Maklakov, A.A.; Hall, M.D.; Simpson, S.J.; Dessmann, J.; Clissold, F.J.; Zajitschek, F.; Lailvaux, S.P.; Raubenheimer, D.; Bonduriansky, R.; Brooks, R.C., 2009: Sex differences in nutrient-dependent reproductive ageing
One of the most rapidly advancing areas in neuroscience is the detection of nutrients. This has been assisted greatly by the de-orphaning of receptors, and the study of their function by disabling or deleting their expression. Progress in understanding nutrient detection by the tongue, in the form of taste, has translated quickly into studies of similar processes in the gut epithelium. Articles covering different nutrients and other ingested compounds, mechanisms of sensory transduction and neural/behavioral responses to exogenous toxins and pathogens are all encouraged. There are different viewpoints on chemosensory mechanisms in the gut lumen, and commentary and discussion of these is most welcome.
Peptides , Glucagon-Like Peptides , Glucagon-Like Peptide 1, GLP-1 amide, human, FAM-labeled; This is fluorescent GLP-1 labeled at the peptide C-terminus with FAM, Abs/Em=494/521 nm. In response to Glucose ingestion, proglucagon in the intestinal L cells is cleaved into GLP-1 (1-36). Prior to secretion into the circulation, GLP-1 (1-36) is further processed into amidated GLP-1 (7-36)-cat# AS-22462-and small amounts of glycine-extended GLP-1 (7-37)-cat# AS-20761. Both GLP-1 (7-36) and GLP-1 (7-37), causes glucose dependent release of insulin by pancreatic beta-cells. They also play a role in gastric motility (gastric emptying), on the suppression of plasma glucagon levels (glucose production) and possibly on the promotion of satiety and stimulation of glucose disposal in peripheral tissues independent of the actions of insulin. GLP-1 peptides such as GLP-1 (1-36) have been used to investigate restoration of pancreatic beta cell function. GLP-1 is also produced in the central nervous system. ; FAM
Glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) is a recently identified intestinal epithelium-specific growth factor that has been shown to reduce the severity of inflammatory disorders of the intestine in rodent models. Currently Glucagon-Like Peptide 2 is used as a potential therapeutic agent for the human s...
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The main goal of invertebrate research is to generate insights into the mechanisms of human biology, and thus an ideal fly DR model should bear analogy to the mammalian phenomenon. Since DR in mammals is generally conducted in the presence of ad libitum water (12, 13) and thus impacts longevity in hydrated animals, one would expect the fly paradigm to also be dependent on nutrient, rather than water ingestion. However, our findings show that the bulk of Drosophila DR studies (11, 17-20) have dissected a form of lifespan extension that is entirely dependent on water availability, and therefore differs fundamentally from the phenomenon studied in mammals. The YE/S/C water-independent paradigm more closely resembles mammalian DR and, therefore, likely represents a more relevant model of DR in higher organisms. Two observations lend further support to this view. First, maximum lifespan, arguably a better indicator of aging rate than average longevity (30), is robustly extended upon DR in rodents (4) ...
[49 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Glucagon-Like Peptide 2 Receptor (GLP-2 Receptor or GLP2R) - Pipeline Review, H1 2016 report by Global Markets Direct. Global Markets Directs, Glucagon-Like Peptide 2...
Gault, Victor and Lennox, R. and Porter, David and Holscher, Christian and Flatt, Peter (2013) Beneficial actions of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) on hippocampal synaptic plasticity, gene expression, oxidative stress and inflammation in mice with diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Diabetic Medicine, 30 (Supple). p. 4. ISSN 0742-3071 Full text not available from this repository ...
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(HealthDay) -- Drinking a diet soda before a glucose load is associated with increased glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) secretion in individuals with type 1 diabetes and healthy controls, but not in those with type 2 diabetes, ...
99658-04-5 - Glucagon-like peptide 1 (1-36)amide - Searchable synonyms, formulas, resource links, and other chemical information.
The purpose of this study is to assess pharmacokinetic modeling to support dosing of Teduglutide in pediatric patients with short bowel syndrome
Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 analogs have been implicated as a risk factor for pancreatitis in humans. We investigated whether liraglutide, the once-daily human GLP-1 analog, induces pancreatitis in rats, mice, and monkeys. Pancreata from mice, rats
Adult male urinary bladder cDNA RIKEN full-length enriched library clone:9530092J08 product:similar to GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDE 2 RECEPTOR (GLP-2 RECEPTOR) (GLP-2-R) (GLP-2R) (Glucagon-like peptide 2 receptor ...
Subjects meeting the entrance criteria will be studied in a quiet room with a temperature of approximately 22°C. While the participants are supine, a 20-gauge Teflon catheter will be inserted into the brachial artery of the nondominant arm under local anesthesia. This arm will be slightly elevated above the level of the heart, and a mercury-filled Silastic strain gauge will be placed on the widest part of the forearm. The strain gauge will be connected to a plethysmography calibrated to measure the percent change in volume; the plethysmograph in turn will be connected to a chart recorder to record the forearm flow measurements. For each measurement, a cuff placed on the upper arm will be inflated to 40 mmHg with a rapid cuff inflator to occlude venous outflow from the extremity. A wrist cuff will be inflated to suprasystolic pressures l min before each measurement to exclude the hand circulation. Flow measurements will be recorded for approximately 7 seconds every 15 seconds; 7 readings will be ...
Diabetes is one of the most serious health problems of modern times. It is characterised by persistently high levels of blood glucose (sugar) in the body. At present, there is a whole range of effective medication for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes
These reference sequences exist independently of genome builds. Explain. These reference sequences are curated independently of the genome annotation cycle, so their versions may not match the RefSeq versions in the current genome build. Identify version mismatches by comparing the version of the RefSeq in this section to the one reported in Genomic regions, transcripts, and products above. ...
Any of the membrane proteins that bind glucagon‐like peptides (abbr.: GLPs) and mediate their intracellular effects. A receptor for GLP‐1 has been characterized. It is a seven‐transmembrane‐segment protein that is coupled to a G‐protein activating adenylate cyclase.. [...] ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Multiple studies have demonstrated the importance of minimal enteral nutrition to improve outcomes in traumatically injured adults (16, 19, 22). However, information regarding the appropriate nutrient composition for these patients is needed, because relatively few data exist regarding the functional and cellular responses to the provision of specific luminal nutrients into the hypoperfused small intestine. The results from this study support the hypothesis that, during hypoxia, glucose and glutamine transport are differentially regulated regardless of the luminal nutrient present. Kles et al. (15) previously reported that, although glucose transport is impaired, glutamine transport is maintained during hypoxia regardless of luminal carbohydrate present. However, it is possible that glutamine transport was maintained in this previous trial, because the jejunum had not been exposed to luminal glutamine. Therefore, the current study was designed with luminal perfusions of both glucose and ...
Upon a nutrient challenge, L-cells produce glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), a powerful stimulant of insulin release. Strategies to augment endogenous GLP-1 production include promoting L-cell differentiation and increasing L-cell number. Here we present a novel in vitro platform to generate functional L-cells from 3D cultures of mouse and human intestinal crypts. We show that short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) selectively increase the number of L-cells resulting in an elevation of GLP-1 release. This is accompanied by up-regulation of transcription factors, associated with the endocrine lineage of intestinal stem cell development. Thus, our platform allows us to study and modulate the development of L-cells in mouse and human crypts as a potential basis for novel therapeutic strategies in type 2 diabetes. ...
Upon a nutrient challenge, L cells produce glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), a powerful stimulant of insulin release. Strategies to augment endogenous GLP-1 production include promoting L-cell differentiation and increasing L-cell number. Here we present a novel in vitro platform to generate functional L cells from three-dimensional cultures of mouse and human intestinal crypts. We show that short-chain fatty acids selectively increase the number of L cells, resulting in an elevation of GLP-1 release. This is accompanied by the upregulation of transcription factors associated with the endocrine lineage of intestinal stem cell development. Thus, our platform allows us to study and modulate the development of L cells in mouse and human crypts as a potential basis for novel therapeutic strategies in patients with type 2 diabetes. ...
Free, official coding info for 2018 ICD-10-CM E34.1 - includes detailed rules, notes, synonyms, ICD-9-CM conversion, index and annotation crosswalks, DRG grouping and more.
Glucose, Insulin, Glucagon, Blood, Blood Glucose, Homeostasis, Human, Mice, Treatment, Glucagon-like Peptide 1, Insulin Resistance, Brain, Disease, Metabolism, Patients, Cell, Role, Therapeutic, Taste, Cells
amino acids, polyamines, basic polypeptides, gamma glutamyl peptides, and other peptides, also activate CaSR in an allosteric manner. Its broad ligands and wide expression profile suggest multiple functions of CaSR in different tissues. This chapter reviews the functions of CaSR in the gastrointestinal tract. Specifically, a role for CaSR in luminal nutrient sensing in the enteroendocrine system is described.. ...
The glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP1R) is a receptor protein found on beta cells of the pancreas. It is involved in the control of blood sugar level by enhancing insulin secretion. In humans it is synthesised by the gene GLP1R, which is present on chromosome 6. It is a member of the glucagon receptor family of G protein-coupled receptors. GLP1R is composed of two domains, one extracellular (ECD) that binds the C-terminal helix of GLP-1, and one transmembrane (TMD) domain that binds the N-terminal region of GLP-1. In the TMD domain there is fulcrum of polar residues that regulates the biased signaling of the receptor while the transmembrane helical boundaries and extracellular surface are a trigger for biased agonism. GLP1R binds glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) and glucagon as its natural endogenous agonists. Receptor agonists: GLP-1 - endogenous in humans glucagon - endogenous in humans liraglutide exendin-4, lixisenatide Receptor antagonists: "T-0632" Receptor positive allosteric ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Vagally mediated effects of glucagon-like peptide 1. T2 - In vitro and in vivo gastric actions. AU - Holmes, Gregory M.. AU - Browning, Kirsteen N.. AU - Tong, Melissa. AU - Qualls-Creekmore, Emily. AU - Travagli, R. Alberto. PY - 2009/10/1. Y1 - 2009/10/1. N2 - Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a neuropeptide released following meal ingestion that, among other effects, decreases gastric tone and motility. The central targets and mechanism of action of GLP-1 on gastric neurocircuits have not, however, been fully investigated. A high density of GLP-1 containing neurones and receptors are present in brainstem vagal circuits, suggesting that the gastroinhibition may be vagally mediated. We aimed to investigate: (1) the response of identified gastric-projecting neurones of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) to GLP-1 and its analogues; (2) the effects of brainstem application of GLP-1 on gastric tone; and (3) the vagal pathway utilized by GLP-1 to induce gastroinhibition. We ...
OBJECTIVE: Beta-cell secretory capacity is often evaluated with a glucagon test or a meal test. However, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is the most insulinotropic hormone known, and the effect is preserved in type 2 diabetic patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We first compared the effects of intravenous bolus injections of 2.5, 5, 15, and 25 nmol GLP-1 with glucagon (1 mg intravenous) and a standard meal (566 kcal) in 6 type 2 diabetic patients and 6 matched control subjects. Next, we studied another 6 patients and 6 control subjects and, in addition to the above procedure, performed a combined glucose plus GLP-1 stimulation, where plasma glucose was increased to 15 mmol/l before injection of 2.5 nmol GLP-1. Finally, we compared the insulin response to glucose plus GLP-1 stimulation with that observed during a hyperglycemic arginine clamp (30 mmol/l) in 8 patients and 8 control subjects. RESULTS: Peak insulin and C-peptide concentrations were similar after the meal, after 2.5 nmol GLP-1, ...
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) (7-36 amide) is a physiological incretin hormone that is released after nutrient intake from the lower gut and stimulates insulin secretion at elevated plasma glucose concentrations. Previous work has shown that even in Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients GLP-1 (7-36 amide) retains much of its insulinotropic action. However, it is not known whether the magnitude of this response is sufficient to normalize plasma glucose in Type 2 diabetic patients with poor metabolic control. Therefore, in 10 Type 2 diabetic patients with unsatisfactory metabolic control (HbAlc 11.6±1.7%) on diet and sulphonylurea therapy (in some patients supplemented by metformin or acarbose), 1.2 pmol ×kg−1×min−1 GLP-1 (7-36 amide) or placebo was infused intravenously in the fasting state (plasma glucose 13.1±0.6 mmol/l). In all patients, insulin (by 17.4±4.7 nmol ×1−1×min; p=0.0157) and C-peptide (by 228.0±39.1 nmol×1−1×min; p=0.0019) increased significantly over ...
Peptide-based drugs are highly effective medicines with relatively short duration of action and of variable therapeutic index. Glucagon-like peptide 1 is a hormone that offers promise in the treatment of Type II diabetes. However, the biggest problem in the therapeutic use of GLP-1 is its extremely short half-life in plasma (~2 min). A prodrug of GLP-1 should extend and improve the pharmacodynamics of this peptide hormone. We have designed prodrugs that slowly convert to the parent drug at physiological conditions of 37C and pH 7.2 driven by their inherent chemical instability without the need of any enzymatic cleavage. We observed that amide prodrugs could not convert to the active peptides under physiological conditions. Consequently, we decided to synthesize peptide drugs which had a hydroxy-terminal extension instead of a Nterminal amine. Ester prodrugs were prepared using these hydroxy-peptides as the scaffold. We explored the diketopiperazine and diketomorpholine (DKP and DMP) strategy for ...
GLP-2 (1-33) is a naturally occurring peptide which is important in controlling the function of the intestine. In previous studies our group has shown that serum levels of GLP-2 correlate with intestinal function in human neonates. Low levels of GLP-2 are predictive of intestinal malabsorption and the development of the so called Short Bowel Syndrome. GLP-2 has been shown to be specifically trophic for the GI tract, especially for the small intestine.. This proposal outlines a Phase 1 and 2 trial using subcutaneous administration, twice daily of GLP-2 in human infants and children with Intestinal Failure, typically from Short Bowel Syndrome, using varying doses, assigned in a prospective, randomized protocol, with open label monitoring.. The investigational plan is to begin with the Phase 1 trial, administering GLP 2 at varying doses (infants assigned to doses of 5,10, or 20 μg/kg/day, children greater than 1 year dosed at 20 μg/kg/day, given via twice daily subcutaneous ...
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Insulin resistance and lipotoxicity are pathognomonic in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues are licensed for type 2 diabetes, but no prospective experimental data exists in NASH. This study determined the effect of a long-acting GLP-1 analogue, liraglutide, on organ-specific insulin sensitivity, hepatic lipid handling and adipose dysfunction in biopsy-proven NASH. METHODS: Fourteen patients were randomised to 1.8mg liraglutide or placebo for 12-weeks of the mechanistic component of a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov-NCT01237119). Patients underwent paired hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamps, stable isotope tracers, adipose microdialysis and serum adipocytokine/metabolic profiling. In vitro isotope experiments on lipid flux were performed on primary human hepatocytes. RESULTS: Liraglutide reduced BMI (-1.9 vs. +0.04kg/m(2); p|0.001), HbA1c (-0.3 vs. +0.3%; p|0.01), cholesterol-LDL (-0.7 vs. +0.05mmol/L;
The GLP-1 ELISA uses two highly specific antibodies to the active forms of human Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 or GLP-1 in EDTA-plasma.
The GLP-1 ELISA uses two highly specific antibodies to the active forms of human Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 or GLP-1 in EDTA-plasma.
Obesity is a serious health problem. Excess caloric intake from fat can trigger obesity and contribute to dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, all of which are known risk factors for cardiovascular disease.35 As observed in our study, HFD can directly affect the heart even before the onset of overt diabetes mellitus, although impaired glucose tolerance and insulin resistance are features of our model. The mechanisms involved include the induction of inflammation, hypertrophy, fibrosis, and contractile dysfunction.2 As such, studies identifying therapies that prevent or reverse HFD-induced cardiac pathophysiology are of interest, because their translation to the clinic may impact both the incidence and severity of cardiovascular disease.. As regulators of glucose and lipid homeostasis,12 potentiating endogenous GLP-1 by dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors or exogenous GLP-1 analogs show promise for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, direct benefits on ...
Short bowel syndrome, also known as short gut or intestinal failure is a lifelong challenge for patients. It creates physical and psychological problems.
OSAKA, Japan and BEDMINSTER, New Jersey, June 22, 2012 /PRNewswire/ -- European CHMP adopts positive opinion for teduglutide (Revestive®) for patients with...
Short bowel syndrome (SBS) is a complication of Crohns disease and conditions affecting the small intestine thats treated with diet and medications.
/PRNewswire/ -- The competitive landscape of the Global Short Bowel Syndrome Market is quite consolidated with Shire Plc. holding about 50% share in the...
NEW YORK, Feb. 14, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- Short Bowel Syndrome Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Volume, Growth, Trends, and Forecast 2016 - 2024.
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Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) plays a central role in modern treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in the form of GLP-1 enhancers and GLP-1 mimetics. An alternative treatment strategy is to stimulate endogenous GLP-1 secretion from enteroendocrine L cells using a targeted approach. The G-protein-cou- pled receptor, FFAR1 (previously GPR40), expressed on L cells and activated by long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) is a potential target. A link between FFAR1 activation and GLP-1 secretion has been demonstrated in cellular models and small-molecule FFAR1 agonists have been developed. In this study, we exam- ined the effect of FFAR1 activation on GLP-1 secretion using isolated, per- fused small intestines from rats, a physiologically relevant model allowing distinction between direct and indirect effects of FFAR1 activation. The endogenous FFAR1 ligand, linoleic acid (LA), and four synthetic FFAR1 ago- nists (TAK-875, AMG 837, AM-1638, and AM-5262) were administered through intraluminal and ...
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a natural incretin hormone released from intestinal L-cells in response to hormonal, neural and nutrient stimuli. Liraglutide is derived from human GLP-1 by substituting Lys34 with Arg and conjugating a palmitic acid to Lys26 via a glutamate spacer, which has a long-lasting hypoglycemic effect. The precursor of liraglutide is a K34R mutant of GLP-1 (GLP-1ᴿ³⁴) and ...
Aqua Flora, Candida, Enzyme Restoration, 2 fl oz (59 ml) 24 Enzymes & Digestive Components to maximize positive effects of taking enzymes and other digestive components. Also to activate the bodys ability to regulate and maintain a healthy balance of enzymes and other digestive components. 10 Intestinal Hormone Regulators to activate the bodys ability to regulate and maintain a healthy balance of intestinal hormones for optimal digestion and health. 13 Homeopathic ingredients to correct a broad spectrum of upper GI issues: helps activate digestive functions, helps with mucus inflammation of the digestive tract, relieves heartburn, relieves acid reflux, relieves gas and bloating, relieves gastroenteritis, relieves peptic and duodenal ulcerations, relieves ulcerative colitis and enteritis, relieves over sensitivities from abusive eating. Suggested Use Spray one dose directly in mouth 2-6 times daily until symptoms improve. For more acute symptoms, take as often as every 10 minutes. Adult
Principal Investigator:TSUJIKAWA Tomoyuki, Project Period (FY):2001 - 2002, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:Gastroenterology
These highlights do not include all the information needed to use GATTEX safely and effectively. See full prescribing information for GATTEX. GATTEX (teduglutide [rDNA origin]), for injection, for subcutaneous use Initial U.S. Approval: ...
my son is 11 months old. His feedings consist of tpn for 11hrs gtube feedings for 16hrs and he takes neocate by mouth every 3hrs(100mls).
Daily News How Gaining and Losing Weight Affects the Body Millions of measurements from 23 people who consumed extra calories every day for a month reveal changes in proteins, metabolites, and gut microbiota that accompany shifts in body mass.. ...
News Analysis Scientists Continue to Use Outdated Methods The use of underperforming computational tools is a major offender in sciences reproducibility crisis-and theres growing momentum to avoid it.. ...