Looking for online definition of Acetobacter xylinum in the Medical Dictionary? Acetobacter xylinum explanation free. What is Acetobacter xylinum? Meaning of Acetobacter xylinum medical term. What does Acetobacter xylinum mean?
Production of Bacterial Cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum through Utilizing Acetic Acid Hydrolysate of Bagasse as Low-cost Carbon Source. Zheng Cheng,a,b Rendang Yang,a,b,* and Xiao Liu a,b. Bacterial cellulose (BC) is a promising and renewable nanomaterial due to its unique structural features and appealing properties. Intensive study on BC preparation has been mainly focused on biosynthesis by certain bacteria, while the high economic costs of fermentation, especially the carbon sources, remain challenges to its application. In this study, bacterial cellulose was synthesized by Acetobacter xylinum with the acetic acid hydrolysate of bagasse used as carbon source. After the bagasse was pretreated by acetic acid, the components in hydrolysate and the removal rate was investigated, and the pretreatment conditions were optimized as follows: temperature of 160 °C, heating time of 60 min, addition of acetic acid of 2.0% (m/m), and solid-to-liquid ratio of 1/5. Prior to Acetobacter xylinum ...
Lignocellulosic biomass serves as a potential alternative feedstock for production of bacterial nanocellulose (BNC), a high-value added product of bacteria such as Gluconacetobacter xylinus. The tolerance of G. xylinus to lignocellulose derived inhibitors (formic acid, acetic acid, levulinic acid, furfural, and S-hydroxymethylfurfural) was investigated. Whereas 100 mM formic acid completely suppressed the metabolism of G xylinus, 250 mM of either acetic acid or levulinic acid still allowed glucose metabolism and BNC production to occur. Complete suppression of glucose utilization and BNC production was observed after inclusion of 20 and 30 mM furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, respectively. The highest yields observed were 88% for furoic acid/furfural and 76% for 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furoic acid/5-hydroxymethylfurfural. These results are the first demonstration of the capability of G. xylinus to tolerate lignocellulose derived inhibitors and to convert furan aldehydes.. ...
Bacterial cellulose (BC) has a basic cellulose structure that gives high purity, high crystalline ability, high mechanical strength, and high water holding capacity. During the last few decades, BC has gained as an important biomaterial because of these unique physical and chemical characteristics. BC is synthesized by Acetobacter xylinum extracellularly in a suitable substrate media. Researchers have produced BC using a synthetic media or using coconut water and inoculating with Acetobacter xylinum in a static fermentation system. In order to eliminate shortcomings in static fermentation and to achieve increased cellulose production, agitated and aerated fermentation systems were experimented. Rotating Biological Fermentor (RBF) is an is aerated and agitated system, which gives continuous oxygen flux to the fermentation medium thereby increasing the yield of biomass and cellulose synthesized. In this study, a mathematical model for the synthesis of BC in a RBF system was developed. The growth ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Location and limitation of cellulose production by Acetobacter xylinum established from oxygen profiles. AU - Verschuren, P.G.. AU - Cardona, T.D.. AU - Nout, M.J.R.. AU - de Gooijer, K.D.. AU - van den Heuvel, J.C.. PY - 2000. Y1 - 2000. N2 - The static fermentation of coconut water sucrose by Acetobacter xylinum was carried out at initial pHs of 3.0, 4.0, 5.0 or 6.0. Cellulose was produced at the surface, and its production was most favourable at pHs 4.0 and 5.0. These pH values also allowed for optimal bacterial growth. Oxygen concentration profiles were measured with microelectrodes at different cultivation stages, and steep profiles were obtained with penetration depths between 50 and 100 m. A substrate penetration depth analysis confirmed the hypothesis that the first stage of the fermentation is entirely oxygen controlled. Diffusion calculations showed, however, that at a later stage sucrose becomes a limiting substrate also, which was confirmed by the decrease in ...
AbstractThe concentration dependence of the dielectric constant and dielectric loss factor of water suspensions of colloids of disintegrated nano-gel film Gluconacetobacter xylinus cellulose ( BC) at a speed of rotation of knives 15000 and 20000 rev
In a recent paper (Ohana et al. 1998), we described the purification and structural characterization of a novel glycosidic triterpenoid saponin (GTS), a specific inhibitor of diguanylate cyclase (dgc), the key regulatory enzyme of the cellulose synthesizing apparatus of the bacterium Acetobacter xylinum. This compound and an identical or very similar one were isolated from pea (Pisum sativum), and A. xylinum respectively. We now present the effects of GTS on the kinetic properties of dgc. The observed inhibition is non-competitive with respect to the substrate GTP, is decreased by 50% in the presence of 20 μM c-di-GMP, and is not observed in the presence of various detergents. Photo-affinity labeling studies using [32P]c-di-GMP and purified enzyme showed that the inhibitor affects binding of c-di-GMP to dgc. It was ascertained that GTS, or at least a very similar compound, is present in other plant systems. The antibiotic Papulacandin B also inhibits dgc, although less efficiently than GTS (Ki ...
Hi Im trying to produce cellulose in an agitated culture using acetobacter xylinum subsp. sucrofermentans. I read an article in Chemical Technology and Biotechnology about mutating the original A. xylinum strain by using tomato juice. I was wondering if anyone knew how they did this. It wasnt too clear in the article. Mary Anne Taylor University of Western Ontario mataylo3 at julian.uwo.ca ...
The transfer of the glucosyl moiety from uridine diphosphate glucose in the presence of Acetobacter xylinum cell-free extracts led to the formation of a mixture of alkali-soluble and -insoluble cellodextrins. Typical cellulose fibrils could not be detected by electron microscopy in this product. Immediately after release into the medium, cellulose formed by whole cells is in a "prefibrous" form which passes through Millipore filters of 0.45 and 0.8 µ pore diameter. Non-filtrable fibrils arise from this material probably by a process of crystallization involving no extracellular enzymes. Fibrils formed in shaken cell suspensions intertwine and form aggregates visible to the naked eye. In quiet suspensions pellicles are formed which float on the surface. Soluble Na-carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) is incorporated into cellulose fibrils formed in its presence, probably by a process of co-crystallization. Aggregation of fibrils containing CMC is delayed because of electrostatic repulsion between ...
158. Saxena, I. M., Kudlicka, K., Okuda, K., and R. M. Brown, Jr. 1994. Characterization of genes in the cellulose synthesizing operon (acs operon) of Acetobacter xylinum: Implications for cellulose crystallization. J. Bacteriology 176: 5735-5752. 158. Abstract The synthesis of an extracellular ribbon of cellulose in the bacterium Acetobacter xylinum takes place from linearly arranged, membrane-localized, cellulose-synthesizing and extrusion complexes that direct the coupled steps of polymerization and crystallization. To identify the different components involved in this process, we isolated an Acetobacter cellulose-synthesizing (acs) operon from this bacterium. Analysis of DNA sequence shows the presence of three genes in the acs operon, in which the first gene (acsAB) codes for a polypeptide with a molecular mass of 168 M)a, which was identified as the cellulose synthase. A single base change in the previously reported DNA sequence of this gene, resulting in a frameshift and synthesis of a ...
Bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) is a nano-fibrillated pure cellulose synthesized by bacteria. It is a high value-added biomaterial with a number of characteristic properties, and has great potential for many applications. BNC-producing bacteria include several genera, such as Acetobacter, Achromobacter, Aerobacter, Agrobacterium, Alcaligenes, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, Sarcina, and Zoogloea. Komagataeibacter xylinus (formerly Gluconacetobacter xylinus or Acetobacter xylinum) is an example of a species that efficiently produces BNC [1]. BNC has unique physicochemical features, such as high purity, high degree of crystallinity, high degree of polymerization, large surface area, high tensile strength in wet state, high absorbency, good biocompatibility, non-toxicity, mechanical stability, and high moisture content [2]. Therefore, BNC has a wide application area that includes textile industry, mining, waste treatment, paper industry, and food production [3], but especially biomedical materials [4] ...
The strain of acetic acid bacteria Komagataeibacter xylinus B-12068, producing of bacterial cellulose (BC), was isolated and described. The effects of cultivation conditions (carbon sources, temperature, and pH) on BC production and properties were studied in surface and submerged cultures. Glucose was found to be the best substrate for BC production among the sugars tested; ethanol concentration of 3 % (w/v) enhanced the productivity of BC. The highest BC yield (up to 17.0 g/L) was obtained under surface static cultivation conditions, in the modified HS medium supplemented with ethanol, at pH 3.9, after 7 days of cultivation in the thinnest layer of the ...
Then, one could inoculate the medium, distribute the culture into a series of tubes, grow cells in the tubes and withdraw one tube at a time to spin the cells down to determine wet or dry cell weight. For that the empty tubes should be pre-weight beforehand of course. I would suggest drying the cells with acetone by gradual increase of volume percentage from 50 to 75 and finally 100% (2 or three times), drying the tubes at 60C overnight and weighing them shortly after they cool down. Emir DKafkewitz ,dkafkewitz at aol.com, wrote in message news:20020829092913.03916.00003233 at mb-fn.aol.com... , If you can get the Acetobacter to grow in suspended culture, any of the methods , mentioned will work. But I believe Acetobacter grows mostly as a pellicle on , the surface of liquids. This presents a much tougher problem. If surface growth , is what you are dealing with you should look into the biofilm literature. You , might also want to have alook at Pirts book on Microbial Cultivation for some , ...
Congressional Budget Data (CBD) - Congressional Budget Data Provides detailed search and analysis capabilities across the military departments and agencies for Research Development Test and Evaluation (RDT&E) data. DTICs PDF and Excel spreadsheet versions of Congressional Budget reports are available shortly after postings on Thomas (Library of Congress) website ...
Author: Paredez, A. R. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2008; Open Access; Keywords: cell elongation|br/|arabidopsis-thaliana|br/|plasma-membrane|br/|phospholipase-d|br/|microfibril alignment|br/|plant-cells|br/|in-vivo|br/|tubulin|br/|growth|br/|mutants; Title: Genetic evidence that cellulose synthase activity influences microtubule cortical array organization
Ciklični di-GMP, ciklični diguanilat, c-di-GMP, je sekundarni glasnik koji učestvuje u prenosu signala u širokom varijatetu baterija.[3] Ciklični di-GMP se ne koristi kod eukariota ili arheja. Biološka uloga cikličnog di-GMP je bila otkrivena kad je za njega utvrđeno da je alosterni aktivator celulozne sintaze nađene u Gluconacetobacter xylinus.[4] ...
Material: As a material for growing of SRCE, microbial cellulose is used. Microbial cellulose is an experimental bio-material, grown in a bioreactor using Gluconacetobacter xylinus bacteria. As a bacterial grow medium, experimental mixture made of household "chemicals" was used.. Process of making: Live microbial cellulose, that contains living bacteria was cut, shaped and sewn in a shape of real human heart (several layers, 4 internal chambers). Live microbial cellulose was used because as a living tissue it has regenerative ability (tiny holes that where byproduct of sewing where completely regenerated in a period of 2 days). Bioreactor that contained SRCE is filled with diluted growth medium, which enables regeneration and keeps tissue alive (but does not enable larger growth).. Application: Even though SRCE does not contain living cells of human heart muscles, it can be used as a scaffold for them and by doing that theoretically grow replacement human heart (and other organs) relatively ...
Involved in the biosynthesis of the exopolysaccharide acetan, a water-soluble polysaccharide involved in production of bacterial cellulose (BC).
endoglucanase CMCax: cellulose-hydrolyzing endoglucanase from Acetobacter xylinum; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank M96060
Standal, Rune; Iversen, Tore Geir; Coucheron, Dag-Hugo; Fjærvik, Espen; Blatny, Janet Martha; Valla, Svein. (1994) A new gene required for cellulose production and a gene encoding cellulolytic activity in Acetobacter xylinum are colocalized with the bcs operon. Journal of Bacteriology. vol. 176. ...
In this study we analyzed the blood compatibility of bacterial cellulose (BC) as a new biosynthetic material for use as a vascular graft. As reference materials we used expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) vascular grafts. These materials are in clinical use today. Tubes with inner diameters of both 4 (not PET) and 6 mm were tested. Heparin-coated PVC tubes (hepPVC) were used as a negative control. Platelet consumption and thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) were used as parameters of coagulation and for complement activation, sC3a and sC5b-9 were used. The investigated parameters were measured after 1-h exposure to freshly drawn human blood supplemented with a low dose of heparin in a Chandler loop system. The results showed that BC exhibits no significant difference in platelet consumption, as compared with PET 16 mm), ePTFE and hepPVC. The PET material consumed more platelets than any of the other materials. The TAT generation for 4 mm tubes was not ...
Page contains details about pyrolyzed bacterial cellulose nanoribbons . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
GDP-mannosyltransferase: part of the acetan biosynthetic pathway; aceC gene product from Acetobacter xylinum; forms Man-Glu-Glu-PP-Prenol
The International Journal of Polymer Science is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles on the chemistry and physics of macromolecules.
Natural polymers templates capable to maneuver the growth and spatial distribution of functional nanoparticles have been furthering the development
EWGs Skin Deep® database gives you practical solutions to protect yourself and your family from everyday exposures to chemicals in personal care products.
Kat Austen, Letters and Comments editor. You rarely see "couture" and "bacteria" in the same sentence - but fashion designer Suzanne Lee is changing all that. Lee is the creator of BioCouture: fabric grown by bacteria. Harnessing the power of biology, Lee has a radical vision for sustainable, green clothing made in labs rather than factories. I had a chance to chat with her to find out why the future of fashion may lurk in her sugar vat. What is your production process for a garment like? We use a sugary green tea solution to which is added a bacterial cellulose culture, which also contains yeasts and other organisms. The bacteria spin cellulose threads, which bind on the surface forming a layer. It takes about three weeks for this layer to reach the thickness needed: 15 millimetres. The layer is removed, washed in cold water and dried for about a week on a wooden surface. Then it is ready to be peeled off, cut and sewn. Alternatively the wet sheet can be moulded over a wooden form, and as it ...
Bacterial Cellulose Nanober- Amazing World of Fiber Spinning by Bacteria -Masahiro Mizuno45Learning Technology: Exploring Technology -enhanced smartlearning environmentsComputer Technology for a BonasA neK divaDefiL rette49Study on Secure and Ecient SearchesOptical, Image, and IT Sensing Technologies Creating a Safe andReliable EnvironmentYasunori Saito4749Improving Image Understanding Performance by Learning fromExamplesMinoru Maruyama50Toshio Sakai42Degradation and Utilization of Biomass! ~Improvement of enzyme by gene manipulation technique~444541Articial Membrane for Cell-Like Microchemical SystemsYukihisa Okumura42Separation Technology using Polymer MembranesRyotaro KiyonoSynthesis of Novel Materials Using Ceramic ProcessingSeiichi TarutaApplication of Biological Function for Industrial Fields as GreenChemistryYoshihiko Amano★ VERIFICATION FIRST! ★ Foundations of Computer ScienceKatsumi WasakiNon-volatile Memory Based onuiL ixoaiXnortcelE fo nipS Development of Next-Generation ...
Acetobacter is a genus of acetic acid bacteria. Acetic acid bacteria are characterized by the ability to convert ethanol to acetic acid in the presence of oxygen. Of these, the genus Acetobacter is distinguished by the ability to oxidize lactate and acetate into carbon dioxide and water. Bacteria of the genus Acetobacter have been isolated from industrial vinegar fermentation processes and are frequently used as fermentation starter cultures. In 1998, two strains of Acetobacter isolated from red wine and cider vinegar were named Acetobacter oboediens and Acetobacter pomorum. In 2000, Acetobacter oboediens and Acetobacter intermedius were transferred to Gluconacetobacter on the basis of 16S rRNA sequencing. In 2002, Acetobacter cerevisiae and Acetobacter malorum were identified by 16S rRNA sequence analysis of Acetobacter strains. In 2006, a strain of Acetobacter isolated from spoiled red wine was named Acetobacter oeni. Parte, A.C. "Acetobacter". www.bacterio.net. Cleenwerck I; Vandemeulebroecke ...
Carpita said this let researchers see that the siRNAs - among other things - regulate and shut down primary cell wall development to begin secondary wall growth.. "These secondary stages result in characteristics such as tough rinds of corn stalks, vascular elements to conduct water and fibers for strength," he said. The researchers said that delaying or preventing the shutdown of both primary and secondary cellulose production might enhance total plant biomass.. "Most biofuel researchers believe that cellulose utilization offers the best path to sustainable ethanol production," Scofield said. "Our work uncovered a previously unknown mechanism that suggests a way to increase the amount of cellulose produced in plants.". Other members of the research team were Bryan Penning and Sarah Kessans of Purdue and Amanda Brandt of the USDA/Ag Research Service, Crop Production and Pest Control Research Unit located at Purdue.. The research was funded by a U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Biosciences ...
Process Parameters for Fermentation in a Rotary Disc Reactor for Optimum Microbial Cellulose Production using Response Surface Methodology
Bacterial cellulose (BC) is characterized for its high water holding capacity, high crystallinity, an ultrafine fiber network and high tensile strength. This work demonstrates the production of a new interpenetrated polymer network nanocomposite obtained through the incorporation of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) on the BC matrix and evaluates the effect of oven drying on the morphological, mechanical and mass transfer properties of the composite membranes. Both the addition of PVA and oven drying induce the appearance of larger pores (circa 1-3 µm in average diameter) in dried BC/PVA membranes. Both types of treatments also affect the permeability of the composite, as assessed by the diffusion coefficients of polyethylene glycol (PEG) molecules (900, 8,000, 35,000 and 100,000 Da) across the membranes. Finally, the Youngs modulus of dry pristine BC decreases following PVA incorporation, resulting in a change from 3.5 GPa to 1 GPa and a five-fold loss in tensile strength.
Low-cost and highly sensitive piezoelectric sensors were fabricated from bacterial cellulose (BC)/MnFe2O4 nanocomposite films via a co-precipitation method, followed by hot-pressing. MnFe2O4 nanoparticles were homogeneously distributed in the BC structure. The piezoelectric sensitivity measurements in the normal mode showed that the pristine BC film exhibited a sensitivity of ∼5 pC/N, whereas this value was increased to 23 pC/N for the composite film, which is comparable to the PVDF reference film. In the bending mode, the piezoelectric response increased to 25 pC/N and 57 pC/N for the BC film and the composite film, respectively. Moreover, the piezoelectric sensitivity was significantly enhanced using carbon tape electrodes attached directly to the films instead of sandwiched electrodes. This produced a sensitivity of greater than 50 pC/N for the MBC nanocomposite film in the normal mode measurement. Our work demonstrates the potential of using MBC composite films as inexpensive and highly ...
165. Shibazaki, H., Kuga, S., Onabe, F., and R. M. Brown, Jr. 1995. Acid hydrolysis behaviour of microbial cellulose II. Polymer 36: 4971-4976. 165. Abstract A mutant strain of Acetobacter xylinum produces cellulose of anomalous band-like form (native band), and this material has been found to be cellulose II, presumably having a folded-chain structure (according to recent work by Kuga et al.). In addition to the previous results of electron diffraction, X-ray analysis showed that this band material to obtain additional evidence for the proposed structure. When hydrolysed with 1 N hydrochloric acid at 100 degrees C, the degree of polymerization (DP) of the material decreased rapidly from 322 (DPw/DPn = 3.83) to 18.3 (DPw/DPn = 1.19). The latter value (leveling-off DP) corresponds to the observed width (10 nm) of strand-like constituents of the band material. The sample dissolved in and regenerated from 8.75% aqueous sodium hydroxide lost its original characteristic morphology and became ...
Cellulose is the most abundant natural product in the biosphere with a variety of functional roles. Despite this abundance, the capacity to synthesize cellulose is restricted to relatively few phyla. Among prokaryotes, soil bacteria of the family Rhizobiaceae (Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Rhizobium spp) use cellulose in anchoring to host plant tissues during infection (Matthysse 1983; Smith et al., 1992). In Acetobacter xilinum, cellulose fibrils maintain bacterial cells in an aerobic environment in liquid and protect the cells from UV radiation (Williams and Cannon, 1989). Within the plant kingdom, cellulose plays a key role in structural support and the oriented deposition of cellulose microfibrils is crucial to patterning through anisotropic growth during development (Smith and Oppenheimer, 2005). The social amoeba, Dictyostelium, requires cellulose for stalk and spore formation (Blanton et al., 2000), and cellulose synthesis is also present in some fungi, although its function remains ...
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This superfamily comprises nucleotide cyclase structural domains, specifically a catalytic domain found in adenylate and guanylate cyclases. It has a ferredoxin-like fold with additional secondary structures, and is often known as the GGDEF domain, named after the conserved central sequence pattern GG[DE][DE]F. Though the fold of the GGDEF domain is similar to adenylate cyclase, the nucleotide-binding mode is substantially different PMID:15569936. It is typically present in multidomain proteins containing regulatory domains of signalling pathways or protein-protein or protein-ligand interaction modules, such as the response regulatory domain, the PAS/PAC domain, the HAMP domain, the GAF domain, the FHA domain or the TPR repeat. However a few single-domain proteins are also known. The GGDEF domain is involved in signal transduction and is likely to catalyse synthesis or hydrolysis of cyclic diguanylate (c-diGMP, bis(3,5)-cyclic diguanylic acid), an effector molecule that consists of two cGMP ...
Whatman™ Regenerated Cellulose Membranes: Grade RC 55 Grade: RC 55; Circle; 75μm thick; Pore size: 0.45μm; Diameter: 47mm; Circles...
Cellulose is an essential material for keeping intestine peristalsis without producing energy, as prebiotics, feeding vegetarian bacteria flora (including Bacteroides, whose appropriate amount has proved important to prevent obesity[1]) of intestine as well. Thus, cellulose help people keep slim and healthy. The developing device aims at transforming glucose into cellulose, thus producing cellulose as well as reducing energy ingestion. To achieve this goal, we cloned genes of enzymes responding for cellulose synthesis from the Escherichia coli str. DH5ɑ, constructing functional expressional elements with these genes respectively downstream of promoter activated by glucose. In this way, cellulose synthetase complex is built artificially under regulation of glucose, repressed under low concentration of glucose and activated under high concentration of glucose. In the future, this device can be integrated to the whole planning artificial bacterium "E. coslim", activated when excess glucose is ...
The aim of this work was analyze bacterial cellulose nanocrystals (BCNC) by XRD and TG. BCNC were hydrolysed with two processes: (1) neat H2SO4 (60% w/w) or (2)...
Za bakterijo, kot tudi za vsa ostala živa bitja je nujno, da se prilagajajo na spreminjanje življenjskih pogojev, saj jim to omogoča preživetje. Molekula c-di-GMP je sekundarni sporočevalev pri baktrerijah, ki regulira različne celične procese. C-di-GMP so prvič odkrili kot alosterični aktivator celulozne sintetaze v bakteriji Gluconacetobacter xylinum. Pri patogenih organizmih molekula c-di-GMP kontrolira virulentni odgovor, ki je povezan s quorum sensingom, procesom s katerim bakterije med seboj komunicirajo. Koncentracija molekule c-di-GMP je v celici regulirana s pomočjo encimov fosfodiesteraz in gvanilat ciklaz. C-di-GMP je sintetizirana znotraj celice iz dveh molekul GTP s pomočjo encima digvanilat ciklaze, ki na aktivni strani nosi domeno GGDEF. Razpad molekule pa omogoča encim fosfodiesteraza, ki nosi domeno EAL, ta omogoča, da molekula razpade na linearni nukleotid pGpG. Glavni namen raziskovanja molekule c-di-GMP ter njene vloge pri tvorbi biofilma, je bil, da bi ugotovili ...
Biohazard level, growth media and temperature, gram stain, industrial applications and more information for Acetobacter indonesiensis.
Biohazard level, growth media and temperature, gram stain, industrial applications and more information for Acetobacter orleanensis.
It consists of a bass-reflex wood mixture enclosure and laminated with P.V.C. The components of this 2-way sound box offer a high quality performance. 8" Woofer with cellulose membrane and foam suspension. Two 3" tweeters with cellulose membrane. Connection through Banana terminals. Front part has three removable plastic parts. embedded bolts (M8) in the base for attachment. Pack of two.. ...
Manipulations of safeguards on machinery are not uncommon. If you identify the cause early, you can prevent injury to people and damage to machinery. - Pilz - TW
Bacterial cellulose (BC) based hydrogels (BC-PVP and BC-CMC) are modified with β-tri-calcium phosphate (β-TCP) and hydroxyapatite (HA) to improve the structural and functional properties of the existing hydrogel scaffolds. The modified hydrogels are then biomineralized with CaCO3 following liquid diffusion technique, where salt solutions of Na2CO3 (5.25 g/100 mL) and CaCl2 (7.35 g/100 mL) were involved. The BC-PVP and BC-CMC are being compared with the non-mineralized (BC-PVP-β-TCP/HA and BC-CMC-β-TCP/HA) and biomineralized (BC-PVP-β-TCP/HA-CaCO3 and BC-CMC-β-TCP/HA-CaCO3) hydrogels on the basis of their structural and rheological properties. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectral analysis demonstrated the presence of BC, CMC, PVP, β-TCP, HA in the non-mineralized and BC, CMC, PVP, β-TCP, HA and CaCO3 in the biomineralized samples. Interestingly, the morphological property of non-mineralized and biomineralized, hydrogels are different than that of BC-PVP and BC-CMC based novel ...
Extracellular matrices play important, but poorly investigated, roles in morphogenesis. Extracellular cellulose is central to regulation of pattern formation in plants, but among metazoans only tunicates are capable of cellulose biosynthesis. Cellulose synthase (CesA gene products are present in filter-feeding structures of all tunicates and also regulate metamorphosis in the ascidian Ciona. Ciona CesA is proposed to have been acquired by lateral gene transfer from a prokaryote. We identified two CesA genes in the sister-class larvacean Oikopleura dioica. Each has a mosaic structure of a glycoslyltransferase 2 domain upstream of a glycosyl hydrolase family 6 cellulase-like domain, a signature thus far unique to tunicates. Spatial-temporal expression analysis revealed that Od-CesA1 produces long cellulose fibrils along the larval tail, whereas Od-CesA2 is responsible for the cellulose scaffold of the post-metamorphic filter-feeding house. Knockdown of Od-CesA1 inhibited cellulose production in ...
Cellulose is a biopolymer of great relevance in the plant cell walls, where it constitutes the most important skeletal component. Cellulose is also an important raw material in the pulp- and paper, forest, and textile industries, among others. Cellulose biosynthesis in particular, and xylogenesis in general are processes which are currently poorly understood. Yet, research in cellulose synthesis is progressing and different applications of cellulose, mainly cellulose derivatives for e.g. pharmaceuticals and coatings, are constantly emerging. This thesis depicts how cellulose synthase (CesA) genes in Populus were identified and characterized by gene expression- and bioinformatics analyses. Within an EST database of more than 100,000 clones from wood forming tissues of three different Populus taxa, ten CesA genes were identified in Populus tremula x tremuloides. Subsequent gene expression analyses by using microarrays and real-time PCR experiments in woody tissues, revealed distinct regulation ...
The pathogenicity of Escherichia coli O78 strain K46, originally isolated from an outbreak of septicemia in neonatal lambs, was investigated in zebrafish embryo and murine models of infection. Its biofilm potential, cellulose production, and the expression of type 1 pili and curli fimbriae were measured by in vitro assays. The strain was highly pathogenic in the zebrafish embryo model of infection, where it killed all embryos within 24 h post inoculation (hpi) at doses as low as 1000 colony forming units. Zebrafish embryos inoculated with similar doses of commensal E. coli strains showed no signs of disease, and cleared the bacteria within 24 h. E. coli K46 colonized the murine gut at the same level as the uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) reference strain CFT073 in CBA/J mice after oral inoculation, but infected the murine bladder significantly less than CFT073 after transurethral inoculation. Type 1 pili were clearly expressed by E. coli K46, while curli fimbriae and cellulose production were weakly
ID YCGR_NITEC Reviewed; 269 AA. AC Q0AI13; DT 13-JUL-2010, integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot. DT 17-OCT-2006, sequence version 1. DT 05-JUL-2017, entry version 64. DE RecName: Full=Flagellar brake protein YcgR {ECO:0000255,HAMAP-Rule:MF_01457}; DE AltName: Full=Cyclic di-GMP binding protein YcgR {ECO:0000255,HAMAP-Rule:MF_01457}; GN Name=ycgR {ECO:0000255,HAMAP-Rule:MF_01457}; GN OrderedLocusNames=Neut_0749; OS Nitrosomonas eutropha (strain C91). OC Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Betaproteobacteria; Nitrosomonadales; OC Nitrosomonadaceae; Nitrosomonas. OX NCBI_TaxID=335283; RN [1] RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=C91; RX PubMed=17991028; DOI=10.1111/j.1462-2920.2007.01409.x; RA Stein L.Y., Arp D.J., Berube P.M., Chain P.S., Hauser L., Jetten M.S., RA Klotz M.G., Larimer F.W., Norton J.M., Op den Camp H.J.M., Shin M., RA Wei X.; RT "Whole-genome analysis of the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium, RT Nitrosomonas eutropha C91: implications for niche adaptation."; RL Environ. ...