3-methylglutaconic aciduria type 1 (3MGA1) is a genetic disorder in which the body cannot get energy from a substance called leucine. Leucine is one of the amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins in our bodies. Because people with 3MGA1 cant break down leucine for energy to support muscle function and growth, they have a variety of symptoms that are present at birth. These symptoms may include developmental delays, seizures, muscle twitches (dystonia), and muscle weakness.. 3MGA1 is caused by a mutation (change) to the AUH gene, which produces a protein to break down leucine. When there is a mutation to the AUH gene, this protein either isnt produced or isnt functional, so the body cant get energy from leucine. Under normal conditions, the protein is present in the part of the cell that produces energy (the mitochondria), so 3MGA1 is a type of mitochondrial disease. 3MGA1 is also an organic acid condition because it causes harmful 3-methylglutaconic acid build up in the ...
3-methylglutaconic aciduria type 3 (OPA3) Test Cost INR 30000.00 Surat Pune Jaipur Lucknow Kanpur Nagpur Visakhapatnam Indore Thane Bhopal Patna Vadodara Ghaziabad Ludhiana Coimbatore Madurai Meerut Ranchi Allahabad Trivandrum Pondicherry Mysore Aligarh best offer discount price
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria, Type III / Optic Atrophy 3, with Cataract [OPA3]: Type III 3-methylglutaconic aciduria is a neuro-ophthalmologic syndrome consisting of early-onset bilateral optic atrophy and later-onset spasticity, extrapyramidal dysfunction, and cognitive deficit. Urinary excretion of 3-methylglutaconic acid and of 3-methylglutaric acid is increased.. For detailed information about this disease visit : National Institutes of Health (NIH) ,. Carrier Frequency by Ethnicity , ...
Learn more about [email protected] Aciduria, Type I from related diseases, pathways, genes and PTMs with the Novus Bioinformatics Tool.
INTRODUCTION: Malignant gliomas frequently harbor mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) gene. Studies suggest that IDH mutation contributes to tumor pathogenesis through mechanisms that are mediated by the neomorphic metabolite of the mutant IDH1 enzyme, 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). The aim of this work was to synthesize and evaluate radiolabeled compounds that bind to the mutant IDH1 enzyme with the goal of enabling noninvasive imaging of mutant IDH1 expression in gliomas by positron emission tomography (PET).. METHODS: A small library of nonradioactive analogs were designed and synthesized based on the chemical structure of reported butyl-phenyl sulfonamide inhibitors of mutant IDH1. Enzyme inhibition assays were conducted using purified mutant IDH1 enzyme, IDH1-R132H, to determine the IC50 and the maximal inhibitory efficiency of the synthesized compounds. Selected compounds, 1 and 4, were labeled with radioiodine ((125)I) and/or (18)F using bromo- and phenol precursors, ...
Glutaric acid can be prepared by the ring-opening of butyrolactone with potassium cyanide to give the mixed potassium carboxylate-nitrile that is hydrolyzed to the diacid.[1] Alternatively hydrolysis, followed by oxidation of dihydropyran gives glutaric acid. It can also be prepared from reacting 1,3-dibromopropane with sodium or potassium cyanide to obtain the dinitrile, followed by hydrolysis. ...
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2-Hydroxyglutarate (2HG) exists as two enantiomers, (R)-2HG and (S)-2HG, and both are implicated in tumor progression via their inhibitory effects on α-ketoglutarate (αKG)-dependent dioxygenases. The former is an oncometabolite that is induced by the neomorphic activity conferred by isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) and IDH2 mutations, whereas the latter is produced under pathologic processes such as hypoxia. We report that IDH1/2 mutations induce a homologous recombination (HR) defect that renders tumor cells exquisitely sensitive to poly(adenosine 5′-diphosphate-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. This "BRCAness" phenotype of IDH mutant cells can be completely reversed by treatment with small-molecule inhibitors of the mutant IDH1 enzyme, and conversely, it can be entirely recapitulated by treatment with either of the 2HG enantiomers in cells with intact IDH1/2 proteins. We demonstrate mutant IDH1-dependent PARP inhibitor sensitivity in a range of clinically relevant models, including ...
3-methylglutaconic aciduria 1. An inborn error of leucine metabolism. It leads to an autosomal recessive syndrome with variable clinical phenotype, ranging from delayed speech development to severe psychomotor retardation, coma, failure to thrive, metabolic acidosis and dystonia. MGA1 can be distinguished from other forms of MGA by the pattern of metabolite excretion: 3-methylglutaconic acid levels are higher than those detected in other forms, whereas methylglutaric acid levels are usually only slightly elevated and there is a high level of 3-hydroxyisovaleric acid excretion (not present in other MGA forms).. UniProtKB (1) ...
The enantiomers of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) are potent regulators of metabolism, chromatin modifications and cell fate decisions. Although these compounds are associated with tumor metabolism and commonly referred to as oncometabolites, both D- and L-2HG are also synthesized by healthy cells and likely serve endogenous functions. The metabolic mechanisms that control 2HG metabolism in vivo are poorly understood. One clue towards how cells regulate 2HG levels has emerged from an inborn error of metabolism known as combined D- and L-2HG aciduria (D-/L-2HGA), which results in elevated D- and L-2HG accumulation. Because this disorder is caused by mutations in the mitochondrial citrate transporter (CIC), citrate must somehow govern 2HG metabolism in healthy cells. The mechanism linking citrate and 2HG, however, remains unknown. Here, we use the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to elucidate a metabolic link between citrate transport and L-2HG accumulation. Our study reveals that the Drosophila gene scheggia
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Somatic gain-of-function mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 and 2 are found in multiple hematologic and solid tumors, leading to accumulation of the oncometabolite, (R)-2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG). 2HG competitively inhibits α-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, including histone demethylases and methylcytosine dioxygenases of the Tet family, causing epigenetic dysregulation and a block in cellular differentiation. In vitro studies have provided proof of concept for mutant IDH inhibition as a therapeutic approach. We report the discovery and characterization of AG-221, an orally available, selective, potent inhibitor of the mutant IDH2 enzyme. AG-221 suppressed 2HG production and induced cellular differentiation in primary human IDH2 mutation-positive acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells ex vivo and in xenograft mouse models. AG-221 also provided a statistically significant survival benefit in an aggressive IDH2R140Q-mutant AML xenograft mouse model. These findings supported initiation ...
The Golm Metabolome Database (GMD) facilitates the search for and dissemination of mass spectra from biologically active metabolites quantified using GC-MS.
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May 22, 2014 Bridge to Success Targeting Mutant IDH1 in Malignant Gliomas, a collaboration between Matthew Vander Heiden of the Koch Institute, William Kaelin of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and Daniel Cahill of Massachusetts General Hospital. ...
A 7-month-old male presented in the ED with head injury and seizure concerns. Bilateral subdural hemorrhages of different ages and multilayered intraretinal hemorrhages in both eyes were found, without bone fractures or cervical spine ligamentous injury. In addition, the patient had a rapid progression of macrocephaly. Analysis of urine organic acids revealed 2-hydroxyglutaric acid (2HGA) and 2-hydroxyglutaric lactone (2HGL) markedly elevated (Figure 1). The presence of either the D-form or the L-form of 2HGA was analyzed (Figure 2).. ...
Genes Dev. 2014 Mar 1;28(5):479-90. doi: 10.1101/gad.231233.113. Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt
MalaCards based summary : Mecr-Related Neurologic Disorder, also known as synonyms mitochondrial enoyl coa reductase protein-associated neurodegeneration, is related to dystonia, childhood-onset, with optic atrophy and basal ganglia abnormalities and 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, type iii. An important gene associated with Mecr-Related Neurologic Disorder is MECR (Mitochondrial Trans-2-Enoyl-CoA Reductase ...
This gene encodes bifunctional mitochondrial protein that has both RNA-binding and hydratase activities. The encoded protein is a methylglutaconyl-CoA hydratase that catalyzes the hydration of 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA to 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA, a critical step in the leucine degradation pathway. This protein also binds AU-rich elements (AREs) found in the 3 UTRs of rapidly decaying mRNAs including c-fos, c-myc and granulocyte/ macrophage colony stimulating factor. ARE elements are involved in directing RNA to rapid degradation and deadenylation. This protein is localizes to the mitochondrial matrix and the inner mitochondrial membrane and may be involved in mitochondrial protein synthesis. Mutations in this gene are the cause of 3-methylglutaconic aciduria, type I. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2015]
Mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase-1 (IDH1) frequently drive acute myeloid leukemia (AML) tumorigenesis. Mutant IDH1 inhibits TET2, an enzyme involved in cytosine demethylation, resulting in disrupted DNA methylation and differentiation. However, IDH1-mutant disease is clinically distinct from TET2-mutant disease, indicating that IDH1 likely has a TET2-independent role in AML. A previous study in myeloid-specific IDH1-mutant mice revealed global changes in DNA and histone methylation and disruption of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) differentiation, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Inoue, Li, Tseng, and colleagues showed that in progenitor cells and HSCs from IDH1-mutant mice, DNA damage response (DDR) signaling was impaired by downregulation of the DNA damage sensor ATM, independent of TET2. This ATM downregulation was also observed in IDH1 mutant AML data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Downregulation of ATM by mutant IDH1 was associated with reduced ...
Researchers at Winship Cancer Institute have developed a technique for detecting an "oncometabolite", a chemical produced by some brain tumors´ warped metabolism, via non-invasive imaging.. Their approach could allow doctors to know not only that a brain tumor is there, but also that it carries a particular genetic mutation. The researchers´ technique uses magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to measure a chemical, 2-hydroxyglutarate, which is scarce in normal tissues. 2-hydroxyglutarate is produced by some types of brain tumor carrying mutations in an enzyme called isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH).. The research was a collaboration between the laboratories of Hui Mao, PhD, associate professor of radiology and imaging sciences and Emory University Center for Systems Imaging, and Erwin Van Meir, PhD, professor of neurosurgery and hematology and medical oncology. The first author of the paper is postdoctoral fellow Juliya Kalinina. Emory undergraduate Anne Carroll also contributed to the ...
Reagents and lentiviral vectors. Octyl-D-2HG ([2R]-2-hydroxyglutaric acid octyl ester), abbreviated as octyl-2HG in the text, and control compound PAMO were custom synthesized by SLR Biosciences and were added to cell culture medium in DMSO as solvent (1 μl per 2 ml culture medium). PAMO has cell permeability characteristics similar to 2HG and is also a control for octanol release. Additional information about reagents can be found in the Supplemental Methods.. Human tissues. We analyzed human breast tumors for tissue levels of D- and L-2-hydroxyglutarate. Collection of these tissues has previously been described (7, 12).. Cell lines. Human nontumorigenic and tumorigenic breast epithelial cell lines, MCF10A, MCF12A, MCF7, and MDA-MB-231, were obtained from American Type Culture Collection. MCF10A and MCF12A cells were cultured in DMEM/F12 (1:1) (Invitrogen/Thermo Fisher Scientific) supplemented with 5% heat-inactivated horse serum (Invitrogen), 500 ng/ml hydrocortisone (MilliporeSigma), 10 ...
Reagents and lentiviral vectors. Octyl-D-2HG ([2R]-2-hydroxyglutaric acid octyl ester), abbreviated as octyl-2HG in the text, and control compound PAMO were custom synthesized by SLR Biosciences and were added to cell culture medium in DMSO as solvent (1 μl per 2 ml culture medium). PAMO has cell permeability characteristics similar to 2HG and is also a control for octanol release. Additional information about reagents can be found in the Supplemental Methods.. Human tissues. We analyzed human breast tumors for tissue levels of D- and L-2-hydroxyglutarate. Collection of these tissues has previously been described (7, 12).. Cell lines. Human nontumorigenic and tumorigenic breast epithelial cell lines, MCF10A, MCF12A, MCF7, and MDA-MB-231, were obtained from American Type Culture Collection. MCF10A and MCF12A cells were cultured in DMEM/F12 (1:1) (Invitrogen/Thermo Fisher Scientific) supplemented with 5% heat-inactivated horse serum (Invitrogen), 500 ng/ml hydrocortisone (MilliporeSigma), 10 ...
Background (mutation (6. exposed statistically improved mutation rate compared to that of HCC without obvious cell switch (mutation was related with poor survival in obvious cell HCC individuals (mutation rate than additional variants of HCC. This result consolidates the assumption that morphological features of tumors reflect molecular alterations. (gene mutations have been widely analyzed in glioma or leukemia individuals [2]. The major alteration observed in mutant gene is the substitution of arginine at codon 132. Wild type Arg132 is definitely a critical binding point for the isocitrate substrate. The mutant IDH1 protein has improved affinity for NADPH, advertising the reduction of -ketoglutarate to d-2-hydroxyglutarate. The mechanism leading to carcinogenesis due to mutations needs to be elucidated, but it has been suggested that d-2-hydroxyglutarate takes on a role [3]. Additional solid tumors hardly ever display 473382-39-7 supplier mutations [4, 5]. Unexpectedly, some intrahepatic ...
Touch spray mass spectrometry using medical swabs is an ambient ionization technique (ionization of unprocessed sample in the open air) that has potential intraoperative application in quickly identifying the disease state of tissue and in better characterizing the resection margin. To explore this potential, we studied 29 human brain tumor specimens and obtained evidence that this technique can provide diagnostic molecular information that is relevant to brain cancer. Touch spray using medical swabs involves the physical sampling of tissue using a medical swab on a spatial scale of a few mm(2) with subsequent ionization occurring directly from the swab tip upon addition of solvent and application of a high voltage ...
The properties of tubular glutarate uptake and the coupling to p-aminohippurate (PAH) transport were studied on isolated nonperfused S2 segments of proximal tubules, microdissected from rabbit kidneys without the use of enzymatic agents. Because the tubules were totally collapsed, the tubular glutarate uptake may be assumed to represent the quantity transported across the basolateral membrane. The results show that the S2 segments effectively accumulated 14C glutarate (500 micron). The cell/bath 14C-glutarate concentration ratio reached maximum values of about 20 after a 20-min incubation period. The tubular 14C glutarate accumulation could be markedly depressed by lithium (5 mM) but not by probenecid (1 mM), which, however, inhibited tubular 3H-PAH (1 microM ) uptake. External PAH (0.1 mM) stimulated efflux of 14C-glutarate from S2 segments preloaded with 14C-glutarate (500 microM), and external glutarate stimulated tubular uptake of 3H-PAH (1 microM), providing evidence for glutarate-PAH ...
Impairments in the production of neurotransmitters may lead to depression in some patients, preliminary results show, opening new avenues for research.
MP Amino1 Sport is the ultimate daily performance supplement with benefits for hydration, recovery, muscle fuel, and cellular energy. Specifically, Amino1 features ingredients such as Arginine Alpha-Keto Glutarate (AAKG), which helps to produce nitric oxi
Glutaric acidemia type 1 (or "glutaric aciduria", "GA1", or "GAT1") is an inherited disorder in which the body is unable to completely break down the amino acids lysine, hydroxylysine and tryptophan. Excessive levels of their intermediate breakdown products (glutaric acid, glutaryl-CoA, 3-hydroxyglutaric acid, glutaconic acid) can accumulate and cause damage to the brain (and also other organs), but particularly the basal ganglia, which are regions that help regulate movement. GA1 causes secondary carnitine deficiency, as glutaric acid, like other organic acids, is detoxified by carnitine. Mental retardation may also occur. The severity of glutaric acidemia type 1 varies widely; some individuals are only mildly affected, while others have severe problems. GA1 can be defined as two clinical entities: GA1 before the encephalopathic crisis and GA1 after the encephalopathic crisis. Babies with glutaric acidemia type 1 often are born with unusually large heads (macrocephaly). Macrocephaly is amongst ...
Genetic testing for the GCDH gene, which is associated with glutaric aciduria type I (GA1) and elevated C5-DC on newborn screening (NBS) or acylcarnitine analysis.
A collection of disease information resources and questions answered by our Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Specialists for Glutaric acidemia type III
TEXTBOOKS. Goodman SI, Frerman FE. Organic acidemias due to defects in lysine oxidation: 2-ketoadipic acidemia and glutaric acidemia. In: Scriver CR, Beaudet AL, Sly WS, et al. Eds. The Metabolic Molecular Basis of Inherited Disease. 7th ed. McGraw-Hill Companies. New York, NY; 1995:1451-60.. JOURNAL ARTICLES. Bahr O, Mader I, Zschocke J, et al. Adult onset glutaric aciduria type I presenting with leukoencephalopathy. Neurology. 2002;59:1802-04.. Kolker S, Ramaekers VT, Zschocke J, et al. Acute encephalopathy despite early therapy in a patient with homozygosity for E365K in the glutaryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase gene. J Pediatr 2001;138:277-79.. Zafeiriou DI, Zschocke J, Augustidou-Savvopoulou P, et al. Atypical and variable clinical presentation of glutaric aciduria type I. Neuropediatrics. 2000;31:303-06.. Kafil-Hussain NA, Monavari A, Bowell R, et al. Ocular findings in glutaric aciduria type I. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2000;37:289-93.. Busquets C, Coll MJ, Merinero B, et al. Prenatal ...
As of March 2016, we compared 17.37 Mb of Sanger DNA sequence generated at PreventionGenetics to NextGen sequence generated in other labs. We detected only 4 errors in our Sanger sequences, and these were all due to allele dropout during PCR. For Proficiency Testing, both external and internal, in the 12 years of our lab operation we have Sanger sequenced roughly 8,800 PCR amplicons. Only one error has been identified, and this was due to sequence analysis error.. Our Sanger sequencing is capable of detecting virtually all nucleotide substitutions within the PCR amplicons. Similarly, we detect essentially all heterozygous or homozygous deletions within the amplicons. Homozygous deletions which overlap one or more PCR primer annealing sites are detectable as PCR failure. Heterozygous deletions which overlap one or more PCR primer annealing sites are usually not detected (see Analytical Limitations). All heterozygous insertions within the amplicons up to about 100 nucleotides in length appear to ...
However, much later on an infant suffering from glutaric aciduria II will develop macrocephaly. What will trigger the appearance of the symptoms is infection or conditions like gastrointestinal disturbance. The initial results will show symptoms resembling viral encephalitis or ADEM. The patients diagnose with this condition exhibit deterioration of their condition. In some instances, those that exhibit glutaric aciduria II later in their adult life will show encephalopathy and still other symptoms. It is important to have an MRI for proper imaging and to avoid triggering the condition to move from a slower to faster phase and have an effect on the person suffering from this genetic disorder. This inherited genetic disorder leads to an accumulation of glutaric acid in the brain and body fluids. This also includes its presence in the urine. This is an altogether disease different from other unrelated enzyme deficiencies. Even if there are laboratory testing made like routine blood, urine and CSF ...
OVERVIEW: What every practitioner needs to know Are you sure your patient has glutaric aciduria type I? What are the typical findings for this disease? Glutaric aciduria type I (GA-I) should be considered in any patient who has a history of dystonia/dyskinesia with macrocephaly. Prior to these overt chronic neurologic symptoms, there is usually a…. ...
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Costeff syndrome is an inherited condition characterized by vision loss, delayed development, and movement problems. Vision loss is primarily caused by degeneration (atrophy) of the optic nerves, which carry information from the eyes to the brain. This optic nerve atrophy often begins in infancy or early childhood and results in vision impairment that worsens over time. Some affected individuals have rapid and involuntary eye movements (nystagmus) or eyes that do not look in the same direction (strabismus).. Development of motor skills, such as walking, is often delayed in people with Costeff syndrome. Affected individuals may also have speech difficulties (dysarthria). While some people with Costeff syndrome have mild to moderate intellectual disability, many have normal intelligence.. Movement problems in people with Costeff syndrome develop in late childhood and include muscle stiffness (spasticity), impaired muscle coordination (ataxia), and involuntary jerking movements (choreiform ...
Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) mutations drive the development of gliomas and other human malignancies. Significant efforts are already underway to attempt to target mutant IDH in clinical trials. However, how mutation of IDH leads to tumorigenesis is poorly understood. Mutant IDH1 promotes epigenetic changes that promote tumorigenesis but the scale of these changes throughout the epigenome and the reversibility of these changes are unknown. Here, using both human astrocyte and glioma tumorsphere systems, we generate a large-scale atlas of mutant IDH1-induced epigenomic reprogramming. We characterize the changes in the histone code landscape, DNA methylome, chromatin state, and transcriptional reprogramming that occur following IDH1 mutation and characterize the kinetics and reversibility of these alterations over time. We discover coordinate changes in the localization and intensity of multiple histone marks and chromatin states throughout the genome. These alterations result in
Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1 and IDH2) mutations drive the development of gliomas and other human malignancies. Significant efforts are already underway to attempt to target mutant IDH in clinical trials. However, how mutation of IDH leads to tumorigenesis is poorly understood. Mutant IDH1 promotes epigenetic changes that promote tumorigenesis but the scale of these changes throughout the epigenome and the reversibility of these changes are unknown. Here, using both human astrocyte and glioma tumorsphere systems, we generate a large-scale atlas of mutant IDH1-induced epigenomic reprogramming. We characterize the changes in the histone code landscape, DNA methylome, chromatin state, and transcriptional reprogramming that occur following IDH1 mutation and characterize the kinetics and reversibility of these alterations over time. We discover coordinate changes in the localization and intensity of multiple histone marks and chromatin states throughout the genome. These alterations result in
Barth syndrome (BTHS), also known as 3-Methylglutaconic aciduria type 2, is an X-linked genetic disorder. The disorder, which affects multiple body systems, has so far been found exclusively in males. It is named after Dutch pediatric neurologist Peter Barth.Wikipedia Rare mutations in the TAZ gene on the X chromosome may lead to Barth syndrome. ...
Glutaric acidemia, type IIc is a pan-ethnic autosomal recessive disease caused by pathogenic variants in the gene ETFDH. It is a metabolic disease which prevents the body from properly breaking down proteins and fats. The clinical presentation is highly variable. In the neonatal form of the disease, affected infants may have congenital anomalies, and the disease is usually fatal very early in life. In the later onset form, affected individuals may develop symptoms in childhood or adulthood, or may remain asymptomatic. Symptoms include episodes of metabolic crisis, which include lethargy, vomiting, muscle weakness, and enlarged liver. Life expectancy depends on the severity of disease. Different types of pathogenic ETFDH variants have been correlated with disease severity. Therefore, the phenotype may be somewhat predicted based on the inherited variants.. For information about carrier frequency and residual risk, please see the Expanded Carrier Screen brochure.. ...
Isocitrate dehydrogenases (IDHs) convert isocitrate to α-ketoglutarate by oxidative decarboxylation and are thereby involved in multiple metabolic processes. Mutations in the genes encoding IDH1 and IDH2 were first reported in human gliomas in 2008 and later on also identified in a minority of patients with acute myeloid leukemia. The mutations universally affect codons 132 in IDH1 and 172 in IDH2 and result in decreased enzymatic activity. The oncogenic pathway triggered by IDH mutations may involve the activation of hypoxia-inducible factor pathway as well as the acquisition of a novel (gain of enzymatic) function consuming NADPH and generating α-hydroxyglutarate. Most intriguingly, IDH mutations are observed in ∼70-80% of grade II/III gliomas and the majority of secondary glioblastomas, but only 10% of primary glioblastomas, suggesting a different cellular origin of the gliomas, which had previously been viewed as a multistep process of malignant progression. Understanding the oncogenic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mutant IDH1 and thrombosis in gliomas. AU - Unruh, Dusten. AU - Schwarze, Steven R.. AU - Khoury, Laith. AU - Thomas, Cheddhi. AU - Wu, Meijing. AU - Chen, Li. AU - Chen, Rui. AU - Liu, Yinxing. AU - Schwartz, Margaret A.. AU - Amidei, Christina. AU - Kumthekar, Priya. AU - Benjamin, Carolina G.. AU - Song, Kristine. AU - Dawson, Caleb. AU - Rispoli, Joanne M.. AU - Fatterpekar, Girish. AU - Golfinos, John G.. AU - Kondziolka, Douglas. AU - Karajannis, Matthias. AU - Pacione, Donato. AU - Zagzag, David. AU - McIntyre, Thomas. AU - Snuderl, Matija. AU - Horbinski, Craig. PY - 2016/12/1. Y1 - 2016/12/1. N2 - Mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) is common in gliomas, and produces D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D-2-HG). The full effects of IDH1 mutations on glioma biology and tumor microenvironment are unknown. We analyzed a discovery cohort of 169 World Health Organization (WHO) grade II-IV gliomas, followed by a validation cohort of 148 cases, for IDH1 mutations, intratumoral ...
A linear rate of H2O2 production is found when glutaryl-CoA is incubated with liver homogenates. We term this enzyme activity glutaryl-CoA oxidase. Its main characteristics are described and compared with those of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (EC 1.3.99.7) and palmitoyl-CoA oxidase (EC 1.1.3.-). The latter enzyme catalyses the first step of peroxisomal beta-oxidation. Glutaryl-CoA oxidase shares several properties with palmitoyl-CoA oxidase. The activities of both enzymes in mouse liver are increased by feeding the animals with a clofibrate-containing diet. Subcellular fractionation of the liver homogenates on a linear sucrose gradient indicates that glutaryl-CoA oxidase is a peroxisomal enzyme.. ...
The catabolism of glutarate in P. aeruginosa PAO1 depends on GcdH, whose expression is under the control of the GcdR transcriptional activator (38). The catabolism of glutarate in E. coli depends on CsiD and LhgO (20). The expression of csiD in E. coli is significantly upregulated during carbon starvation (39). However, the two pathways cooperate in glutarate catabolism in P. putida KT2440 and both GcdH and CsiD are induced during carbon starvation (19). In this study, it was found that two regulators, CsiR and GcdR, control the two pathways described above in P. putida KT2440, respectively. CsiR cannot interact with the gcdH promoter region (Fig. 4C) and has no effect on the transcription of gcdH (Fig. 4A). Similarly, GcdR cannot interact with the csiD promoter region (Fig. 4D) and has no effect on the transcription of csiD (Fig. 4A). In contrast to GcdH, which is present universally in Pseudomonas species, CsiD and LhgO may be acquired via horizontal gene transfer and are sporadically ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - 99-MTC-HMPAO single photon emission computed tomography examinations in genetically determined neurometabolic disorders. AU - László, Aranka. AU - Ambrus, Edit. AU - Vörös, Erika. AU - Svékus, András. AU - Kóbor, Jeno. AU - Bereg, Edit. AU - Palatka, János. AU - Pávics, László. PY - 2009/5/30. Y1 - 2009/5/30. N2 - The aim of our study was to determine regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) abnormalities in different types of enzymopathies. Patients and methods - Among the patients with genetically determined enzymopathies 3 patients had aminoacidopathies, and 11 had different types of encephalopathies, from which 10 had mitochondrial encephalomyopathy (MEMP), and 1 patient had hyperuricaemic encephalopathy. Besides the mentioned 14 patients, 1 had ceroid lipofuscinosis and another patient had tuberous sclerosis. The further distribution of the MEMP patients group was the following - 5 patients had MEMP with lactic acidosis, 5 had Leighs disease (subacute necrotizing ...
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome-4A, also known as Alpers syndrome, is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a clinical triad of psychomotor retardation, intractable epilepsy, and liver failure in infants and young children. Pathologic findings include neuronal loss in the cerebral gray matter with reactive astrocytosis and liver cirrhosis. The disorder is progressive and often leads to death from hepatic failure or status epilepticus before age 3 years (review by {19:Milone and Massie, 2010}). Some affected individuals may show mild intermittent 3-methylglutaconic aciduria and defects in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation ({29:Wortmann et al., 2009}). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive mtDNA depletion syndromes, see MTDPS1 ({603041}). Neuropathologic changes characteristic of Alpers syndrome, namely laminar cortical necrosis, may also be seen in some patients with combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency-14 (COXPD14; {614946}), caused by ...