钢 high alloy iron [材] 高合金生铁 ; 高合金铸铁 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Hydrogen embrittlement of amorphous alloys based on iron and nickel. AU - Flis, J.. AU - Ashok, S.. AU - Stoloff, N. S.. AU - Duquette, D. J.. PY - 1987/8. Y1 - 1987/8. N2 - Hydrogen embrittlement of amorphous alloys based on iron and nickel was examined in constant extension rate tests during cathodic polarization. Tests were carried out at a current density of 50 A·m-2 in 0.1 M H2SO4 with and without addition of NaAsO2 and NaCl. Hydrogen permeation and polarization curves were measured. Differences in the degree of hydrogen embrittlement were ascribed mainly to differences in the entry of hydrogen into the alloys. It was suggested that a low degree of embrittlement resulted largely from a hindrance of hydrogen entry. For alloys containing phosphorus, this might be associated with phosphorus-containing oxyanions and salts. For the alloy with higher silicon content it may be associated with the formation of oxides of silicon.. AB - Hydrogen embrittlement of amorphous alloys ...
Alloying has long been used to confer desirable properties to materials. Typically, it involves the addition of relatively small amounts of secondary elements to a primary element. For the past decade and a half, however, a new alloying strategy that involves the combination of multiple principal elements in high concentrations to create new materials called high-entropy alloys has been in vogue. The multi-dimensional compositional space that can be tackled with this approach is practically limitless, and only tiny regions have been investigated so far. Nevertheless, a few high-entropy alloys have already been shown to possess exceptional properties, exceeding those of conventional alloys, and other outstanding high-entropy alloys are likely to be discovered in the future. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the salient features of high-entropy alloys. Model alloys whose behaviour has been carefully investigated are highlighted and their fundamental properties and underlying elementary
B422 / B422M-17 Standard Specification for Copper-Aluminum-Silicon-Cobalt Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon-Magnesium Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Silicon Alloy, Copper-Nickel-Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy, and Copper-Nickel-Tin Alloy Sheet and Strip
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The helium coolant in high-temperature reactors inevitably contains low levels of impurities during steady-state operation, primarily consisting of small amounts of H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2} from a variety of sources in the reactor circuit. These impurities are problematic because they can cause significant long-term corrosion in the structural alloys used in the heat exchangers at elevated temperatures. Currently, the primary candidate materials for intermediate heat exchangers are Alloy 617, Haynes 230, Alloy 800H, and Hastelloy X. This project will evaluate the role of impurities in helium coolant on the stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation and creep crack growth in candidate alloys at elevated temperatures. The project team will: • Evaluate stress-assisted grain boundary oxidation and creep crack initiation and crack growth in the temperature range of 500-850°C in a prototypical helium environment. • Evaluate the effects of oxygen partial pressure on stress
The three major classes of superalloys are nickel-based, cobalt-based and iron-Nickel based alloys.. Nickel-based alloys can be either solid solution or precipitation strengthened. Solid solution strengthened alloys, such as Hastelloy X, are used in applications requiring only modest strength. They have particularly high-temperature corrosion resistance, excellent fabricability and weldability but lower mechanical strength.. In the most demanding applications, such as hot sections of gas turbine engines, a precipitation strengthened alloy is required. They are constituted in applications requiring high-temperature strength and good corrosion and creep resistance, for instance as turbine blades and vanes in the gas turbine. Nickel-based superalloys can be used for a higher fraction of melting temperature and are therefore more favourable than cobalt-based and iron-nickel-based superalloys at service temperatures close to the melting temperature of the materials.. Most nickel-based alloys contain ...
Alloy Steel Casting by CFS Investment Casting. Alloy steel casting is the steel casting process that is alloyed with numerous elements in total amounts between ...
The alloying effects of Ta and W on the phase composition, microstructure and room-temperature fracture toughness of Nb-Si based alloys were investigated. The nominal compositions of Nb-Si based alloys were Nb-15Si-24Ti-4Cr-2Al-2Hf (base alloy, at.%), Nb-15Si-24Ti-4Cr-2Al-2Hf-1Ta (1Ta alloy, at.%) and Nb-15Si-24Ti-4Cr-2Al-2Hf-1W (1W alloy, at.%). Results showed that the base
Al-Li alloy is a new structural material with the advantages of lightweight and high strength. The extrusion profiles of Al-Li alloy are widely used in aerospace and other fields, which can significantly reduce the weight of the aerospace equipment and improve their carrying capacity and service performance. Particular service conditions of structural components in aeronautical and space areas put forward strict requirements on microstructure, mechanical properties, and dimensional precision of Al-Li alloy profiles. Therefore, it places higher requirements on the shape forming and microstructure controlling of the Al-Li alloy profiles. The manufacturing process of the profiles involves billet homogenization, hot extrusion, solution and quenching treatments, artificial aging, and others. The parameters of each process as well as the die structure have important effects on the final performance of the profiles. This article summarizes the main applications and key mechanical properties of Al-Li alloy
In this study, both AZ91 alloy and nano-SiCp/AZ91 composite were subjected to multi-pass forging under varying passes and temperatures. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the alloy were compared with its composite. After six passes of multi-pass forging at a constant temperature of 400 ℃, complete recrystallization occurred in both the AZ91 alloy and composite. The decrease of temperature and the increase of passes for the multi-pass forging led to further refinement of dynamic recrystallized grains and dynamic precipitation of second phases. The grain size of the nano-SiCp/AZ91 composite was smaller than that of the AZ91 alloy under the same multi-pass forging condition, which indicated that the addition of SiC nanoparticles were beneficial to grain refinement by pinning the grain boundaries. The texture intensity for the 12 passes of multi-pass forging with varying temperatures was increased compared with that after nine passes. The ultimate tensile strength is slightly decreased while
Bioaccessibility in vitro tests measure the solubility of materials in surrogate biofluids. However, the lack of uniform methods and the effects of variable test parameters on material solubility limit interpretation. One aim of this study was to measure and compare bioaccessibility of selected economically important alloys and metals in surrogate physiologically based biofluids representing oral, inhalation and dermal exposures. A second aim was to experimentally test different biofluid formulations and residence times in vitro. A third aim was evaluation of dissolution behavior of alloys with in vitro lung and dermal biofluid surrogates. This study evaluated the bioaccessibility of sixteen elements in six alloys and 3 elemental/ metal powders. We found that the alloys/metals, the chemical properties of the surrogate fluid, and residence time all had major impacts on metal solubility. The large variability of bioaccessibility indicates the relevancy of assessing alloys as toxicologically ...
Addition of Al into SAC alloys reduces the number of hard Ag3Sn and Cu6Sn5 IMC particles, and forms larger, softer nonstoichiometric AlAg and AlCu particles. This results in a significant reduction in yield strength, and also causes some moderate increase in creep rate. For high Ag SAC alloys, adding Al 0.1-0.6% to SAC alloys is most effective in softening, and brings the yield strength down to the level of SAC105 and SAC1505, while the creep rate is still maintained at SAC305 level. Addition of Ni results in formation of large (Ni,Cu)3Sn4 IMC particles and loss of Cu6Sn5 particles. This also causes softening of SAC alloys, although to a less extent than that of Al addition. Addition of Al also drives the microstructure to shift from near-ternary SnAgCu eutectic toward combination of eutectic SnAg and eutectic SnCu. Addition of Ni drives shifting toward eutectic SnAg. For SAC+Al+Ni alloys, the pasty range and liquidus temperature are about 4°C less than that of SAC105 or SAC1505 if the addition
Recently, multi-component materials have become one of the most promising materials in the engineering and biomedical applications. Compared with traditional alloys, the composition design of multi-component materials is more complicated, and lots of alloys with different compositions need to be prepared and tested. In addition, the relationship between the mixing entropy and performance of multi-component materials are nonlinear, thereby the structure and performance cannot be effectively predicted by mixing entropy values, which makes it more difficult to design the alloys efficiently. In this case, high-throughput technology is effective way to solve this issue. A recent study reported that high-throughput screening of the composition and Youngs modulus of Ti-Zr-Nb alloy was successfully achieved by co-sputtering technology with the aid of a physical mask. The research paper, entitled High-throughput screening for biomedical applications in a Ti-Zr-Nb alloy system through masking ...